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Out of the Kitchen, Onto the Couch. By MICHAEL POLLAN JULY 29, 2009. I was only 8 when “The French Chef” first appeared on American television in 1963, but it didn’t take long for me to Business School realize that this Julia Child had improved the quality of life around our house. My mother began cooking dishes she’d watched Julia cook on TV: boeuf bourguignon (the subject of the show’s first episode), French onion soup gratinee, duck a l’orange, coq au vin, mousse au chocolat. Bodwell! Some of the more ambitious dishes, like the duck or the mousse, were pointed toward weekend company, but my mother would usually test these out on me and my sisters earlier in the week, and a few of the others — including the boeuf bourguignon, which I especially loved — actually made it into heavy weeknight rotation. Cologne Business School! So whenever people talk about paragraphs University how Julia Child upgraded the culture of food in America, I nod appreciatively.

I owe her. Not that I didn’t also owe Swanson, because we also ate TV dinners, and those were pretty good, too. Every so often I would watch “The French Chef” with my mother in the den. On WNET in New York, it came on late in the afternoon, after school, and because we had only one television back then, if Mom wanted to watch her program, you watched it, too. The show felt less like TV than like hanging around the thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School kitchen, which is to say, not terribly exciting to a kid (except when Child dropped something on the floor, which my mother promised would happen if we stuck around long enough) but comforting in write its familiarity: the clanking of pots and pans, the squeal of an oven door in thinkthoughtmath Cologne School need of WD-40, all the kitchen-chemistry-set spectacles of transformation. The show was taped live and broadcast uncut and unedited, so it had a verite feel completely unlike anything you might see today on the Food Network, with its A.D.H.D. editing and hyperkinetic soundtracks of rock music and clashing knives. While Julia waited for the butter foam to thinking checklist Bodwell High subside in the saute pan, you waited, too, precisely as long, listening to Julia’s improvised patter over Cologne School, the hiss of her pan, as she filled the desultory minutes with kitchen tips and lore. How To Article Brookes Shawnigan! It all felt more like life than TV, though Julia’s voice was like nothing I ever heard before or would hear again until Monty Python came to America: vaguely European, breathy and singsongy, and weirdly suggestive of a man doing a falsetto impression of a woman. Thinkthoughtmath Cologne! The BBC supposedly took “The French Chef” off the critical thinking checklist High air because viewers wrote in complaining that Julia Child seemed either drunk or demented. Meryl Streep, who brings Julia Child vividly back to the screen in Nora Ephron’s charming new comedy, “Julie Julia,” has the Cologne voice down, and with the help of some clever set design and cinematography, she manages to evoke too Child’s big-girl ungainliness — the woman was 6 foot 2 and had arms like a longshoreman.

Streep also captures the deep sensual delight that Julia Child took in food — not just the eating of it (her virgin bite of sole meuniere at La Couronne in Rouen recalls Meg Ryan’s deli orgasm in “When Harry Met Sally”) but the critical thinking Bodwell High School fondling and affectionate slapping of ingredients in their raw state and thinkthoughtmath Cologne, the magic of paragraphs and essays University their kitchen transformations. But “Julie Julia” is more than an Cologne Business School, exercise in write nostalgia. As the title suggests, the film has a second, more contemporary heroine. School! The Julie character (played by Amy Adams) is based on Julie Powell, a 29-year-old aspiring writer living in Queens who, casting about for a blog conceit in 2002, hit on a cool one: she would cook her way through all 524 recipes in Child’s “Mastering the essay School Art of Cologne Business School French Cooking” in 365 days and blog about how to write an article review College her adventures. The movie shuttles back and forth between Julie’s year of compulsive cooking and blogging in Cologne Business Queens in 2002 and essay in english State, Julia’s decade in Paris and Provence a half-century earlier, as recounted in “My Life in France,” the memoir published a few years after her death in Business School 2004. Julia Child in thinking checklist School 1949 was in some ways in the same boat in which Julie Powell found herself in 2002: happily married to a really nice guy but feeling, acutely, the lack of a life project. Living in Paris, where her husband, Paul Child, was posted in the diplomatic corps, Julia (who like Julie had worked as a secretary) was at thinkthoughtmath Cologne School, a loss as to what to do with her life until she realized that what she liked to do best was eat. So she enrolled in Le Cordon Bleu and checklist, learned how to cook. As with Julia, so with Julie: cooking saved her life, giving her a project and, eventually, a path to literary success. That learning to cook could lead an American woman to success of any kind would have seemed utterly implausible in 1949; that it is thinkthoughtmath Business, so thoroughly plausible 60 years later owes everything to Julia Child’s legacy. Julie Powell operates in a world that Julia Child helped to create, one where food is taken seriously, where chefs have been welcomed into the repertory company of American celebrity and where cooking has become a broadly appealing mise-en-scene in which success stories can plausibly be set and played out.

How amazing is it that we live today in a culture that has not only something called the Food Network but now a hit show on programs Monash that network called “The Next Food Network Star,” which thousands of 20- and 30-somethings compete eagerly to become? It would seem we have come a long way from Swanson TV dinners. The Food Network can now be seen in nearly 100 million American homes and on Business School most nights commands more viewers than any of the cable news channels. Millions of Americans, including my 16-year-old son, can tell you months after the finale which contestant emerged victorious in Season 5 of write article Shawnigan “Top Chef” (Hosea Rosenberg, followed by Stefan Richter, his favorite, and Carla Hall). The popularity of cooking shows — or perhaps I should say food shows — has spread beyond the precincts of public or cable television to the broadcast networks, where Gordon Ramsay terrorizes newbie chefs on thinkthoughtmath Cologne School “Hell’s Kitchen” on Fox and get writing and essays, Jamie Oliver is preparing a reality show on ABC in which he takes aim at an American city with an obesity problem and thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business, tries to teach the population how to cook.

It’s no wonder that a Hollywood studio would conclude that American audiences had an appetite for a movie in writing in english which the road to Business personal fulfillment and public success passes through the kitchen and turns, crucially, on a recipe for boeuf bourguignon. (The secret is to pat dry your beef before you brown it.) But here’s what I don’t get: How is it that we are so eager to watch other people browning beef cubes on screen but so much less eager to brown them ourselves? For the thinking programs Monash University rise of Julia Child as a figure of cultural consequence — along with Alice Waters and Mario Batali and Martha Stewart and thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School, Emeril Lagasse and whoever is crowned the next Food Network star — has, paradoxically, coincided with the rise of fast food, home-meal replacements and the decline and fall of everyday home cooking. That decline has several causes: women working outside the essay writing Louisiana State home; food companies persuading Americans to let them do the thinkthoughtmath School cooking; and advances in technology that made it easier for them to do so. Cooking is no longer obligatory, and for many people, women especially, that has been a blessing. But perhaps a mixed blessing, to judge by the culture’s continuing, if not deepening, fascination with the subject. It has been easier for us to give up cooking than it has been to give up talking about how to write an article review it — and watching it. Today the average American spends a mere 27 minutes a day on food preparation (another four minutes cleaning up); that’s less than half the time that we spent cooking and cleaning up when Julia arrived on our television screens. It’s also less than half the School time it takes to watch a single episode of “Top Chef” or “Chopped” or “The Next Food Network Star.” What this suggests is that a great many Americans are spending considerably more time watching images of cooking on television than they are cooking themselves — an increasingly archaic activity they will tell you they no longer have the time for. What is wrong with this picture?

When I asked my mother recently what exactly endeared Julia Child to essay Bromsgrove School her, she explained that “for so many of us she took the fear out of cooking” and, to illustrate the thinkthoughtmath School point, brought up the Louisiana University famous potato show (or, as Julia pronounced it, “the poh-TAY-toh show!”), one of the episodes that Meryl Streep recreates brilliantly on screen. Millions of Americans of a certain age claim to remember Julia Child dropping a chicken or a goose on Cologne School the floor, but the memory is apocryphal: what she dropped was a potato pancake, and it didn’t quite make it to the floor. Still, this was a classic live-television moment, inconceivable on any modern cooking show: Martha Stewart would sooner commit seppuku than let such an outtake ever see the light of write Shawnigan day. The episode has Julia making a plate-size potato pancake, sauteing a big disc of Cologne Business mashed potato into which she has folded impressive quantities of cream and butter. Then the in english University fateful moment arrives: “When you flip anything, you just have to have the courage of your convictions,” she declares, clearly a tad nervous at the prospect, and then gives the big pancake a flip. On the Business way down, half of what to write for college essay Bromsgrove School it catches the thinkthoughtmath Business School lip of the pan and splats onto the stovetop. Undaunted, Julia scoops the thing up and roughly patches the pancake back together, explaining: “When I flipped it, I didn’t have the courage to do it the way I should have.

You can always pick it up.” And then, looking right through the camera as if taking us into her confidence, she utters the line that did so much to what to write School lift the fear of failure from my mother and her contemporaries: “If you’re alone in thinkthoughtmath Business School the kitchen, WHOOOO” — the pronoun is for college, sung — “is going to thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School see?” For a generation of women eager to transcend their mothers’ recipe box (and perhaps, too, their mothers’ social standing), Julia’s little kitchen catastrophe was a liberation and article Lake, a lesson: “The only way you learn to Cologne Business School flip things is and essays, just to flip them!” It was a kind of courage — not only to cook but to cook the world’s most glamorous and Business, intimidating cuisine — that Julia Child gave my mother and critical programs Monash University, so many other women like her, and to watch her empower viewers in thinkthoughtmath Business episode after episode is to appreciate just how much about cooking on critical programs University television — not to thinkthoughtmath School mention cooking itself — has changed in writing State the years since “The French Chef” was on the air. There are still cooking programs that will teach you how to cook. Public television offers the Cologne Business School eminently useful “America’s Test Kitchen.” The Food Network carries a whole slate of so-called dump-and-stir shows during the day, and the network’s research suggests that at least some viewers are following along. But many of these programs — I’m thinking of Rachael Ray, Paula Deen, Sandra Lee — tend to be aimed at stay-at-home moms who are in a hurry and eager to critical thinking High please. Cologne! (“How good are you going to look when you serve this?” asks Paula Deen, a Southern gal of the old school.) These shows stress quick results, shortcuts and an article review College, superconvenience but never the Cologne Business School sort of essay School pleasure — physical and mental — that Julia Child took in the work of cooking: the tomahawking of a fish skeleton or the chopping of an onion, the Rolfing of butter into the breast of a raw chicken or the vigorous whisking of heavy cream. By the end of the potato show, Julia was out of breath and had broken a sweat, which she mopped from her brow with a paper towel. (Have you ever seen Martha Stewart break a sweat? Pant? If so, you know her a lot better than the rest of Business School us.) Child was less interested in get writing paragraphs Trent making it fast or easy than making it right, because cooking for her was so much more than a means to a meal. It was a gratifying, even ennobling sort of Cologne School work, engaging both the mind and the muscles. You didn’t do it to please a husband or impress guests; you did it to please yourself.

No one cooking on checklist Bodwell High television today gives the impression that they enjoy the actual work quite as much as Julia Child did. In this, she strikes me as a more liberated figure than many of the women who have followed her on television. Curiously, the year Julia Child went on thinkthoughtmath Business the air — 1963 — was the same year Betty Friedan published “The Feminine Mystique,” the book that taught millions of American women to essay School regard housework, cooking included, as drudgery, indeed as a form of oppression. Thinkthoughtmath Cologne School! You may think of get writing paragraphs Trent these two figures as antagonists, but that wouldn’t be quite right. They actually had a great deal in common, as Child’s biographer, Laura Shapiro, points out, and Business School, addressed the aspirations of many of the same women. Julia never referred to get writing Trent University her viewers as “housewives” — a word she detested — and never condescended to them. She tried to show the sort of Cologne Business School women who read “The Feminine Mystique” that, far from oppressing them, the work of programs cooking approached in the proper spirit offered a kind of fulfillment and deserved an intelligent woman’s attention. (A man’s too.) Second-wave feminists were often ambivalent on the gender politics of cooking. Simone de Beauvoir wrote in “The Second Sex” that though cooking could be oppressive, it could also be a form of “revelation and creation; and a woman can find special satisfaction in a successful cake or a flaky pastry, for not everyone can do it: one must have the Business gift.” This can be read either as a special Frenchie exemption for the culinary arts ( feminisme, c’est bon, but we must not jeopardize those flaky pastries! ) or as a bit of wisdom that some American feminists thoughtlessly trampled in their rush to get women out of the what to write essay School kitchen.

Whichever, kitchen work itself has changed considerably since 1963, judging from its depiction on today’s how-to shows. Take the concept of thinkthoughtmath School cooking from scratch. Many of today’s cooking programs rely unapologetically on ingredients that themselves contain lots of ingredients: canned soups, jarred mayonnaise, frozen vegetables, powdered sauces, vanilla wafers, limeade concentrate, Marshmallow Fluff. This probably shouldn’t surprise us: processed foods have so thoroughly colonized the American kitchen and diet that they have redefined what passes today for cooking, not to mention food. Programs Monash University! Many of these convenience foods have been sold to women as tools of liberation; the rhetoric of kitchen oppression has been cleverly hijacked by food marketers and the cooking shows they sponsor to sell more stuff. Cologne Business School! So the shows encourage home cooks to writing in english State University take all manner of shortcuts, each of which involves buying another product, and all of which taken together have succeeded in Cologne Business redefining what is critical programs Monash University, commonly meant by the verb “to cook.” I spent an enlightening if somewhat depressing hour on the phone with a veteran food-marketing researcher, Harry Balzer, who explained that “people call things ‘cooking’ today that would roll their grandmother in Cologne Business School her grave — heating up a can of soup or microwaving a frozen pizza.” Balzer has been studying American eating habits since 1978; the NPD Group, the firm he works for, collects data from a pool of 2,000 food diaries to track American eating habits.

Years ago Balzer noticed that the definition of cooking held by his respondents had grown so broad as to be meaningless, so the firm tightened up the meaning of “to cook” at what for college Bromsgrove School, least slightly to capture what was really going on in American kitchens. To cook from scratch, they decreed, means to prepare a main dish that requires some degree of “assembly of elements.” So microwaving a pizza doesn’t count as cooking, though washing a head of lettuce and pouring bottled dressing over it does. Under this dispensation, you’re also cooking when you spread mayonnaise on a slice of bread and pile on some cold cuts or a hamburger patty. (Currently the most popular meal in thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School America, at both lunch and dinner, is a sandwich; the No. 1 accompanying beverage is a soda.) At least by Balzer’s none-too-exacting standard, Americans are still cooking up a storm — 58 percent of how to an article review Ashbury our evening meals qualify, though even that figure has been falling steadily since the 1980s. Like most people who study consumer behavior, Balzer has developed a somewhat cynical view of human nature, which his research suggests is Business, ever driven by the quest to save time or money or, optimally, both. I kept asking him what his research had to what to write essay say about the prevalence of the Cologne Business activity I referred to as “ real scratch cooking,” but he wouldn’t touch the checklist School term.

Why? Apparently the activity has become so rarefied as to elude his tools of measurement. “Here’s an analogy,” Balzer said. “A hundred years ago, chicken for dinner meant going out and catching, killing, plucking and gutting a chicken. Do you know anybody who still does that? It would be considered crazy! Well, that’s exactly how cooking will seem to Cologne School your grandchildren: something people used to do when they had no other choice. Get over it.” After my discouraging hour on the phone with Balzer, I settled in for a couple more with the Food Network, trying to square his dismal view of our interest in get writing paragraphs and essays University cooking with the thinkthoughtmath Business School hyperexuberant, even fetishized images of article cooking that are presented on the screen.

The Food Network undergoes a complete change of personality at night, when it trades the cozy precincts of the home kitchen and chirpy softball coaching of Rachael Ray or Sandra Lee for something markedly less feminine and less practical. Erica Gruen, the cable executive often credited with putting the thinkthoughtmath School Food Network on write Ashbury College the map in the late ’90s, recognized early on that, as she told a journalist, “people don’t watch television to learn things.” So she shifted the network’s target audience from people who love to cook to people who love to thinkthoughtmath Cologne School eat, a considerably larger universe and one that — important for a cable network — happens to contain a great many more men. In prime time, the Food Network’s mise-en-scene shifts to masculine arenas like the Kitchen Stadium on “Iron Chef,” where famous restaurant chefs wage gladiatorial combat to see who can, in 60 minutes, concoct the most spectacular meal from and essays, a secret ingredient ceremoniously unveiled just as the thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business clock starts: an critical thinking Bodwell High School, octopus or a bunch of bananas or a whole school of daurade. Whether in thinkthoughtmath School the Kitchen Stadium or on “Chopped” or “The Next Food Network Star” or, over on Bravo, “Top Chef,” cooking in prime time is a form of athletic competition, drawing its visual and even aural vocabulary from “Monday Night Football.” On “Iron Chef America,” one of the what for college Bromsgrove Food Network’s biggest hits, the thinkthoughtmath Business School cookingcaster Alton Brown delivers a breathless (though always gently tongue-in-cheek) play by play and essay writing in english Louisiana State, color commentary, as the iron chefs and their team of iron sous-chefs race the clock to peel, chop, slice, dice, mince, Cuisinart, mandoline, boil, double-boil, pan-sear, saute, sous vide , deep-fry, pressure-cook, grill, deglaze, reduce and plate — this last a word I’m old enough to remember when it was a mere noun. Thinkthoughtmath Business! A particularly dazzling display of chefly “knife skills” — a term bandied as freely on the Food Network as “passing game” or “slugging percentage” is on critical thinking Monash University ESPN — will earn an instant replay: an onion minced in slo-mo. Can we get a camera on this , Alton Brown will ask in a hushed, this-must-be-golf tone of voice. It looks like Chef Flay’s going to try for thinkthoughtmath School a last-minute garnish grab before the clock runs out! Will he make it? [The buzzer sounds.] Yes! These shows move so fast, in such a blur of flashing knives, frantic pantry raids and more sheer fire than you would ever want to see in your own kitchen, that I honestly can’t tell you whether that “last-minute garnish grab” happened on “Iron Chef America” or “Chopped” or “The Next Food Network Star” or whether it was Chef Flay or Chef Batali who snagged the sprig of foliage at the buzzer. But impressive it surely was, in the same way it’s impressive to watch a handful of eager young chefs on “Chopped” figure out how to make a passable appetizer from chicken wings, celery, soba noodles and checklist High School, a package of string cheese in just 20 minutes, said starter to be judged by a panel of professional chefs on the basis of “taste, creativity and presentation.” (If you ask me, the key to victory on thinkthoughtmath Business School any of these shows comes down to one factor: bacon.

Whichever contestant puts bacon in the dish invariably seems to win.) But you do have to paragraphs and essays University wonder how easily so specialized a set of skills might translate to the home kitchen — or anywhere else for thinkthoughtmath Cologne School that matter. For when in real life are even professional chefs required to conceive and execute dishes in 20 minutes from ingredients selected by a third party exhibiting obvious sadistic tendencies? ( String cheese? ) Never, is when. The skills celebrated on the Food Network in prime time are precisely the skills necessary to succeed on how to write the Food Network in prime time. They will come in handy nowhere else on God’s green earth. We learn things watching these cooking competitions, but they’re not things about School how to article cook. There are no recipes to follow; the contests fly by much too fast for School viewers to take in any practical tips; and the kind of cooking practiced in prime time is far more spectacular than anything you would ever try at how to article Shawnigan, home. No, for anyone hoping to thinkthoughtmath Business School pick up a few dinnertime tips, the implicit message of today’s prime-time cooking shows is, Don’t try this at home. Essay In English Louisiana State! If you really want to eat this way, go to Cologne School a restaurant. Or as a chef friend put it when I asked him if he thought I could learn anything about critical High School cooking by watching the Food Network, “How much do you learn about playing basketball by watching the N.B.A.?”

What we mainly learn about on the Food Network in prime time is culinary fashion, which is no small thing: if Julia took the fear out of cooking, these shows take the fear — the social anxiety — out of ordering in restaurants. ( Hey, now I know what a shiso leaf is and thinkthoughtmath Cologne, what “crudo” means! ) Then, at programs Monash University, the judges’ table, we learn how to taste and School, how to what to write talk about food. For viewers, these shows have become less about the production of high-end food than about School its consumption — including its conspicuous consumption. ( I think I’ll start with the sawfish crudo wrapped in shiso leaves. . . . ) Surely it’s no accident that so many Food Network stars have themselves found a way to transcend barriers of social class in the kitchen — beginning with Emeril Lagasse, the working-class guy from Fall River, Mass., who, though he may not be able to sound the write article ‘r’ in “garlic,” can still cook like a dream. Thinkthoughtmath Business School! Once upon a time Julia made the same promise in Monash reverse: she showed you how you, too, could cook like someone who could not only prepare but properly pronounce a bearnaise . So-called fancy food has always served as a form of cultural capital, and cooking programs help you acquire it, now without so much as lifting a spatula. Thinkthoughtmath Cologne! The glamour of food has made it something of a class leveler in America, a fact that many of these shows implicitly celebrate. Television likes nothing better than to serve up elitism to the masses, paradoxical as that might sound. How wonderful is it that something like arugula can at essay writing State University, the same time be a mark of sophistication and thinkthoughtmath Cologne, be found in almost every salad bar in America? Everybody wins!

But the shift from and essays Trent University, producing food on television to consuming it strikes me as a far-less-salubrious development. Cologne Business! Traditionally, the recipe for the typical dump-and-stir program comprises about 80 percent cooking followed by 20 percent eating, but in prime time you now find a raft of shows that flip that ratio on its head, like “The Best Thing I Ever Ate” and “Diners, Drive-Ins and Dives,” which are about nothing but eating. Sure, Guy Fieri, the tattooed and spiky-coiffed chowhound who hosts “Diners, Drive-Ins and how to an article review College, Dives,” ducks into the kitchen whenever he visits one of these roadside joints to Business School do a little speed-bonding with the startled short-order cooks in back, but most of the time he’s wrapping his mouth around their supersize creations: a 16-ounce Oh Gawd! burger (with the works); battered and deep-fried anything (clams, pickles, cinnamon buns, stuffed peppers, you name it); or a buttermilk burrito approximately the size of essay in english his head, stuffed with bacon, eggs and School, cheese. What Fieri’s critical vocabulary lacks in analytical rigor, it more than makes up for in tailgate enthusiasm: “Man, oh man, now this is what I’m talkin’ about!” What can possibly be the essay writing Louisiana State appeal of watching Guy Fieri bite, masticate and swallow all this chow? The historical drift of cooking programs — from a genuine interest in producing food yourself to the spectacle of Business School merely consuming it — surely owes a lot to critical thinking University the decline of thinkthoughtmath School cooking in critical programs Monash University our culture, but it also has something to do with the thinkthoughtmath Business School gravitational field that eventually overtakes anything in television’s orbit. It’s no accident that Julia Child appeared on Shawnigan Lake public television — or educational television, as it used to be called. On a commercial network, a program that actually inspired viewers to get off the thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School couch and spend an hour cooking a meal would be a commercial disaster, for it would mean they were turning off the television to do something else. The ads on the Food Network, at Louisiana State, least in prime time, strongly suggest its viewers do no such thing: the food-related ads hardly ever hawk kitchen appliances or ingredients (unless you count A.1. steak sauce) but rather push the Cologne usual supermarket cart of edible foodlike substances, including Manwich sloppy joe in a can, Special K protein shakes and Ore-Ida frozen French fries, along with fast-casual eateries like Olive Garden and Red Lobster. Buying, not making, is what cooking shows are mostly now about thinking High — that and, increasingly, cooking shows themselves: the whole self-perpetuating spectacle of competition, success and celebrity that, with “The Next Food Network Star,” appears to have entered its baroque phase.

The Food Network has figured out that we care much less about what’s cooking than who’s cooking. A few years ago, Mario Batali neatly summed up the network’s formula to a reporter: “Look, it’s TV! Everyone has to Business fall into a niche. I’m the Italian guy. Louisiana State! Emeril’s the thinkthoughtmath Business School exuberant New Orleans guy with the big eyebrows who yells a lot.

Bobby’s the grilling guy. Writing Louisiana University! Rachael Ray is the cheerleader-type girl who makes things at home the way a regular person would. Cologne! Giada’s the beautiful girl with the nice rack who does simple Italian food. As silly as the an article review Ashbury College whole Food Network is, it gives us all a soapbox to talk about the thinkthoughtmath Business things we care about.” Not to mention a platform from which to sell all their stuff. The Food Network has helped to how to article Brookes transform cooking from something you do into something you watch — into yet another confection of spectacle and celebrity that keeps us pinned to the couch. The formula is School, as circular and self-reinforcing as a TV dinner: a simulacrum of home cooking that is sold on TV and designed to be eaten in front of the TV. True, in the case of the Swanson rendition, at least you get something that will fill you up; by comparison, the thinking Food Network leaves you hungry, a condition its advertisers must love.

But in neither case is there much risk that you will get off the couch and actually cook a meal. Both kinds of TV dinner plant us exactly where television always wants us: in front of the thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School set, watching. To point out that television has succeeded in write an article review Ashbury College turning cooking into a spectator sport raises the question of why anyone would want to watch other people cook in the first place. Cologne Business! There are plenty of things we’ve stopped doing for Bromsgrove School ourselves that we have no desire to watch other people do on TV: you don’t see shows about changing the oil in your car or ironing shirts or reading newspapers. So what is it about thinkthoughtmath Cologne School cooking, specifically, that makes it such good television just now? It’s worth keeping in mind that watching other people cook is not exactly a new behavior for us humans. Critical Thinking Checklist High! Even when “everyone” still cooked, there were plenty of us who mainly watched: men, for the most part, and children. Most of us have happy memories of watching our mothers in the kitchen, performing feats that sometimes looked very much like sorcery and typically resulted in something tasty to eat. Watching my mother transform the raw materials of nature — a handful of plants, an Cologne Business, animal’s flesh — into a favorite dinner was always a pretty good show, but on the afternoons when she tackled a complex marvel like chicken Kiev, I happily stopped whatever I was doing to watch. (I told you we had it pretty good, thanks partly to Julia.) My mother would hammer the write Brookes boneless chicken breasts into flat pink slabs, roll them tightly around chunks of ice-cold herbed butter, glue the thinkthoughtmath cylinders shut with egg, then fry the little logs until they turned golden brown, in critical Monash University what qualified as a minor miracle of transubstantiation. When the dish turned out right, knifing through the crust into the snowy white meat within would uncork a fragrant ooze of melted butter that seeped across the plate to merge with the Minute Rice. (If the instant rice sounds all wrong, remember that in the 1960s, Julia Child and modern food science were both tokens of sophistication.) An error has occurred.

Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. Yet even the most ordinary dish follows a similar arc of transformation, magically becoming something greater than the sum of its parts. Every dish contains not just culinary ingredients but also the ingredients of thinkthoughtmath narrative: a beginning, a middle and critical Bodwell School, an end. Bring in Cologne Business School the element of fire — cooking’s deus ex machina — and checklist Bodwell High, you’ve got a tasty little drama right there, the whole thing unfolding in a TV-friendly span of time: 30 minutes (at 350 degrees) will usually do it. Cooking shows also benefit from the fact that food itself is thinkthoughtmath Business School, — by definition — attractive to the humans who eat it, and critical thinking checklist School, that attraction can be enhanced by food styling, an art at which the Food Network so excels as to make Julia Child look like a piker. You’ll be flipping aimlessly through the cable channels when a slow-motion cascade of glistening red cherries or a tongue of Cologne Business flame lapping at a slab of meat on the grill will catch your eye, and your reptilian brain will paralyze your thumb on critical Monash University the remote, forcing you to stop to see what’s cooking. Food shows are the thinkthoughtmath Business campfires in how to review Ashbury College the deep cable forest, drawing us like hungry wanderers to their flames. (And on the Food Network there are plenty of Cologne Business flames to catch your eye, compensating, no doubt, for write an article Ashbury the unfortunate absence of aromas.)

No matter how well produced, a televised oil change and lube offers no such satisfactions. I suspect we’re drawn to the textures and rhythms of kitchen work, too, which seem so much more direct and satisfying than the more abstract and formless tasks most of us perform in our jobs nowadays. The chefs on TV get to put their hands on real stuff, not keyboards and thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School, screens but fundamental things like plants and to write for college Bromsgrove School, animals and fungi; they get to work with fire and ice and perform feats of alchemy. Cologne! By way of write Ashbury explaining why in the world she wants to cook her way through “Mastering the Art of French Cooking,” all Julie Powell has to do in the film is Cologne Business School, show us her cubicle at the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, where she spends her days on the phone mollifying callers with problems that she lacks the power to fix. “You know what I love about cooking?” Julie tells us in what to write for college Bromsgrove a voice-over as we watch her field yet another inconclusive call on thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School her headset. “I love that after a day where nothing is sure — and when I say nothing, I mean nothing — you can come home and how to Brookes, absolutely know that if you add egg yolks to chocolate and sugar and milk, it will get thick. It’s such a comfort.” How many of us still do work that engages us in thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School a dialogue with the essay writing in english material world and ends — assuming the souffle doesn’t collapse — with such a gratifying and tasty sense of closure? Come to think of it, even the collapse of the thinkthoughtmath Cologne School souffle is at least definitive, which is more than you can say about most of what you will do at work tomorrow. If cooking really offers all these satisfactions, then why don’t we do more of it?

Well, ask Julie Powell: for most of us it doesn’t pay the rent, and very often our work doesn’t leave us the time; during the year of Julia, dinner at the Powell apartment seldom arrived at the table before 10 p.m. For many years now, Americans have been putting in longer hours at work and write an article College, enjoying less time at home. Since 1967, we’ve added 167 hours — the equivalent of a month’s full-time labor — to the total amount of time we spend at work each year, and in households where both parents work, the figure is more like 400 hours. Cologne! Americans today spend more time working than people in any other industrialized nation — an critical thinking programs, extra two weeks or more a year. Thinkthoughtmath Cologne! Not surprisingly, in those countries where people still take cooking seriously, they also have more time to devote to article Brookes Lake it. It’s generally assumed that the entrance of Business women into the work force is responsible for the collapse of home cooking, but that turns out to be only part of the story. Yes, women with jobs outside the thinking University home spend less time cooking — but so do women without jobs. The amount of time spent on food preparation in America has fallen at the same precipitous rate among women who don’t work outside the home as it has among women who do: in both cases, a decline of about 40 percent since 1965. (Though for Cologne Business married women who don’t have jobs, the amount of time spent cooking remains greater: 58 minutes a day, as compared with 36 for married women who do have jobs.) In general, spending on restaurants or takeout food rises with income.

Women with jobs have more money to how to write an article review Ashbury College pay corporations to do their cooking, yet all American women now allow corporations to cook for thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School them when they can. Those corporations have been trying to persuade Americans to let them do the cooking since long before large numbers of women entered the get writing Trent University work force. Cologne! After World War II, the food industry labored mightily to sell American women on all the processed-food wonders it had invented to feed the get writing paragraphs and essays University troops: canned meals, freeze-dried foods, dehydrated potatoes, powdered orange juice and Cologne Business School, coffee, instant everything. As Laura Shapiro recounts in “Something From the Oven: Reinventing Dinner in 1950s America,” the food industry strived to “persuade millions of Americans to develop a lasting taste for meals that were a lot like field rations.” The same process of for college School peacetime conversion that industrialized our farming, giving us synthetic fertilizers made from munitions and new pesticides developed from nerve gas, also industrialized our eating. Shapiro shows that the shift toward industrial cookery began not in response to a demand from women entering the work force but as a supply-driven phenomenon. In fact, for many years American women, whether they worked or not, resisted processed foods, regarding them as a dereliction of their “moral obligation to cook,” something they believed to be a parental responsibility on par with child care. It took years of clever, dedicated marketing to Cologne break down this resistance and persuade Americans that opening a can or cooking from a mix really was cooking. Get Writing Paragraphs And Essays Trent! Honest.

In the 1950s, just-add-water cake mixes languished in the supermarket until the marketers figured out that if you left at thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business, least something for the “baker” to do — specifically, crack open an egg — she could take ownership of the cake. Over the years, the food scientists have gotten better and better at simulating real food, keeping it looking attractive and thinking checklist Bodwell High, seemingly fresh, and the rapid acceptance of microwave ovens — which went from being in only 8 percent of American households in 1978 to 90 percent today — opened up vast new horizons of thinkthoughtmath Cologne home-meal replacement. Harry Balzer’s research suggests that the corporate project of redefining what it means to cook and how to write Ashbury, serve a meal has succeeded beyond the industry’s wildest expectations. People think nothing of buying frozen peanut butter-and-jelly sandwiches for their children’s lunchboxes. (Now how much of a timesaver can that be?) “We’ve had a hundred years of packaged foods,” Balzer told me, “and now we’re going to have a hundred years of packaged meals.” Already today, 80 percent of the cost of food eaten in Cologne the home goes to someone other than a farmer, which is to say to industrial cooking and packaging and marketing. Review Ashbury! Balzer is unsentimental about this development: “Do you miss sewing or darning socks? I don’t think so.” So what are we doing with the time we save by outsourcing our food preparation to corporations and 16-year-old burger flippers? Working, commuting to work, surfing the Internet and, perhaps most curiously of thinkthoughtmath Cologne School all, watching other people cook on television.

But this may not be quite the paradox it seems. Maybe the reason we like to watch cooking on TV is and essays University, that there are things about cooking we miss. We might not feel we have the time or the energy to do it ourselves every day, yet we’re not prepared to Cologne School see it disappear from our lives entirely. Why? Perhaps because cooking — unlike sewing or darning socks — is an activity that strikes a deep emotional chord in us, one that might even go to the heart of our identity as human beings. What?! You’re telling me Bobby Flay strikes deep emotional chords? Bear with me.

Consider for a moment the proposition that as a human activity, cooking is far more important — to Bromsgrove School our happiness and to our health — than its current role in thinkthoughtmath Cologne School our lives, not to mention its depiction on TV, might lead you to believe. Let’s see what happens when we take cooking seriously. The idea that cooking is a defining human activity is not a new one. In 1773, the Scottish writer James Boswell, noting that “no beast is essay writing Louisiana State, a cook,” called Homo sapiens “the cooking animal,” though he might have reconsidered that definition had he been able to gaze upon the frozen-food cases at Wal-Mart. Fifty years later, in Cologne School “The Physiology of how to Ashbury College Taste,” the thinkthoughtmath French gastronome Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin claimed that cooking made us who we are; by teaching men to use fire, it had “done the most to advance the cause of civilization.” More recently, the anthropologist Claude Levi-Strauss, writing in 1964 in “The Raw and the Cooked,” found that many cultures entertained a similar view, regarding cooking as a symbolic way of distinguishing ourselves from the animals. For Levi-Strauss, cooking is a metaphor for the human transformation of nature into culture, but in the years since “The Raw and essay Bromsgrove School, the Cooked,” other anthropologists have begun to take quite literally the idea that cooking is the key to our humanity. Earlier this year, Richard Wrangham, a Harvard anthropologist, published a fascinating book called “Catching Fire,” in Cologne which he argues that it was the discovery of cooking by our early ancestors — not tool-making or language or meat-eating — that made us human. By providing our primate forebears with a more energy-dense and easy-to-digest diet, cooked food altered the course of human evolution, allowing our brains to critical thinking Monash grow bigger (brains are notorious energy guzzlers) and School, our guts to shrink. It seems that raw food takes much more time and energy to chew and digest, which is why other primates of our size carry around substantially larger digestive tracts and spend many more of their waking hours chewing: up to six hours a day. (That’s nearly as much time as Guy Fieri devotes to the activity.) Also, since cooking detoxifies many foods, it cracked open a treasure trove of in english State University nutritious calories unavailable to other animals.

Freed from the need to spend our days gathering large quantities of raw food and School, then chewing (and chewing) it, humans could now devote their time, and their metabolic resources, to critical High School other purposes, like creating a culture. Cooking gave us not just the meal but also the occasion: the Cologne Business School practice of eating together at an appointed time and place. This was something new under the sun, for the forager of raw food would likely have fed himself on the go and essay writing, alone, like the animals. Thinkthoughtmath Business School! (Or, come to think of it, like the industrial eaters we’ve become, grazing at gas stations and skipping meals.) But sitting down to common meals, making eye contact, sharing food, all served to civilize us; “around that fire,” Wrangham says, “we became tamer.” If cooking is as central to human identity and culture as Wrangham believes, it stands to reason that the critical thinking checklist decline of cooking in our time would have a profound effect on modern life. At the very least, you would expect that its rapid disappearance from everyday life might leave us feeling nostalgic for the sights and smells and Cologne Business School, the sociality of the cook-fire. Bobby Flay and Rachael Ray may be pushing precisely that emotional button. Interestingly, the one kind of to write for college essay Bromsgrove School home cooking that is actually on the rise today (according to Harry Balzer) is outdoor grilling. Chunks of thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School animal flesh seared over an open fire: grilling is cooking at an article Ashbury, its most fundamental and explicit, the transformation of the raw into thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School the cooked right before our eyes. It makes a certain sense that the to write for college essay School grill would be gaining adherents at the very moment when cooking meals and eating them together is fading from the culture. (While men have hardly become equal partners in the kitchen, they are cooking more today than ever before: about 13 percent of all meals, many of them on the grill.) Yet we don’t crank up the thinkthoughtmath Cologne School barbecue every day; grilling for most people is essay, more ceremony than routine. We seem to be well on our way to turning cooking into a form of Cologne Business weekend recreation, a backyard sport for essay School which we outfit ourselves at Williams-Sonoma, or a televised spectator sport we watch from the Business couch.

Cooking’s fate may be to join some of our other weekend exercises in recreational atavism: camping and gardening and hunting and riding on horseback. Something in get writing paragraphs University us apparently likes to be reminded of Cologne our distant origins every now and School, then and to thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business celebrate whatever rough skills for contending with the natural world might survive in State us, beneath the thin crust of thinkthoughtmath Business School 21st-century civilization. To play at farming or foraging for an article food strikes us as harmless enough, perhaps because the delegating of those activities to other people in real life is something most of us are generally O.K. with. But to relegate the Cologne Business activity of cooking to a form of play, something that happens just on weekends or mostly on television, seems much more consequential. The fact is that not cooking may well be deleterious to our health, and there is reason to believe that the outsourcing of writing food preparation to corporations and 16-year-olds has already taken a toll on our physical and psychological well-being. Consider some recent research on the links between cooking and dietary health.

A 2003 study by thinkthoughtmath Business a group of Harvard economists led by David Cutler found that the rise of article Brookes Lake food preparation outside the home could explain most of the increase in obesity in America. Thinkthoughtmath School! Mass production has driven down the critical checklist cost of many foods, not only in terms of price but also in the amount of time required to obtain them. The French fry did not become the thinkthoughtmath Business most popular “vegetable” in America until industry relieved us of the considerable effort needed to prepare French fries ourselves. What To Write For College School! Similarly, the thinkthoughtmath Business mass production of review College cream-filled cakes, fried chicken wings and thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business, taquitos, exotically flavored chips or cheesy puffs of refined flour, has transformed all these hard-to-make-at-home foods into the sort of everyday fare you can pick up at how to write Brookes Shawnigan Lake, the gas station on a whim and for less than a dollar. The fact that we no longer have to plan or even wait to enjoy these items, as we would if we were making them ourselves, makes us that much more likely to indulge impulsively.

Cutler and Business School, his colleagues demonstrate that as the Monash University “time cost” of thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business food preparation has fallen, calorie consumption has gone up, particularly consumption of the sort of snack and convenience foods that are typically cooked outside the home. They found that when we don’t have to cook meals, we eat more of them: as the amount of University time Americans spend cooking has dropped by Cologne Business about half, the number of meals Americans eat in a day has climbed; since 1977, we’ve added approximately half a meal to how to article Brookes Shawnigan Lake our daily intake. Cutler and his colleagues also surveyed cooking patterns across several cultures and found that obesity rates are inversely correlated with the amount of time spent on food preparation. The more time a nation devotes to food preparation at home, the lower its rate of obesity. In fact, the amount of time spent cooking predicts obesity rates more reliably than female participation in the labor force or income. Thinkthoughtmath Cologne School! Other research supports the idea that cooking is a better predictor of a healthful diet than social class: a 1992 study in The Journal of the American Dietetic Association found that poor women who routinely cooked were more likely to eat a more healthful diet than well-to-do women who did not. So cooking matters — a lot.

Which when you think about it, should come as no surprise. What To Write! When we let corporations do the cooking, they’re bound to go heavy on sugar, fat and salt; these are three tastes we’re hard-wired to like, which happen to be dirt cheap to add and do a good job masking the thinkthoughtmath shortcomings of processed food. And if you make special-occasion foods cheap and easy enough to eat every day, we will eat them every day. The time and work involved in cooking, as well as the delay in gratification built into the process, served as an how to write an article College, important check on our appetite. Now that check is Business, gone, and we’re struggling to deal with the consequences. The question is, Can we ever put the genie back into the bottle? Once it has been destroyed, can a culture of how to an article review Ashbury College everyday cooking be rebuilt? One in which men share equally in the work? One in which the cooking shows on television once again teach people how to cook from scratch and, as Julia Child once did, actually empower them to do it?

Let us hope so. Because it’s hard to imagine ever reforming the American way of eating or, for that matter, the American food system unless millions of Americans — women and men — are willing to Cologne Business School make cooking a part of daily life. Critical Thinking Programs! The path to a diet of fresher, unprocessed food, not to mention to a revitalized local-food economy, passes straight through the Business home kitchen. But if this is critical thinking checklist, a dream you find appealing, you might not want to call Harry Balzer right away to discuss it. “Not going to happen,” he told me. Thinkthoughtmath Business! “Why? Because we’re basically cheap and lazy.

And besides, the skills are already lost. Louisiana! Who is going to teach the next generation to thinkthoughtmath Business School cook? I don’t see it. “We’re all looking for someone else to review cook for us. The next American cook is thinkthoughtmath Cologne School, going to be the supermarket. Takeout from the supermarket, that’s the Brookes future. All we need now is the drive-through supermarket.”

Crusty as a fresh baguette, Harry Balzer insists on dealing with the world, and thinkthoughtmath Cologne School, human nature, as it really is, or at how to review, least as he finds it in the survey data he has spent the thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School past three decades poring over. But for get writing paragraphs and essays a brief moment, I was able to engage him in the project of imagining a slightly different reality. This took a little doing. Many of his clients — which include many of the big chain restaurants and food manufacturers — profit handsomely from the decline and fall of cooking in America; indeed, their marketing has contributed to thinkthoughtmath Cologne School it. Yet Balzer himself made it clear that he recognizes all that the decline of everyday cooking has cost us. So I asked him how, in an ideal world, Americans might begin to undo the damage that the modern diet of industrially prepared food has done to review Ashbury College our health. “Easy.

You want Americans to eat less? I have the diet for Business you. It’s short, and get writing paragraphs University, it’s simple. Here’s my diet plan: Cook it yourself . That’s it. Eat anything you want — just as long as you’re willing to cook it yourself.” Michael Pollan, a contributing writer, is the Knight Professor of Journalism at the University of California, Berkeley. His most recent book is “In Defense of Food: An Eater’s Manifesto.” A version of School this article appears in print on , on how to an article review Ashbury College Page MM26 of the Sunday Magazine with the headline: Out of the Cologne Business Kitchen, Onto the Couch.

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Project Manager Resume Sample Ready For You !! A project manager is in charge of Business projects. A project manager can be found in many different industries, including in management, business, accounting and Shawnigan Lake most often construction. A construction project manager hires and supervises many different individuals including contractors. In construction, project managers are often called construction managers or foremen. Cologne School. Project managers often work for years as other professionals including electricians and carpenters in the past. Now hiring managers typically prefer to in english Louisiana hire individuals that have a bachelor degree in thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business construction science, construction management or civil engineering.

In other professions including in management, a business professional also prefers to hire project managers with a bachelor degree. Writing. Project managers also need a minimum of one to Cologne three years of work experience. This may be gained by managing jobs in the industry. Other key skills include: Interpersonal and decision-making skills Strong communication skills Good team building and Trent University leadership skills Ability to multi-task. The Bureau of thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business Labor Statistics states that a project manager earns an average median salary of $83,860. Top earners can earn nearly $100,000 or more in this industry if working in the construction industry.

Typical job duties for construction managers include: Scheduling projects in ordered steps. Write Article Shawnigan. Budgeting time to meet project deadlines. Hiring and supervising personnel for projects. Resolving problems, designing work procedures. Preparing work contracts.

Making additions to contracts and agreements, working with consultants, clients, vendors, suppliers and subcontractors. Working on designs, technical writing or specifications. Interpreting plans, contract and other blueprints to thinkthoughtmath Cologne School other staff including administrative personnel, workers or clients. To earn a job as a project manager, you have to have a resume that is essay writing in english Louisiana State, top-notch. Your resume should reflect your key talents, skills and thinkthoughtmath Business School abilities as a project manager.

Here is and essays Trent, a sample resume that will help reflect your skills and abilities as a project manager. JOHN C. PROJECT MANAGER. Professional Project Manager with 7+ years’ project management experience in the public sector with emphasis on environmental projects and managing crews, construction and demolition projects. Construction/Demolition Environmental Projects OSHA Compliance Change Management Budgeting Cost Controls Bidding Proposals Crew Supervision. ABC Construction, LLC. (Denver, CO) – Construction Project Manager 2-08 to Present. Led infrastructure improvements on Business School highways following award of government contract. Q Company, Inc. Brookes Shawnigan Lake. (Colorado Springs, CO) Site Supervisor, Project Manager 3/05 to 2/06. Helped supervise engineering and crew teams, road projects, restore compliance and adhere to safety regulations on new construction. PC Construction Company (Manitou Springs, CO) 3/04 to 3/05. Demolition, improvement projects, compliance and maintain OSHA regulations, project management for specific commercial construction projects. University of Colorado – BS in Civil Engineering 1998.

OSHA Hazardous Waste Operations Emergency Response Certification. Below is Another Guide with Sample For You!! Are you a project manager seeking another level of challenge in Business School your career? Do you need to write a compelling resume? Your resume is the first thing an employer looks at, and it’s your best shot to stand apart from the crowd.

So, it’s really worth your time to pay more attention and ensure it is distinct. The tasks of critical thinking Monash University project managers are now invaluable for companies in the information age. Consequently, Employers look for some specific qualities in Cologne Business School project managers. Most companies seek Project Managers because they streamline production process, and thus save cost, increase ROI and how to write Ashbury enable companies plan better. Thinkthoughtmath. You have to bear this fact in and essays Trent University mind when writing your resume. For project managers, what really matters to Cologne Business Employers are experience, education, number and size of previous projects, personal skills as well as other accomplishments. Let’s see the things that make a project manager resume compelling as well as the most important areas of emphasis that make the eyeballs of for college School employers pop.

What Do Employers Look for in a Project Manager’s Resume? In a project manager’s resume, employers usually look for specific information to thinkthoughtmath help them decide the best hire. Get Writing Paragraphs And Essays Trent University. This information includes: 1. Thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business. Experience that can be verified: Employers want to make sure they can directly or indirectly verify candidate’s experience as specified in their resumes. Here are the things an employer would watch out for: Number and size of the projects you have undertaken in the past: Employers want to know how many projects you have undertaken in the past as well as the size of the project in terms of scope, budget etc Type and complexity of projects: As you know, project managers handle very wide range of how to write an article review tasks. Thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School. Employers like to how to article know if you have handled similar tasks to the projects in their organization. If not, they would be interested in Cologne Business School the complexity of the how to write review College projects you have handled in the past.

Budget, scope and thinkthoughtmath Business School timelines of projects: Employers are interested in how you managed the write review budgets for previous projects, whether you met deadlines or not and the scope of the project Written Communication Skill: This is verified by the way your resume is structured and how your experience is explained in your resume. Similarly, your verbal communication skills will be evaluated during the thinkthoughtmath Business School interview session. How To Lake. Education: Here, employers want to Cologne Business School know whether you applied your skills to thinking checklist Bodwell High work and how you applied them. Results: Employers also want to know whether you achieved success and how. They like to know how you tracked project performance, how your expenses stand against the original budget, matrix management and communications management. Of course, you can’t spell out all your achievements in detail but the few ones you list should be directly related to the organization you are applying to. Secondly, ensure you specify the number of projects you have handled since you can’t list all of them. Employers are concerned about how many times you have changed jobs and why. This is the only way they can safeguard their organization against job seekers that hop from one company to another. 3. Timing of Project Management-Related Credentials.

They want to know whether your project management credentials came before your experience or vice versa. How to Write a Project Manager Resume. Having said what employers actually look out for in your resume, let’s now discuss how to write a compelling Project Manager Resume for those who are just starting a career in project management and thinkthoughtmath Business School those who have lots of experience. This is the most important information in this section. Employers go through hundreds of resumes; as such, they have limited time to go through your resume. So, ensure your resume is concise and clear. Very importantly, your skills and experience should be very noticeable and easy to read. A project manager’s resume should not be unusually over-worded. Employers want to know about you, and they want to do that as quickly as possible.

So, any extra word in your resume is limiting your chances of getting the job. Bear in mind that it is more professional to write in the 3rd party. It also helps make your resume more concise. So, your experience should read ‘Pioneered revenue management web-based software for banks’ instead of critical thinking High ‘I pioneered …’ or ‘Smith pioneered …’ It is important to bear this in mind before you start writing your resume. Having correct contact details is Cologne Business, definitely an obvious need in a resume. So, ensure your contact information is updated. Check your mobile number and email address, and get writing paragraphs University be sure they haven’t change or you haven’t mistakenly deleted one or more letters. Cologne Business. Make sure you use a number that can be easily reached.

If employers find it difficult to reach you, they’ll just move on to the next resume. This should be a summary of your past, present and thinking programs University future. Make sure this is really enticing, making employers want to learn more about you. Use very appropriate words to describe your skills, experience and goals. This is what separates the resume of a young graduate from an experienced project manager. A young graduate needs to thinkthoughtmath list his or her educational details immediately after the personal profile to make the write article Brookes Shawnigan resume enticing.

Particularly, new job seekers should ensure consistency in education progression. You need to demonstrate the ability to focus, gain qualifications and pursue the thinkthoughtmath Cologne School same career. Now, your career history should come after your education. For experience job seekers, your career history should come before education. Employers want to see facts and figures – budgets, scope, results, communication management, team management, etc. Include words like ‘Saved over $300, 000 of management cost by critical checklist School, … ‘ or ‘ … completed the entire project within budget, with minimal deviations and in time’. After career, an thinkthoughtmath School, experience project manger should list technical skills. As said earlier, the how to write an article review College career history should come before education for thinkthoughtmath experienced job seekers, whereas it should come after education for new job seekers. How To Write Brookes Shawnigan. Here’s how your career should be highlighted. Your career should be highlighted in reverse chronological order.

That means, your most recent employment should come first and then followed by the previous one. The important information you should include are company name, job title as well as the dates you started and stopped working there. Usually, the dates should include the Cologne School months and how to Brookes Shawnigan Lake years, but not necessarily the day. If you have jumped around a couple of jobs, remember to state why you left in just one sentence. This is particularly important for technical project managers – engineering or IT project managers. You don’t have to Business School list every little thing you know. Instead, focus on the ones you’ll find easy to answer during an interview session. There are many schools of to write for college Bromsgrove School thought about the role of hobbies in resumes. Basically, you want to appear like a disciplined person who can handle the thinkthoughtmath Business School role advertised. Below is a sample resume for an experienced Project Manager. This will serve as your template for writing IT project manager resume, construction project manager resume and others.

Jennifer White , PMP, MBA, B Sc Digital Marketing. 25B, Madison Avenue ? Sydney Area, Australia ? 123.456.7890 n jenniferwhite@gmail.com. Systems ENGINEER ? IT Services Deployment ? SOFTWARE Development. Close to 10 years of enterprise-related project management in get writing paragraphs customer service, marketing and operations for healthcare, management consulting and retailing environments across public and private enterprises. Information analyst with track record of boosting revenue by Cologne Business School, over 20% following the introduction of new tactics to old systems. Manage projects worth millions of dollars, taking outsourcing solutions across West Africa, East Africa and environs; completed the entire project within budget, in writing in english Louisiana University time and with minimal deviations from original plan. Experienced in project management using expert online freelancers across the world to cut down operations cost by over 40% with smoother operations and School greater success rate. Email Encryption Solutions.

Enterprise Messaging Solutions. Mobile Payments Implementation. Enterprise Email Messaging, Project Lifecycle. Budgeting and Cost Analysis. Project Scope Design. Business Modeling Ancillary Skills. Team Building and thinking programs Monash Management.

Client Relationship Management. DEVANUS INC. (Sydney Area, Australia) May 2002 to present. Senior Project Manager, January 2006 to present. Oversee the Cologne Business School development of interactive, multimedia, Internet-based customer enquiry desk for writing Louisiana Airtel largest full service advertising and communication firm. Provide project management for large projects involving complex technology and thinkthoughtmath Business School lead cross-functional teams of up to 20 programmers, developers, and analysts. Budget = over $10M.

Drove up customer satisfaction score by 25% in just 8 months and turned; slashed turnaround time for customer service desk by as much as 5 days (from 2 weeks) by introducing sms-based customer service support system. Elevated revenue by over one million dollars by using technology to High identify the most loyal and Cologne Business School highest paying customers and then providing specialized service to them Built greater expertise and critical hence confidence in Cologne staffs by identifying in-house, experienced experts and organizing informal training sessions for checklist Bodwell High new and thinkthoughtmath Business upcoming staffs. Project Manager, May 2002 to January 2006. Managed multiple projects totaling $5M in budget; generated new customer service architectural systems for fledgling firms; reduced the cost of business operations by introducing the use of outsourcing firms. Successfully consolidated and streamlined business operations following the merger of write article Brookes Shawnigan Airtel and Vodafone. Led pilot teams to thinkthoughtmath School test new processes, anticipate crises and provide contingency solutions. Increased revenue by over 25% using a cross-functional team of financial, technical and business experts who analyzed and essay University discovered a leak in thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business business operations while working on another project Honored with ‘Best Innovator Award’ for introducing web-based project management tools for managing outsourcing firms and tracking project details. MBA (GPA: 3.8), University of London, London, 2005. B Sc (GPA: 3.75), Hult University, London, 2001.

PMI-Certified Project Management Professional (PMP), 2002.

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2009 RMD Waivers: IRS Issues Clarification and Transitional Relief. Business? In Notice 2009-82 the IRS provided much-needed clarification regarding the 2009 waiver of required minimum distributions (RMD). An Article Review? It also granted transitional relief to allow RMDs made earlier in 2009 to be rolled over by November 30, and issued sample amendments that individual plan sponsors and sponsors of pre-approved plans can use with reliance. IRS Notice 2009-82. Clarification of Key Aspects. The Worker, Retiree, and Employer Recovery Act of Cologne School 2008 added new provisions to IRC *§ 401(a)(9) to writing Louisiana, exempt qualified defined contribution plans, § 403(b) plans, governmental § 457(b) plans, and individual retirement accounts and individual retirement annuities (IRAs), from the RMD requirements for 2009. For sponsors and administrators of Cologne Business these arrangements, recently-released Notice 2009-82 is must reading. It provides fundamental clarification on critical thinking Bodwell High School the workings of the RMD waiver for 2009. Among various matters, the thinkthoughtmath Cologne School, Notice explains: 2009 RMDs.

The waiver applies to a participant or beneficiary who would have been required to for college, receive a RMD for 2009 (the 2009 RMD) and who would have satisfied that requirement by receiving a distribution either: Under a series of substantially equal distributions (that include the 2009 RMD) made at least annually and expected to last for the life (or life expectancy) of the participant, the joint lives (or joint life expectancy) of the participant and the participant's designated beneficiary, or for a period of at least ten years (an Extended 2009 RMD). All other distributions -- including distributions that consist partly of a 2009 RMD -- fall outside the waiver and thinkthoughtmath will continue to be made. Permissive Direct Rollovers. Plans are permitted (but not required) to how to write, offer a direct rollover of a 2009 RMD distribution. The Notice clarifies that for this purpose the plan can elect to provide direct rollovers of the 2009 RMD and thinkthoughtmath Cologne School the Extended 2009 RMD. And Essays Trent? [ Note: Like RMDs, substantially equal periodic payments made over Cologne School, the life or life expectancy of the critical checklist Bodwell School, participant (or the joint life or life expectancy of the Cologne Business School, participant and beneficiary), or over thinking, a period of at least ten years, would not otherwise be rollover eligible. Thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School? Their rollover eligibility is a unique characteristic only for 2009, as a result of the essay writing in english Louisiana State University, RMD waiver and the guidance in Notice 2009-82. See IRC § 402(c)(4).] Deadline for 401(a)(9) Elections.

The deadline is extended until the end of 2010 for: Employees or beneficiaries who have until the end of thinkthoughtmath Cologne 2009 to critical thinking checklist Bodwell, choose between receiving distribution under the thinkthoughtmath School, 5-year or the life expectancy rule under IRC § 401(a)(9)(B) (i.e., in to write for college essay Bromsgrove, electing the School, method for satisfying the required distribution where the employee dies before distributions have begun). Non-spouse beneficiaries who are permitted to directly roll over the account balance of a participant who died in 2008, under the special rule in Notice 2007-7 (i.e., in how to write article Brookes Shawnigan, making the direct rollover and in using the life expectancy rule for satisfying the Cologne School, required distribution where the participant died before distributions have begun). Spousal Consent. Spousal consent may be required to suspend RMDs for 2009. And Essays Trent University? If no new annuity starting date is chosen (under the thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School, procedures described in Notice 97-75 Qamp;A-8), spousal consent is not required under most circumstances. And Essays? However, if there is a new annuity starting date, spousal consent may be required to suspend distributions for 2009 and to Cologne Business School, resume them in 2010, depending on the form of distribution. Trent? Rollover to Same Plan. Thinkthoughtmath? If the rollover requirements are met (and the article, plan document allows it), the Notice points out that the 2009 RMD can be rolled back to the distributing plan. School? Substantially Equal Period Payments under IRC § 72(t). The Notice points out that the 2009 RMD waiver does not apply to payments that are being made as part of get writing and essays University a series of substantially equal periodic payments to Cologne Business School, avoid the 10 percent early distribution tax under IRC § 72(t). If those payments are stopped in 2009 before age 59Ѕ or before 5 years from the date of the first payment, all the payments made under the series are subject to critical High, the recapture tax.

The Notice also provides clarification on other important matters, including the withholding requirements, and the ordering rule by which the 2009 RMD is identified amongst more than one distribution made in 2009. Transition Relief through November 30. The Notice provides significant transition relief through November 30, 2009, with respect to the qualification requirement that the plan be operated in accordance with its terms, and to allow rollovers of previously made 2009 RMDs. Specifically: Plan Compliance. Plans can be amended to thinkthoughtmath Business, reflect the 2009 RMD waiver as late as the last day of the 2011 plan year (or the essay Bromsgrove, 2012 plan year for governmental plans), provided that the plan operates as if the Cologne School, amendment were in effect from its effective date. Given the confusion surrounding the 2009 RMD waiver and its terms and administration, the IRS has granted a transition period. During the period January 1, 2009 through November 30, 2009, a plan will not be treated as failing to satisfy the requirement that it be operated in accordance with its terms merely because: 2009 RMDs or Extended 2009 RMDs were or were not paid, Participants and beneficiaries were not given the option of receiving or not receiving distributions that include 2009 RMDs, or. A direct rollover option was or was not offered for 2009 RMDs or other amounts that can be rolled over under the Rollover Relief provided. Rollover Relief.

2009 RMDs and Extended 2009 RMDs can be rolled over if the other rollover requirements are met (e.g., the 60-day deadline for rollover, among others). To assist participants, beneficiaries and IRA holders who previously received a distribution in for college essay Bromsgrove School, 2009 and were unsure of the rollover eligibility of the distribution, the IRS extended the 60-day rollover period so that it will end no earlier than November 30. Individuals have until November 30, or 60 days from the Business School, date the distribution was received, whichever is later, to complete the writing Louisiana University, rollover. (The Notice points out Business that no more than one distribution from an IRA in thinking, 2009 will be eligible for this rollover relief because of the statutory limitation under IRC § 408(d)(3), which permits only one rollover per year.) The Notice did not extend the remedial amendment period; plans still need to be amended by the last day of the 2011 plan year (or, in the case of governmental plans, the 2012 plan year). (IRAs do not need to be amended, pending the issuance of further guidance.) The Notice does provide sample amendments which, if adopted (and modified as necessary to Cologne School, conform to the plan's terms), will not result in the loss of reliance on a favorable opinion, advisory or determination letter -- and will not affect the preapproved status of a master and prototype or volume submitter plan. As adopted, the amendments must reflect the operation of the plan with respect to the 2009 RMD waiver (except for the period January 1 through November 30, as described above in the Transition Relief regarding Plan Compliance). The IRS provides two versions of a sample amendment: in one version the 2009 RMDs and Extended 2009 RMDs will be distributed unless the participant or beneficiary affirmatively elects otherwise, and in the other version the distributions will not be made unless the participant or beneficiary affirmatively elects otherwise. Direct rollovers of the 2009 RMDs and Extended 2009 RMDS are not offered under either -- although the sponsor can add provisions to essay in english University, provide a direct rollover of both, or only of the 2009 RMD.

If you have any questions or need additional information about articles appearing in this or previous versions of Cologne Business Washington Bulletin, please contact: Robert Davis 202.879.3094, Elizabeth Drigotas 202.879.4985, Mary Jones 202.378.5067, Stephen LaGarde 202.879-5608, Bart Massey 202.220.2104, Mark Neilio 202.378.5046, Tom Pevarnik 202.879.5314, Sandra Rolitsky 202.220.2025, Deborah Walker 202.879.4955.

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essay image virtue Native Americans and thinkthoughtmath the Land. Wilderness and American Identity. The Use of the how to write Shawnigan Lake, Land. Native Americans and the Land Essays. American Indians: The Image of the Indian.

Nature Transformed is made possible by grants from the thinkthoughtmath, Arthur Vining Davis Foundations. American Indians: The Image of the Indian. Department of History. University of Victoria, British Columbia. National Humanities Center. An early twentieth-century elementary school textbook quizzed pupils on their grasp of the University, lesson devoted to thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School, American Indians. How To Write Brookes. It was a time of unblushing certainty about the superiority of Business civilization to “savagery.” “In what three ways were the Indians different from the white men,” the school text asked, and “What did the white people think of the Indians?” Judging from related questions, the correct answer was that the Indians were strange : What was one of the write an article review Ashbury, strangest things that the Indians did? What strange things did the Indians believe about spirits?

What strange things did the Cologne Business School, Indians do to drive the evil spirits away? Today it is difficult even to talk about the racial stereotypes once so confidently assumed. Stereotyping as a subject for study may be historical, but the emotions it arouses are eminently present day. Whether we use terms like image, stereotype or construct, we are talking about the same thing: ideas about a particular group that serve to characterize all the individuals within that group. Certain ideas entrench themselves as fundamental, and how to the rule of thumb is that such ideas are invariably self-servingthey promote the thinkthoughtmath Cologne, interests of the group that holds them, and they form the reality upon review, which that group acts. It is a given today that the Business School, idea of the American Indian has been historically significant.

It shaped the attitudes of those in the nineteenth century who shaped Indian policy. Indian policybe it removal of the Eastern tribes in the 1830s, reservation isolationism beginning in the 1850s, or allotment of reservation lands and assimilation in the 1880scannot be understood without an awareness of the ideas behind it. Literature and the visual arts provide revealing guides to nineteenth-century assumptions about the Indian. Traditionally, Indians were divided into two “types”: noble and ignoble savages. University. The Indian woman was either a princess or a drudge, the thinkthoughtmath, Indian man an admirable brave or a fiendish warrior. These venerable images, dating back to the earliest European contact with American natives, found their most influential literary expression in James Fenimore Cooper’s 1826 novel Last of the get writing Trent, Mohicans . Thinkthoughtmath Cologne School. Cooper personified good and bad by tribe and get writing University individualthe noble Delawares Uncas and his father Chingachgook, the evil Hurons Magua and his “bloody-minded hellhounds.” Lasting influence? Students might be encouraged to watch the thinkthoughtmath Cologne School, 1992 Daniel Day-Lewis movie Last of the write article Brookes, Mohicans a very free adaptation of Cologne School Cooper’s novel. Better yet, have them watch Dances with Wolves . It won the Academy Award for Best Picture in 1990, and was a crowd favorite. Besides a sympathetic white hero in Lake, line with Cooper’s own Natty Bumppo, it starkly contrasts “good” Indians (the ever-so-noble Lakotas) and “bad” Indians (the villainous Pawnees, with their roach-cuts and Cologne Business face paint making them look like English “punks” on a rampage).

The stark contrast between the noble and ignoble savage obscures their common denominator: savagery . Savagery referred to write College, a state of social development below civilization and, in some calculations, below an thinkthoughtmath, intermediate step, barbarism. Since savagery was inferior to critical Monash University, civilization, the reasoning went; a savage was naturally inferior to a civilized person. The noble savage might be admired for certain rude virtues, and Cologne Business the ignoble savage deplored as brutal and bloody-minded, but the fate of essay writing Louisiana University each was identical. In time, both would vanish from the face of the earth as civilization, in accordance with the universal law of progress, displaced savagery. The ending of Dances with Wolves echoes this sentiment as an admirable culture, unaware of inexorable fate, is about to be swept away by a more progressive but less admirable one. Swept away.

Such was the School, theory of the Vanishing American. It held out no long-term hope for Indians, noble or ignoble, unless they could be civilized . Sadly, many Americans in the first half of the nineteenth-century concluded, they could not. For there was another law at work when civilization met savagery, the law of critical programs Monash University vices and virtues. In confronting white civilization, the reasoning went, Indians lost their savage virtuesindependence, hospitality, couragewhile retaining only Cologne their savage vices; worse yet, they added civilization’s vices to the mixture, ignoring civilization’s virtues. This lethal combination of savage vices and thinking checklist School civilized vices ensured the Indians’ extinction. The artist George Catlin (17961872), who based his entire body of thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business workincluding over 500 paintings done in the 1830s and several books recounting his travelson the theory of the Vanishing American, provided a vivid description of the process at essay writing in english State, work: In traversing the thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School, immense regions of the Classic West , the mind of a Philanthropist is filled to the brim with feelings of admiration; but to to write for college, reach this country, one is obliged to descend from the light and glow of civilized atmosphere, through the different grades of civilization, which gradually sink to the most deplorable vice and darkness along our frontier; thence through the most pitiable misery and wretchedness of savage degradation, where the genius of natural liberty and independence have been blasted and destroyed by the contaminating vices and dissipations of civilized society. Through this dark and sunken vale of wretchedness one hurries as through a pestilence, until he gradually rises again into the proud and heroic elegance of savage society, in a state of pure and original nature, beyond the reach of civilized contamination Even here, the thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School, predominant passions of the savage breast, of treachery and cruelty, are often found, yet restrained and frequently subdued by the noblest traits of honor and magnanimity,a race of men who live and enjoy life and its luxuries, and practice its virtues, very far beyond the usual estimations of the world From the first settlements of our Atlantic coast to how to write Brookes, the present day, the bane of this blasting frontier has regularly crowded upon them, from the northern to the southern extremities of our country, and, like the fire in thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School, a mountain, which destroys every thing where it passes, it has blasted and sunk them, and critical checklist Bodwell High all but their names, into oblivion, wherever it has traveled. Pigeon’s Egg Head (The Light) going to. and returning from Washington.

Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Institute Alcohol symbolized the fatal exchange: it turned once noble savages into thinkthoughtmath “the poor, degraded, and humbled specimens which alone can be seen along our frontiers.” Resistance was futile. Should the Indians accept the how to write an article College, inevitable and Cologne embrace civilization, they would be destroyed by its vices; should they resist civilization and go to how to write review College, war, they would be destroyed by its avenging sword. Not everyone accepted such a grim prognosis. Missionaries always rejected the notion of a race created for extinction, and insisted that substituting good example for bad would find the Indians’ gratefully embracing civilization’s virtues and thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business spurning its vices. Writing In English. Even Catlin held out hope. “The protecting arm of government,” he insisted, “could easily shield them from Business School, vices, and civilize them (if necessary) with virtues.” Nevertheless, the thrust of popular opinion, like his own, cleaved to writing State University, the notion of a vanishing race. “This wild, but noble and unhappy race, is rapidly becoming extinct,” a New York newspaper editorialized in 1837:

They are rapidly sinking into Cologne Business School the stream of oblivion, and soon nothing of them will remain but the memory of review Ashbury College their past existence and glory. Where are now the descendants of Powhattan, the father of Pocahontas, or Tamenend and thinkthoughtmath Business of Pontiac? Alas! They are blotted from the face of the earth, or swallowed up in the remnants of other tribes. Science buttressed popular understanding of the Indian. In the how to write review, middle of the nineteenth century, polygenesisthe theory of multiple creation of Cologne human “types”provided a race-based explanation for permanent differences in racial capacity, thereby reinforcing notions about the incompatibility of savagery and how to article Brookes Shawnigan civilization. However, polygenesis clashed with religious orthodoxy, which denied the separate creation of races. All humans shared an innate capacity for thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business improvement; no race was intended for extinction.

Later, evolutionary theorists, in advancing the case for article Shawnigan survival of the fittest, gave new credence to the tradition of the Vanishing Indian, since there had to be losers as well as winners in the struggle for survival. JH Colton, New York, 1855. Ruderman Antique Maps Inc. Artists after Catlin also doted on this theme. Thinkthoughtmath Cologne. One popular motif showed the vanguard of civilization scattering Indians and wild animals before its irresistible advance; another placed Indians on a bluff gazing down with melancholy resignation on the thriving civilization below. Progress had made them outcasts in their own land. As for the contrasting images of noble and ignoble savage, expansion rendered the former something of an Eastern monopoly, the latter a Western one, while the Vanishing American subsumed both.

from Harper’s New Monthly. Magazine , June 1867. Courtesy of Cornell UniversityThus, ambivalence marked Indian imagery at the end of the nineteenth century. Thinking High. In the long struggle for mastery of the continent, the image of the bloody savage had always qualified any regret occasioned by the passing of the noble savage. After the thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business, frontier moment ended, however, Americans could look upon their native peoples with sentimental regret. Article Shawnigan. It was a short step from celebrating the School, heroic white pioneers who “won the West” to mourning the losers who, once resistance was over, served as poignant symbols of the cost of progress. James Earle Fraser in 1894 translated popular sentiment into a sculpture of lasting appeal.

End of the Trail shows a mounted Plains Indian, head bowed, shoulders slumped, his spear pointing at how to Ashbury College, the ground, resigned to his fate, which was that of his race. This was the nineteenth century’s legacy to Business School, the twentieth, fusing the noble savage with the Vanishing American to create a timeless Indian symbolizing a past already receding into pure nostalgia. Guiding Student Discussion. Racial stereotyping is what for college essay Bromsgrove School, a minefield, and entering it for purposes of classroom discussion requires a carefully thought out strategy. The truth is that students are often impatient with the thinkthoughtmath, past. They cannot see why people “back then” got everything so wrong, and they tend to judge them, rather than attempt the how to Lake, more difficultand, we historians like to think, more rewarding!task of understanding why people were the way they were, and why they thought the way they did. In order to discuss historical stereotypes, you have to Cologne Business, introduce students to them. This runs the get writing paragraphs Trent University, risk of coming across as advocacy. Indeed, in raising anything historically unpleasant, you may be held responsible for the resulting unpleasantnessit would not exist had you not mentioned it! Having introduced stereotypes, you are left to deal with them. Outright condemnation is easy, since it conforms to what students already think.

Anything more challenging runs even greater risks. Let me (literally!) illustrate the problem. You want to talk about stereotypes of African Americans and thinkthoughtmath Cologne American Indians, so you show your class a cartoon of an African American eating watermelon and a photograph of a cigar store Indian. If your point is simply that these images prove the ignorance of EuroAmericans in the past, then you will have no controversy. If you introduce the same images to probe the in english Louisiana State, underlying values of thinkthoughtmath Cologne a society that considered them acceptable, then you invite controversy. Why did EuroAmericans stereotype African Americans as servile and how to write an article review American Indians as stoic freemen? And to what ends? What use did the EuroAmerican majority have for each race? The labor of Cologne one, of critical programs course, and the land of the other. How would those different uses shape stereotypes? In short, what can stereotypes teach us that would make them valuable in thinkthoughtmath Business, the classroom?

What can they tell us beyond the obvious? Students may remain un-persuaded. Get Writing University. When it comes to a sensitive issue like ethnic stereotyping, it’s just easier to dismiss past beliefs as racist. What else is there to say? Why study the attitudes of another age if, by thinkthoughtmath Cologne School, our standards today, they were deplorable? The answer is in that qualifier“ by our standards today .” It is essential to recognize that people in the past were as confident of the validity of their views as we are of essay writing Louisiana State University our own. Moral certainty underlay their actions, too. Far from being illogical, they were, according to their lights, entirely logical! And that’s a good departure point for discussion. In talking about past values, students should be encouraged to examine their own values.

How are attitudes formed? How do we know what we know? How does experience shape our views? More than thatand hardest of allstudents must be challenged to Cologne School, understand that their most cherished beliefs will one day, too, be part of how to an article history. People not yet born will study us and Cologne Business School analyze our valuesand they just may find us wanting.

Far from making us feel superior, then, history should chasten us. The past has been described as a foreign country. We must visit it with open minds and all due respect for its customs, eager to learn, not simply to judge. Thus Bryan Le Beau, writing about the Salem witch trials, reminds us “the people of seventeenth-century New England believed in witchcraft not because they were Puritans, but because they were men of their time.” And James McPherson, reviewing a book condemning Abraham Lincoln as a racist, observes that Lincoln “shared many of the racist convictions of his time,” but considered slavery “morally wrong” and critical thinking Bodwell High School was able “to transcend his prejudices and to preside over the greatest social revolution in American history, the liberation of four million slaves.” People from the Cologne Business School, past will never conform to essay writing Louisiana State University, present-day standards; if we would understand them, we must grant them their own worldview in order to evaluate their actions and to draw the critical distinctions that are the Cologne Business School, heart and soul of history. Other, more narrowly focused issues will also probably emerge in any class discussion of the image of the Indian.

Students like to get writing paragraphs and essays Trent University, distinguish “good” from “bad”. Thinkthoughtmath Cologne School. Initially, they may consider all stereotypes bad because they conceal something good, the real Indian. Two lines of questioning suggest themselves: First, what was/is the “real” Indian? Do we define an Indian racially, by and essays Trent University, “blood quantum”? Or by an allegiance to traditional culture? Or by federal status (reservation/nonreservation)? How do we define a “real” Indian? Second, are some stereotypes more acceptable than others?

That is, are positive stereotypes better than negative onesthe noble savage more acceptable than the ignoble savage? It’s here that Dances with Wolves can be helpful. Besides engaging students in Cologne Business School, a discussion about the longevity of old stereotypes, it raises another issue: Aren’t the Lakotas in the film just updated noble savages, representing the socially acceptable values of the 1990s grafted onto the latest version of the Vanishing American? Just because the Lakotas get to be the critical thinking University, good guys in Dances with Wolves , is it okay to stereotype them-or to see them off with tear-dimmed eyes at movie’s end as, faithful to the tradition of the vanishing race, they await the destruction of their way of life? Class discussion of Indian images may also pursue another line of questioning. Granted stereotypes like the Cologne Business, noble and ignoble savage and the Vanishing American, who, in particular, believed themand how do you show that they believed them? Citing a few heavyweight thinkers proves little, and critical thinking checklist Bodwell High School smacks of elitism. How about ordinary people? What did they thinkand how do we know? Here the popular culture of any given period is School, relevant.

Today we would look at what to write for college Bromsgrove, the electronic media, films, music, etc.; in studying the nineteenth century, students might examine folk tales and humor, newspapers, popular fiction, Currier Ives prints, advertising cards, sermons, etc. At the very least, the sheer pervasiveness of the major Indian stereotypes in popular culture will be a revelation to Cologne, most students. Students may then want to know how the article, public’s belief in noble and ignoble savages and Business the Vanishing American mattered historically. Given that people held certain views about Indians, So what? How do we prove that those views caused anything in paragraphs University, particular to happen in a specific situation? This is the same challenge that has always faced intellectual historiansestablishing the link between idea and action.

It is thinkthoughtmath Cologne School, useful to remind students at the outset that ideas are as real as any other historical data. Since history itself is a mental exercise, the essay writing Louisiana, historian can hardly deny people in the past a fully active mental life of their own. As a general proposition, what people believe explains what they do. When, for example, Congressmen in the nineteenth century debated Indian affairs and Cologne School referred to the bloody savage to promote an aggressive policy, or talked about a noble race that had been dispossessed to advocate a humanitarian policy, we can see a belief system at work with direct, practical consequences. To sum up, historians do not defend what was done in the name of past beliefs.

They are not apologists or advocates. But historians must labor to understand past beliefs if they would understand what happened in the past. Thinking Checklist School. Ideas are often self-fulfilling prophecies: historically, they make happen what they say will happen. And historical stereotypes of the American Indian have done exactly that. Almost fifty years ago, Roy Harvey Pearce, a literary scholar, in his book The Savages of thinkthoughtmath Business America: A Study of the Indian and how to write Brookes Lake the Idea of Civilization (1953; rev. ed., Savagism and Civilization: A Study of the thinkthoughtmath Business School, Indian and the American Mind , 1965), stated the assumption still fundamental to any examination of the image of the American Indian. In talking about Indians, he wrote, white Americans “were only talking to themselves about themselves.” Stereotypes, in short, tell us more about the perceiver than the perceived. Every historical study of Indian images since has worked a variation on Pearce’s premise, be it “the white man’s Indian” (Robert Berkhofer, The White Man’s Indian: Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the Present [1978]), “the Vanishing American” (Brian W. Dippie, The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S.

Indian Policy [1982]), “the invented Indian” (James Clifton, ed., The Invented Indian: Cultural Fictions and Government Policies [1990]), “the imaginary Indian” (Daniel Francis, The Imaginary Indian: The Image of the Indian in Canadian Culture [1992]), or “the constructed Indian” (Elizabeth S. Get Writing Paragraphs And Essays Trent University. Bird, ed., Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the thinkthoughtmath, Indian in American Popular Culture [1996]). Thinking Programs. Overviews of thinkthoughtmath Indian stereotyping in the nineteenth century should be supplemented with case studies such as Sherry L. Smith’s The View from Officers’ Row: Army Perceptions of Western Indians (1990) and Reimagining Indians: Native Americans through Anglo Eyes, 18801940 (2000) and John M. Coward’s The Newspaper Indian: Native American Identity in the Press, 182090 (1999). Article Shawnigan. All go to Cologne Business, prove the an article College, pervasiveness of James Fenimore Cooper’s influence in the nineteenth centuryand since. Many Westerners (and some army officers), for example, fancied themselves realists when it came to Indians, and routinely denounced Cooper’s Uncas and the whole sentimental tradition of the Cologne Business School, noble savage as a palpable fictioneven as they embraced Magua and the ignoble savage as unvarnished truth! Historians have given particular attention to the “So what?” questionthat is, to correlating attitudes and their practical consequences, often through policy developments. As can be seen, they have had much to say on the subject of Indian stereotyping. But because of the seminal influence of Cooper’s The Last of the Mohicans in giving memorable form to the noble savage, bloody savage and for college essay Bromsgrove School the Vanishing American, students of American literature continue to lead the Cologne Business School, way in probing Indian stereotypes.

A readable, accessible book is Louise K. Barnett’s The Ignoble Savage: American Literary Racism, 17901890 (1975). It, and Richard Slotkin’s seminal work fusing literature and history, Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 16001860 (1973), point the way to what to write Bromsgrove, recent “cultural studies” offering sometimes imaginative, sometimes tendentious readings of literary texts that advance the thinkthoughtmath Cologne, “postcolonialist” critique of American culture. In English Louisiana University. For those who want to test the waters, a number of titles come to mind: Lucy Maddox’s Removals: Nineteenth-century American Literature the Politics of Cologne School Indian Affairs (1991), Robert S. Write. Tilton’s Pocahontas: The Evolution of an American Narrative (1994), Cheryl Walker’s Indian Nation: Native American Literature and 19th-Century Nationalisms (1997), Susan Scheckel’s The Insistence of the Indian: Race and thinkthoughtmath Nationalism in Nineteenth-century American Culture (1998) and Renee L. Bergland’s The National Uncanny: Indian Ghosts and American Subjects (2000). Martin Barker and Roger Sabin’s The Lasting of the Mohicans: History of an American Myth (1995) documents the growth industry created by one novel over the years, while Alan Trachtenberg’s Shades of writing in english State Hiawatha: Staging Indians, Making Americans, 18801930 (2004) uses the most famous Indian poem ever written, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow’s Hiawatha (1855), as a launching pad for a broad-gauged investigation of Indian and immigrant stereotypes in the twentieth century. The image of the Indian in art has been comparatively neglected. Cologne School. Two illustrated essays provide different interpretations. Julie Schimmel’s “Inventing ‘the Indian,’” in William Truettner, ed., The West as America: Reinterpreting Images of the Frontier (1991), stresses the thinking checklist Bodwell High School, construction of the “Indian” in nineteenth-century art, while Brian Dippie’s “The Moving Finger Writes: Western Art and the Dynamics of Change,” in Jules Prown, et al., Discovered Lands, Invented Pasts: Transforming Visions of the American West (1992), focuses on visual representations of the thinkthoughtmath Business School, fate of the Indian. Paragraphs And Essays Trent. Two well-illustrated exhibition catalogs examining relevant issues are Jehanne Teilhet-Fisk and Robin F. Cologne School. Nigh, comps., Dimensions of critical thinking Monash University Native America: The Contact Zone (1998), and Sarah E. Boehme, et al., Powerful Images: Portrayals of Cologne Business School Native America (1998). Steven Conn’s History’s Shadow: Native Americans and Historical Consciousness in the Nineteenth Century (2004) includes a chapter on “Indians in American Art.”

There has been a growth industry in Edward S. Curtis’s romantic, turn of the twentieth-century photographs of American Indians. Barbara Davis’s Edward S. Curtis: The Life and Times of how to write Ashbury College a Shadow Catcher (1985) is the most substantial of the many Curtis picture books, and students always enjoy looking at his work. However, Curtis’s role in perpetuating the Business, myth of the Vanishing American has also generated criticism. Christopher M. Lyman’s The Vanishing Race and Other Illusions: Photographs of how to an article Ashbury Indians by Edward S. Curtis (1982) fired the opening salvo by documenting the ways Curtis manipulated his subjects to create images of the timeless Indian. Paula Fleming and Judith Luskey’s Grand Endeavors of American Indian Photography (1993) is useful for placing Curtis in context, while Mick Gidley’s Edward S. Curtis and School the North American Indian, Incorporated (1998) analyzes Curtis’s commercial strategies in producing his photographic record of the an article review, Western tribes. Thinkthoughtmath. A critical approach to the Curtis photographs permits access to the ideas behind them.

Not surprisingly, the noble savage and the Vanishing American lurk just beneath their appealing surfaces. The perpetuation of Indian stereotypes in the twentieth century will naturally arise in any classroom discussion of nineteenth-century stereotypes. Students invariably turn to critical thinking programs, film, television, and music as sources for their own ideas, and I have already mentioned the thinkthoughtmath, usefulness of a film like Dances with Wolves in stimulating interest. Write Brookes Shawnigan. Consequently, the literature on cinema as a source for Cologne Business School Indian stereotypes may prove relevant. The most recent studies (with up-to-date bibliographies) are Peter Rollins and an article review John O’Connor’s Hollywood’s Indian: The Portrayal of the Native American in Cologne Business, Film (1998), Jacquelyn Kilpatrick’s Celluloid Indians: Native Americans and Film (1999), and Armando José Prats’ Invisible Natives: Myth and writing in english Louisiana Identity in the American Western (2002). Thinkthoughtmath Cologne. More broadly, twentieth-century popular culture and the Indian figure into the Elizabeth Bird anthology Dressing in Feathers , as well as Rennard Strickland’s Tonto’s Revenge: Reflections on American Indian Culture and Policy (1997), Ward Churchill’s polemical Fantasies of the Master Race: Literature, Cinema, and the Colonization of American Indians (1998), and Philip J. An Article Review. Deloria’s engaging exposé of stereotypes, Indians in Unexpected Places (2004).

But in bringing the subject of Indian stereotypes in literature and art up to the present, it seems to thinkthoughtmath Business School, me useful to end with something elsethe contemporary American Indian voice. Besides the how to article Shawnigan Lake, gritty, realistic novels of such esteemed Native writers as N. Scott Momaday, Louise Erdrich, James Welch and Leslie Marmon Silko, I recommend Sherman Alexie’s The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven (1993), a collection of short stories that keep an eagle eye on thinkthoughtmath School some of the absurdities of Indian stereotyping, and critical thinking that served as the basis for Smoke Signals (1998), another film your students should see. A final recommendation: Thomas King’s Medicine River (1989), a sly, amusing novel thatbeginning with its protagonist, a Native photographersends up many of the hoary stereotypes of the American Indian. Brian W. Thinkthoughtmath Cologne School. Dippie is Professor of History at University of Victoria, British Columbia, and past president of the Western History Association. He is the author of Custer’s Last Stand: The Anatomy of an University, American Myth (1976), The Vanishing American: White Attitudes and U.S. Indian Policy (1982), Catlin and His Contemporaries: The Politics of Patronage (1990), and The Frederic Remington Art Museum Collection (2001). He has also contributed to numerous other volumes and edited or co-authored several volumes on the art and artists of the American West.

Address comments or questions to Professor Dippie through TeacherServe “Comments and Questions.” Dippie, Brian W. “American Indians: The Image of the thinkthoughtmath Cologne, Indian.” Nature Transformed, TeacherServe®. Thinking University. National Humanities Center. DATE YOU ACCESSED ESSAY. Thinkthoughtmath Cologne School. http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/nattrans/ntecoindian/essays/indimage.htm 7 Alexander Drive, P.O. Box 12256. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709. Phone: (919) 549-0661 Fax: (919) 990-8535.

Copyright National Humanities Center. All rights reserved.

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Journal of International Management. Reacting to Bad Publicity over Sweat Shop Issue: The Case of Primark. A case study by Michelle Min Hwa Lee. It’s no secret that over the past century, with advances in technology, especially in Cologne Business School communication and transportation, production chains and to write for college essay Bromsgrove methods of conducting business have undergone significant transformation. What we call “Globalization” has shown us that no more do we have to wait for responses in Business School writing from thinking Bodwell School business partners for days at thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School a time, aside from the fact that it might take a while if they are dodging your e-mails purposely nowadays, nor do we have to travel across the world for mere handshakes. It has decreased travel distances and allowed much more fluid communication through e-mail, chats and voice conferences. The lead-time to conduct a successful business cycle has been dramatically reduced, which consequently allows these businesses to concentrate in maximizing profits by making processes even more efficient. Given such circumstances, the paragraphs and essays, production chains concerning the fashion industry, specifically, have been heavily driven by consumer demand; forcing most major retail clothing companies to go overseas, opting for global sourcing rather than domestic production.

It is a rather logical choice for these businesses whose sole goal has become maximization of Cologne School, profit and critical thinking Bodwell High School efficiency in the supply chain. The developing countries where most of the production is now held offer lower material and labor costs yet they satisfy enough infrastructural needs so that production can be seen as a possibility. Thinkthoughtmath Business School. The developing countries are more than happy to receive these foreign businesses that come to take advantage of get writing and essays University, cheap labor and material resources, as the Cologne Business School, investments of foreign businesses are likely to result in infrastructural advancement as well as GDP growth. Countries like India, China, Bangladesh, Turkey and Mexico are usually the industry’s favorite go-to spots as sourcing from writing in english Louisiana these countries is likely to result in high profits for the businesses. Cologne. However, some controversial problems have surged due to how to Shawnigan this evident blindness towards all other factors but profit. Companies who have ignored the conditions, in which many of their workers were subjected to, have been slowly realizing the thinkthoughtmath Cologne, consequences of their negligence.

Business ethics seems to be the big trend in this new millennium, though it should have been present since day one. Businesses have a responsibility to society. Thinking Checklist Bodwell. Certain rules of conduct and principles as well as patterns of Cologne Business School, behavior in business practices that involve “doing the right thing” should be crucial. Some businesses have been targets among the NGOs and protest groups for their unethical practices and their most precious facet, profit, has taken a plunge after heavy criticism. Primark is a clear example of this profit plunge after dealing with child labor issues and other irresponsible business behaviors. This big retail chain, a part of get writing Trent, Associated British Foods (ABF), a diversified international food, ingredients and retail group, constitutes of over 200 stores across Ireland, the UK, Spain, Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, and Portugal. With its headquarters in Dublin, Ireland, it is one of the big budget retail chains of Europe with revenue of ? 2,730 million in the financial year of 2009/2010. Its products include womenswear, menswear, childrenswear, footwear, accessories, lingerie and Cologne Business School homeware and it employs approximately 36,000 people. Primark is well known for what for college essay School, selling clothes at the budget end of the market, sourcing cheaply from Business School 600 major suppliers in for college essay Bromsgrove School 16 countries.

Its success is based on, most evidently, sourcing cheaply, making clothes with simple designs and Cologne Business School fabrics, only making them in an article review Ashbury College the most popular sizes, and buying stock in huge bulks and varieties. Also, in order to maintain value/low prices, Primark tries to keep sale volumes high, retain margins low, advertising minimal, produce in Cologne a lean and efficient manner, and also benefiting from economies of scale by buying in essay Bromsgrove School bulk. All of the company’s merchandise is made specifically for the company, keeping all brands in the store private label. The problem arose in 2005 when Primark scored the lowest of all leading clothing chains in the UK (3.5 out of thinkthoughtmath Business, 20) on the Ethical Index, which ranks criteria such as worker’s rights and critical programs Monash University whether they conduct business with oppressive regimes. Thinkthoughtmath Cologne School. They were heavily criticized for presenting such low business ethics. And to regain its now tainted reputation, Primark joined the Ethical Trading Initiative (ETI) in 2006, a NGO of an international alliance of companies and trade unions working in partnership to write Shawnigan Lake improve the lives of workers across the globe.

However, two of the founding members of the ETI, Tesco and Asda, were also targets of criticism for their unethical business behaviors seen in their supplying factories in Bangladesh along with Primark, as reported by War on Cologne, Want, a UK charity that investigates and condemns mal business practices. What seemed to be a closed case was cracked open again when BBC aired a documentary in 2008. The feature exposed the poor working conditions in Indian factories supplying Primark, through an write review Ashbury, undercover investigation. The feature also exposed the presence of child labor, which by far is considered the worst of Cologne School, unethical practices. The documentary aired on 23 June 2008, causing a major polemic among the consumers, which later led to mass boycott and how to protests organized mostly by thinkthoughtmath Cologne School War on Want. Excerpts of the documentary featured an 11-year-old Indian girl at a refugee camp sewing sequins on a shirt ordered by Primark. It was obvious that the critical thinking programs Monash University, growing pressure on suppliers of these third world countries to deliver fast fashion at rock-bottom prices had made sweatshop labor inevitable. Business. Primark, of course, denied that it had any knowledge of child labor manifesting over its supplier factories that “under no circumstances would Primark ever knowingly permit such activities”. The next move by Primark was quite logical but still did not solve the to write for college Bromsgrove, ethical dilemmas the company faced.

Primark halted all business with the condemned suppliers, canceling millions of pounds worth of Business School, orders, and stated that that these suppliers had purposely deceived Primark (“wholesale deception”). However, many child protection groups disapproved of this action, calling it irresponsible and likely to how to Lake cause additional hardship to the children and other workers. They argued that Primark should have sought to improve working conditions and pay. In December of 2008, the same charity that denounced Primark’s unethical business conducts came out with yet another report, Fashion Victims II. Thinkthoughtmath School. The report claimed that terms and conditions had not improved in Bangladeshi factories supplying Primark two years after the essay in english Louisiana State University, charity first visited them.

The first report had disparaged the same factories in Bangladesh for having precarious working conditions and ridiculous pay. Thinkthoughtmath School. Yet, when they went for the second time around, they saw no changes. The supplier’s employees were still over worked without appropriate compensation, working up to 80 hours a week, which is even against Bangladeshi law. The country’s labor law defines a standard working week as being 48 hours: eight hours per day, six days a week with two hours max of overtime per day. Therefore, by law, the get writing, working week is limited to a maximum of 60 hours. The report stated that not a single factory they had inspected had implemented an eight-hour working day. Being overworked was the thinkthoughtmath Cologne School, least of these Bangladeshi laborers’ problems. Critical Programs Monash University. More than 60% of the women surveyed described how they were subjected to thinkthoughtmath Cologne obscene and sexually suggestive language in checklist Bodwell High the workplace, which some even reported instances of Cologne Business, sexual abuse. The pay grade is also a big setback for writing State University, the Bangladeshi workers since they don’t make enough money not even for thinkthoughtmath Cologne School, subsistence, their monthly wage ranges from ? 13.97 to write article Brookes ? 24.37.

A living wage is defined as a wage that enables a worker to provide his or her family with nutritious food, clean water, shelter, clothes, education, health care and transport, as well as some discretionary spending. For these workers to be earning a living wage they should be earning around ? 44.82 a month, but reality was that they were merely paid an average ? 19.16, less than half than what’s needed. The summary of the Fashion Victims II report was that due to their low wage, the Bangladeshi workers not only endured hardships at Business School a job with a terrible working environment, they were forced to live in appalling living situations. Many lived in for college essay Bromsgrove small crowded shacks, without proper plumbing, and most still struggled to maintain such abysmal living conditions. Ethical problems were not only discovered in overseas suppliers, but also in the UK. Business School. In 2009, it became public knowledge that even suppliers domestically were engaging in some dishonest activities. A supplier was forced by the ETI to remove its branding from Primark stores and websites following a BBC/The Observer investigation into their employment practices. Illegal immigrant labor was found in the supplier’s factory, composed mostly of Pakistanis and in english State University Indians, working in School unsafe conditions and how to review being paid less than the UK legal minimum wage. The factory was described as cramped and Cologne cold, in breach of health and how to review Ashbury College safety regulations. Breach in ethical protocol is not a problem only for Primark. Other big named retailers also served a similar fate as many reports on unethical practiced surged in the beginning of the 21st century.

In 2003, Gap, the American mass market retailer was also involved in a class action lawsuit filed by sweatshop workers in Saipan. The allegations included “off the clock” hours, where workers were not paid for working overtime, unsafe working conditions, and forced abortion policies. Thinkthoughtmath Cologne School. Gap paid severely for such actions, a settlement of 20 million dollars was reached whereby Gap did not admit liability. Nevertheless, the company draws continued criticism over labor practices. Also, in for college essay Bromsgrove May 2006, adult and child employees of Western, a supplier in Jordan, were found to have worked up to 109 hours per week and to have gone six months without being paid. Some employees claimed they had been raped by managers.Most of these allegations were directed at Wal-Mart (who mostly ignored the claims), while Gap immediately looked into Business the matter to remedy the situation. However, in 2007, Gap made slowly made a comeback, and Ethisphere Magazine (an industry publication) chose Gap from thinking programs Monash University among thousands of companies evaluated as one of thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School, 100 “World’s Most Ethical Companies.”Gap, Inc. To Write Essay Bromsgrove School. was ranked 25th by CRO Magazine, another industry publication that is Cologne School a successor to Business Ethics magazine, in its “100 Best Corporate Citizens” list in 2007.

On October 28, 2007, BBC footage showed child labor being used in Indian Gap factories.Gap has denied that it was aware of such happenings and that it is against its policy to paragraphs University use child labor. The one piece of clothing in question — a smock blouse — was removed from thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business School a British store and will be destroyed. Thinking Checklist High School. Gap also promised to Business investigate breaches in its ethical policy. Over the past few years, several companies have been accused of unethical and what for college Bromsgrove School inhumane practices, not only Primark. It shows that regardless the size of the company, the race towards driving down practices have put companies in positions where they will opt even for Business School, alternatives that may taint their reputation. Lower costs and higher margins or expensive ethical measures? These events have delivered a serious blow to in english University the company’s reputation. Primark’s own website, ironically titled www.ethicalprimark.com, clearly states that living wages will be paid, child labor shall not be used, environmental requirements shall be fulfilled, and thinkthoughtmath Business no harsh or inhumane treatment will be allowed. Thinking Bodwell School. Primark claimed to be adhering to thinkthoughtmath Cologne the ETI code of conduct as well as abiding by all domestic and international labor laws.

Repercussions of Primark’s unethical behavior were severe. Many consumers, upon hearing the firm’s bad reputation for disregarding Business Ethics, opted for boycott or turned to how to College rival retailers. Once bad reputation settled in, it was hard to shift the consumer’s opinions in Primark’s favor. Primark was met with heavy criticism from various NGOs, charities, protest groups, media, and most importantly from their consumers. Nevertheless, Primark hasn’t been just letting everything play out. First off, Primark proposed a renewed vision statement: “As an thinkthoughtmath Business School, international brand with a global supply chain we have a responsibility to act ethically. We embrace this responsibility as an opportunity to be a great force for good. Primark is committed to providing the best possible value for our customers, but not at thinking checklist Bodwell School the expense of the people who make our products.” Their new vision clearly puts a big emphasis on acting responsibly and ethically. They propose a profitable and sustainable business as their main objective.

Finally, Corporate Social Responsibility has seeped into Primark’s company operations. Ethical behavior is a key player in building a company’s brand image and thinkthoughtmath Cologne giving a reason for consumers to trust and have confidence in the brand. As the reputation of the business increases, it reduces the risks. Consumers and stakeholders alike will benefit and be pleased to be associated with Primark. Primark has also implemented an Ethical Trade Director, who will conduct audits on new and current suppliers and train them to maintain a corporate social responsibility.

These Ethical Trade Directors will be in charge of teaching suppliers factories and Primark’s own buyers the ethical issues and Brookes Shawnigan create awareness to avoid any more problems. The company’s code of thinkthoughtmath Business, conduct will be strictly enforced, especially abiding by the International Labor Organization’s (ILO) code as well, which is an critical thinking Bodwell, agency of the UN. All of these new measures will entail in School extra costs, however Primark states that all are necessary for being ethically responsible and believes that it will lead to a cleaner reputation as well as better management. A new company aim has been identified: Transparency. Primark seeks to Bromsgrove demonstrate commitment to responsible manufacturing through this characteristic. Transparency means the business is open to people seeing how it manages its relationships with suppliers. And, in turn, suppliers’ practices also need to be transparent. This measure will help Primark to retain cleaner reputation it seeks as well as opportunities in new investments and ventures. Though implementing these new approaches will definitely be beneficial to Primark, the difficult of monitoring every single aspect of an overseas supplier still remains a difficult challenge.

Ethical Trade Directors can only supervise a limited number of thinkthoughtmath, suppliers and buyers. There are bound to be some slips and holes, it will be their core responsibility to draw up an efficient plan to prevent any unethical and inhumane treatment of the workers. It will certainly be a big task as Primark seeks to expand, opening new stores in in english Louisiana State University 2011 at original locations in Germany and the Netherlands. The recent expansions of Primark are actually a good sign that it is Cologne School slowly regaining its lost reputation and consumers are striving to return to this value priced retailer. Primark’s growth will inevitably come from offering low prices for what to write for college essay School, fashionable goods while promoting its ethical manufacturing standards.

And by working with external agencies such as the International Labor Organization (ILO), the thinkthoughtmath Cologne Business, ETI and independent auditors, Primark will help to set and maintain standards in the fashion industry. Hopefully, this commitment to responsible manufacturing will help to assure its customers that the goods they are purchasing are not only fashionable and critical thinking good value-for-money, but also that they are ethically produced by workers who are fairly treated and compensated.