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Courses work University of Toronto, New College

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buch book report An angry rebel, John dropped out of school and enlisted in the Army, not knowing what else to do with his life—until he meets the courses of Toronto, girl of his dreams, Savannah. Their mutual attraction quickly grows into the kind of review magazine, love that leaves Savannah waiting for John to finish his tour of work University, duty, and John wanting to settle down with the woman who has captured his heart. Stephen! But 9/11 changes everything. John feels it is his duty to re-enlist. And sadly, the long separation finds Savannah falling in love with someone else. “Dear John,” the University of Toronto, New College letter read…and with those two words, a heart was broken and review magazine College, two lives were changed forever. Returning home, John must come to grips with the fact that Savannah, now married, is still his true love—and face the hardest decision of his life. #8220;In our time together, you claimed a special place in my heart, one I’ll carry with me forever and University, that no one can ever replace.#8221; - Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. #8220;Part of me aches at the thought of her being so close yet so untouchable, but her story and mine are different now.

It wasn’t easy for me to accept this simple truth, because there was a time when our - Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. #8220;I finally understood what true love meant…love meant that you care for couseworks Buckland School, another person’s happiness more than your own, no matter how painful the choices you face might be.#8221; - Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. #8220;Every single person you see is struggling with something, and to them, it’s just as hard as what you’re going through.#8221; - Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. Courses Work Of Toronto,! #8220;Part of me aches at the thought of her being so close yet so untouchable…#8221; - Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. How To Article! #8220;Even though you may not want to work of Toronto, New College, hear it, I want you to know that you’ll always be a part of me. In our time together, you claimed a special place in an informational article Academy, my heart, one I’ll carry with me forever - Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. Courses Work Of Toronto,! #8220;What mattered most was knowing that love was mine to give, without strings or expectations.#8221; - Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. West! #8220;I finally understood what true love meant…love meant that you care for another person’s happiness more than your own, no matter how painful the choices you face might be.#8221; - Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. #8220;And when her lips met mine, I knew that I could live to be a hundred and visit every country in the world, but nothing would ever compare to courses work New College, that single moment when I first kissed the girl of write Domus Academy, my - Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. #8220;I knew my father had done the best he could, and I had no regrets about the way I’d turned out. Regrets about courses work New College, journey, maybe, but not the template for essay High School destination.#8221; - Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. Courses Of Toronto,! #8220;There are memories for both of us, of course, but I’ve learned that memories can have a physical, almost living presence, and in essay MacDuffie, this, Savannah and courses work University of Toronto, New College, I are different as well. If hers are stars in for essay writing High School, the nighttime sky, mine - Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. #8220;Two weeks together, that’s all it took, two weeks for me to fall for you.#8221; - Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. #8220;Right before everything went black, you wanna know the very last thing that entered my mind?#8230;You.#8221; - Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. #8220;And when her lips met mine, I knew that I could live to be a hundred and visit every country in the world, but nothing would ever compare to courses of Toronto, New College, that single moment when I first kissed the girl of english magazine Caxton, my - Nicholas Sparks, Dear John. While I’ve earned a reputation as an author who specializes in work University New College, tragic endings, I want to go on template for essay Saint Diocesan School record as saying that my favorite novels to write are those with bittersweet endings. Work Of Toronto, New College! I love to craft a novel like The Notebook in which the characters long to be together but can’t, for fate has conspired to keep them apart. The problem, however, is that such novels are exceedingly difficult to conceive, let alone write.

Why, after all, if two people love each other, can’t they be together? A hundred years ago, stories like these were much easier to craft. Class, race, feuds and religion were “fair game,” but in the 21st century and especially in essay will Glenalmond, the United States these issues simply don’t ring as true. Yes, prejudice still exists and in work University, small pockets of society, such issues might still predominate, but as a general rule, prejudice is frowned upon, and I strive to write novels that feel universal to the majority of people. And besides, in novels where “love is supposed to conquer all,” most readers want to believe that almost any obstacle can be overcome.

What then should serve as the of Birmingham obstacle in the relationship? What causes the bittersweet ending? Why can’t the courses work New College two people be together? The most obvious and relevant reason that two people who love each other. can’t be together is that one or both is The University of Birmingham, already married, and they are loathe to divorce their spouse for University, family reasons. This was the how to Domus Academy “obstacle” that kept the courses University lovers apart in both The Bridges of Madison County by Robert James Waller and The Horse Whisperer by Nicholas Evans. Yet, I have a problem with that obstacle as well.

While I know it’s real and that it happens, adultery is nothing I want to glamorize. I’ll be perfectly honest when I say that I find nothing romantic in it. Nor does my wife. And, obviously, it’s an obstacle that now lacks in originality, since it’s been overdone in both books and films. English College! Director: Lasse Hallstrom Screenplay: Jamie Linden Cast: Channing Tatum, Amanda Seyfried Run Time: 108 minutes.

Directed by Lasse Halstrom and based on the novel by courses work of Toronto,, best-selling author Nicholas Sparks, Dear John tells the couseworks story of John Tyree (Channing Tatum), a young soldier home on courses University of Toronto, leave, and Savannah Curtis (Amanda Seyfried), the idealistic college student he falls in love with during her spring vacation. Over the next seven tumultuous years, the couple is writing John School, separated by Johns increasingly dangerous deployments. While meeting only work University, sporadically, they stay in this College, touch by sending a continuous stream of love letters overseas--correspondence that eventually triggers fateful consequences.

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resume queue sybase by Rob Verschoor. 2. Is the RepServer running ? 3. Work Of Toronto,! Check the RepServer errorlog. 4. Are there any threads down ? 5. Is the RSSD log full ? 6. This Essay Will Glenalmond College! Are the courses University stable devices full ? 7. Stop and restart threads, RepAgents and RepServers. Check the RepServer Troubleshooting Guide. Call Sybase TechSupport. Transaction cache size too small. Use an LTM or a RepAgent ? Some RepServer tips on other websites. Have some disk ready for essay will Glenalmond emergencies.

How long can your system survive without a DBA ? Don't use the RepServer sa login. Handle your RSSD with care. Use 'sqsh' instead of multiple open sessions. Keep the RepServer errorlog. Protect your RepServer config file. (pre-12.0) Install RepServer and of Toronto,, ASE in separate directory trees. Create a log of problem cases you've handled. Keep your replication system simple. Replicating logins, passwords, users groups.

Setting up a warm standby using rs_init. Basic steps for setting up a warm standby. Initialising the this essay will Glenalmond College standby with a dump. RepAgent configuration problems. Switching over to the standby. Differences between RepServer versions 11.0, 11.5 and 12.0. How do you get familiar with RepServer ? Why is courses New College RepServer so difficult ? Cost of deploying RepServer. What kind of organisations use RepServer ? What about replication for this will argue Glenalmond ASA ? RepServer System tables poster. Professional certifications for RepServer. Getting a free version of University of Toronto,, RepServer.

There have been repeated questions in the Sybase community about getting a free version of RepServer. However, unlike ASE, no free-for-download versions for Sybase Replication Server have been made available. Until recently (that's mid-2009), your best bet to gain some experience with RepServer was to get friendly with your Sybase account manager and this argue College, obtain an evaluation license (and get him to keep extending it). In the courses work summer of 2009, hooking up with the cloud computing trend, Sybase made available some Amazon Machine Images for a number of this will, products, including ASE, RepServer and IQ (details here). This opens up an interesting new way of getting your own private RepServer installation to play with. The products all run as developer editions or evaluation versions on the Amazon cloud platform. Though using Amazon AMIs is technically not free (Amazon charges you money for it), the actual costs are very modest indeed. I test-drove these AMIs myself and wrote about my experiences -and the costs- on courses work University of Toronto, the data management blog.

Check it out! Basic RepServer troubleshooting steps. Sybase Replication Server is a great product as long as everything works fine. Saint John Diocesan High! When things start to work University of Toronto, New College, go wrong however, it has all the potential of essay MacDuffie School, taking your troubleshooting attempts deep into the night -- and drive you crazy before sunrise. Courses University Of Toronto,! Here's some information that you could try when you're in king The University, need of ideas. When investigating a suspected problem, your starting point should be the RepServers in your replication system.

There's not much point in looking in the primary or replicate dataservers if you haven't checked the status at RepServer level first. Therefore, if you don't know where to start, follow the below steps for all RepServers in your replication system. To start with the basics: first check the courses work University RepServer is running: log in using isql or do a process listing on OS-level (i.e. using a ps command on Unix or the task manager or services applet on template for essay The Baptist School NT). Work University New College! If the stephen king The University RepServer isn't running, this may be because the courses of Toronto, ASE server containing the RSSD has not been started first. Template Writing Saint John Diocesan School! This is a prerequisite because all information RepServer needs to operate is courses University of Toronto, New College located in esl argumentative essay, the RSSD.

If the RSSD is University of Toronto, New College indeed down, the RepServer won't start and essay will College, you'll see message #31083 in the RepServer errorlog: Cannot connect to University of Toronto,, RSSD server . When the RSSD server is running, but the RepServer can't login due to an invalid ASE password, you'll see error #31083 again, plus an additional message saying: Message from how to server: Message: 4002, State 1, Severity 14 -- 'Login failed . These messages usually indicate what is courses work of Toronto, causing the problem, so always check the RepServer errorlog. When there seems to be any kind of will argue Glenalmond, problem, your should check the RepServer errorlog, as this will usually contain error messages indicating what's been going on. To find out the exact location of the RepServer errorlog, issue the command admin log_name , which will display the full pathname of the errorlog file on the system where the RepServer is running. Unfortunately, those error messages aren't always very clear, so you should try to figure out what they mean -- see the section Following up error messages. When investigating a suspected problem, the first thing to check is whether any RepServer threads are down by issuing the RepServer command admin who_is_down (this is work University a brief version of admin who , which shows all threads irrespective of Buckland, their status). Courses Work University! When this shows nothing, everything is for essay writing Saint The Baptist probably OK, although there are some nasty cases when there still is an error. Normally however, a thread which is down indicates a problem. When you've just started your RepServer, allow a minute or so for all threads to initialise and connect; when they're still not up after that, investigate the causes. Some common situations are the following:

A basic rule: when a thread is up and running, it will have a status such as Active, Awaiting Command, Awaiting Message, or other variations of Awaiting something. In a replicate RepServer, a DSI thread always comes with a corresponding DSI EXEC thread: together they represent the connection from the RepServer to New College, a replicate database. There is also one such pair of threads for magazine the RSSD. When the DSI/DSI EXEC threads have the status Suspended, this can be the of Toronto, result of a suspend connection command (use resume connection to proceed). However, this also occurs when the stephen on writing RepServer was executing a command in courses University of Toronto, New College, that replicate database as part of a replicate transaction, and ran into an dataserver error. A common example is a duplicate key error when inserting an an informational, already existing key value into a replicate table having a unique index. You can try resuming the connection (using resume connection , but usually this results in the same error occurring again, suspending the New College connection once more.

When this happens, the RepServer errorlog will always contain the error message returned by the dataserver. When you want to see the SQL commands that were issued as part of the replicate transaction, dump the esl argumentative essay MacDuffie School first transaction in the corresponding queue (using sysadmin log_first_tran , see the RepServer QuickRef Guide for details). Once you understand why the SQL command leads to an error, you will have to take action to work University New College, resolve the situation so that replication can continue. This may include manually modifying or removing data from the replicate table or deleting the replication transaction from the inbound queue (using the resume connection. skip transaction ). When you're running into how to write replicate dataserver errors, you should have a good look at the design of your replication system as these errors suggest things are not going as was originally expected. When you're running RepServer 11.5 or later, a thread called REP AGENT represents the ASE RepAgent (or LTM) for the corresponding primary database.

When running RepServer 11.0, these threads are called LTM USER instead. When the status of courses of Toronto,, this thread is Down, the RepAgent/LTM is not running. For an LTM, you will have to start the LTM process; to start an ASE RepAgent thread, run sp_start_rep_agen from within the primary database. If the RepAgent or LTM won't start, check the this essay will dataserver errorlog or LTM errorlog, respectively; there will be some kind of error message logged indicating why it cannot start. When the courses New College status of this thread is Suspended, this is because the command suspend log transfer was run; issue resume log transfer to resume the thread. There's not much to see about the status of the SQM (Stable Queue Manager) or SQT (Transaction Manager) threads. You can get detailed information about what's happening to the queues using admin who, sqm or admin who, sqt (but let's leave it for english review College now. ). When using routes, an RSI thread represents the connection going from the your local RepServer to another RepServer. When the courses status of such a thread is Connecting, this means the RepServer at the other end of the this College route is down, and your RepServer is periodically trying to reconnect. A thread called RSI USER is the incoming end of a route: a connection coming from work of Toronto, New College another RepServer to your local RepServer.

When the status is Inactive, it means that the remote RepServer isn't running or suspended the route. The RSSD is continuously updated by how to write Academy, the RepServer and courses New College, as a consequence, the transaction log may fill up. When this happens, the RepServer action updating the english magazine College RSSD will by default go into log suspend mode until the log is cleared. This will cause RepServer activity to suspend as well. Courses Work University Of Toronto,! Therefore, stop the MacDuffie School RSSD log from filling up by dumping the log regularly and by installing thresholds. Note that the both RSSD log and data segment can fill up quickly when running sysadmin log_first_tran or sysadmin dump_queue frequently or for large transactions. Courses Work University! Clean up old transactions logged through these commands using the stored procedure rs_delexception from within the RSSD database.

It's always good to check whether the king The University stable devices have filled up; it's never too early too know. Use the RepServer command admin disk_space to see how far the work University of Toronto, stable devices have filled up. The idea behind the essay on writing The University of Birmingham RepServer architecture is that any component (RepAgent, RepServer, dataserver, network) can temporarily go down, and everything automatically continues running when the of Toronto, New College component comes back up. Usually this works quite well, but sometimes it just doesn't. When you have a situation where you cannot restart a certain RepServer thread, try shutting down and restarting the RepAgent/LTM, log transfer, DSI connection or route in a systematic way. Also, try shutting down the threads, then shut down/restart the on writing The University RepServer itself, and restart the threads. While it doesn't seem logical, I have often managed to get everything back up running after stopping and restarting various components this way. It's worth trying, and it doesn't cost too much time or effort.

Note that this advice does not apply to the dataservers: surely you just don't want to shut these down, because (unlike the RepServer) there will be users connected to them ! Following up error messages. When something is wrong, there is often an error message of some kind. Here are some suggestions to follow up error messages. The directory $SYBASE/$SYBASE_REP/doc (on NT: %SYBASE%%SYBASE_REP%doc ) contains some files named error_messages_* (on NT: errmsg.* ) containing descriptions of many error messages that may occur, plus a brief explanation. When you run into New College any kind of write an informational Domus, error, these files should be your first stop: check if the courses New College error message is listed (easiest by searching for the error number - I always use grep for this), and see what it means. In many cases, this will be very helpful to get an idea of what is going on. Note that this only applies to stephen king on writing, error messages from the RepServer, LTM, RSM Server and rs_subcmp. Courses! Error messages from the ASE RepAgent are logged in the dataserver errorlog.

If you're stuck with an error message which you cannot find the meaning of, try the RepServer Troubleshooting Guide. As the name suggests, it contains suggestions for solving problems. If nothing else works, you should consider opening a case with Sybase TechSupport, because you may easily be spending days looking for clues - which you may not find in the end (you do have a support contract, don't you ?). Problems with rs_init. rs_init is a tool for configuring components of template for essay The Baptist Diocesan, a replication system, such as databases, repservers, etc. While it makes a DBA's life a bit easier indeed, rs_init does have some problems of its own (unfortunately). This section lists a few common issues. rs_init is located in the install subdirectory of the courses work University New College RepServer installation tree ($SYBASE/$SYBASE_REP). Couseworks West School! Make sure this is in your PATH.

A common problem is courses University of Toronto, New College that you're trying to add a database and it appears that rs_init cannot access the this essay Glenalmond College dataserver because that server is not in the interfaces file. Adding the server to work University of Toronto,, the interfaces file is the obvious solution, but then you'll find that it still makes no difference for rs_init . John! The reason is that rs_init reads the contents of the interfaces file when it starts; when making changes to the interfaces file, rs_init should be stopped and restarted for rs_init to work of Toronto, New College, notice the changes. Tip: when you need to do this, generate a resource file before you quit (see next point), or you'll have to re-do the dialog. One problem is that the on writing of Birmingham file format of rs_init resource files isn't documented very well. I have seen cases where rs_init complains about the contents of the resource file it generated itself. If you run into this sort of problem, there's no documentation that will help, but you may be able to fix it by University, manually editing the resouce file; this may require some creativity on your side, though.

In one such case I remember, the error message said that the IDserver name was not specified (it said something like the IDservername being '' (=two single quotes)). This could be fixed by adding a line rs.rs_idserver_name: RSNAME , where RSNAME was the IDserver's name (funny enough, the template writing John The Baptist School resource file did contain a line saying rs.rs_id_server_is_rs_server: yes , so specifying the IDserver explicitly seemed redundant -- but it worked). If you're having any problems with invalid resource file contents, check the courses New College example resource files which exist in the init/rs subdirectory in stephen king essay The University, the RepServer installation tree ($SYBASE/$SYBASE_REP). Try to figure out whatinformation rs_init wants in that resource file, and work University of Toronto,, how you can supply it. Esl Argumentative School! It's probably a matter of modifying or adding a line to your own resource file causing the problems. You're on your own though, as there is courses no documentation here (only some comments in essay will argue, the example files): in courses University of Toronto, New College, the example above, my resource file was almost identical to the setupdb.rs example file, but the line I eventually added was copied from the stephen king on writing The University of Birmingham install.rs file. that's where your creativity comes in.

When running rs_init multiple times (for example when errors occurred during previous runs which you've now fixed), it may complain that the RepAgent has already been configured and it cannot do it again. The error message is: When this error occurs, disable the RepAgent first as follows: sp_config_rep_agent YOUR_DBNAME, disable . Then re-run rs_init . When setting up a warm standby through rs_init , two common errors may occur: Before adding the active database for the warm standby, you must manually create a logical connection for work of Toronto, New College the warm standby (using the command create logical connection SOME_SERVER.SOME_DB ), because rs_init will prompt you for the name of this logical connection. You can not create this logical connection through rs_init . Essay! It is actually in the small print in the docs, but many people (including myself) found out the hard way (that's the RepServer way !). When adding the standby database using rs_init , this will normally fail because rs_init cannot log in to the dataserver containing the work of Toronto, standby database.

This is because the maintenance user login which rs_init tries to use, is MacDuffie not there yet; unlike the maintenance user login for the active database, which is created automatically by rs_init , the maintenance user login for the standby database isn't. Therefore, you must create this login manually and then re-run rs_init . More Troubleshooting Tips. When RepServer detects that messages may have been lost, it goes into message loss mode. When this happens, transactions coming from the primary dataserver won't be applied at the replicate dataserver anymore, and they'll accumulate in courses University of Toronto, New College, the stable queues. However, from the admin who output, all threads seem to be up and couseworks West Buckland, running, so everything looks OK at courses New College first sight. The only how to an informational article Domus, way to find out work New College, about this status is to check the RepServer errorlog, and check for loss detection messages.

When there is indeed a loss detection problem, you can override this through the command ignore loss . I have once had a pretty weird problem case where message loss had been detected between two RepServers, but ignore loss didn't help at all. This was very strange, and in how to write an informational article Domus, the end the New College trick appeared to be as follows: in the RSSD of the replicate RepServer, the rs_exceptslast table contained a row for the route where the status column had the value 2 (meaning it's rejecting transactions due to essay will Glenalmond, message loss). The solution was to suspend the courses work of Toronto, New College RSSD DSI, updated this column to 0 manually, and article Domus Academy, then resume the courses work DSI. After that, everything was OK again. School! When you're dealing with a message loss situation that just won't go away, check the RSSD for any rows where rs_exceptslast.status = 2 or rs_oqid.valid = 2 ; when this exists, you could try updating these to 0 manually.

However, note that manually patching the RSSD is risky and courses University of Toronto,, probably won't win you the sympathy of esl argumentative MacDuffie School, Sybase TechSupport afterwards; in courses work University New College, other words: this is your own risk. I've had a problem case once where everything looked OK, all threads were up, and there were no error messages logged anywhere. Still, no replicate transactions were being applied anymore. After digging into the queues for MacDuffie some time, an error message finally showed up when examining the SQT for work University of Toronto, the inbound queue: This error sounded pretty alarming, as it suggests there is some low-level disk error. After consulting Sybase TechSupport, it appeared that error 6024 actually indicates that there is a transaction which is too big for RepServer to handle, causing the transaction not to essay argue College, be written from the inbound to the outbound queue (you wouldn't have guessed, would you ?). Of Toronto,! The solution was to couseworks West Buckland, increase the of Toronto, New College RepServer configuration parameter sqt_max_cache_size (through configure replication server and restart the RepServer). Various Technical Tips.

RepServer configuration parameters can be modified using the configure replication server command (some changes will be effective only after a RepServer restart). Config parameter settings are stored in the RSSD in the rs_config table. However, it is not possible to english Caxton College, see the current settings from within RepServer. Work! For this, you should log into the RSSD ASE server, and issue the following command from within the RSSD database: Note there is english Caxton College even a brief comment for most config options. RepServer *is* user-friendly here and there ! In an ASE environment, when you're running at least RepServer 11.5 and work of Toronto, New College, ASE 11.5, you can use the internal ASE RepAgent. When you have an earlier version of an informational article Academy, either ASE or RepServer, you must use an external LTM process. Although LTMs are still supported for current ASE and RepServer versions, it is advisable to use RepAgents when you can, because it makes a DBA's life easier: an LTM is an work University, extra OS-level process requiring an entry in the interfaces file; a RepAgent doesn't need this because it's an how to write article, internal ASE thread. an LTM needs to be started explicitly by courses work of Toronto,, the DBA; once it has been configured, a RepAgent starts automatically when ASE starts. RepAgents are more efficient than LTMs, so there will be less overall system load and/or latency. an LTM can be greedy: when there's a large transaction to be replicated, LTMs have been known to allocate as much memory as needed for this transaction, but never deallocate it again, which may require the DBA to stop restart the LTM.

ASE RepAgents don't have this problem. Configuring a RepAgent requires (among other things) executing the stored procedure sp_config_rep_agent. See the RepServer QuickRef Guide for review Caxton College details. When your replication system is up and running, that's how you want to courses University, keep it. When something goes wrong, leading to replication being halted somewhere along the chain of events, this can eventually lead to West, the transaction log of the primary dataserver filling up. In such cases, a DBA could decide to remove the secondary truncation point in University New College, the transaction log (a.k.a. the LTM truncation point), to allow the how to an informational article primary dataserver to New College, continue processing.

While this may indeed be a solution from stephen of Birmingham one point of view, be aware that this will likely cause your replication system to get out of courses New College, sync because primary transactions won't be replicated anymore. As a DBA, you will then have to re-synch the primary and replicated data; depending on the complexity of your replication system, this may be anywhere between a minor headache and a complete nightmare. Therefore, you should consider removing the secondary truncation point only as a very-very-very-last-resort solution ! It may be more practical to couseworks School, allocate extra disk space for stable queues so that primary log transfer can continue than to courses University, reconcile primary and replicate data afterwards. See the how to write article previous point. One good feature of RepServer is that you can not only extend the stable queues (using the add partition command), but you can also shrink them again through drop partition -- this command can be issued at any time, and will drop the courses work of Toronto, New College partition as soon as there's no data on it anymore. Therefore, keep some disk space at esl argumentative hand which you can use to extend the stable queues should this ever be necessary. There's an interesting (and important) issue with respect to the sizing of your stable queues. Basically, your primary system should be able to continue for at least the courses University time period that no DBA will be looking after the template for essay writing Saint The Baptist Diocesan High system -- and New College, preferable a little longer than that. Depending on your system and organisation, such a no-DBA period can be a night, a weekend or just a few hours. Getting this sizing right will require monitoring the data volume being replicated.

If you like being paged, you could a cron job checking the free space in the stable queues and paging you when it fills up; very much like the sort of thing that tells you when a dataserver's transaction log fills up (pagers are most popular in America - Europeans can do something similar by having an SMS message sent to School, a GSM phone). However, if you implement this, I pity you already now, because Murphy will surely make that beeper go off at some very inconvenient moments (from a private life point of view, that is. ). When creating or dropping a subscription, the replicate RepServer will log into the primary RepServer and -when using automatic materialization- into the primary dataserver. It will do this using the same login and password as you used to log into the replicate RepServer (where the subscription is created from). Work University New College! This implies that the same login and School, password must exist in work University of Toronto, New College, the replicate and primary RepServer and the primary dataserver. Therefore, when using the RepServer sa login, this means the sa password in the dataserver cannot simply be changed anymore as it would be out of sync with the RepServer's sa password, causing subscription creation to essay of Birmingham, fail. Courses University Of Toronto, New College! When there are multiple primary dataservers in this essay will argue, the replication system, they would all need to have the same password for their sa login.

Therefore, best don't use the RepServer sa login to work University of Toronto, New College, avoid this sort of dependency. I prefer to create a login named ra (kinda short for for essay The Baptist Diocesan rep admin) in all RepServers and dataservers with the same passwords everywhere, and work University of Toronto,, give these logins all necessary privileges. This way, I never have to use the english review College RepServer sa login anymore, avoiding the problems described above. The RSSD, which is an ASE database, is the place where RepServer stores all the work University of Toronto, New College data it needs to be able to operate (not counting its configuration file), including administrative data such as the state and position of the stable queues. Otherwise, the RepServer itself doesn't store any data at write Academy all, with the courses work New College exception of the king essay on writing configuration file, specifying where the RSSD is located. There is of course data in the stable queues, but without the RSSD this data cannot be accessed. This makes the RSSD an important database in courses of Toronto,, your replication system, so ensure the RSSD is esl argumentative MacDuffie School treated with the same care as your normal production databases. All considerations about recoverability, database dumps, log dumps and work New College, DBCC checks apply to the RSSD as well. For the same reason, don't enable the trunc log on chkpt option on the RSSD as this affects recoverability. Keep the RepServer errorlog. Make sure the RepServer errorlog is not deleted, but kept for at MacDuffie least a few months.

In some cases, an indication of an error condition may be logged just once, and never again after that anymore. When there's been a problem you can't resolve, you may want to courses work University, dig into your errorlog for quite some time back -- it's a bit of essay MacDuffie School, a bummer when you've deleted it. This is indeed not very desirable behavior, but it's just one of those typical RepServer features. The RepServer configuration file contains the login and password used to courses work University of Toronto,, contact the RSSD server and ID server. This makes these files interesting targets for Saint John School other people of a lesser moral standard, so make sure it is well-protected. In case you use LTMs, the same applies to LTM config files. Because the RSSD contains the logins and passwords for the primary and maintenance logins, make sure this database (as well as its dumps !) are properly protected.

When security is important to you, use the encryption options and courses University, security mechanisms where possible. Note: this point applies only to West, pre-12.0 versions of ASE and RepServer. Starting with versions 12.0, the directory structure has changed so that all Sybase products reside in their own subdirectory under $SYBASE (NT: %SYBASE%). Thus, in this new stucture, there is no danger anymore of courses University of Toronto,, libraries being overwritten by king essay The University of Birmingham, installation or upgrade of courses work University, a different product. When installing ASE and RepServer in separate directories, you'll have to set the $SYBASE variable correctly in for essay writing Saint John, each RUN_SERVER file. Also, you should explicitly specify the courses New College path to english, the interfaces file the servers will use (assuming you don't want to maintain multiple copies). This recommendation mainly applies to Unix because separating RepServer and ASE isn't so easy on NT. Reinoud van Leeuwen describes an interesting trick to install the products separately on NT as well (and still run the servers as NT services), but I found that it is impossible to upgrade RepServer after this (or at least I couldn't find out how to do it). Courses Work University Of Toronto, New College! Therefore, I'd recommend to install ASE and RepServer in the same directory when you're on NT.

Being indispensable can be good for your ego and your hourly rate, but you may have seconds thoughts when they call you in stephen on writing The University of Birmingham, the weekend or during your holidays because you're the only person who knows what to do when the replication system is having trouble. I recommend creating a log of the problem cases you solved, including the relevant error messages and actions you took to resolve them. Someone else may then be able to fix the courses work University problem using this information. How To An Informational Domus Academy! Don't forget to courses work, include the phone number of Sybase TechSupport and your Sybase customer number. And don't worry about your job security: when someone else has to esl argumentative essay, do some ad-hoc RepServer troubleshooting while you're away, chances aren't very high they'll say cool, I'd really like to this every day. . A good thing of RepServer is that it's very flexible and powerful. Unfortunately, there is a dark side to this as well: you can create replication systems which are so complex that it may not be possible to recover the entire system in a reasonable amount of time, once something goes wrong somewhere. Therefore, if you have anything to courses work University of Toronto,, say about the design of your replication system, try to keep it simple and straightforward. If it's not necessary, don't use bi-directional replication, function strings, request functions, and how to write an informational Domus Academy, don't mix normal replication with function replication; this will go a long way to courses of Toronto,, preserve your sanity. As a RepServer DBA, you're usually having various isql (or sqsh ) sessions on your screen to connect to each RepServer, the esl argumentative School corresponding RSSDs, and the various primary and replicate dataservers. Courses University New College! With a sqsh trick, you can do all that in just a single sqsh session.

Replicating logins, passwords, users groups. It is not possible to replicate data in system tables, but sometimes you may need exactly that. Stephen King Essay The University Of Birmingham! For example, in a warm standby system, it will be necessary to have identical logins and passwords in the ASE server hosting the primary (active) database and in the server containing the replicate (standby) database. After all, the whole idea of courses New College, a warm standby is that client applications should be able to how to write Domus, switch over to the standby database and continue processing as if nothing changed. Clearly, this requires logins and passwords, but also database users and -groups to be identical. When running RepServer 11.5 or later, almost all DDL commands within a user database can be automatically replicated to courses work University New College, the standby database in a warm standby system using the essay will argue College sp_reptostandby command. While useful, the sp_reptostandby feature has some limitations: it won't work for University New College logins and passwords (as these are stored in the master database), and esl argumentative essay MacDuffie School, it only courses work of Toronto,, works in a warm standby environment. Mark A. Parsons has designed an elegant solution that also addresses these aspects. From here, you can download his presentation (note: 330 Kb) for the Australasian TechWave2000 conference explaining the setup, and including script files to actually implement it. Even if you don't need to review magazine Caxton, replicate logins, passwords etc., I still recommend you check out work of Toronto, New College, Mark's solution, because it is couseworks West a great example of how to use RepServer features to implement some functionality that crosses the boundaries of University, a single server. Warm standby tips.

When setting up a warm standby, keep these things in mind: Best keep the database names of active and standby databases the same. This lowers the risk of errors in client- or server-level software which may be referring to the database name explicitly -- remember, the purpose of couseworks West School, a warm standby is, presumably, to be able to switch the active database at some point: your applications should still work correctly after that switch. Also, when doing DDL replication, DDL statements may include the database name -- these may fail in the standby if this has a different database name. The maintenance user for the active and standby databases must be the same; also keep the passwords identical (also see next point). You must ensure that logins and passwords are synchronised in the ASE servers containing the active and courses work, standby databases. This is to ensure that client applications can still log in after a switchover. This Will Glenalmond! RepServer doesn't give you solution for courses University of Toronto, New College this, so you'll have to make something yourself. There are roughly two options for this: first, following Mark A. Parsons' ideas described elsewhere in this document; second, by amending sp_addlogin, sp_modifylogin, sp_droplogin and sp_password in stephen The University, such a way that they execute themselves as an RPC in the standby database after successfully completing in the active database -- this requires some hacking in the SQL text of these procedure. Also, the mapping between suid values (for logins) and uid values (for database users) should be kept identical in University of Toronto,, both servers.

This becomes important at the moment when you want to reinitialise the standby using a dump of the active database; when these mappings are not identical, you may run into all kinds of permission problems. Note that this is couseworks Buckland School always an issue when loading dumps into other servers, as such it is not a replication-specific point. The consequence of this issue is that you should not create logins in the standby server when these logins have not been created in the active server first. Be sure to keep replication settings identical in the active and work of Toronto, New College, standby databases. A classic mistake is to mark a specific table for replication in the active database, but forget to do this in the standby.

There will probably not be a problem until you have to switch to the standby, when you (or likely, someone else) will find out that table is not properly replicating to the new standby. Therefore, every time when you execute sp_setreptable or sp_setrepproc in the active database, do the an informational article Academy same in the standby. Similarly, when using sp_reptostandby , make sure the standby database has been configured in courses work University New College, the same way. Try to esl argumentative MacDuffie, keep things simple: stick to courses University New College, a 1-to-1 active-standby setup and simply replicate all tables. As always with RepServer, endlessly advanced and complicated scenarios are possible, but should best be avoided to keep things manageable. Setting up a warm standby using rs_init. It's probably easiest to use rs_init for setting up the review magazine Caxton active and standby databases in the warm standby.

However, there are some things to be aware of. Go here for more information. The simplest way of of Toronto, New College, setting up a warm standby is to use the T-SQL stored procedure sp_reptostandby -- this requires you run at least ASE 11.5 and RepServer 11.5. When executing sp_reptostandby my_db, 'all' , all tables in database my_db will be replicated to the standby, without having been marked for replication explicitly using sp_setreptable (this works because a kind of replicate everything in this database marker is set for Saint John High the database, making it irrelevant to mark individual tables for replication). Work! When using sp_reptostandby , DDL replication is School also enabled. Note that sp_reptostandby is an all-or-nothing deal: you cannot exclude individual tables from the warm standby setup. On session level, you can choose to enable or disable DDL replication using the T-SQL command set replication -- see the RepServer QuickRef for command details. Initialising the standby with a dump. To (re)initialise the standby database, the simplest way is to load a dump from the courses of Toronto, active database into the standby, after (re)creating the for essay John High connection to courses University of Toronto,, the standby database. Note that the king essay The University of Birmingham order of these two steps is essential: you must first run create connection with the courses work of Toronto, New College use dump marker clause (either manually or through rs_init ), and then dump the an informational Academy active database and courses, load it into english review magazine the standby. If you do it the other way around (first dump the active DB, and then run create connection ), there will be no replication to the standby, and admin logical_status will forever show the status Active/Waiting for dump marker . More precisely: after executing create connection with the use dump marker clause, wait until admin logical_status shows the status of the work University of Toronto, standby connection as Suspended/Waiting for Enable Marker and how to write article Domus, State of operation in progress is None ; as long as the latter says Attempting to place marker in courses work, the Active Log , do not dump the active database yet ! When initialising the for essay writing The Baptist Diocesan High School standby database by loading a dump from University of the stephen king The University active database, you should be aware of the following issue in ASE 11.5 and 11.9.

The dump of the active database contains the courses work University config settings for the RepAgent for the active database. When loading this dump into the standby database, the RepAgent config settings are loaded as well, causing these to be wrong, because the connect_dataserver and template for essay John Diocesan High, connect_database settings are still those that were made for the active database. You'll hit this problem after you've done the courses University of Toronto, New College switchover and you start the how to Domus RepAgent for the new active (former standby) database: the RepAgent will shutdown again, but no error message is displayed on the client; the RepServer error log will contain error 14082, and courses work, the ASE error log will mention this error as well. When you have this problem, run sp_config_rep_agent to couseworks West School, set the work right values for connect_dataserver and connect_database and for essay John The Baptist School, restart the RepAgent. Note: this problem seems to University New College, have been fixed in ASE 12.0.

Switching over to the standby. When running a warm standby system, there will (sooner or later) probably be a moment when you'll have to switch the active database to the standby (this is why you have a warm standby in the first place). English Review College! This consists of the courses of Toronto, New College following actions: Here are some possible approaches for tackling this issue: the most elegant solution is to solve this on network (DNS) level, independent of ASE and RepServer. Suppose you have two Unix systems, one named batman, hosting the primary dataserver and for essay The Baptist High, one named robin for the standby server. Courses University Of Toronto,! Now make sure the client applications have interfaces files where the stephen The University dataserver they connect to is specified on to run on a host named gotham. Work! However, there is no system named gotham; instead, the how to write an informational network is configured such that the name gotham resolves to batman (this can normally be done on DNS level on your LAN).

When switching to courses University of Toronto, New College, the standby, reconfigure the DNS so that gotham now resolves to robin. This way, the english client applications do not need to of Toronto,, do anything at all when switching to the standby (except reconnect). Obviously, the how to write an informational article Domus Academy port numbers of the dataservers on both systems should be identical for this to work. the application user explicitly specifies that a different dataserver is now to be used; however this is not desirable, because you would like to hide these issues from the end-user. the interfaces file used by the client applications is changed so that they will connect to work of Toronto,, a different ASE server while using the same servername on client level.

This may be a problem when there are many client systems which all have their own interfaces file. You'll have to figure out a way of template Diocesan High School, getting this done. A solution which I've once seen for this is worth mentioning, particularly because of the dangers that come with it: you could add a second query line to the interfaces file, so that the courses work New College first is for the active server, and the second for the standby. The idea is this: as long as the active server is up, all applications will connect to it, as it is the first query entry. When it goes down, applications will connect to the standby server (the second entry) after al retries fail on the first server. The danger of this approach is that when the will argue Glenalmond first server is running fine but for any reason the work of Toronto, New College connection attempts fail, the application will move on to the second query entry and happily connect to the standby database, and possibly execute DML statements there; obviously, this may lead to a lot of trouble in your database, so think *very* carefully before you'd use this trick. all applications could have a bit of logic built in which retrieve the server name of the ASE server they should connect to. This information would be kept on one central place on the network, so that that there are no duplication problems as with the interfaces files described above. Couseworks West Buckland! Note that you're effectively building your own directory service logic when you do this.

RepServer versions and platforms. Unlike the courses work University of Toronto, version numbering suggests, there is esl argumentative essay School no strict relationship between ASE and RepServer versions. Of Toronto, New College! Basically, all ASE versions later than 4.9 will work with any version of RepServer. However, certain features may only be available for specific combinations of ASE and RepServer; for example, you need both ASE 11.5 and esl argumentative essay MacDuffie School, RepServer 11.5 to use ASE RepAgents. Any version of ASE will do for the RSSD. Taking RepServer 11.0 as a starting point (i.e. forgetting about earlier RepServer versions, which are not supported anymore), this gives you all the main replication features as well as function replication and warm standby. The main new features in RepServer 11.5 are the internal ASE RepAgent, DDL replication for of Toronto, New College warm standby, publications and improved administration functionality. RepServer 12.0 introduces Java class replication, High Availability features, and enhanced security features, among others. RepServer runs on the main Unix platforms and on NT. Check with Sybase TechSupport for the latest status as products are ported to other platforms regularly. Support for Linux is on its way (see next point)

The first version of RepServer supported on Linux is RepServer 12.0 (released Q1, 2000). While available as a regular product, there seems to be hardly any information about it on Sybase's website. In any case, the West Buckland School product number for courses work University RepServer-on-Linux is 18685; if you call Sybase Sales with this number they should be able to give you full details. Note that, unlike ASE-for-Linux, there is no free version available for essay School download. Also, it appears that the courses work of Toronto, New College standard license for RepServer-on-Linux contractually only allows you to replicate between Linux-based ASE servers (see the esl argumentative essay next paragraph for an interesting anecdote). University! For replicating to other platforms than Linux, further licensing seems to be required (note that this is stuff that I've heard from others; actually, I'm staying away from all this contractual and sales-related stuff as much as I can. ). RepServer allows you to replicate between different types of database, for example from Oracle to DB2. Data can be replicated from ASE, ASA (formerly known as SQL Anywhere), Oracle, DB2, Informix, MVS mainframe data sources, and --expected to be available somewhere in Q1, 2000-- MS SQLServer.

In addition, you can in principle build your own replication agent for other data sources - but don't expect this to be easy. When you plan to esl argumentative essay School, do this, it's worth asking around first. For example, it seems there's someone at University of Toronto, New College Sybase South Africa who once built a RepAgent for Adabas. Data can be replicated to all these databases as well as to just about magazine Caxton, anything else. Note that, no matter the of Toronto, types of databases involved, every RepServer always has an RSSD (Replication Server System Database) which must be located in an ASE server (as of template for essay writing John The Baptist Diocesan High School, RS 12.6, the RSSD can also be located in an 'embedded' ASA server).

RepServer was developed by Sybase in the beginning of the 90's on request of, and initially funded by a Sybase customer (actually a US-based bank), that wanted a product for data replication. Sybase itself has continued development of the product since then. RepServer is a data movement product; basically, it just copies data modifications from one location to another. The most important characteristics are: The unit of courses, replication is a transaction, not just an individual DML statement. RepServer guarantees that replicated transactions are applied in the same order as they occurred on template writing John The Baptist School the primary side.

In principle, when individual components (dataservers, RepServer, network connections) of a RepServer-based system are temporarily unavailable, this should be transparent to the overall replication system. When a component becomes available again, replication should continue with minimal or no further manual DBA action. Most of the time, this works quite well. How do you get familiar with RepServer ? I'd say there is no easy, painless way to learn how to courses University of Toronto,, use RepServer. As a start, make sure you know everything a normal DBA should know about the RDBMS platforms involved in your replication system. Argue Glenalmond! This should also include at least some ASE knowledge, as the RSSD will always be an ASE server, even if you're replicating between two Oracle databases.

When you're replicating between ASE databases, you must understand how the ASE transaction log works, how the University New College log is dumped and truncated, how to enlarge databases and logs, how your choice of disk usage affects recovery issues. in short: the works. Next, I recommend you take a RepServer training from Sybase (Fast Track to essay will argue Glenalmond, Replication Server). Courses University Of Toronto,! After that course, you'll probably be back in your office wondering how you should ever manage to understand this thing -- don't worry, it is possible ! In my experience, the only way to learn RepServer is to create -- and solve -- many problems, because only english review magazine College, then will you get a feel for the product. The best way to gain this experience is to work, set up your own private little replication system from scratch: try to create a setup where you replicate just a simple 1-column table from one database to esl argumentative essay MacDuffie School, another. By the time you have succeeded in getting this to work, you will have learned a lot -- even though you already did this on the Sybase training. Then, experiment with more complex stuff such as routes, function replication or warm standby. Also, make sure you have the RepServer documentation handy: go here for details where to get this from. There are no specific certification exams for Sybase Replication Server. For replication in an ASE environment, it seems reasonable to expect a RepServer DBA to have an courses work University, ASE DBA certification.

I've heard many different opinions on RepServer, ranging from wonderful to, as I once heard someone say, the worst thing since Pompeii. While the latter may be overstating it a bit, RepServer is certainly not an easy product to set up, administrate or troubleshoot. One reason for king on writing The University of Birmingham this is that RepServer doesn't seem to have been developed with user-friendliness as a prime objective; it's a typical example of of Toronto, New College, a very powerful, flexible, yet difficult-to-use piece of software, which is best appreciated by hard-core technology diehards. Another factor is that the scope and essay will argue Glenalmond College, complexity of your DBA work expands significantly when replication becomes involved: those previously independent dataservers are now suddenly closely related because data is University New College replicated between them. This effectively means that they have become one big system from template for essay writing Saint John a DBA point of view, thus making a DBA's job significantly more difficult. It tends to be pretty expensive to use RepServer. On the courses work of Toronto, one hand, the license fees can be stiff, as they tend to be based on for essay writing The Baptist High the number of users in your dataservers. Courses! More importantly though, you'll need plenty of experienced and skilled DBA staff, both for esl argumentative your dataservers and for courses of Toronto, New College RepServer, which tend to be expensive. Many different organisations use RepServer, but it's especially heavily used in the financial world. Many banks have implemented complex bi-directional replication systems, for example to link their security trading operations at stock exchanges around the world. This is the School reason why many RepServer DBAs can be found in places like New York, London and Tokyo.

Replication for Adaptive Server Anywhere (formerly known as SQL Anywhere) is done through SQL Remote. This is a different product which is not related to, and works completely different than, RepServer. Some of the existing RepServer manuals are the Reference Manual (descriptions of all commands), the Administration Guide (extensive discussions of work, administrator tasks, organised by topic) and the Troubleshooting Guide (well, for troubleshooting obviously). Stephen Essay On Writing! The Design Guide deals with different possible designs of courses work University of Toronto, New College, replication systems, such as bi-directional replication and conflict resolution, and changing ownership. Information about essay argue, compatibility between different versions of RepServer and ASE on courses University of Toronto, New College different platforms can be found here and here. You can download a system tables poster for RepServer 12.0 from the Sybase website as a PDF document. Go here for more information. There are very few books covering technical aspects of RepServer, but here's a few suggestions: In 2004, I published a book named The Complete Sybase Replication Server Quick Reference Guide. As the this Glenalmond title suggests, this is a rather complete QuickRef guide (covering up to RepServer version 12.6) which every RepServer DBA should have (yes, that's a shameless self-promotion). More information is here.

Not a commercial book, but there's an excellent whitepaper on PT for RepServer on the Sybase support website. My 1995 edition covers only RepServer version 10 -- I don't know if there are new editions covering more recent versions. The book contains a useful appendix with SQL queries to manually query the RSSD. RepServer newsgroups. The Sybase news server, forums.sybase.com , carries some newsgroups dedicated to RepServer: sybase.public.rep-agent and sybase.public.rep-server . There's also a newsgroup about courses work New College, ASA replication (but note: this is writing Saint The Baptist Diocesan High quite a different topic!): sybase.public.sqlanywhere.replication . Since April 2003, it is possible to become Certified Administrator for Replication Server 12.5 by courses work New College, passing a certification exam. More information is how to article here. All rights reserved.

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Global Warming: Why it Needs the Kyoto Protocol. Global Warming: Why it Needs the Kyoto Protocol. Thesis Statement: A unified international effort through the Kyoto Protocol is University of Toronto, necessary to mitigate global warming. Need essay sample on Global Warming: Why it Needs the Kyoto Protocol ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for School, you for only $12.90/page. I. Introductory Paragraph. Global warming is work of Toronto, a problem faced not only by a few countries today but the whole world.

II. Global Warming is caused by man- made activities. How global warming occurs. Man- made activities aggravated and greatly contributed to global warming. III. Destructive effects of global warming.

effects to wildlife. IV. International cooperation can effectively mitigate global warming. It initiates a global trend that will minimize the use of global warming substances. It can compel other countries to take action against global warming. It can initiate awareness on global warming. V. Why Kyoto Protocol embodies a promising unified international effort to mitigate global warming. It expedites the template for essay writing Saint High, implementation of anti- global warming measures. It necessitates the compliance of industries and countries. It initiates global cooperation to mitigate global warming.

Summary of the discussion. Global Warming: Why it Needs the Kyoto Protocol. In 2005, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Control-Climate Change reported that the Earth is heating up 0.6 degrees more than its average temperature. Work University! Scientists proposed that this is article Domus largely due to the increase in work University New College greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. This phenomenon is otherwise called as global warming which poses destructive implications when left unsolved and unmitigated. This environmental problem is faced not only by a few countries today but the whole world. It is thus necessary that actions be taken in a global scale to solve the global warming crisis. A unified international effort through the Kyoto Protocol is stephen king on writing The University necessary to mitigate global warming.

Man- made Activities as Primary Cause of Global Warming. The sun heats and warms the earth by emitting energy in courses University New College the form of will Glenalmond College shortwave radiation and visible light. This energy changes from courses University New College light to heat when it strikes the surface of the earth. This energy is released back as a long- wave infrared radiation but not all of these goes back to space because some of them are trapped by greenhouse gases in the earth’s surface. The process, also called as the greenhouse effect, is english a natural process needed by the earth so it would not become very cold and become uninhabitable by the living. However, the growing concentration of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere has also resulted to University of Toronto,, the current problem on global warming. Essay Will Argue Glenalmond! As such, global warming can be attributed to the growing concentration of courses of Toronto, New College greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and the activities that increase this concentration are factors to this will Glenalmond College, global warming. Human activities and innovations are said to have artificially increased the concentration of the courses work, greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide and methane in the earth’s atmosphere which results to greenhouse gases to build up and prevent additional thermal radiation from leaving the Earth, thereby trapping excess heat. Man made activities that cause global warming include the operation of coal-burning power plants and use of automobiles which become sources of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone; the use of air-conditioning units and refrigerators that utilize chlorofluorocarbons; deforestation that creates more heat and increases the review magazine Caxton College, amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere as trees play a significant role in removing carbon dioxide from the air; increased cattle production such that methane gas is released from animal waste; and the use of fossil fuels as the burning of fossil fuels is considered the largest source of New College emissions of carbon dioxide, one of the greenhouse gases that allows radiative forcing and contributes to global warming. Destructive Effects of Caxton Global Warming. Global warming has destructive effect on the environment.

The increasing global temperature alters the earth’s natural order. Global warming, for work, example, has been linked with intensifying hurricanes. A Massachusetts Institute of template writing Saint The Baptist High Technology (MIT) research suggests that hurricanes will only courses University of Toronto,, get more powerful and last longer as global warming increases ocean temperatures (“Stronger Hurricanes”). This correlates to the idea that more human lives and properties are at review magazine Caxton stake given the devastating impacts of work of Toronto, New College hurricanes. The growing intensity of the hurricanes that hit United States in 2005 for example resulted to a loss of esl argumentative essay a number of properties and lives. Similar occurrence in other parts of the world is likely to happen when global warming is not mitigated. Global warming has destructive effects on wildlife. Global warming brings about the warming of the seas which in turn affects sea wildlife.

In 1998, for example, the combination of El Nino and global warming triggered the largest mass die-off of tropical corals destroying in. some areas more than 70 percent of the reef-building creatures (Warrick AO3). This threatens the oceans’ coral reefs that serve as home to the most productive and diverse ecosystems on earth. Coral reefs provide food and shelter for at least one million species of animals including fishes, plants and microbes, and bring humans food, medicines and tourism income (Warrick AO3) Global warming affects economies. Global warming can lead to courses work University of Toronto, New College, several effects on agriculture and couseworks West Buckland School hence, affect the livelihood of farmers. The effects of courses work University New College global warming on agriculture, for essay MacDuffie School, example, are the emergence of new variations in pest and University disease problems; damaged crops; and an increased need for ventilation in animal accommodation (“Global Warming Fears for,” 43). The consequential rise in water temperature and melting of glaciers and icecaps due to global warming can also accelerate the rate of sea level rise (Chanton).

Too much rise in sea level will affect the densely populated coastal plains by an informational article Domus making the areas uninhabitable, creating refugee problems and hampering economic activities. The occurrence of these situations among coastal cities in the world will create potential impacts on world trade and economy. Global warming also has effects on health. Of Toronto, New College! Expanded tropical weather is couseworks West Buckland likely to work of Toronto, New College, increase tropical diseases. As such, global warming will accelerate the spread of many diseases and increase instances of mosquito-borne diseases that include malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, and viral encephalitis (Johansen 210). Couseworks West Buckland! The warming of air temperature also increases the concentration of ozone at ground level which can bring about serious problems for those with asthma and other lung diseases (“Ozone (O3),”). International Cooperation can Effectively Mitigate Global Warming. It has been established that man’s activities and University of Toronto, innovations have primarily increased and worsened global warming. As such, man should also be responsible in Caxton College mitigating this problem. While this view may be shared by several countries which already accounts for its citizens to. mitigate the release of greenhouse gases, the urgency in solving the global warming crisis is not acknowledged by some countries.

This situation poses a problem in University of Toronto, that regardless of efforts by essay other countries to curb global warming, the continued practice of other countries in work University of Toronto, engaging in greenhouse gas- emitting activities will weaken the efforts of concerned countries. Saint John High! An international cooperation is therefore necessary to so as to effectively mitigate global warming. International cooperation can initiate a global trend that will minimize the use of global warming substances. International cooperation can help mitigate global warming by courses work University of Toronto, New College initiating a new global trend in technology that will minimize the use of global warming substances. Article Domus Academy! When the use of greenhouse gases are globally controlled and reduced, new technologies that will not utilize greenhouse gases will become available. Trade of global warming substances will thus be reduced, and their production will eventually decline, bringing to an end their production preventing the release of more substances that contribute to global warming. International cooperation can compel other countries to take action against global warming.

When countries cooperate to solve the global warming crisis, they would be able powerful enough to criticize and discipline dissenting countries that fail or refuse to do their part in addressing global warming. Courses Work University Of Toronto,! An international cooperation can lead to international agreement that can provide a legal framework to sanction countries that fail to comply with anti global warming measures. Countries may sanction uncooperative countries by refusing to engage in international trade with them. With countries cooperating to achieve a common goal in essay will Glenalmond combating global warming, the ill effects of global warming may be alleviated. International cooperation can initiate awareness on global warming. When countries, through their leaders, acknowledge their crucial responsibilities to the issue of global warming, they effect great change in courses work University the international community. International cooperation can help in Saint School disseminating to courses of Toronto,, the people the dangerous implications of global warming and thus strengthen international responses to the risks of global warming. Why Kyoto Protocol can Embody an Ideal International Effort to Mitigate Global Warming. The Kyoto Protocol embodies an international effort to effectively prevent and mitigate the disastrous effects of the warming of the Earth’s surface. It is an international agreement made under the template for essay writing John High, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) through which nations that ratify it are bound to work of Toronto, New College, reduce their emission of essay MacDuffie carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases. The Kyoto Protocol expedites the implementation of anti- global warming measures.

The Kyoto Protocol will help in addressing global warming more efficiently and more effectively because it expedites the implementation of anti- global warming measures. The Protocol calls for urgent action by countries and concerned industries by compelling companies of almost every sector to engage in engage in massive retrofitting of equipment to courses University, put in place technology that emits less and/or is more energy efficient, thereby reducing emissions (“Implementing the Kyoto” 66). The Kyoto Protocol necessitates the english review magazine Caxton, compliance of industries and countries. It will help in addressing global warming more efficiently and more effectively because it necessitates the compliance of industries and countries to mitigate the courses work, emission of greenhouse gases. For example, countries that failed to ratify the Protocol face economic sanctions by other countries. This is write article Domus exemplified in the case of United States which has consistently argued against doing anything for the Protocol.

Following the failure of the US to sign the Protocol, countries such as China has charged US as irresponsible for being a major producer of carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases but care little to curb global warming (Kluger 30). Courses Work New College! The European Union has also threatened to apply economic sanction to template Diocesan, the United States because the latter’s unwillingness to cooperate with other countries to mitigate global warming. The Kyoto Protocol will help in addressing global warming more efficiently and more effectively because it initiates global cooperation. The Kyoto Protocol has not only initiated. environmental awareness from countries but from many industries as well. The global effort to New College, mitigate global warming has also effected environmental awareness from many industries which in itself, significant in the effort to mitigate global warming. For example, shortly after Kyoto was signed, British Petroleum CEO Sir John Browne set his company’s.

goal of cutting CO2 output 10% below its 1990 levels; four years. later, he is halfway there (Kluger 30). International Cooperation in addressing the global warming thus influence many stakeholders who are as willing to help curb global warming. It has been established that global warming is a looming global threat that calls for on writing, action and mitigation. Without a unified effort to address the problem, global warming cannot be easily and of Toronto, New College effectively mitigated. Essay! Thus, international cooperation is necessary because it initiates a global trend that will minimize the use of courses work University of Toronto, global warming substances; compels other countries to take action against global warming; and initiates awareness on global warming. The unified international effort to address the situation is best embodied by king essay on writing The University the Kyoto Protocol through which global warming can be effectively mitigated because it expedites the implementation of anti- global warming measures; necessitates the compliance of industries and countries, and initiates global cooperation to mitigate global warming. Chanton, Jeffrey. “Global Warming Rising Oceans.” Actionbioscience.Org. Oct. Courses New College! 2002. 11 Dec.

2006 http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/chanton.html. “Global Warming Fears for Crops.” The Journal 30 Nov. 2005: 43. Couseworks West School! Questia. 11 Dec. 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=od=5011583331. “Implementing the Kyoto Protocol. (Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change).” Issues in Science and Technology 22 Mar. 1998: 66. ELibrary Academic.

11 Dec. 2006. Johansen, Bruce. The Global Warming Desk Reference. Westport, CT: Greenwood P, 2002. New College! 11 Dec. 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=od=101544284. Kluger, Jeffrey. “Special Report/Global Warming: a Climate of Despair Bush’s Hard Line Has Stunned Environmentalists, But with Concerted Action–and New Technologies–It’s Not Too Late to Cool Down the Greenhouse.” Time 9 Apr. 2001: 30.

ELibrary Academic. 11 Dec. Stephen Essay! 2006.