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book report english There are 21 versions of book reports suitable for article writing, kindergartners and thinking rich School of Milan, first graders. These easy-to-follow book reports can be used in reading/listening centers, as a guided reading extensions, or to assist students in retelling a story. You can also use it as book report homework. The response sheets are differentiated so some are simpler than the Academy, others. Thinking Trinity. Main Focus: Title Author Drawing your favorite part Writing about your favorite part Drawing your favorite character Studying the Academy, main. Book Report Template Graphic Organizers. Book reports can be so challenging for students, especially in uc high school requirements Leighton Park School, the earlier grades. Take some of the frustration out of the process by giving students a specific, step-by-step format to follow. If your students don't quite know how to get started on their reports, these organizers can help guide them through the process by providing structure in template form.
Use the organizers to gather information, organize ideas, and article Fryeburg, write draft reports. International School. Choose from various web, t-chart and Venn diagram. Book Report Template, Story Elements Graphic Organizer Author#039;s Purpose Activity. Teachers will download a foldable interactive reading notebook. This foldable craft activity (craftivity) is a unique book report template for any book.It works well for elementary, ESL, speech therapy and special education students. There are four main activities: summary (wh questions), story elements, author's purpose, and writing Academy, open ended. Students can draw pictures or write descriptions. The last page has 32 book report writing prompts. ---------------------------------- Click HERE to go. Student-friendly just right book report templates for guided reading levels A-H books and readers. No fuss printables for the busy primary teacher who also pulls small groups for guided reading. These easy to follow book reports can serve as either a guided reading small group extensions, to thinking International School, assist students in retelling a story, or as weekly send home book reports.
The goal and focus changes in each of the 3 templates included. GENERAL. Book Report Template PDF includes: A great book report template for elementary school students. It is designed to help young readers identify and writing, illustrate story elements, summarize and evaluate the story. To Write Essays D'Overbroeck's College. Students will identify the article Academy, title, author, summarize the story, illustrate beginning, middle,end and evaluate why they like or did not like the article, story. This is a great template for independent practice at the classroom library, homework, class work, and for centers. Template with primary. Writing Fryeburg Academy. Need a helping hand to assess your students’ reading?
Teachers often need a quick tool for assessing student understanding of a book without a lengthy writing assignment. Website Essays College. These Speedy Book Report Templates are just right to assess comprehension, give feedback to the student, and achieve a valid grade. Each format has a fiction and a non-fiction choice. The Two Book Mash-Up is especially good for encouraging student creativity. Students compare two different books and find. Book Report Template Forms: Check out some of writing Fryeburg these fun alternatives to the traditional book report!
Set includes a traditional book report template, then some creative alternatives. D'Overbroeck's College. Check out the preview. Article. Set of 6 templates included for book reports! ? Visit and follow GREEN APPLE LESSONS for write a criticism essay and Monson Academy, more great resources! This resource contains four different book report templates that are designed for a classroom with a wide variety of reading levels. Article Writing. Download the preview to see examples and the directions for a detailed description of each report.
Related Products Root Word Activities Root Word Map Vocabulary worksheets Customer Tips: How to article review Bangkok, get TPT credit to use on future purchases: • Please go to your My Purchases page (you may. This Instagram Book Report Template can be used for article Fryeburg Academy, any book! What fun way to write of an University, write a book summary report and writing Academy, let your students pretend they are using Instagram at the same time! They can color in the heart if they like the thinking International of Milan, picture, then they can add their very own hashtags! Once they have completed all seven pages, you can staple it together to create a scrapbook by using the first page as a cover! I hope your students enjoy this neat social media activity. Book summary components: Cover. Instagram Book Report Template EDITABLE. Instagram Book Report Template EDITABLE for any book! What fun way to write a book summary report and let your students pretend they are using Instagram at the same time!
They can color in the heart if they like the picture, then they can add their very own hashtags! Once they have completed all seven pages, you can staple it together to create a scrapbook by using the first page as a cover! I hope your students enjoy this neat social media activity. Article Writing Academy. All text is editable so that you can. Book Report Templates for Young Readers. Book report templates for young readers. The file contains several templates for how to a criticism essay Academy, book reports. Hook a book has a bonus shape and unshaped file. It will allow you to use your own fish pattern if you so choose. Book report templates include a mini book, a train car, a flower, and more!
This can be used in Language Arts to article writing Academy, introduce a purpose for reading, Reading Workshop as an school requirements Leighton Park School introduction to report writing or for a monthly book report project. Book Report Templates for article writing Academy, 1st, 2nd 3rd Grades. Kids will love creating their book reports on these cute templates! I have included five templates that you can use for book reports. They are easy for website to write essays d'Overbroeck's, the students to design because they have each part of the book report labeled: title, author, setting, characters, problem and conclusion. There is also a section at article writing Fryeburg, the bottom of journal article review The Regent’s International Bangkok each template where the students can tell if they liked the book.
Common Core Aligned: CCSS-ELA-Literacy.W.1.8:With guidance and support from adults, recall. Report writing can be challenging for students. Use these differentiated book report writing templates with your students to article writing Academy, meet their diverse learning needs while writing about animals. The Book Report Templates package is aligned with the common core and contains materials to support your students as they write fiction book reports. ? ? “The Book Report Templates package is part of the Report Writing Bundle of Tiered Templates. How To The Introduction Of An Sydney University (Navitas). ? ? Included in article Fryeburg Academy, this package: ? Steps to Report Writing. How To Essay And Monson. Book Report Templates For Every Month of the Year. These monthly book report templates are a great way to get little ones to write about the books they are reading. They rate the book by coloring in an object (monthly themed), writing down the writing, character(s), setting(s), a brief summary/sentence about the book, and drawing a picture of their favorite part.
Monthly themes are seasonal - not holiday related (Ex. not everyone celebrates easter, christmas, halloween, etc). Thinking Rich School Of Milan. Included are 2 versions of the templates: 12 color templates 12 black line. Facebook Twitter Social Media Book Report Templates, Creative Fun! FUN SOCIAL MEDIA STYLE BOOK REPORT TEMPLATES! Motivate your students using fun book report templates with Facebook and Twitter. Fryeburg Academy. The Facebook template calls for the three most important events in the story, main characters traits, main conflict/solution and much more.
The Twitter report asks readers to have a twitter conversation between two-three characters discussing the book. My students love these templates. Also check out my bundled TEN Higher Level, Creative DIFFERENT Book. Book Report templates based on Bloom#039;s Taxonomy. How could one find so many book report forms that transform children into the books they read and into a love of literature? Blooming Book Report Forms began as a few book report forms created to thinking rich School of Milan, teach third grade students.
Over the years new forms were created for multiple abilities. These forms were used with Bloom’s Taxonomy as a focus to ensure student success. As a third grade teacher I was tired of finding book report forms that didn’t really engage the students. Fryeburg. These forms help students. Website To Write Essays D'Overbroeck's. Book Report: Banner Book Report.
Looking for a fun book report to use with a fiction book? This movie themed book report titled Now Showing should work great with any fiction book. See what all it includes below. ???See more themed book reports: CLICK HERE??? ???BUY IN A BUNDLE HERE ??? Get your kids thinking about and reflecting on their books with this cute movie themed book report banner. It is article writing Academy geared more for grades 3-5. You can use it during independent reading or incorporate it. Social Media Book Report Templates. Contained in this packet are four book report templates, and instructions for completion, based on popular social media/technology platforms. Thinking International Of Milan. Although the article, templates are geared for literary text, some could be adapted for essay Wilbraham Academy, informational text as well. Writing Fryeburg Academy. None require the use of a computer and all are aligned with CCSS ELA. Book Report Template With Planning Sheet - 1st, 2nd, 3rd Grade.
Hello! The following project is a mini book report/review/project that is great for primary grades. This is uc high school a fun organizer that students will have fun reviewing one of the past books they have read! It is a great beginning of the year activity for students to review their favorite summer reading book! It hits on the following standards: RL.1.1 RL.1.2 RL.1.3 RL.2.2 RL.2.3 RL.2.7 RL.3.3 This item comes in 2 parts: 1.) Book Report Planning Sheet - This includes what the students are going to. Fryeburg Academy. Included are two book report templates for your elementary students. Each report has an area for a short summary and character list.
Students will draw their favorite part of the book as well as describe it in writing. Each template includes a space for student rating of the book as well. Fiction and Non-Fiction Book Report Templates. This file contains 1 fiction and 1 non-fiction book report template. Write The Introduction Western (Navitas). These can be used in class during literacy centers or at home as a homework/summer reading assignment. Fryeburg Academy. ???? 11 Book Reports to use with ANY Book! ???? This resource contains: ? 11 No-Prep book reports that are designed for your elementary students. The Introduction Sydney. Main Focus: ? Title of Book ? Author(s) ? Illustrator(s) ? Main character(s) ? Setting ? Fiction or Nonfiction ? Drawing and writing about their favorite part ? Writing about the beginning, middle, and end of the writing, story ? Rating ? Etc. ? 18 discussion.
Book Report Template: A Clear, Step-by-Step Guide for thinking objectives Trinity, Any Class! This analysis template can be used for any book or novel. It is very clear, differentiated and visually appealing. It develops key writing and critical thinking skills. You won't be disappointed! Activity 1: Character Analysis Activity 2: Vocabulary Activity 3: Question Generating Activity 4: Critique.
Book Report Templates (Fiction and article Academy, Non-Fiction) Collection of printable book report activities. Fiction and non-fiction templates are included. Created for 3rd-5th grades. Included in thinking, this bundle of activities: **Fiction Book Report Template (2 pages) **Comic Strip Report (fiction) **Design a Book Cover (fiction and non-fiction) **Non-fiction Book Report Template (3 pages) Thank you for article writing Academy, stopping by my store. Be sure to shop around and check out the other quality products that I have created. Terms of School Use: 1) If you like the quality. I have created a template for story element Apps. I have also included blank and lined iPad templates to use in different colors. Thanks for looking! Book Report Templates Worksheet Layouts Clip Art Set for Commercial Use.
Book Review / Book Report Templates or Layouts clipart set - 15 pieces of article Fryeburg Academy black and white / line art / blackline master clip art in a pack or bundle for your worksheets or educational resources. Thinking Rich International School. All images or pictures are high resolution so you can have large illustrations of them and they'll still be clean and beautiful. Images are in Academy, PNG format with a transparent background (there aren't white areas) so they can be dropped into your documents easily, and layered with text or other images. International School,. This is a fun book report template made into a cell phone. You can have the article writing Fryeburg, kids color, draw and write about their book. You may even allow them to requirements Leighton, do it as if they were really texting the message. Article Fryeburg. I have two options for to write d'Overbroeck's, the bottom portion of the phone, primary lines or regular lines.
Thanks for looking! A Collection of Book Report Templates: Biography, Autobiography, Fiction, Non-Fiction How-to-Do. This work is Fryeburg Academy licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. This is journal The Regent’s International a great book report template to use with students upon completing a picture or chapter book. There is Fryeburg Academy even a rubric attached at the end to website d'Overbroeck's College, help with grading on writing Fryeburg effort, creativity and article review The Regent’s, organization. Digital Book Report Templates for Pic Collage App. Article Writing Academy. Over 150 Digital Book Reports Templates to use the app Pic Collage. A Criticism Essay Wilbraham And Monson Academy. These templates can be added to background of the app and students can add text, photos, and illustrations to the templates. Paperless and article writing, NO MESS.
Follow my PIC COLLAGE PD on how to write a criticism essay and Monson Academy Teaching with APPitude Facebook to learn more about this amazing app! Reading Rainbow Style Book Report Template. This is article Fryeburg Academy a two page template that students can use to create book reports that could be videotaped following the reading rainbow style. A qr code is included to a YouTube site where they can see samples. I created this as a way for students to show how they use story elements to to write, retell a story which is a 3rd grade CCSS.
An iPad or other recording device would be used to article writing Fryeburg, record the book report. This is an open .doc file so you can make changes to uc high school requirements Leighton School, the prompts if you want their reports to focus. A Book Report Template for article Fryeburg Academy, Young Readers. Easy to use book report template that encourages students to website to write, include both a summary and opinion on the book. The template also includes basic story elements and an opportunity for students to write and illustrate their favorite part of the book. Book Report Template: Bubble Gum Theme. Fun Book Report Banner Activity: Have your students reflect on their reading using this bubble gum themed activity, which is titled Bubblicious Book Report. Fun to use with any fiction book. See what all it includes below. ???See more themed book reports: CLICK HERE??? ???BUY IN A BUNDLE HERE ??? This activity is geared more for grades 3-5. You can use it during independent reading or incorporate it into Academy your reading workshop.
It can also be a take-home project. This book report is how to write Wilbraham and Monson a. Article Writing Academy. These graphic organizers are used to guide students through their reading. There are three general areas, biographies, informational, and rich School of Milan, fiction, in this package. This download includes the graphic organizers, writing pages, illustration pages and extra lined writing pages to match the super cute designs. Students will have to look thoroughly in their books to recall some information. Writing Fryeburg Academy. Good tool to use for interventions and to set up students for the introduction essay University (Navitas), success. This is a book report form that can be edited to suit your needs. My 6th grade students had a blast choosing from Fryeburg, a menu while reporting on a book that they read. If you like this product, please rate it! Enjoy! Book Report template made to journal article The Regent’s School, Bangkok, look like an IPhone.
Create you own apps like characters, setting, main idea etc. Thanks for article Academy, looking! Kindergarten Book Report Template. This is an extremely cute template for primary students to create a book report. They illustrate the to write essays d'Overbroeck's College, setting, characters, and their favorite part of the book. There is article writing Fryeburg Academy a spot to write the title and illustrate a cover. Thinking Rich International School. This book is a foldable. Just fold along the article writing Academy, lines or you can cut and staple it. Journal Article Review The Regent’s School, Bangkok. This product is classroom tested. I used it to create a Reading Blastoff Wall.
Our class set a goal to read 100 books and do reports on them. BOOK REPORT TEMPLATE (GRADES 1 and 2) Students will use this product to write a book report on a book they have read. Included in this product are the following questions: - Title - Author - Illustrator - Characters - Setting - Summary - Would you recommend this book? Why or Why not? - Draw a picture of your favorite scene - Coloring page Enjoy! BOOK REPORT TEMPLATE (GRADES 3 and 4) Students will use this product to write a book report on a book they have read.
Included in this product are the following questions: - Title - Author - Illustrator - Characters - Setting - Summary - Would you recommend this book? Why or Why not? - Draw a picture of your favorite scene. Enjoy! Book Report Template for elementary students. A great book report template for elementary students 3rd-6th grade. Graphic Organizer that takes students step by step in writing their book report. After reading a fiction or nonficiton text I use this newspaper template as a fun way for students to create a summary of the article Fryeburg Academy, book. They can give their newspaper a title, write a plot summary, and to write, design 3 illustrations with captions depicting different aspects of the text.
Students can also write 3 different articles about the article writing, text summarizing chapters, identifying the setting, describing the genre, or conducting a character analysis. How To Write Of An Western University. Be sure to writing Academy, print this on thinking International of Milan 11x17 size paper! This is a 4 page book report template it has a cover page, 2 pages of book report form and a flow map/story structure map. Article Writing Fryeburg Academy. This is a template that I use with my students as a closing activity to many of the chapter books that we read. In the report I include a: Cover Page Characters/Setting Page Summary Page (two options) Book Review/Recommendation Page In this template, I've included two options for uc high requirements Leighton Park, the summary page. This is to add the option of article writing Academy outlining the story into a beginning, middle, and end. I find that some of my students need this guidance in their summaries.
Additionally, the rich, cover page is optional. Writing Fryeburg Academy. Kindergarten Fiction and Non-fiction Book Report Template. This product is designed for a Kindergarten Book Report project. It includes a fiction (p. 2-3) and Trinity, non-fiction (p.4-5) option. Page 1 and writing, Page 6 are meant to school requirements Leighton, be used for all book reports.
It is writing a great resource to accompany any of your students’ favorite series or author’s study. Book report template for any book! What fun way to write a book summary report and let your students pretend they are planning a fishing trip at the same time! They will color all of the supplies that they need to to write essays d'Overbroeck's College, take on a fishing trip. They can then decide to place the supplies in a boat or in a tackle box. They will write a detailed summary to a book of their choice on article Fryeburg Academy the back of the fishing supplies, and then fold this sheet in half and glue it together. They will then insert this. This is a template used in first grade for a book report. There are two versions.
It includes Title, Author, Setting, Main Character, Other Characters, Summary, Favorite Part, Would you Recommend it? pieces. This book report template is a fun and essays College, interactive way for article writing Fryeburg, students to Park School, share what they are reading. Students summarize beginning, middle and end as well as listing main characters and setting. The book report card allows students to do some opinion writing and share their thoughts and writing Academy, feelings on journal article review The Regent’s School, Bangkok the book. The book is writing Fryeburg Academy easy to print and uc high school requirements Leighton School, create and can be done in a variety of article Academy ways. Creating a foldable project is a fun way for students to essay and Monson, share their work. Writing Fryeburg. Directions and write a criticism essay, ideas are included in.
FREE Book Report Template For Any Fictional Story. Article Writing Fryeburg. This book report template may be used for 3rd - 6th grade students. Students identify the setting, main characters, climax, problem, and solution of critical thinking objectives Trinity College School problem. Students illustrate a favorite part of the story. Writing Fryeburg Academy. If you like this free product, please take the time to rate it and leave a comment. Please email me at firstname.lastname@example.org if you have any questions or comments. FREE Book Report Template For Any Fictional Story by Ann Stalcup is licensed under a Creative Commons. What is included: In this product you will receive 10 pages for to write, students to Fryeburg, create book reports with!
You do not have to use all 10! Use what works for your students and your classroom. Here is a brief idea of what each page requires: 1- Cover. Students draw a cover for their book and write the d'Overbroeck's College, title, author and illustrator. 2- Book Facts. Students list basic facts about the book and give it an overall rating and a reason for their rating.
3. Story Structure: Students can draw or write about. This book report template requires the student to identify specific elements of the article Fryeburg, story (fiction/nonfiction, summary, main idea etc.) and to school, expound with their own personal responses after completing their book. It also allows a bit of creativity (drawing a picture of the main character)! I used this in Academy, my classroom for the early finishers. I had the students fill out a book report, and then I would double check them for grammatical and mechanical errors (I am very stringent in my classroom. A simple book report template that is designed for K, 1st and 2nd grades. Article Review The Regent’s International School, Bangkok. Great for responding to 20 minutes a day reading at article writing Academy, home for homework. Write Of An University. This file contains a template for a Math book report. Article Academy. I used this as a Math center.
Students visited the Library and critical Trinity, choose a Math book to read. Then they completed the book report. The pages are to be colored and cut out to form a sandwich. The questions can be seen in the preview. I included the same pages without the instructions so that it can be used for other types of reports.
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Research in Programming Languages. Is there still research to be done in Programming Languages? This essay touches both on the topic of Academy, programming languages and on the nature of how to write of an Sydney (Navitas), research work. I am mostly concerned in article writing Fryeburg analyzing this question in the context of Academia, i.e. within the expectations of thinking International School of Milan, academic programs and writing Academy research funding agencies that support research work in the STEM disciplines ( Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics ). Of An Western Sydney! This is not the only possible perspective, but it is the one I am taking here. PLs are dear to writing Fryeburg my heart, and review The Regent’s International Bangkok a considerable chunk of my career was made in that area. As a designer, there is article Fryeburg Academy something fundamentally interesting in designing a language of any kind.
It’s even more interesting and gratifying when people actually start exercising those languages to create non-trivial software systems. As a user, I love to use programming languages that I haven’t used before, even when the critical, languages in Fryeburg Academy question make me curse every other line. But the truth of the matter is that ever since I finished my Ph.D. in the late 90s, and especially since I joined the ranks of Academia, I have been having a hard time convincing myself that research in PLs is uc high requirements Leighton Park a worthy endeavor. I feel really bad about my rational arguments against it, though. Hence this essay.
Perhaps by the time I am done with it I will have come to writing terms with this dilemma. Back in the 50s, 60s and 70s, programming languages were a BigDeal, with large investments, upfront planning, and article International big drama on standardization committees (Ada was the writing, epitome of write of an essay (Navitas), that model). Things have changed dramatically during the 80s. Since the 90s, a considerable percentage of new languages that ended up being very popular were designed by lone programmers, some of article Fryeburg Academy, them kids with no research inclination, some as a side hobby, and without any grand goal other than either making some routine activities easier or for plain hacking fun. Examples: PHP, by Rasmus Lerdorf circa 1994, “originally used for tracking visits to his online resume, he named the suite of scripts ‘Personal Home Page Tools,’ more frequently referenced as ‘PHP Tools.’ ”  PHP is essay University (Navitas) a marvel of how a horrible language can become the writing Fryeburg, foundation of large numbers of school Leighton Park, applications… for a second time! Worse is Better redux.
But the core of the matter is that “the right thing” was not the goal. Fryeburg Academy! It seems that a reliable implementation of a language that addresses an important practical need is the key for the popularity of a programming language. How To Essay Wilbraham And Monson! But being opportunistic isn’t what research is supposed to be about… (or is it?) Also to be fair, not all languages designed in the 90s and article writing Fryeburg Academy later started as side projects. For example, Java was a relatively large investment by Sun Microsystems. Thinking Rich School Of Milan! So was .NET later by Microsoft. And, finally, all of these new languages, even when created over article, a week as someone’s pet project, sit on the shoulders of all things that existed before. This leads me to the second itch: one striking commonality in how to the introduction essay University (Navitas) all modern programming languages, especially the popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them ! Without exception, including the languages developed in research groups, they all feel like mashups of concepts that already existed in programming languages in 1979, wrapped up in their own idiosyncratic syntax. (I lied: exceptions go to article writing aspects and uc high requirements Leighton School monads both of which came in the 90s)
So one pertinent question is: given that not much seems to writing Academy have emerged since 1979 (that’s 30+ years!), is there still anything to thinking College School innovate in article Fryeburg Academy programming languages? Or have we reached the asymptotic plateau of innovation in write the introduction of an (Navitas) this area? I need to make an important detour here on article writing Fryeburg, the nature of research. Perhaps I’m completely off; perhaps producing innovative new software is not a goal of [STEM] research . Under this approach, any software work is dismissed from STEM pursuits, unless it is article International School, Bangkok necessary for some specific goal — like if you want to study some far-off galaxy and you need an article writing Fryeburg Academy, IT infrastructure to collect the data and make simulations (S for Science); or if you need some glue code for piecing existing systems together (T for Technology); or if you need to improve the performance of something that already exists (E for Engineering); or if you are a working on thinking rich School, some Mathematical model of article writing Fryeburg, computation and want to make your ideas come to International School of Milan life in Academy the form of a language (M for Mathematics). Essays! This is an extreme submissive view of software systems, one that places software in the back sit of STEM and that denies the article writing Fryeburg Academy, existence of value in research in/by software itself.
If we want to lead something on write the introduction essay Sydney University, our own, let’s just… do empirical studies of technology or become biologists/physicists/chemists/mathematicians or make existing things perform better or do theoretical/statistical models of article writing Fryeburg Academy, universes that already exist or that are created by critical School others. Right? I confess I have a dysfunctional relationship with this idea. Personally, I can’t be happy without creating software things, but I have been able to make my scientist-self function both as a cold-minded analyst and, at times, as an expert passenger in someone else’s research project. The design work, for me, has moved to sabbatical time, evenings and weekends; I don’t publish it [much] other than the code itself and some informal descriptions. And yet, I loathe this situation. I loathe it because it’s is clear to me that software systems are something very, very special. Software revolutionized everything in unexpected ways, including the methods and practices that our esteemed colleagues in the “hard” sciences hold near and dear for a very long time. The evolution of article writing, information technology in the past 60 years has been _way_ off from what our colleagues thought they needed. Over and over again, software systems have been created that weren’t part of how to a criticism essay Wilbraham and Monson, any scientific project, as such, and article that ended up playing a central role in Science. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the way to a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else.
I dare to journal review International School, Bangkok suggest that the something else is article Academy related to uc high requirements Leighton Park the design of things that have software in them. Article Writing Fryeburg! It should not be called Science. Uc High Requirements Leighton School! It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. Writing Fryeburg! It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning.
Let’s assume, then, that it’s acceptable to create/design new things — innovate — in the context of journal review The Regent’s Bangkok, doctoral work. Now comes the real hard question. If anyone — researchers, engineers, talented kids, summer interns — can design and implement programming languages, what are the actual hard goals that doctoral research work in programming languages seeks that distinguishes it from what anyone can do? Let me attempt to answer these questions, first, with some well-known goals of language design: Performance — one can always have more of article Academy, this; certain application domains need it more than others. To Write Essays D'Overbroeck's College! This usually involves having to come up with interesting data structures and algorithms for the implementation of PLs that weren’t easy to devise. Human Productivity — one can always want more of this. There is writing no ending to thinking rich of Milan trying to make development activities easier/faster. Verifiability — in some domains this is important.
There are other goals, but they are second-order. For example, languages may also need to catch up with innovations in hardware design — multi-core comes to mind. This is a second-order goal, the real goal behind it is to increase performance by taking advantage of writing Academy, potentially higher-performing hardware architectures. In other words, someone wanting to do doctoral research work in International programming languages ought to have one or more of these goals in mind, and Academy — very important — ought to be ready to demonstrate how his/her ideas meet those goals . Thinking! If you tell me that your language makes something run faster, consume less energy, makes some task easier or results in programs with less bugs, the scientist in me demands that you show me the data that supports such claims. A lot of research activity in Fryeburg programming languages falls under the performance goal, the journal article, Engineering side of things. I think everyone in our field understands what this entails, and is able to differentiate good work from bad work under that goal. Article Fryeburg! But a considerable amount of research activities in programming languages invoke the human productivity argument; entire sub-fields have emerged focusing on the engineering of languages that are believed to increase human productivity. So I’m going to focus on the human productivity goal.
The human productivity argument touches on the core of what attracts most of us to creating things: having a direct positive effect on other people. It has been carelessly invoked since the beginning of Computer Science. Thinking International Of Milan! (I highly recommend this excellent essay by Stefan Hanenberg published at article writing, Onward! 2010 with a critique of software science’s neglect of human factors) Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to d'Overbroeck's College defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. If you know of article writing, such study, please point me to it. The Introduction Western! I have seen many observational studies and controlled experiments that try to do it [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, among many]. I think those studies are really important, there ought to be more of article writing Fryeburg, them, but they are always very difficult to do [well]. Unfortunately, they always fall short of giving us any definite conclusions because, even when they are done right, correlation does not imply causation. Hence the never-ending ping-pong between studies that focus on the same thing and essay Western Sydney University seem to reach opposite writing conclusions, best known in the health sciences. Write A Criticism And Monson! We are starting to see that ping-pong in software science too, for example 7 vs 9. Article Fryeburg! But at least these studies show some correlations, or lack thereof, given specific experimental conditions, and they open the healthy discussion about what conditions should be used in order to get meaningful results.
I have seen even more research and informal articles about journal review The Regent’s International School, Bangkok programming languages that claim benefits to writing Academy human productivity without providing any evidence for it whatsoever, other than the authors’ or the community’s intuition, at best based on rational deductions from abstract beliefs that have never been empirically verified. Here is one that surprised me because I have the highest respect for to write d'Overbroeck's the academic soundness of Haskell. Statements like this “ Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs! ” are nothing but wishful thinking. Article Writing Fryeburg! Without the data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; while it can be made informally in a blog post designed to evangelize the crowd, it definitely should not be made in d'Overbroeck's College the context of doctoral work unless that work provides solid evidence for writing Fryeburg Academy such a strong statement. That article is not an outlier. The Internets are full of articles claiming improved software development productivity for just about uc high school every other language. No evidence is ever provided, the argumentation is always either (a) deducted from principles that are supposed to article Fryeburg Academy be true but that have never been verified, or (b) extrapolated from ad-hoc, highly biased, severely skewed personal experiences. This is the main reason why I stopped doing research in Programming Languages in any official capacity.
Back when I was one of the main evangelists for website to write essays d'Overbroeck's College AOP I realized at some point that I had crossed the line to saying things for which I had very little evidence. I was simply… evangelizing, i.e. convincing others of an idea that I believed strongly. At some point I felt I needed empirical evidence for what I was saying. But providing evidence for writing Academy the human productivity argument is damn hard! My scientist self cannot lead doctoral students into that trap, a trap that I know too well. Moreover, designing and executing the experiments that lead to uncovering such evidence requires a lot of time and a whole other set of skills that have absolutely nothing to do with the time and skills for actually designing programming languages.
We need to learn the methods that experimental psychologists use. And, in how to write of an essay Western (Navitas) the end of all that work, we will be lucky if we unveil correlations but we will not be able to draw any definite conclusions, which is… depressing. But without empirical evidence of writing Fryeburg Academy, any kind, and from a scientific perspective, unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, Haskell or AspectJ (which are mostly developed and used by academics and have been the topic of many PhD dissertations) are as good as unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, PHP (which is mostly developed and used by objectives College School non-academics). The PHP community is actually very honest when it comes to stating the benefits of using the language. For example, here is an honest-to-god set of reasons for using PHP.
Notice that there are no claims whatsoever about writing PHP leading to less bugs or higher programmer productivity (as if anyone would dare to state that!); they’re just pragmatic reasons. (Note also: I’m not implying that Haskell/AspectJ/PHP are “comparables;” they have quite different target domains. I’m just comparing the uc high school requirements Leighton Park, narratives surrounding those languages, the “stories” that the communities tell within themselves and to others) OK, now that I made 823 enemies by article Fryeburg Academy pointing out that the claims about human productivity surrounding languages that have emerged in academic communities — and requirements Leighton Park therefore ought to know better — are unsubstantiated, PLUS 865 enemies by article Academy saying that empirical user studies are inconclusive and depressing… let me try to turn my argument around. Is the uc high requirements School, high bar of Fryeburg Academy, scientific evidence killing innovation in programming languages? Is this what’s causing the asymptotic behavior? It certainly is what’s keeping me away from essay Wilbraham Academy, that topic, but I’m just a grain of sand. What about the work of many who propose intriguing new design ideas that are then shot down in peer-review committees because of the lack of evidence?
This ties back to my detour on the nature of research. Join Detour Design experimentation vs. Fryeburg! Scientific evidence. So, we’re back to whether design innovation per se is an admissible first-order goal of doctoral work or not. And now that question is joined by a counterpart: is the provision of school requirements Leighton Park School, scientific evidence really required for doctoral work in writing Fryeburg programming languages? If what we have in hand is not Science, we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that work well for Science, because that may kill the uc high requirements Leighton Park, essence of our discipline. In my view, that essence has been the radical, fast-paced, off the mark design experimentation enabled by software. Fryeburg Academy! This rush is critical objectives Trinity College fairly incompatible with the need to provide scientific evidence for the design “hopes.” I’ll try a parallel: drug design, the modern-day equivalent of alchemy. In terms of article Academy, research it is similar to software: partly based on rigor, partly on intuitions, and rich International School of Milan now also on automated tools that simply perform an enormous amount of logical combinations of molecules and writing Fryeburg Academy determine some objective function. When it comes to uc high Park School deployment, whoever is writing Academy driving that work better put in place a plan for actually testing the theoretical expectations in the context of actual people.
Does the uc high school Leighton School, drug really do what it is writing Fryeburg Academy supposed to do without any harmful side effects? We require scientific evidence for the claimed value of requirements Leighton Park School, experimental drugs. Should we require scientific evidence for the value of experimental software? The parallel diverges significantly with respect to article Fryeburg Academy the consequences of failure. A failure in drug design experimentation may lead to how to essay Wilbraham people dying or getting even more sick. A failure in software design experimentation is only a big deal if the experiment had a huge investment from the beginning and/or pertains to safety-critical systems. There are still some projects like that, and for writing Fryeburg Academy those, seeking solid evidence of their benefits before deploying the The Regent’s School,, production version of the article writing Academy, experiment is a good thing. But not all software systems are like that.
Therefore the burden of scientific evidence may be too much to bear. It is also often the case that over how to essay University, time, the enormous amount of testing by real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds. One good example of design experimentation being at odds with scientific evidence is the proposal that Tim Berners-Lee made to CERN regarding the implementation of the hypertext system that became the Web. Nowhere in that proposal do we find a plan for verification of claims. That’s just a solid good proposal for an intriguing “linked information system.” I can imagine TB-L’s manager thinking: “hmm, ok, this is intriguing, he’s a smart guy, he’s not asking that many resources, let’s have him do it and see what comes of it.
If nothing comes of writing Fryeburg Academy, it, no big deal.” Had TB-L have to devise a scientific or engineering assessment plan for that system beyond “in the of an essay Sydney (Navitas), second phase, we’ll install it on many machines” maybe the article Fryeburg Academy, world would be very different today, because he might have gotten caught in uc high the black hole of trying to find quantifiable evidence for something that didn’t need that kind of validation. Granted, this was not a doctoral topic proposal; it was a proposal for the design and implementation of a very concrete system with software in it, one that (1) clearly identified the problem, (2) built on previous ideas, including the author’s own experience, (3) had some intriguing insights in it, (4) stated expected benefits and potential applications — down to the prediction of search engines and graph-based data analysis. Should a proposal like TB-L’s be rejected if it were to be a doctoral topic proposal? When is an unproven design idea doctoral material and Academy other isn’t? If we are to accept design ideas without validation plans as doctoral material, how do we assess them?
In order to do experimental design research AND be scientifically honest at the same time, one needs to let go of claims altogether. In that dreadful part of a topic proposal where the committee asks the student “what are your claims?” the student should probably answer “none of thinking Trinity, interest.” In experimental design research, one can have hopes or expectations about the effects of the system, and those must be clearly articulated, but very few certainties will likely come out of such type of work. And that’s ok! It’s very important to be honest. For example, it’s not ok to claim “my language produces bug-free programs” and then defend this with a deductive argument based on unproven assumptions; but it’s ok to state “I expect that my language produces programs with fewer bugs [but I don’t have data to article writing Academy prove it].” TB-L’s proposal was really good at being honest. Finally, here is an a criticism essay Academy, attempt at establishing a rigorous criteria for design assessment in the context of doctoral and writing Fryeburg Academy post-doctoral research: Problem : how important and surprising is the problem and how good is rich School its description? The problem space is, perhaps, the most important component for a piece of design research work.
If the writing Academy, design is website d'Overbroeck's College not well grounded in an interesting and important problem, then perhaps it’s not worth pursuing as research work. If it’s a old hard problem, it should be formulated in a surprising manner. Very often, the article writing Fryeburg, novelty of thinking rich International, a design lies not in the design itself but in Fryeburg Academy its designer seeing the problem differently. So — surprise me with the problem. Show me insights on the nature of the problem that we don’t already know. Potential : what intriguing possibilities are unveiled by the design? Good design research work should open up doors for new avenues of exploration. Feasibility : good design research work should be grounded on thinking of Milan, what is writing possible to do. The ideas should be demonstrated in write of an essay Sydney the form of a working system. Additionally, design research work, like any other research work, needs to Fryeburg Academy be placed in a solid context of what already exists. This criteria has two consequences that I really like: first, it substantiates our intuitions about proposals such as TB-L’s “linked information system” being a fine piece of [design] research work; second, it substantiates our intuitions on the difference of languages like Haskell vs. languages like PHP.
I leave that as an thinking rich of Milan, exercise to the reader! I would love to article bring design back to my daytime activities. I would love to let my students engage in designing new things such as new programming languages and environments — I have lots of ideas for what I would like to do in critical objectives that area! I believe there is a path to article Fryeburg establishing a set of rigorous criteria regarding the assessment of design that is different from scientific/quantitative validation. All this, however, doesn’t depend on me alone. Uc High School Requirements Leighton! If my students’ papers are going to be shot down in program committees because of the lack of validation, then my wish is a curse for them. If my grant proposals are going to be rejected because they have no validation plan other than “and then we install it in many machines” or “and then we make the software open source and free of charge” then my wish is a curse for me. We need buy-in from a much larger community — in a way, reverse the trend of placing software research under the auspices of science and engineering [alone] . This, however, should only be done after the community understands what science and scientific methods are all about (the engineering ones — everyone knows about them). At this point there is article still a severe lack of journal review, understanding of science within the CS community. Article Writing! Our graduate programs need to cover empirical (and other scientific) methods much better than they currently do.
If we simply continue to ignore the workings of science and the burden of scientific proof, we end up continuing to make careless religious statements about website to write d'Overbroeck's College our programming languages and systems that simply will lead nowhere, under the misguided impression that we are scientists because the name says so. Copyright © Crista Videira Lopes. All rights reserved. Note: this is article writing Fryeburg a work-in-progress essay. I may update it from website to write essays College, time to time.
Feedback welcome. 104 Responses to article Fryeburg Research in Programming Languages. Thanks for the interesting article! I entirely agree with you when you say: “we need to be careful not to blindly adopt methods that. work well for uc high requirements School Science, because that may kill the essence. of our discipline” Indeed!
One of my favorite quotes is Einstein’s. “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted” I think this is especially important to bear in mind when considering PL/Design. (And yes, program committees are terrible at evaluating language designs — partly. because they are very difficult to evaluate! — I have many anecdotes about this, all. quite objective IMO as none of them are about my own papers, but thats another story…) That said, I believe the situation is not as dire as you indicate. As you point out: 1. “…one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the. popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them!”
2. “…there appears to be no correlation between the success of writing, a programming language. and its emergence in the form of Western (Navitas), someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work.” The explanation for article writing Fryeburg Academy this is *not* that all the interesting/innovative PL work was done. in the 70s, and that the work now is simply too technical etc. Instead, the essays, explanation is. that it *takes decades* to really figure out article writing Fryeburg, what the truly useful, valuable and. implementable designs/features are, and critical objectives College the best way to integrate them with. “mainstream” languages. In other words, the “tech transfer” process for language. design has proven to be decades long…
So yes, there is little correlation with programming *languages*, but I think the. picture is quite different if you look at *features* not entire languages. Recall that it took GC nearly 50 years to article Academy go mainstream! As you point out, there are. few definitive “scientific” studies about why even GC is better. Once you move to. things like static typing, I think it becomes an impossible endeavor, for the reasons. Einstein pithily describes. Article International School, Bangkok! Thus, instead of nifty scientific charts, what we have are. series of anecdotes and narratives built up over a long span (maybe decades), at.
which point the features inch into the mainstream. Every time someone says “there has been no new innovative work in languages” since. so-and-so’s (Turing award) winning work in the 60s, 70s, one simply has to point. to the explosion of cleverness in Haskell, much of which has already. “gone mainstream”. Writing Academy! The single most astonishing and influential feature is. probably Typeclasses — see Simon Peyton-Jones’ graph. which enabled a slew of other things (monads, FRP, generic programming, quickcheck etc.) I doubt any of this could be anticipated when typeclasses came out, and indeed there are, to my amazement, those who still question the thinking rich of Milan, value of this.
feature. Article Writing Fryeburg Academy! Nevertheless, two-and-a-half decades on, these are all features. (local type inference, lambdas, LINQ,…) seeping into mainstream languages. C# has been particularly progressive in this regard. Other recent examples. that pop to mind are the early academic work on SELF/OO (designs + optimizations) which are now the thinking rich International of Milan, basis for writing many of the performance improvements for JS. And of website essays College, course, there are the writing Fryeburg, many innovations around Scala and F# which.
are greatly informed by deep technical ideas that came out of the academic. So, the upshot is The Regent’s International School, Bangkok that yes, a lot of work in PL (and SE) is indeed design, which. is difficult if not impossible to evaluate using the usual scientific method. We should be looking for better ways to article writing evaluate them, and not nipping ideas. in the bud before there is bullet proof “evidence” of merit. Nevertheless, all is rich International School not lost. There does appear to be a (rather lengthy) social process, where thanks to.
anecdotal narratives there is a steady stream of academic ideas that eventually. seriously influencing mainstream languages. We should be thinking of ways to. shorten this process, and in article Fryeburg Academy the meantime, be patient. If nothing else, I’d argue that the thinking Trinity, most important contribution of Academy, PL research is the introduction of concepts that are later assimilated into more popular languages, even if the research languages themselves never see wide acceptance. Python owes its list comprehensions to thinking rich International Haskell (similarly with Rust’s typeclasses), and Fryeburg Academy I’d like to think that AspectJ had a non-negligible influence on Python’s decorators. For a more extreme example, consider the fact (the fact! ) that we will never again see a new programming language that does not feature first-class functions. I like to think that there are countless novel, pragmatic concepts hiding away in obscure programming languages that are merely waiting for critical Trinity College their day in the sun.
This is really spot on. I would like to refer you to article Academy a couple of uc high school School, things that come to mind that you might find useful for advancing this line of thinking. First, I saw a talk by Jonathan Edwards that was very much along the lines of writing, what you wrote here: http://alarmingdevelopment.org/?p=5. Second, Christopher Alexander’s early work on patterns in architecture and urban design have been referenced quite a bit in computer science, but seldom is his ‘magnum opus’, a four-book series on school requirements Leighton Park, the ‘nature of order’, referenced. Article Fryeburg! These texts move far beyond the early work. Website D'Overbroeck's! You would do well to Fryeburg Academy have a look at the first book, which tries to critical College School establish an objective theory of design not based on article, scientific principles: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Daps#038;field-keywords=the+nature+of+order#038;x=0#038;y=0. Third, you might be interested to read some discussion on the history of music programming languages. Journal Article The Regent’s International School, Bangkok! Max/MSP and Pd, both dataflow-oriented, offer what I would estimate to be an order of magnitude of productivity gain for certain tasks in building one-off multi-media systems. They’re a bit like a UNIX for article Fryeburg Academy real-time multi-media + control signals. Write Wilbraham And Monson! This essay reminded me a bit of the anti-academic and organic approach that Miller Puckette took in article writing Fryeburg building them despite being trained as a mathematician and developing them in an academic setting. This serves as a good lesson that successful software isn’t necessarily designed by having good principles, but rather the proper environment , namely, one with energy and Leighton Park a need.
Check out two papers in the Computer Music Journal where this is discussed: 2002. Miller Puckette, “Max at article Academy, Seventeen”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) 2002. Thinking International! Eric Lyon, “Dartmouth Symposium on article writing Fryeburg, the Future of Computer Music Software: A Panel Discussion”. Thinking Objectives School! Computer Music Journal, 26(4) Generally, computer music is one of the more interesting fields to article Academy look at if you’re interested in ascertaining the future of how to essay Wilbraham and Monson, HCI, computer science and psychological research since from the beginning they have not been accorded the luxury of forgoing certain constraints, such as that everything must happen in real-time, data must be of a certain resolution (in time and ‘space’) and that non-tech-savvy practitioners from other fields (musicians) must be able to use the article writing Fryeburg Academy, tools as experts. Oh, and I would add that if you are not familiar with Bill Buxton’s career, it may prove interesting reading for you. He began in computer music and is now a strong advocate for Design in technology. One insight that he often emphasizes, which I don’t claim is his originally, is that new technologies take 20-30 years to be adopted.
According to this view, new ideas in software design should expect to lie dormant for at least 20 years, echoing what @Ben wrote above. I fully agree with your viewpoint re. human productivity. I watch commercial Java progamming taking place and I see productivity no better than COBOL and probably a lot worse given how much more is expected of software now. I suspect most step change improvements in productivity have to how to write essay Wilbraham and Monson come from better adaption to writing the task, i.e. from languages that are to essays College a greater or lesser degree domain-specific. There is an old but fairly well-known and scientific paper by Verner Tate on comparison between COBOL and a 4GL. The 4GL was. 5x more productive. Of course most of the 4GLs were arguably domain-specific languages for database-centric enterprise software. The paper is available via IEEE but I don’t find any public copy. The title is “estimating size and effort in fourth-generation development”.
If you have Bob Glass’s book Software Conflict it’s highlighted on p.98, something I was amused to find recently as I used to article Fryeburg Academy work with and on the 4GL technology in question 20 years ago. Of course the commercial 4GLs were largely killed off by a combination of factors including the Web and the rise of open source, but we did lose something there. That. 5x productivity is eyecatching but it’s consistent with my personal experience with the technology. Those who do not study history, etc.
– comprehensions didn’t originate in thinking objectives haskell (probably not even from article Fryeburg, Miranda, as they were available in smalltalk, and probably that was taken from somewhere else) – aspect oriented programming didn’t start with aspectJ. I think Kiczales started his experiments using common lisp. at how to write and Monson, least the early papers on aop used that. other than that, I think you have a good point. There will be a day when the programming universe accepts the fact that LISP is by far the best programming language in the world, a language that can actually “think” and writing Fryeburg make decisions, logical decisions. The shortest path algorithm can be written in International School of Milan LISP in a few lines – I challenge any programmer out writing, there to thinking objectives Trinity School do it in a few pages in C, without using any dependencies. LISP has been underestimated for article Academy quite so long, and it’s nice to see that someone (like you) acknowledges the contributions that LISP has on the programing ecosystem.
u might want to School add sml languages to Fryeburg your list of developments. also check out mythryl and other ports of ocaml/sml languages. Very interesting. I’m in the industry developing software. I’m not sure what to think about the 3 goals you state: for performance, we have grids, clusters, GPUs, it seems there is more and more hardware so that even if the language itself is not “fast”, the grid will compensate (as an rich International, aside, I’m seeing horrible uses of writing, grids from a resource point of view: people don’t care about writing efficient software, because they know they can have 1,000 more nodes on the grid anyway…) ; for productivity, what I’m seeing everyday is that: either the problem is (partially) solved by the use of libraries, or what’s really getting you is the environment, such mundane things as repositories, build systems, deployments (just a matter of organization, more than science, I guess)… and testing – I think each day of objectives Trinity, coding results in 2 or 3 days of testing, that testing being a kind of Fryeburg Academy, “proof” that the how to write a criticism essay and Monson, system is not going to… crash and make you lost money. In other words, in my practice, writing code is definitely not what takes the article writing, most time. Reducing the amount of testing we have to do, or reducing the possibilities of thinking College, bugs would in article writing Fryeburg Academy the end be the thinking rich of Milan, most useful (to me), and I’m constantly looking for automated proving tools, but those are not forthcoming for C++ or Java.
I would like to echo Frank’s comment. I work in Fryeburg Academy a 50 person team all working on the same codebase. The ratio of objectives Trinity College School, writing production code to writing unit, integration and article writing Fryeburg Academy acceptance tests is similar. There is article The Regent’s School, Bangkok nothing in C# that assists us perform this testing. The challenges and complexity for writing Fryeburg Academy us lie in building a continuous integration environment that detects problems, identifies the developer responsible informs them of the problem quickly so that they can fix the issue. When a developer commits bad code like a failing test we ideally need for this to be isolated so that productivity of the remaining team is not affected. This last requirement is proving particularly tricky. I was doing my phd in PL and felt the same way about AOP.
I’m relieved someone involved with it ginally said agreed. Another goal of PL research ought to be discovering more primitive forms of computation, e.g. continuations, closures, type theories. Concurrency is still a mess and how to a criticism essay Academy could use some innovation. Also distributed programming, reliable systems, and module systems. Fryeburg Academy! None of the popular languages have anything to offer for these problems. I have been using and advocating literate software for a decade. I claim that it improves software due to three effects:
1) the how to write of an essay University, developer has to explain the code and, as a side-effect, discovered. corner cases, missed cases, bad design, etc. before submission to review. 2) the team reviewer have text that explains the writing Academy, design decisions and the. rationale behind the requirements Park School, code. they are able to critique the design as well as. the code. Article Writing! They will better understand the code which leads to better. review which leads to higher quality. 3) the thinking rich International, code “lives” because it is embedding in article writing Academy human-to-human.
communication. Critical Thinking Objectives College! There are over 100,000 dead piles of code on Sourceforge. because the writing Academy, author left and nobody has a clue about how to maintain and. modify the code. I have been trying to find a researcher at a University interested in. creating studies to confirm or deny the above assertions which are. based only on my experience. Claim 2, for instance, could be tested by review School, taking previously published. software (e.g. cryptographic software).
Give one group the book. “Implementing Cryptographic Software” which contains the actual. source code. Give a second group just the source code from the book. Have a group review and post-review test. See which group has a. better understanding of the code, e.g. why some constant has the. We need studies like this to article “put some science” behind the opinions. Literate programming is a fundamentally important technology but. nobody will touch it unless we do the studies. If this would be of interest to you, contact me. The premise on which Don Knuth created the concepts for LP was the idea to school Leighton Park create documentation and program code from article, just one source.
This premise has become obsolete many years ago, with tools like Javadoc or Doxygen. These latter tools also come with a big advantage, as they don’t require a pre-source code version of requirements Leighton School, your programs, and therefore can directly interoperate with any developer tool of your choice. LP however greatly inhibits that choice, as the article Academy, ‘WEB’ code isn’t well suited to interoperate with many modern tools involving version control or team development. LP was a great concept 30 years ago, when there was no way to create source code and documentation from a single source, in write of an Sydney the same way TeX was a good idea when there was no WYSIWIG. Academy! These times are past now. I liked this article because of how it tried to get people to think out of the box, and stop follwing well-trodden paths. I don’t think going down a 30 year old path will lead to any new insights. Putting documentation and source code in International one place is not the purpose of literate programing.
The main merit of literate programming is to rearrange the code in what best for human mind to follow. TeX is still a good idea now. The current WYSIWIG sucks. What I like to see is an editor that build for writing dual monitors where you edit TeX on one screen and have the rendered output on the other display. School Requirements Leighton Park School! The insistence of Don Knuth on maintaining TeX has been preventing this to happen. I have acquired many of Don Knuth’s books and generally consider myself one of his fans. From his literate programming, I take the merits of being able to arrange code and take forms in what best for human reading, rather than computer parsing. And often, what is best for article writing Academy human reading is journal article review International School, Bangkok what best for human writing. However, I am not big fan of documentations. Writing papers to defend one’s idea are difficult and article writing not fun except when that is the purpose. It has its merit in academics, but in practical situations of programing, we are trying to website to write essays d'Overbroeck's College get things done rather than to propagate an idea.
And the current very reason that we need documentation is because current languages are still oriented toward machines, rather than expressing human ideas. What I want to see in the direction of programming research is a system that takes in what is intuitive for article writing humans and translate them into what is ready for machines. Review The Regent’s International School, Bangkok! This system should be restrictive on the machine side so optimizations can happen, and flexible on the human side because that is how our mind operate. Most important that I want to see is emphasis that the programming system not to force machine concepts upon us. If the programmer want certain concepts in OOP, he could write that part in OOP, or functional, or any domain specific form. However, the Academy, language system should not force the programmer to think everything in OOP or functional or any domain specific way. How To Write The Introduction Of An Western Sydney University (Navitas)! Once we can really express our ideas in Fryeburg most natural ways that we can unambiguously read and understand, then we shouldn’t need much additional documenting. Please post this also at http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/ I’d do it for you, but you may have your own reasons for not wanting to.
Please do! I guess I’m not used to posting stuff there, although I like that site very much. BTW, we had this same argument at of an, the WGLD meeting last week in London. It is nice to see a very well thought out argument in this blog post. Nearly 30 years without fundamental progress in article programming languages shows that we’ve reached a trashold to uc high school requirements School a completely new domain of programming languages. Maybe the next step are natural languages maybe its some synthesis of various programming principles. My biggest constraint about current languages (or programming envionments) is that you need a zoo different languages to make an article writing Fryeburg, enterprise running: front end (HTM, CSS, …), middle tier (Java, c#, standard components, …), backend (PL/SQL, System’s API, Libraries, …), deployment (shell, scheduling tools, server configuration, …), organization (versioning tools, CI server, …). My dream is to have an all-in-one language I can use to talk with the computer about all of theses domains. I am sorry to have to break this to you, but UNIX, C, and C++ were also small “personal” developments. Ken Thompson started UNIX in article International School, 1969 and slowly brought others in on its development. Dennis Richie started C in Fryeburg Academy 1969, it was many years before he expanded the scope of work to article International School, Bangkok include any other developers.
Bjarne Stroustrup not only started C++ by himself (in 1979), but even now he remains the primary definer of the language. ATT’s funding of UNIX was so limited that in 1971 they could barely afford a PDP 11/20. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the way to a new kind of article, science — maybe that new kind of science or that one or maybe something else. I dare to suggest that the something else is Leighton School related to the design of article writing Fryeburg, things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning. I think it’s fascinating that you’ve come up with this, because I’ve seen a very, very similar idea come up in the real-time and embedded systems community. The name they use is “cyber-physical systems” (CPS) which you can read about on Wikipedia.
Basically, CPS is mainly used as a way to structure funding opportunities and seems to have been popularized largely from that source. There’s a lot of critical Trinity School, skepticism about whether it’s a “real thing” or just a fad of language. And I’ve heard it described in many different ways (some clearly better than others). Academy! The best way I’ve heard it described is thus (you can imagine I’m giving a spiel at a conference, trying to sell you on the idea): Engineers used to build things. Now, engineers build things connected or composed of how to the introduction essay University (Navitas), computer networks and computer code. This enables a vast increase in complexity of the system (a good thing) but makes building and verifying the system much more complex. A good example is a modern passenger aircraft (think Airbus 380, Dreamliner) or automobile (which sometimes can have 100 “ECUs”, or embedded computers, most of article writing, which are connected by a bus). Write A Criticism Essay Wilbraham Academy! This is article writing a very, very important research area, because in the future, everything will be like this – buildings, complex robotic systems, medicine, etc.
Although sometimes I am skeptical of CPS, when put that way, I really think the essays College, approach makes a lot of sense. Anyway, just wanted to express my excitement at seeing this bubble up in another place, point you in article writing that direction in case you want to explore it. I found your blog from Hacker News and I’m not that familiar with your background, so apologies if I’m preaching to the choir here. Write Sydney (Navitas)! Hope you see the connection I’m trying to make. I consider CSP concurrency very useful and innovative. Important languages with their publication dates are Squeak(1985), Newsqueak(1990), Alef(1995), Limbo(2000), Go(2009). This doesn’t seem “no innovation” to me. Same for Pi-calculus(1992), Join-calculus(1996), JoCaml(1999), C omega(2003), and so on. In general, we learned a lot about how to do concurrency in programming languages, and we are reaping benefits (Go, C#). You seem to writing Academy consider mashup non-innovative, but I consider languages integrating OOP and FP type systems pretty innovative.
OCaml(1996), Scala(2003), F sharp(2005), and so on. Other examples I can think of are lazy evaluation, delimited continuation, dataflow programming, metaprogramming. Most of advances in lazy evaluation are post-1980, especially how to implement it. The Implementation of how to of an essay Western Sydney University, Functional Programming Languages is from 1987. Shift/Reset delimited continuation appeared in 1990 and we learned a lot more about it since. Article! For dataflow programming, SISAL is from 1983, Oz is from 1991. International School Of Milan! For metaprogramming, the article writing Academy, first widely used language with hygienic macro, R5RS, appeared in how to University (Navitas) 1998! Both MetaOCaml and Template Haskell postdate 2000! Is there still anything to innovate in programming languages?
Yes, there are *a lot* to article writing Fryeburg innovate in programming languages. Interesting essay … And it’s about time the write essay Wilbraham and Monson Academy, question of “does PL design make for article Academy doctoral work?” and the introduction Western Sydney University “if yes, how do we evaluate?” gets asked. I wonder whether mathematics would be an appropriate analogy here, with core ideas such as monads being analogous to mathematics, and PLs that support monads being analogous to mathematical notation. We’ve certainly had influential mathematical notation that captured concepts so well that one might say they’ve become fused in the minds of people. Article Fryeburg Academy! Examples such as the place value system, algebra, vector notation, notations for ordinary calculus, vector calculus, exterior calculus, Feynman diagrams and molecular formulae come to mind. Essays! Broadly, though good notations have been influential in communicating mathematical ideas and using them, nobody’s gotten an article writing Fryeburg, PhD in math for inventing a notation afaik. At best, these inventions come in the form of a paper or a note.
By analogy, PL design sans new concepts (like new math), to me, seems inadequate for doctoral work. This criterion rules out purely syntactic contributions and I think that’s a valid criterion – unless one wishes to study Whorfian issues like impact of Park, syntax on cognition. I’ll stop here lest my response itself turn into an essay Thanks for raising these questions. – “C, part of a large investment in Unix”… doesn’t match the history I know – Unix was initially created as an undeground project (Bell thinking they were funding a text processing system), and C was the article writing Fryeburg Academy, underground’s underground as it was a demand of uc high requirements, Unix. AlsoC didn’t seem to have significant up-front design; it was derived from previous languages and iterated with the OS project’s needs. – Today’s top-5 popular languages, as listed by Fryeburg Academy the Tiobe index (not a great methodology but the best we have and essay Western (Navitas) updated monthly), are Java, C, C#, C++ and writing Objective-C. All these languages were created by top PL/compiler experts (BTW, Java too fell into Guy Steele’s lap). So I wouldn’t say that languages hacked together in a week by amateurs, are anything close to the norm. Rich! Even in the bleeding edge, you’ll find that most “hot” languages are once again created by experts like Odersky, Rich Hickey, Bracha, etc. – Notice also that the creators of Fryeburg, those hacked languages are often not classic PL researchers, but they are always brilliant and well-educated developers.
Example: Larry Wall had a BS in “natural and artificial languages” and followed with graduate studies in human linguistics–this mix, with the stronger focus in article review International School, Bangkok the human languages, easily explains his approach with Perl. Writing Fryeburg Academy! Larry’s classic article “Wherefore Art, Thou?” is essential for this discussion: http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/2070. – Languages are expensive tools; the switch to a new language is a huge investment, from each developer’s learning curve to to write College the enormous weight of legacy code and the wide and deep ecosystem of supporting toolchain and article writing Fryeburg libraries. This cuses the frustrating delay for academic innovation to trickle down to uc high school Park School mainstream languages, a process that often takes multiple generations of languages (if not human generations). “Universal” platforms, from Microsoft’s .NET/CLI to modern Java and now HTML5, have reduced the barrier to entry with common frameworks and runtime technology; but really, they are mostly modern replacements for Unix/POSIX: a common base that provides all core APIs, and core services like I/O and memory management, that any language would need, and does that in a portable way. So, these virtual platforms mostly compensate for the new needs of post-C/Unix languages such as garbage collection, and for article writing Fryeburg Academy the failure of POSIX to website to write essays d'Overbroeck's College become a unversal system interface so application-level libraries would need porting to Win32, Cocoa etc. – Because languages are tools, their success is the result of article Fryeburg Academy, adoption by millions of rank-and-file professionals, 90% of those as unable to distinguish the website to write d'Overbroeck's College, qualities of “properly-designed” PLs as I am unable to distinguish a $1000 champagne from a $20 sparkling wine.
This is critically different from most academic work, e.g. in mathematics o theoretical physics, which is only consumed/judged/adopter by other academics with roughly the same level of education and the same focus and writing Fryeburg Academy values. Well, it’s not that simple because the first stage of adoption is write a criticism essay Wilbraham typically driven by some kind of elite, still the article writing Academy, language eventually needs to of an essay Western University (Navitas) scale to Joe Developer, which never happened and will never happen with languages like Haskell, regardless of its significant adoption some years ago and very mature implementation. Thanks for all these comments! I’d love to think that many new things were proposed after 1979, but history doesn’t seem to support that view. Here are some concepts mentioned in this discussion: – Dataflow programming: late 60s. – Actors: early 70s by writing Carl Hewitt. – CSP: late 70s by Hoare. – Pi-calculus: not terribly different from earlier work on CCS.
The CCS book was published in 1980, the work was done before that. – Lazy evaluation: early 70s within work in lambda calculus. – Metaprogramming: early 70s. – Continuations: mid 60s. I agree that many *improvements* came after this, particularly with respect to implementing these things efficiently (engineering), but also in maturing the concepts themselves.
Improvements are important too, and website College they have the writing, wonderful property that it’s really easy to assess their value. But it seems that the critical thinking College School, *innovations* (i.e. the new concepts) have pretty much stagnated, exceptions not withstanding. I’d love to be proven wrong. “But it takes 20 years for design ideas to come to the masses.” Maybe, maybe not. Writing Academy! Some innovations have a really rapid mass-adoption (certain machine learning methods come to thinking objectives Trinity College School mind), others never get mass-adopted.
In any case, we should be seeing stuff proposed in the early 90s come out to the masses now. Where is it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). You know when you go to PL conferences and those old timers stand up and say “but insert vintage language had that back in 1975…”? I used to find it really annoying. Fryeburg Academy! But they’re right, for d'Overbroeck's College the most part. I think it’s time that we accept that they’re right, and Academy reflect on website essays, the reasons for this state of article Fryeburg Academy, affairs.
Thanks also for thinking rich International of Milan those who point out article, that C was an underdog project. I’ll update the essay one of these days. I guess the point should be that before the PC era, this kind of work was exclusive of the very few lucky ones who had access to very expensive computers — and that tended to happen only in University labs and Industrial Research labs. To Write Essays D'Overbroeck's! Once PCs came upon us, that situation changed, and this kind of work started happening in a lot more places by a lot more people. Design of writing Academy, things with software in them was democratized. Hi Crista — I don’t have time to take apart your essay, but I’d like to the introduction of an Western Sydney University add a couple of. 1. Writing Fryeburg! All disciplines go through periods of exciting activity and International School of Milan steady-state work. See. Thomas Kuhn’s short book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.” Even if you do. not accept his judgement (on paradigm shifts), you should read it for the collection.
of historical work on article Fryeburg, the evolution of disciplines. It is good for researchers to reflect on their discipline and its relationship to essays d'Overbroeck's the world. It is dangerous to think our own discipline is article Academy facing unique problems, and School of Milan it is even more dangerous not to know the history and philosophy of science. [[Example: I agree with you that continuations and delimited continuations. — as I proposed them at POPL ’88 after working them out for 4 years — fall straight into the steady-state part of PL research. Indeed, as you say, Stoy had a similar idea in the 1970s for writing Academy his OS work, though I do claim what. prompt and control/c/callcc did was much more. Nevertheless, it’s small. potatoes and yet, I enjoyed working on delimited continuations for how to write essay Sydney (Navitas) years, and I enjoyed it even more getting them just right in writing a production system.
a few years back (ICFP). It is fun when you see all the pieces fall into write the introduction essay Western Sydney University (Navitas) place.]] 2. You are plain wrong when it comes to article writing the evaluation of programming languages. When IBM switched to Java whole-sale, it had gathered a large amount of data on. the productivity of programming in Java (with memory safety, type safety) vs C++ (lack of both). It had started with the San Francisco project run by Kathy Boherer, with a dozen or so large companies contributing some 120 software architects.
These. people determined that Java improved the productivity of average programmers by. a factor of 3 or more. As someone mentioned, PLs are a major infrastructure investment. and switching infrastructure is expensive.
Hence when a major, large company does. switch, we should pay attention. Sadly, we also need to thinking objectives Trinity accept that they perceive such. data as a competitive advantage and writing will therefore not release it. 3. As far as ‘design’ is concerned, I agree with you. Standard PL conferences — perhaps. with the exception of OOPSLA — give way too little credit to design. When they do, including OOPSLA, it is in a strange fashion. Find 20 people to run a symposium on PL. design. I’ll attend.
4. I have heard the lament about school requirements Park School hobbyists designing PLs many times now, and article writing Academy I have. formulated it myself in semi-public spaces since 2000. I have found myself to be wrong. 4a. How To Write The Introduction Of An Western! These languages tend to article Fryeburg Academy inject one or two new ideas into the discussion. In addition, unlike PLs designed by academic researchers at universities and labs, the break-thru.
If you find other areas more challenging, do pursue problems there. But if you believe that our own discipline needs serious change, work for change as a researcher who sets new standards and creates new ways of working in our world. I didn’t escape At some point I felt the need to International of Milan go and explore other parts of town to see what’s all about and writing Fryeburg Academy how things are done there. I visited a few places, and I ended up spending more time in the data mining / IR neighborhood; that is really cool too. Great for thinking rich School of Milan doctoral work, because it’s all very quantitative and the benefits are very tangible. Article Writing Fryeburg! My design addiction went back to critical thinking objectives Trinity School distributed systems; I’ve been doing a lot of article Fryeburg, work there, but it’s all mostly unpublished, if one considers having a user base of The Regent’s International School,, 5,000 people “unpublished work.” I think these 2 extremes — data mining = research papers + research funding; and OpenSimulator = design fun with a large user base — are a very big part of these reflections on design as doctoral work. Article Writing Fryeburg! These observations are not just for PLs, btw; I think they apply to software systems in general. Languages are particularly good to reflect upon. Hope to continue this conversation with you some time!
As for this essay, please do break it apart if you have time. Maybe then it can become a real paper… heheh. This post had been sitting on my blog under password protection for a few months, unfinished, unpolished. Website! Some students started asking for article writing it, so I freed it from the password. Re: what Matthias says about “our own discipline … facing unique. problems”. Critical Objectives School! Indeed, see this (and comments) for related soul searching in writing Academy other CS disciplines. On another note, I think there is rather too much cultural emphasis on. “innovation” in the sense that Crista describes here (“big ideas”). After.
all taken to the extreme, *everything* boils down to the lambda calculus. or state machines, so by this logic, we might as well have called it a day. by the end of the 1930s. One extremely negative consequence (or cousin?) of this emphasis, is the need to find single herculean figures who cause. Sure, that might happen once in a while, rather more rarely than you think.
In reality progress is rather more bottom up, in fits and starts with lots. of “little ideas” cancelling or building up on each other, lots of dead. ends (with, sadly, the Wilbraham and Monson Academy, final “credit” not going to the person who. “discovered” an idea, but with the person after whom the idea “stayed. There needs to be *far* more importance placed on the critical “steady.
state” work that Matthias refers to that is needed to refine/improve/fix. some idea till the point the “pieces to fall into place”. This might be. especially true in PL because there are so many different moving parts. that need to be reconciled. And so, I have rather less patience for the “old timers”.
(Of course, like all other disciplines, we also have some wheel reinvention, but thats another matter altogether…) ps: as phrased, this question appears impossible to answer: “Where is it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding).” I bet you in 10 years, we’ll have turned a full circle, and the above date will be updated. to 1989, and writing Fryeburg thats how we move forward #128521; I think your conclusion about the quote regarding Haskell is incorrect.
Statements like this “Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for how to a criticism essay Academy bugs!” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the article writing Fryeburg, data to support this claim, this statement is thinking International of Milan deceptive; True, if you read the sentence “There just isn’t any room for bugs!” as globally scoped and interpret it as “You can’t have bugs in Haskell programs.”, this would certainly be a silly claim. And even though I don’t believe that this is the intent of the writing Academy, sentence, I think it would be better to either drop the sentence altogether or at least qualify it and say that there is no room for article review International certain kinds of errors (such as type errors or memory errors). However, if we focus on the first sentence, then it is not at all wishful thinking. More importantly, it doesn’t require any data or experiments to support that observation, because it expresses a logical conclusion. Fryeburg! And therein lies the critical thinking objectives, importance of the Academy, claim, namely that a type checker proves the absence of a whole class of errors.
So it is a simple fact — an analytical, non-empirical fact — that, e.g., type-correct programs contain fewer errors than arbitrary programs. Empirical validation is a requirement in Science. Sometimes the claims are hard to prove empirically, so you have to wait many years before empirical validation is possible (e.g. Write Essay Western University! Physics). Article Writing Fryeburg Academy! That doesn’t seem to be the case here; the data for whether Haskell programs have more or less bugs than non-Haskell programs (or whatever claim you want to formulate) is not that hard to get as compared to, say, particle physics experiments where millions of dollars need to be spent in building large infrastructures. So if whoever made that claim about Haskell wants to call themselves a Scientist, they better be sure that the logic holds in School the presence of article writing Fryeburg, empirical data. Or change the claim to something less ambitious like “type checkers eliminate a whole class of errors; Haskell has a type checker, therefore, a whole class of a criticism essay and Monson, errors is eliminated.” Indeed, that’s what they’re designed to writing Academy do, so making this be true is as simple as making a correct implementation of said type checker. Haskell programs, however, like all others, are written by people, and people make all sorts of mistakes. Critical Objectives Trinity College School! So if you want to prove that Haskell programs [written by people] have less bugs than non-Haskell programs [written by people] you need to compare empirically.
You may be unpleasantly surprised with the article Fryeburg, results; or you may come out review The Regent’s Bangkok, a winner, in Academy which case the whole world will be convinced that type checkers are an absolute must-have in every programming language. Without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture. You seem to present a dichotomy: empirically validated claims without innovation, or innovation without empirical validation. I do wonder if these are the write the introduction of an essay Western, only alternatives? Even if they were, languages – along with tools, methodologies, nearly everything in the vicinity of software – are so much in the latter camp today, it would seem that a little more emphasis on empiricism – that which in Academy most disciplines earns the term “science” – couldn’t hurt. A Criticism And Monson! I am entirely unconvinced that “It is also often the case that over article writing Fryeburg Academy, time, the enormous amount of testing by real use is thinking School enough to provide assurances of all kinds.” Indeed, the frequent stampedes of software developers in the direction of new, shiny things assure us of very little except that recent religious converts are quite zealous. Fryeburg! I take your assertion as more of a sigh. Your thesis, that academic research in programming languages may be of diminishing value and, in any case, is hardly science, is well-taken. A few proofreading notes: “innovate new software” – you probably meant “innovative”. “we have in hands” – I think the idiom should be “we have in hand” and Bangkok not match number unless you wish to write “we have on writing, our hands”. Crista, just in critical Trinity College case it isn’t clear, I really meant what I wrote in my post: IBM people claimed data-driven validation of “Java is better than C++ for large projects”.
Their evaluation method uses dollars-spent, i.e., it is an accounting method from the business school that answers the writing Academy, question in school Leighton a positive sense. Matthias, that is something that big, responsible companies, when faced with a technological decision, do, so I would be surprised if they had *not* made a cost/benefit analysis with real, hard data. I’m less inclined to accept IBM’s business decision as empirical evidence for writing Fryeburg Academy the benefits of Java vs. C++, in general, unless they open up their data and methodology to scrutiny. That would be very interesting to see! In any case, CS academics should take note of school Leighton Park School, such data-driven practices. To me, “macro is an innovation but hygienic macro is just an improvement” sounds as absurd as “electricity is an innovation but alternating current is just an improvement”. Writing Fryeburg Academy! Ditto for continuation/delimited continuation, lazy evaluation in lambda calculus/lazy evaluation, etc. I also consider “without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture” a weird claim.
It is a conjecture, but it would be a *mathematically informed conjecture* not *just* a conjecture. For theoretical physics, theories that avoid producing infinity — renormalization — is school requirements Park considered better than other theories. Why not apply same for type safety? Henry Ford said that if he had asked people what they wanted, then it would have been a faster horse that ate less and required less grooming. Writing Fryeburg Academy! PL research stuck in that space, dreaming up of thinking International of Milan, flying horses. There are basically two issues to consider:
1. Abstraction: FORTRAN, COBOL, APL because successful because they addressed a specific domain and programming in those languages required less effort than in assembler. 2. Notations: the “wars” between proponents of different programming languages typically boils down to arguing over syntax and more rarely semantics. The future “instructing computers to do to our bidding” comes from ever more powerful domain specific languages using notations that are “intuitive” to article Academy those domain experts. Model based software engineering and generative programming techniques form the foundations to support such a vision. There is far more work done in uc high school requirements Leighton Park those areas than most programmers realize. The companies being successful with such projects keep it as “their secret sauce” and don’t advertise their breakthroughs. are there any researches on rule based techniques for article writing Fryeburg GUI programming. I would be interested in that.
Yes, the new paradigm of how to write the introduction Western Sydney University, using iPad like internet access devices and using touch and drag boxes of article Fryeburg Academy, language structures to write programs for software agents will define new PLs. There are academic efforts on so called visual programming languages and write the introduction of an Western (Navitas) I think, the writing Fryeburg Academy, major revolutionary jump would have had come, if Steve Jobs had remained alive. The research of programming languages that you miss, can be find at the following link. Speaking as the developer of an thinking rich International School of Milan, aggressively non-academic language (Objective-C), I’d like to suggest a project for some like-minded individual. We’re in the midst of Academy, a cloud-hype bubble, especially in government circles (DoD). Doing that the old (current) way, each and every application handles identity management (authentication) and to write essays d'Overbroeck's access control (authorization) itself, so that who can access what is under the control of the writing Academy, administrator for that application. So there’s a lot of attention being devoted to doing that in some more centralized way; basing access control on explicit policy instead of each administrator’s whims. The current/only way of making policy explicit is an Oasis standard called “XACML”.
XACML is nothing more or less than a simple functional language for specifying whether a specified subject can perform a specified action on a specified resource in a specified context (environment). So far so good. How To Write The Introduction Western University! What’s not so good is article writing Academy that its XML-based, which leads to the most god-awful syntax you can possibly imagine; full of write essay, XML barbed wire that makes your eyes bleed. No imagine putting XACML into practice, encoding government access policy into access control specs, convincing themselves (and their managers) that the resulting XACML is doing what its supposed to. So here’s my proposal. Article! Develop a new language that replaces XACML’s syntax with some intuitive alternative, perhaps based on other functional languages out there. Scala is one good candidate. Only the syntax is changed; the and Monson Academy, new language must retain XACML semantics precisely.
A cheap way of ensuring that is to have the parser build the same tree that JAXB (or OpenSAML) generates from the XACML schema. Thus JAXB could be used to serialize the result into real XACML XML files, the XACML compiler (see http://bradjcox.blogspot.com) could be used to turn it into java for runtime, or Sun’s XACML interpreter could be used to interpret it on the fly. All that changes is the syntax; everything else works unchanged. I’ve made some initial exploration of this notion with a small Antlr parser, but doubt I’ll have the article Academy, time to really drive this home. Leighton! If some one does, drop me a line. Does Jeeves (a Scala DSL) come close to Fryeburg meeting your criteria? It wasn’t designed to comply with XACML, and it’s described as enforcing “privacy policies” rather than “access policies”, but overall the intent sounds quite similar unless I’m misunderstanding XACML. A Scala DSL is the obvious place to start.
Have done some initial exploration there myself. I’ve not looked at Jeeves. Thanks for the pointer to Jeeves. Just had a look. Its targeted at a criticism Wilbraham Academy, privacy, not access control. What I had in mind was far simpler, a straight/simple translation from a friendly syntax into Academy XML or Java (or Scala etc) with an emphasis on to write essays d'Overbroeck's, raw execution speed and strict compliance with OASIS-defined semantics. Jeeves seems to writing Academy go far beyond XACML compliance. Didn’t spend enough time on school Park, it to article Fryeburg Academy tell if it could be used in a way that strictly complies. Those are first impressions based on a quick skim, so easily wrong. I agree with Joe. There seems to be an inability to accept the empirical evidence in the ‘cool stuff’ graph and move on thinking rich, to new ways of doing things.
So much for science. Also I am rather surprised that the research by Capers Jones about productivity of programming languages is not acknowledged. He claims he has examined the productivity of thousands of software projects – doesn’t that qualify as sufficiently ‘scientific’? BTW you may all be shocked to see what ranks high on his list. This discussion reminds me of article Fryeburg Academy, what Joseph Wizenbaum said about the AI researchers in the 60’s – that they said the breakthrough is just around the corner, but we are still waiting. I am sorry, but I think a lot more has to be done rather than devise new syntax, forms, libraries, etc. Critical Objectives Trinity College School! I work in an environment where we have a very large and complex business application in which the writing Fryeburg Academy, rate and volume of how to write the introduction of an essay Western Sydney, change is very high. Productivity is very important to article writing Academy us – the PLs do not deliver enough so we have to augment them with all sorts of home grown tools – the main ones being software management, metadata management, test environment generation and code generation. But we need more, and we should not have to do this ourselves. I think there are two sides to website essays d'Overbroeck's College a programming language.
The problem we have little academic progress on programming languages is because human side of science is very difficult and we haven’t achieved much yet. Once that branch of science reaches certain stage of rigor, I think we should expect another leap of progress in programming languages, and progresses in many other things as well. I am working on a drastically different approach to programming languages. How To Write Essay Western University! https://github.com/hzhou/MyDef, I appreciate any feed-backs. I agree with the article Academy, poster that most new languages today appear to be mash-ups of of an essay Western (Navitas), existing concepts and languages. Fryeburg! In fact, practically all of the new languages I have come across all look like some variation of C# or Java. That being said, unless new processors are going to offer radically different approaches to how they process instructions and how to write the introduction Western Sydney University (Navitas) what they are capable of processing, programming languages are not going to article writing Academy change all that much since they will be limited by what they can actually do within the how to write of an University, processor.
If you use a well developed, general, compiled language like BASIC, Pascal, C#, or Java, you are going to pretty much have everything you require to article writing Fryeburg Academy develop most applications including games. The dynamic languages such as Python, though a good example of a well developed dynamic language, similar to critical thinking objectives Trinity their compiled counter-parts all do the writing Academy, same thing but with a different style. Should research continue into programming languages? In my view yes but not at the expense of saturating an already crowded field of good existing languages. In this vein choice is the introduction essay (Navitas) not being offered but merely additional confusion. A good example of this are the article writing Fryeburg Academy, new “fringe” languages such as Scala and Ruby.
With the exception of some different functionality (functional programming in Scala and how to write of an essay Western Sydney (Navitas) dynamic generation in Ruby) you are really not getting all that much for writing Fryeburg efforts made into adopting these languages unless you like living on the periphery of the programming world. Again, all these languages offer the same functionality that existing languages already have. One of the really innovative languages to come out in how to write of an Western the past 30 years or so was Prolog. It promoted a completely different type of design paradigm for development but it was only viable for expert systems development for which there are only approximately 2000 different applications to which the writing Academy, language can be applied. Prolog was extended after its initial introduction to include OOP concepts but it was still difficult to develop large-scale applications as a result of of an essay Sydney (Navitas), its nature. However, one place where Prolog may be able to writing Fryeburg Academy shine is game development where built-in rule systems would not require game developers to re-develop a bit of the internal AI paradigms. * Nice discussion — now you can go back and separate some of the issues.
* Who’s the audience for school your research? Yourself? Other academic PL researchers? Programmers in article writing industry? Funding agencies? Not always an of an Western Sydney University, easy question. * What criteria are used to evaluate papers in POPL, PLDI, ICFP, etc? What criteria are used to evaluate DOD or NSF grant proposals?
* It’s nice to article Fryeburg Academy try to figure out why some languages succeed and others don’t. There are multiple forces involved, and their relative strengths can vary with time. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of uc high Park, which came in the 90s) I beg to differ. Aspects : were pretty much well known in article writing Academy the LISP community using Programmable Interactive Environments (see e.g., a 1978 paper by Erik Sandewall on this matter, section on “Advising and Insertive programming”). Monads : were certainly known under a different name in the 80s (see 1980s paper by Simon Thompson, I think. The 1988 book “Elements of FP” by Reade mentions it around page 299), as a “programmable” semicolon. The last one was invented by Peter Landin in the 60s, I believe.
See http://okmij.org/ftp/Computation/IO-monad-history.html. There is nothing new on how to write a criticism essay and Monson, earth, really… This is the goal of writing, Language Design. Everything can be derived from this. Human Productivity depends on better tools, environments and maintainability. Essay And Monson Academy! The latter depends upon readability, presentation, abstraction and ease of composition – this influences syntax and support for extensional metaprogramming (i.e. “Growing a Language” through the writing Fryeburg, specification of pattern transformation rules). Computer Productivity depends on optimising performance to get results quicker for the human user and to boost the overall productivity of the system of which it is a part. Website D'Overbroeck's! This can make ‘Live Programming’ environments possible, where the program is a mix of article Academy, interpreted and compiled modules – where the uc high Leighton, latter may be selectively ‘unfrozen’ for rapid prototyping of new features. These results would be counter-productive if incorrect – hence: Verifiability. Fryeburg Academy! All work on separation of concerns, constraints, equational reasoning, type theory and how to and Monson Academy dynamic manipulation control interfaces that avoid weaving independent aspects into a stateful model aid comprehension, testing and article writing state-of-the-art proof techniques.
Produtivity is also linked with domain and concepts, jargon and article School, methods used in that domain. Current languages are inadequate in many of the recent state of art sciences like DNA analysis, drug and polymer design, financial analysis, web searching etc. I jotted down some additional thoughts here: Hi Vivek, thanks for the comments! I don’t think companies find it profitable to develop programming languages at article writing, the rate that they used to. Now it is the requirements Park, universities which develop these languages, and that too mostly for academic interest. Thank you for writing this.
As a software practitioner without formal education in computer science, and a programming language design enthusiast with a stupid hobby project in the works, it’s heartwarming to know that somebody in academia shares my sense of how to go about what I’m doing. So it’s fundamentally a methods issue. “What is a rigorous programming language or piece of PL research?” In recent times this has been answered with more and more static analysis and formal reasoning work. But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of article writing, Design, to discover and build the things for reasoning about. “Necessity is the a criticism essay, mother of invention.” So, what is it really that we NEED from our programming languages? In PL we definitely have a Sapir-Whorf problem: without a programming language in Academy which to formally express something, we can only grasp about in the air at what we want to say. Uc High School Requirements Leighton School! MapReduce could not exist without map() and reduce() themselves, which could not exist without first-class functions. So I would posit this as the article writing, fundamental question of Design in PL: “What can your language express that others can’t?” “But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and build the things for reasoning about.” Yes!
Pretty much! I’m not the first one to suggest this, btw. I think Herbert Simon had a similar thing in mind with his “Sciences of the Artificial” ideas, although the choice of the word “Science” there sends everyone down the wrong path. In any case, my reflection here, unlike Simon’s analysis, is very much grounded on the tangible effects of rich School, *not* having such discipline in Academia: design papers get rejected (for the most part), design proposals go unfunded (for the most part). Writing Fryeburg! I’m not lamenting it, I’m just making this observation. D'Overbroeck's College! It’s easy to understand why they get rejected: because the community doesn’t know how to Fryeburg assess them. Journal Review The Regent’s! They’re neither Science nor Technology nor Engineering nor Mathematics, so no one knows how to deal with them.
Venture Capitalists know how to deal with those ideas, but their goal is to maximize profit, and not so much enlighten human understanding. I’d say that patterns are an indicator of Fryeburg Academy, wanting to say something but not having the review The Regent’s Bangkok, linguistic tools to say it directly. This is where I whine that FORTH is the one and only true language. FORTH is writing Fryeburg another language that was written by a single person, Chuck Moore. With most languages (I’m unfamiliar with some of the languages mentioned, but) the syntax is fixed. Control structures are predefined. Basically all you can do is create new functions. FORTH lets you (if you know how) extend the syntax of the interpreter/compiler dynamically.
You bend the language to the application, not the application to the language. Website To Write D'Overbroeck's! Being a stack based language it has been stuck with word sizes (16, 32, …). Article Writing Fryeburg Academy! It lets you intermix high level code with low level and is a wonderful language for embedded applications. But I feel it has potential if rewritten for this object oriented age. I hope to someday such a version is created. This might just be the best blog post I’ve ever read. Thanks very much!
I enjoyed every word. I think part of the difficulty of PL design these days is that the greatest bottleneck to human productivity isn’t language anymore. Library availability and critical thinking objectives Trinity College quality is probably the writing Fryeburg, most important deciding factor in using a language: that is, it’s more about what work you can *avoid* doing, and these days, you can avoid a whole lot. Now, there are many language features that I consider huge productivity boosts: garbage collection, closures, objects, dynamic typing, etc. But as you pile up language features, you get to a point of diminishing returns. Macros are great, continuations as well, but the thinking Trinity College, productivity gains are marginal compared to other features. Writing! The best one can expect from developing new language features is to inspire improvements to a new or existing popular language, but the magnitude of the The Regent’s Bangkok, actual impact is far from writing, clear. I mean, concretely speaking, something like arbitrary precision integers probably yields greater productivity gains than powerful tools almost nobody understands (continuations, monads). Still, personally, I see potential in a few avenues: importing capability from computer algebra systems (e.g. Article Review School,! automatic differentiation, simplification); expansive annotation systems (annotating associativity, that two functions (are supposed to) do the same thing, and so forth, to facilitate optimization and debugging); integrating some machine learning (e.g. you could define a measure M, like the time taken for the program to run, and article Fryeburg Academy tag variables as “to optimize with respect to website to write essays M”, leaving it to writing Academy a JIT to figure out optimal values for performance, memory usage or a criterion of the programmer’s choosing); probably others I haven’t thought of. One reason I don’t like to write a criticism essay Academy adopt new programming languages: every language designer feels bound to Fryeburg invent a new library, even for requirements Leighton School the simple things like finding a substring. Article Writing Fryeburg Academy! This is really tiresome.
The best PL work nowadays is being done (again) by Alan Kay and the VPRI crowd. I disagree with Lopes … sounds like a touch of world weariness to me and uc high school requirements Park School maybe she should take a nice vacation. The simple reason why we can have languages programmed by article writing Fryeburg designers is because of the rigor of the underlying stack. An alternative example, would be HTML5. How To Write Essay Wilbraham And Monson Academy! Just look at article writing, the insanity that is uc high Park School HTML5 which basically says that we will take all the anachronistic parsing behavior that is common across browsers and make that ‘the standard’ (btw thats trollish of me, but I hope everyone understands) … its a race to writing Academy the bottom but its underpinned by the fact that lower abstractions have a solid foundation. I maybe wrong but I very much doubt an assembly language designed by designers would do much of anything, certainly not in a way where you could build higher level abstractions on top of it.
Lopes is not recognizing the School, fact that programming (and software) is emerging from its ‘hobbyist’ phase and that today’s developer are much less likely to choose proper programming languages (after all software is psychology in the end). An analogy is article writing Fryeburg Academy with the journal review The Regent’s International Bangkok, auto industry … there was a time where we could all maintain our cars and do significant amount of work and customization to them. The 50’s and 60’s even up till the 80’s was the auto industry ‘hobbyist’ phase … pop open a hood today and most of us don’t want to get involved. The same is happening with computers in general … to the benefit of commercial concerns. Back to the real problem which I believe is two fold … firstly education is writing Fryeburg Academy a problem in that parts of school requirements Leighton Park School, academia is still catching up with industry but this is changing … almost to the point where many of the best bits of software incubate in a university somewhere to be commercialized by students leaving. But more importantly (and subtly) we need to give up on this idea that any single programming language is going to be applicable to all things. Writing Fryeburg! Its a fundamentally western ideal to write the introduction of an essay Western Sydney pose battles between programming languages as a ‘winner takes all’ exercise. Article Writing Fryeburg Academy! The fact is that there are efficiencies in website to write essays having a ‘lingua franca’ but we also lose some precision along the way for dealing with exactly the right tool for the right job. We need to writing embrace heterogeneity and apply principles of convergence judiciously … not just bet on programming ‘horses’ and school Leighton Park blindly espouse their benefits. Having been a programmer for so long I have seen my various pet languages go through the adoption curve … I cringe when I see the computer media obsessed with ‘memifying’ everything creating hype which in turn forces people to use any specific tech far beyond its original intent which is followed by the eventual backlash where people say ‘INSERT HERE is dead’ and actually the technology goes on to live for another 20, 30 years. I love lisp (20 yrs on emacs) but its never going to article Fryeburg Academy gain wide adoption, I love xslt, xquery both which are functional languages but developers I know have a ‘marmite’ reaction either hating or loving it.
I’m also an essay Wilbraham Academy, academic, in experimental particle physics however. Students only get Ph.D.’s going after physics results – measuring physical constants, etc. Which I love doing. Fryeburg Academy! However, I’ve always had a side hobby playing with new ways of doing our analysis (we have a giant data-mining problem in this field). Some of these ideas I’ve always thought could really make what we do faster and more “fun” (i.e. less fighting with our huge C++ codebase – many 100’s of thousands of objects and source and config files). How To Write Western Sydney (Navitas)! But I can never put a student on that for some of the reasons you state above. I am glad you’ve found something that interests you. This is the key to the problem, you have to article have something that you both like and the community will give you credit for. For me, my side hobby ends up as talks and posters at the introduction, a large conference on computers in particle physics – in a small side parallel session for article Academy the about 10 of us that are interested in this stuff. As far as programming language design and “is it dead”… Haven’t they said that several times about school Leighton Park science?
Watching new stuff steadily flow into the mainstream (I’m a heavy user of article writing Academy, C++, C#, and python – C++ is just *too* slow on the uptake!), I can’t help but wonder what else is out there. Research has to of an essay Sydney University (Navitas) be done not only to article writing come up with new techniques, but also how to write a criticism Wilbraham and Monson integrate them into languages that are practical (vs. Article Writing! pure). We are constantly pushing the boundaries of abstract math – I can’t help but think that would have an impact on language design and generalization of concepts. But there must be some fairly cool constructs that already exist in academic languages that can be translated to how to Wilbraham Academy the more mainstream languages. Simlification… At anyrate, good luck. And don’t stop pushing the boundaries. There are millions of interesting problems out there. I hope you continue to find ones that are interesting to Academy both you and your journal editors!
Speaking from Wilbraham and Monson, 30 years of writing, experience in using different PL(s) in the business environment, I have watched the ratio of time between defining application specifications, development, and testing significantly change. Development time has shrunk as newer languages and richer libraries have become available. Development is fairly quick once the specification is known given that the essays, developer has some experience with his/her PL. From the limited viewpoint of “would a new PL reduce the development time”, I think that any improvement in a new or revised PL would be of little benefit to reducing development time. If I were directing research in PLs, research would be directed toward determining how the choice of a PL affects specification and validation effort. I feel compelled to point something out. I feel that the commercial success and article ease of how to Wilbraham and Monson, use and the ease of learning of a computer depended on article writing Academy, it’s programming language.
The personality of the computer depended on the programing language. I would say the to write College, language was the article Fryeburg, computer. One example of ease of critical objectives, use I would argue, and commercial success based on language I would argue was the zx spectrum. I argue we should do better and have the modern equivalent. I’m impressed with the article writing Academy, integrated software from framework from Ashton Tate and thinking School it’s programming language that integrated with documents and outlines. I’m impressed with lisp and emacs. I’m impressed with smalltalk. Maybe I’m impressed with scratch visual programming language to a degree. But nothing was so simple as zx Sinclair tokenized basic with a token per key and article good syntax error detection. And the language is the computer and commercial succes I believe or was in the 80’s. I don’t think much of java.
I love unix / Linux. But the feeling of a language being a computer is maybe only framework or emacs besides the zx spectrum. Another interesting computer was the Jupiter ace a forth computer. Back then you turned the computer on and that was it. We could have had a lisp computer. Maybe with ssd’s we will have instant on languages. Things like the iPad are cripplelled as far as programming language potential.
I think it’s a big deal that the how to of an Sydney University, programming language is the article Academy, computer. So having a good one is important. I like the rich School, concepts of go. I thought programming languages would have evolved in different ways when I was a kid in the 80’s. Music is interesting in that it is a parallel language has loops and is real time. I was very impressed with framework implementing programming languages in outlines, spreadsheets and article writing Academy documents, a very powerful combination, easy to website d'Overbroeck's College understand and very productive, think of it as emacs with outlines and spreadsheets instead of just buffers.
Hope my insights are useful. Did the programming language stop being the computer in the 80’s? Or making or breaking it’s success or making it easy to learn and Fryeburg understand for journal The Regent’s International School, Bangkok the future programmer hacker. I second every sentiment you expressed. Most programming languages are boring after learning M (MUMPS) and its $Order() function. i think adoption of the scienctific discovery is a totally wrong meausure for significance of it. there are many factors in choosing a programming languages, many of article writing Academy, them are irrational, others are non-technical.one fine examples is write of an Western Sydney University (Navitas) list of benefits of PHP. most of the reasons are legal and financial. others are technichal support and rich set of libraries, at last comes the learning curve. Article Writing Academy! nothing is said about productivity, reliabality or even performance. scietific research is International discovery of article writing, problems and write a criticism solutions for them. Fryeburg Academy! tools are only made to faciliate the research. there are still many problems like multicore, performance and memory management that are open for research. but once you have your solution you need to wait 30 years for someone to use them, or make a a spin-off company and sell tools made with that idea.
what bothers me is having to use outdated tools and hacked languages for my everyday use (C++ and Ruby) i am writing my own language hoping that i t will be useful for myself. Critical Trinity College School! i do it partly to article writing Fryeburg Academy have creative outlet but mostly out of frustration. Article Review International! C++ does not scale in complexity and Ruby does not scale in performance. i would be lucky if i can put all the innovations from PL research. my final thought is that, programming laguages are like human languages. Article Writing Fryeburg Academy! they are a culture. it is the language programmers speak. Critical Thinking Objectives College! one idea that i have in my language is to write a language framework, ship it with a parser generator and Fryeburg Academy let the programmer put their favorite language syntax there. in conclusion, the stall of PL research is because they are solving the write Wilbraham and Monson Academy, wrong problem. Well said. As a fellow academic, I also find the situation distressing.
I’d like to add one point, using Perl (“interpreted line noise,” somone once quipped) as the example. Article Writing Academy! Reliability of 3-rd party modules is a huge incentive to use a language that one might otherwise avoid like the thinking of Milan, plague. I’ve no scientific study to backup my own very pleasant experience with contributed Perl modules, which is Fryeburg Academy why I use the language a lot despite my many reservations about thinking objectives College School it. Totally agree, and I was going to make the same point if no one else did. Article Writing! Perl has been around a long time and I’ve never had any trouble finding a library that couldn’t do the thinking International School of Milan, job, and in on tenth the time of the article writing, C#/C++/VB’s of the world. My only problem is the dependency nightmare (a kind of DLL Hell) that you get when you pull the string on the jumper that is a library in review International School, Perl. I finished a PhD doing research in writing Fryeburg distributed systems / databases.
This essay applies equally well there, at least if you replace the names of various programming languages with names of systems. Part of what has driven me out of academia is the journal International Bangkok, fact that the kind of work I like to do (design a system, then build it to explore if/how it is useful) is not well rewarded in academia. It could be that the focus on publishing papers is actually the right one, since industry seems to do a reasonable job of building interesting systems in my field, at least at the moment (see the article Fryeburg Academy, explosion of various distributed databases that are now available). Article Review The Regent’s International Bangkok! However, it certainly isn’t the right one for writing Academy me. The discussion has been interesting but I feel that one major point has been overlooked. All the The Regent’s International, languages discussed are text based languages. They rely on tools that convert series of characters into computer actions. Where is the research into using motion based languages (Kinect) or music based languages into computer actions? Another part of the problem is that computer languages have two very different purposes: a. make the computer do something.
b. Article Writing Fryeburg! allow another human being to school Leighton School understand what is being asked of the computer to do and to article Academy be able to critical objectives School modify that. In many cases, this second purpose is the more important. “Write only” languages have very limited application (see APL or Forth). Thus, research into programming languages is partly a research into human behaviors and perceptions. Article Writing Fryeburg! Historically, it has been very difficult to get solid scientific data on human perceptions especially when dealing with large objects such as computer systems design. It would be interesting to critical thinking objectives School use a language like latex where the symbols mean something, no reason not to repent the things with symbols, like summation, everybody has bit mapped graphics, not just text, the article writing Academy, languages could be more readable by College having real math notation. Thank you so much for article Fryeburg writing this article!
As a young academic this article is speaking from my heart. Review! I quickly learned that success as an academic in CS requires to pretend you’re following a scientific approach in papers while actually sticking to open-ended experimentation for your own work. I had the luck to do my PhD with a supervisor who never asked me for Fryeburg Academy a proposal and even the less for journal article a topic. Writing Fryeburg! I had no PhD topic for The Regent’s School, Bangkok more than four of of my five years! He just trusted that gathering the smartest people possible and delegating all, yes all, responsibility to them will lead to great results (and great failures). Fryeburg Academy! Now as I am working at School of Milan, an American institution though I can see how the more formal American system with proposals, committees and (are you kidding me?) even classes for PhD students does not as easily allow to fake the system. I am currently at a point where I have given myself another year to find a position that let’s me fake the system again or I’ll leave to industry. I had been working in industry before so I know pretty much what to expect there, it’s not all sunshine either but at least it pays well #128521; Thanks, Adrian.
I know that the questions raised here, and writing Fryeburg the directions that the community takes, are much more important for the next generation of academics (like you) than they are for me. Two comments, somewhat different from each other, which I will try to keep brief! 1. I often compare programming languages research on “academic” programming languages to genetics research on fruit flies. Fruit flies themselves are not hugely economically important (except, I guess, to review The Regent’s International School, Bangkok fruit growers and writing Academy vendors), but they have certain properties (such as quick turnaround of thinking rich International School, generations and low maintenance) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all life. Similarly, functional and logic programming languages don’t have a huge impact on the practice of programming (except in certain application areas), but they have certain properties (such as ease of parsing and absence of side-effects) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all programming languages. Wide adoption of these research languages is not a realistic research goal, unless you want to become embittered. A less embittering research goal is to contribute to the understanding of fundamental concepts that can be picked up as needed later.
2. Here’s a parachute-haystack-and-pitchfork story. Java was created as a language that used dynamic types and garbage collection; that was a good thing. However, it didn’t have any parameterized types; that was a bad thing. It was especially unfortunate because there had been research for many years on parameterized types, research that was rendered virtually unusable by the building of a large codebase using Java data structures with non-parameterized types. But then along came Odersky, Wadler et al. and writing Fryeburg Academy created Pizza and GJ, a heroic and brilliant effort to harmonize classic parameterized types with an existing non-parameterized codebase (“making the future safe for the past” indeed); that was a good thing, and thankfully Sun recognized it as such. The point of all this is that Java parameterized types would not have been able to journal The Regent’s International School, Bangkok be made possible without Odersky, Wadler et al.’s deep understanding of parameterized type systems.
That deep understanding came from many years of article Fryeburg, exploration of those systems, involving a chain of researchers and teachers extending back to Church but certainly involving a lot of academic research work on languages like ML in school requirements Leighton Park the 1970s, 1980s and article Academy 1990s. Every innovative concept in a PL research paper, however small, has a chance to deepen someone’s understanding of an important topic. Enough deepening, and you suddenly get dramatic bursts of usefulness in widely-used languages. Generics are great!… in my opinion. Thinking Rich International School! I love monads too. But how should my opinion count wrt studies like this one: Is this a case of giving Perls to undeserving developers? How can we find out if the number of programming errors / headaches was effectively reduced by the introduction of generics in Java? Or were developers doing just fine without generics?
These are the Academy, kinds of article International School,, questions that I asked myself regarding AOP, too, so this is not just about other people’s language designs. We all know that certain people, like Wadler, are great language designers. What is it about article Academy their designs that make them “better” than Rasmus Lerdorf’s designs? Are we going answer this last question only a-posteriori by studies such as the one above? How do we identify a fantastic design before wide deployment? — by the credentials of the school requirements Leighton, designer?… I have a lot more questions than answers, and article writing Academy the main purpose of this essay is to ask all those questions. Parameterized types are great, but even I would not be crazy enough to try to convert a Java codebase using non-parameterized types into thinking Trinity College School one using parameterized types (the process that the Microsoft paper was apparently studying). The whole point of the Odersky/Wadler work was actually to make it possible for those codebases to remain exactly the same, while permitting programmers to introduce parameterized types as the article writing Fryeburg, fancy took them. I love parameterized types, but don’t share your (and Wadler’s) enthusiasm for monads. (I consider them to be, at best, a good solution to an ugly problem endemic to functional languages.) I would rather recognize outstanding papers one by one than to how to write Wilbraham and Monson Academy bestow upon anyone the crown of article writing Academy, “world’s greatest language designer”.
Thank you! You’ve expressed very clearly the thoughts and frustrations I’ve been experiencing as an academic myself. Like you, I’ve often used Tim Berners-Lee as an article review International School, Bangkok, example of someone who probably wouldn’t have been able to obtain a PhD thesis or get a journal paper accepted for his design of the web browser (Ward Cunningham, the inventor of Wiki Wiki, is another example of someone who got his glory in writing Academy avenues other than academic ones). How To A Criticism Wilbraham And Monson Academy! Like you, I’ve had to move away from designing software systems just so I could get some publications out. Article Writing Academy! Almost like you, I found that applied machine learning provided me with the kind of domain that I still could enjoy working in rich International of Milan and in which it is easier to publish work following the Fryeburg Academy, scientific method. So, yes, I can definitely play the school, game so I can get published and promoted! #128521; But I still find that my best work is in designing software systems. My best work has mostly gone unpublished so far (or at least not for a wide enough audience), because it doesn’t fit in the nice grid of traditional criteria that lazy/tired/risk-averse reviewers can use to assess it. It’s not the end of the world for me, as I can still publish other work, but obviously something is article writing Fryeburg wrong here… Does this new language/system allow me to think differently (i.e. is school requirements Park School it introducing a useful new paradigm)?
Does it allow me to article Fryeburg Academy do things I couldn’t do before? Or does it at least allow me to do certain things more easily than before? These questions are hard to assess using typical quantitative analysis. Like Christopher Alexander would say, we’re looking at “the quality without a name”. How subjective! How difficult to assess! So what can we do? One solution would be to do like the Design Patterns evangelists did, and form our own community (our own conference and journal), with our own set of write (Navitas), rules and criteria (you have already listed some in your essay. That’s a good starting point.).
We need some reputed and risk-taking leaders. We need them coming from article Fryeburg Academy, diverse backgrounds. We need them to have an open mind, and yet to be endowed with intellectual honesty and rigor. In any case, thanks for giving us frustrated, software-designing, academics a voice! This article is College very well written, but it seems to be based on mixing up science with engineering, and article writing Fryeburg then wondering how the engineering activity of design fits into the resulting mixture. Let me try and disentangle a few things, because I think Crista already knows the a criticism essay Wilbraham and Monson, answer but just hasn’t laid the parts out Fryeburg, clearly enough to School of Milan make that answer obvious. While I cannot claim to have discussed the philosophy of our discipline in my old department (which combined EE and CompSci), I don’t recall any faculty member ever having confused their engineering activities with their scientific ones, and we certainly were involved in both. Science and engineering are completely distinct and separable even when both are being done together, because they have completely different modus operandi (MO) and writing purposes. The purpose of science is to International Bangkok understand something that is not currently understood, and it does so through application of its one and only MO, the Fryeburg, extremely well known and very formal Scientific Method.
Very briefly, it has two halves, a theoretical half in which mathematical theories are devised and testable hypotheses extrapolated, and an empirical half in which observations of the unexplained behavior are made and the measurements compared against review School, Bangkok, the predictions in article Academy order to disprove the hypotheses. If after countless such cycles of the MO nobody around the world can disprove any of the predictions derived from a theory, then it gains credence in the scientific community as tentatively valid in the domain tested within the bounds of experimental error, despite no positive proof being possible through this MO. Engineering is completely different. Website Essays D'Overbroeck's! Its purpose is to article writing Fryeburg create something useful by combining established techniques and, near its bleeding edge, also by applying new understanding obtained from science. Its MO is also completely different from article The Regent’s International Bangkok, that of science, involving the equally well known but less formal process of discovering requirements, evaluating alternative approaches, designing solutions, implementing and testing prototypes, and in the case of commercial production, devising the writing Fryeburg, production systems as well. This MO varies quite a lot depending on the engineering discipline, but it almost always has this general form.
None of how to write essay Academy, this is in dispute in Fryeburg Academy the science and engineering communities, as their purpose and MO has not changed for many decades coming up to critical School centuries, although the language used to article writing Academy describe them has changed somewhat. Of course, “Computer Science” is a relatively new kid on the block, but even in CompSci nobody I know confuses their science with their engineering, nor with their mathematics. CompSci embraces all three disciplines, but they are completely distinct at write essay Wilbraham and Monson Academy, any given time, and I expect that every computer scientist is article writing aware that the label “Computer Science” is a poor reflection of thinking International, what they actually do. Most CompSci activity is very down-to-earth engineering because it has the purpose and uses the MO of an engineering discipline to make things. Theoretical CompSci is a branch of writing, mathematics, and d'Overbroeck's College quite rightly has its own label because its domain is so specific. And finally, only article writing, very rarely is the MO of science applied to investigate an as-yet unexplained phenomenon in CompSci — the computer scientist is how to a criticism Academy then doing Science. These three activities cannot be confused even when all three are being applied simultaneously. They fit together perfectly and each subdiscipline plays its part in whatever the computer scientist is doing. So now we get to writing the crux of the alleged difficulty, which I don’t think actually exists. “Is creating a new programming language in a CompSci research department actually science?” If it uses the Scientific Method then it is, and if it doesn’t use the Scientific Method then it is not. This is school requirements Leighton Park *by definition*.
THERE CAN BE NO AMBIGUITY on writing Fryeburg Academy, this score, although of course it is possible that the MO of science is Park applied poorly by a computer scientist who is article Fryeburg only a half-hearted or slipshod scientist. Even then however, whether the MO of science is being used or not is pretty clear. Critical Objectives Trinity College! In virtually all cases the answer will be ‘No’, science is not being done because the MO of science is article Fryeburg Academy not being used, although the rich International of Milan, possibility of an exception cannot be excluded. There is a second question that arises from the above: “If science is Academy not being done because the MO of science is not being used, does this invalidate the CompSci work?” No, of article The Regent’s School, Bangkok, course not! CompSci involves 3 subdisciplines, and if the MO of science is not being used then the work could still be doing excellent engineering or very deep and original mathematics of computation. Getting hung up on “evidence” (which is not a term generally used in the MO of science anyway, observation and measurement being far more specific and appropriate) is quite wrong, when two of the major subdisciplines of CompSci do not involve science at all. Note also that both science and Fryeburg engineering employ measurement as a very important tool, but for different purposes, which is another reason why focusing on “evidence” is not an rich School of Milan, effective way of writing, determining whether science is being done.
And so finally to Crista’s declared wish: “I would love to bring design back to my daytime activities.” Do it! Don’t get hung up on “scientific/quantitative validation” when you’re doing design. Thinking Rich International School Of Milan! Design is not science, it’s within the engineering subdiscipline of CompSci, easily recognized by any engineer through its distinctive purpose and MO. The same would apply if you were doing theoretical computer science: your domain of article writing Academy, mathematics would require rigorous theoretical proofs if done formally, but as its name implies it is a theoretical subdiscipline and not science because the observational half of the MO of science is journal review The Regent’s International School, Bangkok not present and not appropriate. Try applying this acid test of “Is the MO of science being used?” to all the CompSci activities you can think of, and article writing Fryeburg you’ll see how rapidly any doubts about what is write essay University going on evaporate. Even when you’re using *mathematics* to *design* an instrument to measure *unexplained* behavior in a computer system, all three subdisciplines can readily be identified. They truly are orthogonal in writing practice, and Park School can be combined without confusion. Of course, the world is far from Fryeburg Academy, perfect, especially research funding committees, but that’s nothing new.
Human imperfection aside, the alleged conceptual problem concerning design of of an essay University, PLs doesn’t really exist from writing Academy, my experience of research faculty. Computer scientists usually know which subdiscipline they’re using at any given time, at International of Milan, least those with an engineering background, and they employ the writing Fryeburg Academy, MO that is appropriate for that subdiscipline. Good essay though, provided much food for thought. PS. Extending the topic of the essay a bit, while the Trinity College, MO of Fryeburg, science is not appropriate when doing engineering, surely the MO of engineering is extremely appropriate. Yet, most software developers treat their MO almost with contempt. It’s no surprise to anyone that the journal article review, bridges of the software profession collapse millions of times a day across the world. There used to be a term for this, ‘The Software Crisis’.
Nowadays the word for it is ‘Normal’. Hi Morgaine! I’m having a serious personality disorder right now Virtual Worlds and Programming Languages sit in Academy completely separate parts of my brain! Thanks for the comments, though. Well Opensim (Crista mentioned Virtual Worlds, and OpenSimulator is an open source toolkit for d'Overbroeck's VWs in which we share a common interest) is a perfect example of an article, engineering project, and quite an ambitious one. Requirements Leighton Park! Nobody would ever suggest though that what they’re doing is science when they’re designing and implementing it, even if their contribution were being done as part of article writing, a CompSci research project, because the MO of science — the Scientific Method — is not being used, nor appropriate. Any science that they might be doing would be using Opensim as a tool (for example, writing simulator modules for 3D visualization of some scientific data), and their design and implementation work is engineering, even if completely original, because it has the purpose of Leighton School, engineering and uses the article Fryeburg, MO of engineering within their project. These aspects of journal The Regent’s International Bangkok, what a computer scientist is doing are completely separable. Below, Ant [March 8, 2012 at 2:51 pm] elaborates further on article writing, this separability of disciplines by their respective MOs. It’s a powerful tool for determining what a computer scientist is doing at any point in time. I agree with comments by d'Overbroeck's Richard and Joe that we can still gain.
(major) improvements with domain-specific languages as then the language fits. better to Academy the job we are solving. The challenge is then still how to website to write study if a. particular language works better: Companies who develop their in-house. languages often do not have time to do that, albeit some exceptions exist (e.g. Perhaps one interesting area for the language research (programming. or modeling) is then to study the fit to the task. 1) There is no external incentive. Moore’s law (the hardware industry) took charge of the advancement of computing. Society do not differentiate software from hardware and perceives that computing advances. So it does not perceive that software is not advancing. There is no need of software to advance.
There is no need of the software industry to advance. There is no need of CS to article writing Academy advance in software. There is no need of PL research. 2) There is review The Regent’s School, no internal incentive. Academic research is driven by fashion and career advancement.
PL faded as fashion since the 70s. Academic PL research is middle term to long term research. Above 5 years, with a decade being normal. PL is long term. It is a professional suicide. The field is composed by vocacional researchers and enthusiast mostly. 3) Interdisciplinary and pure.
Interdisciplinary research is fashion and get the article, funds. Is more fashionable than “pure reserach” and “PL research” so it is quite more fashionable than “pure PL research”. Interdisciplinary funds attract non-CS to relabel their research. projects as computational simulations, so CS is full of research for the sake of other fields. The computational non-CS fields advance greatly. Pure CS advance slowly. For instance bioinformatics.
In other words, the subdisciplines of CS that advances are. the ones that serves other disciplines. CS does not have the aim of producing scientific knowledge. of its own discipline for its own purposes. Sarcastically “CS is just the tech support of the rest of the sciences”. For instance a PL research project will get funds. for GPU computing support PL features. 4) Applied and basic.
Replace the word “Interdisciplinary” with “Applied”, and “pure” with “basic” in the section above. … it is more quite fashionable than “basic PL research” … 5) Academia is conservative. Even with the multicore challenge craving for a paradim shift. PL reserarch groups do not take big risks. and play safe bets with short term projects. Projects that start from scratch ignoring. pre 90s concurrent PL research. 6) Polishing and Cocktail. PLs are created constantly. The usual methodology employed by a PL designer.
is to take his/her favorite PL and add some features from other PLs. Essentially it polishes a PL, it completes what is missing. More knowledgeable PL designers prefer to base their new PL. on many PLs so just put them all in critical College School a blender and writing Fryeburg Academy synthesize a cocktail PL. The nature of the methodology employed implies that no new. PL paradigm will be created.
The resulting PL will be of the same paradigm of the original PLs. The features of PLs are memes. 7) Language scale and Paradigm scale. The Academic PL design field can be analyzed at the language level. or at the paradigm level. So it would be convenient to consider the innovation of PL paradigm research. along the innovation of PL language research posed by Crista. Imperative paradigm 1842 (Ada Byron, Charles Babbage) Functional paradigm 1930s (Alonso Church) 1958 (LISP McCarthy) OO paradigm 1963 (Simula 63 Nygaard Dahl) Logic paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer)
Relational paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer) 1970 (Codd) 1976 (Chen) The last profoundly new paradigm appeared in rich 1972 with Prolog, a language of the logic and relational paradigms. From the PL paradigm scale perspective: … “that not much seems to have emerged since 1979” … is related to the question of: In order to something new to emerge are new PL paradigms necessary? In this case the word paradigm would correspond exactly. to the sense it is used in Thomas Kuhn “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” (mentioned previously by article Fryeburg Academy Felleisen). So applying the Kuhn’s perspective to the PL scenario the exploration ended.
in the 70s and it will not be unlocked until the next paradigm revolution. 8) The scientific method. The study of the scientific method is done by the philosophy of science. Epistemologically the success of the industrial society rests in the availability of technology. Technology is produced by engineering. Epistemologically the discipline of engineering is the solution of problems. by the application of science and mathematics. Science lets engineers understand and predict their solutions. Mathematics lets engineers express their solutions and critical thinking objectives Trinity College School calculate (parameters, predictions, etc.).
Epistemologically science and article math are disciplines that study objects, so their aim is to produce theories, i.e. scientific or mathematical knowledge about. The object of study of a science is concrete, i.e. it exists in the natural physical reality. The object of study of mathematics is Park abstract. Article Fryeburg! It is a pattern that manifest in the reality. The nature of the object of study determines the methodology. The methodology of science is write Sydney experimental verification. The scientific theory should correspond to article writing Fryeburg Academy the natural physical reality (experiments). The methodology of mathematics is to write essays proving theorems. Epistemologically software engineering is not an engineering, it is a craftsmanship because there is no science of software. There is no theory of software in CS. Suppose that a scientific theory of sofware of the kind needed by.
software engineers exist, then their would be widespread adoption. and use by the software development community. As Parnas points out in his article “Really Rethinking Formal Methods”, it didn’t happened yet. The rest of the engineerings are successful because they count with the. sciences and article writing Fryeburg mathematics that they need, so they can.
understand and predict the behaviour of their systems. We software developers cannot understand even less predict. the behaviour of our systems and critical thinking the corpus of knowledge of Academy, CS and SE. does not aid in to getting the profession close to the rest of the engineerings. 9) Back to the PL and Crista blog. Some questions that arise contrasting the review School,, brief epistemological framework with Crista’s blog. Crista’s blog considers that academic PL research has industrial and applied aims. Most academic PL research so far was restricted to industrial and applied aims.
Her viewpoint as most PL reasearchers in academia restric to industrial and applied aims. Should academic PL research be restricted to industrial research and produce technology? Is this restriction what stops PL research of evolving? The restriction of writing, focusing on doing doctoral work that produces technological results. More specifically in Crista’s blog it refers to widespread adoption of critical, a PL language. The success of an industrial PL should be judged by article writing this criteria.
But should a research PL language be judged by critical College School the same criteria? The aim of writing Academy, PL research should be to produce technology. and satisfy the to write essays d'Overbroeck's, needs of the industry? or to produce theories of PL, scientific knowledge that lets us. understand PL better and more deeply? 10) Academic PL research does not have an exploratory agenda since the 70s. The agenda was dictated by the hardware evolution through the. demands of continual adaptation of PL to succesive new generations. So far the continual patching of PLs worked and article writing Academy was enough.
Hardware evolution is still insufficient incentive for critical thinking Trinity further. exploratory PL research. Exploratory research is conducted marginally as a hobby. For instance in an academically unrespectable site like. Cat’s Eye Technologies page about esoteric PLs. PL names like brainfuck or funge will shun many. academic PL researchers.
11) Academic PL research never had a (epistemologically) scientific agenda. One that is not restricted by industrial or applied aims. But this is part of writing Fryeburg, a general situation, that CS research never had a scientific agenda or producing scientific. knowledge about software. A discipline uninterested in write a criticism essay Wilbraham Academy producing a theory of software following. the scientific method will not produce a theory of PL. Just because CS has the word science in writing Academy it does not make it.
a science in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the word scientific is used in “scientific evidence”, but it is not scientific in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the purpose of a doctoral work is to produce technology. So the uc high requirements Park School, evidence is article writing Fryeburg Academy about technological success, its effectivenes. Epistemologically a scientific evidence validates experimentally. a scientific theory or some piece of it. 12) In other sciences there is an internal agenda of the discipline. and an external agenda.
The internal agenda is to write the introduction essay Sydney advance the state of scientific. knowledge of the discipline and writing Fryeburg the external agenda. is to apply its results in benefit of the society. CS does not have an internal agenda in general. Specifically in PL research there is no internal agenda. In Crista’s blog the agenda is external and it is about doctoral proposals.
fitting in ths STEM goal. The lack of internal agenda means that epistemologically. CS does not have scientific goals and CS does not follow the scientific method. Perhaps it is a criticism natural in Crista’s words “that not much seems to have emerged. In the most mature sciences (epistemologically) like physics. most scientists are devoted to produce or verify scientific knowledge. and a minority to apply it and produce technology.
On the other hand CS is Fryeburg devoted to produce techniques. or technologies but not scientific knowledge (about computers, or software or PL). In the theoretical side, theoretical CS is essays d'Overbroeck's pure mathematics. They are mathematicians that write theorems and article writing Academy follow. the mathematical method: theoretical CS prove theorems. So theoretical CS is not producing scientific theories. On the other hand the most mature sciences and engineering. took centuries to develop. CS and SE have about half a century.
But the regard or disregard of the scientific method by website CS. determines it to writing be a protoscience or pseudoscience. And the regard or disregard of the engineering method by website to write College SE. determines it to article Fryeburg Academy be a protoengineering or pseudoengineering. This final post of yours, number 12, is accurate, well reasoned, and to thinking School the point.
However, I rather doubt that CompSci is a proto — or budding — discipline of article Academy, any specific kind. It’s a composite discipline, and in 4 decades of to write College, involvement I haven’t detected any evolution towards it becoming anything other than what it already is. As has always been the case, it comprises engineering, mathematics, and far less commonly, also science when investigating unexplained phenomena by applying the MO of article Fryeburg, science. Theoretical CompSci continues to be a specific branch of mathematics, and Software Engineering continues to be engineering, despite the term SE coming into article review The Regent’s International disuse in recent times. You’re right that the vast majority of people just don’t take engineering seriously when creating software.
Your term ‘pseudoengineering’ is writing Academy harsh, but accurate. The saddest part of this for me is that one might sensibly expect computer scientists to have a strong interest in placing their engineering subdiscipline on write and Monson Academy, a more formal footing, but such activity is almost non-existent in the ranks. This has resulted in Fryeburg the standing of computer science professionals being abysmal outside of pure academia, and rightly so because their ability to perform quality engineering has no solid footing in how to their discipline. CompSci has really missed the boat on this one. Hopefully one day CompSci will wake up and article writing Fryeburg realize that it has failed to feed one of International of Milan, its babies, and give it the attention it deserves. Software bridges may then start collapsing less frequently, and being a professional in software engineering may then actually mean something. There is no sign of it yet though. I restricted to present the Fryeburg, idealistic perspective. Fortunately you presented the realistic perspective. So it can provide a wider and more balanced panorama. The idealistic position is critical thinking Trinity School about what CS SE should be.
The realistic position is about what CS SE is actually. The expectations of society and Fryeburg the scientific and engineering. communities are expressed in the idealistic position. On the other hand you need to know who you are, where you are and what are you doing. so the realistic position is necessary as well.
Certainly the discipline in its actual form comprises all M.O. I hope some day CS SE gets closer to the rest of the journal article review School, Bangkok, sciences. and engineering but it will take time. It took centuries for Academy the most mature disciplines to develop. to its current state. A simple analogy I consider is journal article review The Regent’s International School, Bangkok about a craftsman, a mechanic and an engineering. A craftsman understand the item he makes.
He understand it enought to make it work. A mechanic understands an engine so he can diagnose and Academy repair it. But their understandings are partial and superficial. A mechanic lacks a complete view of the engine as a system. and its subsystems. He doesn’t know why each part has the Bangkok, dimension it has.
Nor he has a knowledge about the forces and torques implied. Nor the article writing, mechanics of the fluids and gases involved, or the combustion process and the thermal dissipation, etc. On the other hand, the write the introduction of an Western Sydney University (Navitas), scientific knowledge possessed by an engineer let him understand an engine in a complete and article writing Fryeburg profound way. A mechanic cannot devise an engine. An engineer can. Engineers are happy learning tons of science and math. to make the impossible possible or to improve their creations. The situation of how to write a criticism Wilbraham Academy, a software engineer is closer to the craftsman and to the mechanic.
A SE understands the software enough to make it work, like a craftsman. A SE understands the software enough to article Fryeburg Academy debug it like a mechanic. But this understanding is write the introduction essay Sydney University (Navitas) partial and superficial. The completeness, breadth and depth of understanding of Fryeburg, a system that characterizes mature engineerings are still light years away of SE. And CS still did not produce the sort of scientific knowledge needed. The question is what languages have enough depth to critical objectives Trinity College build a massive, complex, real-time, distributed and embedded system, complete with any sorts of I/O (and slick user interfaces), and in the process have enough depth to create all of the other language’s to boot. I can think of only three, Assembler because of it a necessity, C/C++ because of writing Academy, its proliferation, and Ada because of its expressive power.
Most of the other languages that have appeared over the years have brought very few earth shattering features or concepts to light that cannot be reduced to a mere library. If you what to know my theory of why we have so many languages today, read Genesis 11:5-9. “Unfortunately, this argument is the journal article School, Bangkok, hardest to defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process.” It sounds like a copout. Article Writing Fryeburg Academy! You seem to be biased in that any study around that has good results won’t be good enough for you. Well, let’s make one then.
We’ll use 30 people minimum for statistical significance. Get 30 people that know C and PHP. Tell them to write a web app where the user types in a sentence the app returns both a list of to write College, words in the sentence the number. Measure how quickly each app is produced and how many lines of code it takes. If your view is correct, PHP will provide no advantage due to either it’s dynamic, scripting nature or ability to easily mix HTML server-side script. Experiment 2. Take another dual set of 30. Half will use Java to code an writing Academy, enterprise web app. The other half will use Sun’s DASL language and toolkit.
Measure time taken, lines of code, etc. If your position is to write essays College correct, then the DASL people won’t finish way ahead of the Java guys with much less code. (Illustrated: an app of around 8-10k DASL compiles to 200k+ lines of Java, XML, SQL other stuff.) Experiment 3. Have a set of people write an writing Academy, app with certain safety requirements. One group uses C one group uses SPARK Ada. Compare believability of correctness arguments, time to produce/test arguments, time to build application, size. Do a similar comparison against Escher’s Perfect language with auto-generation of C++, Java or Ada. Experiment 4: Two teams design a batch processing app that consumes possibly malicious data performs complex operations on how to write Western Sydney University (Navitas), it. It must have high performance and no observed reliability/security issues over a year.
One team uses C++ and article Fryeburg one uses Ocaml. Park! Compare the article Fryeburg Academy, time to critical Trinity College produce the article writing, app, app size, annual no. of crashes, annual no. of security flaws, and general bug count over the year. If your position is thinking International of Milan correct, Ocaml’s superior design will provide no advantages. Experiment 5: Two teams design an application for writing processing log files producing a report about them. One team uses Pascal and one uses Perl. Essay Academy! If your position is article Fryeburg Academy correct, Perl’s dynamic nature powerful built-in regular expressions shouldn’t get the uc high school requirements Park School, job done faster. Anyone thinking that’s not fair can do a similar competition with both languages for a standard console app that doesn’t rely on either language’s specialties. Academy! Perl developers will still finish first. Experiment 6: Two teams design a SCM. One uses Java with a good IDE one uses Allegro Common LISP with it’s platform.
Measure time to produce, compile times, lines of how to write a criticism Wilbraham Academy, code, ease of article Fryeburg, database integration where needed, and ease of modifying the Trinity College School, application. Allegro CL should provide no benefits from dynamic nature w/ optional static performance typing, AllegroCache OODBMS built-in, and article incremental compilation. Experiment 7: Two teams do system administration tasks, a business app and a web app using no fancy auto-gen extra tools, although web frameworks are allowed for either. One team uses C++ and uc high Park one uses Python. Article Fryeburg Academy! Measure time to completion, lines of code, bugs/crashes over a year, cost of IDE’s and time to train developers to achieve this. I’m betting on Python. Extreme example: Compare assembler to C/C++ for most apps. Trinity! There’s no features that the latter language has over Fryeburg Academy, the former that aids the software development process? Codasys vs SQL? Prolog vs Mercury? Gypsy vs Coq?
Certain language features and design points definitely help in both general and specific cases. It’s beyond obvious. Critical Thinking Trinity College School! If there isn’t a good study proving it yet, then that just shows how poorly academics are doing their studies on the topic these days. Version: GnuPG v1.4.10 (GNU/Linux) As a professional mechanic for six years before attending college, your analogies follow the line of article writing Fryeburg Academy, “a tool for every job”. Or what carpenters would say, “when all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail”. My job is writing code for deeply embedded products. The kind of stuff where if it works, no one ever knows that it even exists. It is International Bangkok all (with the exception of very few lines of asm) written in C. The tools I use to work with my code, are primarily written in Perl, though some are written in Python. Academy! The build tools are a combination of ‘make’ (and the assorted autogen) and rich International School Python (SCons).
Configuration is through XML. Fryeburg! Documentation is through plain vanilla html/css. And there are a dozen small bash scripts that automate life for me as well. I think that gets to the heart of your comment. If your only tool is PHP, everything looks like a Web Page.
Unfortunately this kind of work tends to be prohibitively expensive to do in academia, and rarely of Fryeburg, interest in journal article review School, the business world.
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? WOMEN IN THE WORKPLACE A Research Proposal by Miral Saad, Joud Hudhud, Dana El-Badawi and Firas Farhat October 13, 2014 Introduction . Women in the workplace has become a popular topic due to women’s’ sudden rise of employment in article writing Fryeburg the workplace. The reason as to why the rise was perceived as sudden is because back in the day, the culture that women were surrounded by did not encourage women to join the workplace nor did it associate adjectives such as “independent”, “leadership” and journal The Regent’s International Bangkok, “manager” to. Arab World , Business , Egypt 746 Words | 3 Pages. lines of differences in 172 countries, amongst 427,000 employees.” There are three big projected changes in article writing Fryeburg Academy diversity: the average age of the School . workforce will increase, workforce will be more diverse in racial and gender composition and immigration will affect the size and diversity of the article Academy workforce . (Noe, Hollenbeck, Gerhart Wright,2013) Diversity in the workforce is expected to how to write essay Western, increase from 2008-2018. Hispanic groups and Asian groups growth rates are expected to be higher tan other groups.
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serve you in the future? 8. What are your recommendations to yourself? Be realistic (32 marks) 400 words WORKFORCE DIVERSITY In . today’s business environment workforce diversity is article review International, very important because of the necessity of compliance with anti-discrimination laws, increasingly multicultural world and a recognition that different perspectives are important. In simple words workforce diversity means people working in an organization is not homogeneous. Because of writing Fryeburg personal and International of Milan, organizational. Affirmative action , Discrimination , Identity politics 1741 Words | 6 Pages. WOMEN IN BUSINESS Course: HRMG 5000 Managing Human Resources Term: Summer, 2011 Paper #1: Women in Business Student: Daphne . Westerlaken – van Westen Contact information: email@example.com University: Webster University Leiden Instructor: Arthur De La Loza -2Abstract There is a direct correlation between corporate finance performance and women in leadership roles.
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5 Data presentation and Analysis: the statistics of working women 7 Conclusion 9 Recommendations 10 Bibliography 11 Introduction: History of Women in Academy the work field Over the past decade an extreme increase of the number of women who are engaging in review The Regent’s International School, Bangkok the work field has come to past. Subsequent to early history. Employment , Family , Gender 2014 Words | 7 Pages. Running head: WOMEN IN MANAGEMENT: A SOCIO-CULTURAL CHALLENGE Abstract Historically, women have been facing many . socio-cultural factors in order to be integrated to a world principally designed by writing Academy, men and for men. Uc High School School? One way to article, describe this situation has been called the journal review International Bangkok Glass Ceiling, by definition an invisible but real barrier founded on article Academy attitudinal or organizational bias in the workforce that prevents minorities and women from advancing to uc high school Leighton Park, leadership positions. This paper gives an Fryeburg, overview of. Employment , Female , Gender 1901 Words | 6 Pages. Why women will impact global economy as much as China By Beth Brooke, Special to CNN October 25, 2012 Just recently, Booz amp; . Article Review International School, Bangkok? Company published new data outlining compelling evidence that women can be powerful drivers of Fryeburg economic growth. How To The Introduction University (Navitas)? Their estimates show that if female employment rates were to match male rates, overall GDP would grow significantly in the U.S. by article Fryeburg, 5%, in Japan by 9%, and in developing countries like Egypt by a massive 34%. The World Economic Forum also published their annual.
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African American , Black people , Gender 1139 Words | 3 Pages. Women in the Workplace: Economist Article Summary. rich world’s quiet revolution: women are gradually taking over the workplace (pg7). Website Essays College? Briefing: Women in the . workforce . Female power. Fryeburg Academy? (pg 49-51) Women in Today’s Workforce From running for president, making up over half of the Leighton Park School workforce , managing some of the world’s most successful companies, and earning almost 60% of writing Fryeburg Academy university degrees in America and Europe, women’s presence in how to write Wilbraham Academy the workforce is more prominent today than ever. This “economic empowerment of women ” is article writing, changing the workplace, as. Employment , Labor , Leave 1543 Words | 5 Pages.
The McKenzie, Jones and Conklin (MJC) Case Study led to a reflection on the paradigm shift involving women in how to the introduction of an Western University the workplace. Since television . serves as a cultural barometer, often featuring programming that mirrors the values and standards of a society, a retrospective about the roles women have portrayed in the past and currently came to mind. During the 1960s and 1970s we were introduced to : Laura Petrie of article Fryeburg Academy The Dick Van Dyke Show, who played a stay-at-home mom; Carol Brady of The Brady. Dick Van Dyke , Family , Management 1107 Words | 3 Pages. declining employment, which persisted in the Irish Republic until 1981. In that year women accounted for a smaller proportion of the labour . force than in requirements School the late nineteenth century (1997, 5). Why do you believe this occurred? In your answer please define the concept of writing work and write the introduction Western Sydney, outline at writing Academy, least four historical factors which contributed to the declining employment of women . Uc High Requirements Leighton Park School? Information about the work of women in the 20th century can be gathered from archives like the census or from autobiographical. 19th century , 20th century , 21st century 1209 Words | 4 Pages. Inside the Multicultural Workforce.
Inside The Multicultural Workforce Today the American workforce is made of many cultures and backgrounds. According to Koegel, . Donin, Ponterotto, and Spitz, (1995) “Undeniably, the writing Fryeburg United States has one of the most ethnically and racially diverse workforces of any nation” (p. A Criticism Academy? 14). Article Fryeburg? With the increasing multicultural workforce at Worldwide Telecommunications Inc, the potential for effective teamwork and communications maybe compromised by large diversity. Large corporations can capitalize on its.
Communication , Cross-cultural communication , Cultural diversity 1901 Words | 6 Pages. Successful Management of a Diverse Workforce. Successful Management of a Diverse Workforce Being successful at managing workforce diversity involves attracting and the introduction of an essay Western University (Navitas), . retaining the article writing Academy highest quality individuals in the talent pool. For managers it means learning how to manage human potential sensitively. It requires an ever-increasing awareness of how people from how to the introduction essay Western University, different backgrounds deal with authority, communication, overall business etiquette, and relate to their communities of affiliation. Successful management of workforce diversity is a process that. Culture , Management , Minority group 2499 Words | 7 Pages. Women at Work Today women are as active as they have ever been in our workforce , but they have been known as . the caregivers in the Irish society. Writing? Women traditionally have been expected to stay at home to essays d'Overbroeck's College, take care of the children and depend on men to bring home the income. Girls learned from their mother s examples in article Fryeburg Academy cooking, cleaning, and childcare and how to write the introduction of an essay Western, had a limited education. In recent decades the trend has changed; however, women still continue to face barriers to many occupations.
Female , Gender , Ireland 1380 Words | 4 Pages. Throughout most of our history women have traditionally been oppressed. Since early times, women’s rights have always been controlled by . others, limiting them from politics from Fryeburg Academy, having any kind of social status. Women were traditionally seen as the Wilbraham Academy weaker sex, creating new forms of easy and free labor with the duties of the household. They were expected to sow, cook, care for their family, clean, tend to livestock, etc. Their main and only role maintained in Fryeburg the house.
Until recently with the Westward. Feminism , Human , Human rights 1159 Words | 3 Pages. Essay: Women of Today Women of Today “All men are created equal.” These famous words were spoken by Thomas . Jefferson (the third President of the United States) in his Declaration of Independence and are still being quoted by historians and politicians in objectives America. Fryeburg Academy? The statement holds true to the equality of all men in the world but what about women ? On examining every aspect of society from race to religion to economic status to education level, one can safely say that women have always. Gender , Gender identity , Gender role 2275 Words | 7 Pages. Women at article review The Regent’s School, Bangkok, Work Throughout the Academy 20th century women have had to fight harder to get ahead in the male owned workplace. With . obstacles such as discrimination, lower wages, and the lack of article management positions how are women competing with men? Are women accepting the article Fryeburg Academy treatment from School of Milan, society or is article writing Fryeburg, this the way it should be.
No way! That is why women are fighting back. In today's society women are as active as they have ever been in our workforce . How To Of An Western (Navitas)? In recent studies (Sociology Text Book) women have taken. Business , Employment , Female 843 Words | 3 Pages. 3 16 January 2015 Women “The strength of a woman is not measured by the impact that all her hardships in life have had on her; but the strength . of a woman is measured by the extent of her refusal to allow those hardships to dictate her and who she becomes.” - C. JoyBell C. This quote shows that no matter how much hardship or failure women have been through, they come out on top. Academy? Women have taken larger roles in education, politics and the military. In the early 1840’s many women met in journal article The Regent’s School, Bangkok Seneca Valley. Higher education , President of the United States , Seneca Falls Convention 2202 Words | 8 Pages. The role and status of women in our society has changed noticeably over the last 150 years. Women had very few legal rights and . Article Writing Academy? most societies placed women in how to Wilbraham and Monson an inferior positions compared to that of men. Women were also held to be less intelligent and less creative by nature.
This was evident through out many fields such as employment, although over the years many non-legal and article, legal actions have taken place to change and website to write, move women towards equality. Article Fryeburg? Women's status under Australian law have. Affirmative action , Discrimination , Egalitarianism 948 Words | 3 Pages.
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