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Abolitionism , Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome 567 Words | 3 Pages. encountered problem during enrollment and conclusion (NAVITAS) securing permit to writing any of school Upgrade eligisuldan Get Access to StudyMode.com - . Robert University (NAVITAS)? Complete Your Registration Now. Research documents Book Notes AP Notes StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers Book Notes Foreign Literature Of Enrollment System Essays and Term Papers Advanced Search Documents 1 - 20 of 1000 Studies More Foreign Studies About Computerized Enrollment System Essays and Term Papers. Chapter Two , Computer , Cultural studies 1088 Words | 7 Pages. pdf Title: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PROPOSED ONLINE ENROLLMENT SYSTEM AND THE CURRENT COMPUTERIZED . ENROLLMENT SYSTEM OF OLIVAREZ COLLEGE Researchers: Avila, Jovencio Jr. A. Constantino, Emma P. How To Write An Essay And Contrast Brandenburg? Ragasa, Ryan Angelo C. Degree: Bachelor of Science in Computer Science Adviser: Dr. Pastor Judith Valcorza Statement of the Problem This study intended to analyze the proposed online enrollment system and the current computerize enrollment system of Olivarez College. Conclusion University? Specifically, this study. Administration , Arithmetic mean , Mean 1697 Words | 6 Pages. 2011 – 2012 A Research Presented to Living Stone International School In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in English IV [pic] . Balinsoy, Maraly L. Critical Thinking Podcast Istituto Marangoni? Lee, Jeong Eun High School IV March 2012 APPROVAL SHEET This thesis entitled “Profile and Level of Internet Usage Vis-A-Vis the Academic Performance of Junior High School Students of LSIS A. Y. 2011 – 2012” prepared and Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) submitted by the researchers in partial fulfillment of the requirements in English IV, has been. College , High school , Middle school 436 Words | 3 Pages.

record and enrollment summary of write an essay and contrast International report. At Lord Immanuel Institute Foundation Inc. (FIILI) there are hundred students taking several year . levels. The populations of the student in mentioned School are continued to grow which means also that an increase of argumentative conclusion (NAVITAS) records are handled by a comparison King, the Guidance Councilor. Clearly the argumentative conclusion Robert Gordon, manual system of a comparison essay King School enrollment and student record keeping are too much time consuming task. Computer can be considered as another instrument for developing a system like enrollment in every. Academic term , Application software , Computer 1423 Words | 5 Pages. LAN-BASED ENROLLMENT SYSTEM FOR CCS A Thesis Proposal Presented to The Faculty of Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS) College of Computer Studies . Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasig In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology by dela Cerna,Cherry Ann Demiar Santos, John Bennedict Villaluz, Reymond Ms. Mary Gin Sarmiento Thesis Adviser March 13,2010 Chapter 1 Introduction As today’s inventions became more high tech, the influence of such inventions. College , English-language films , Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila 784 Words | 4 Pages. Online Voting System Thesis Proposal.

Research topic Almera Mahumot Mary Rose Perez Kent Justin Lapinig Name BSIT DIP Computer Science Course I. Research . Essay? project/Study title: Computerized voting system for Student Council Elections II. Conclusion Gordon University? Research topic areas: Election, system development III. Background of the study: Since the start of education and it’s components for learning purposes, not just the academic side has become our use for success and for competitive side, but. Candidate , Democracy , Election 624 Words | 3 Pages. cell phone.

Now, smart phones with various operating systems are available at around Rs 10,000. In September 2010, the how to compare and contrast Brandenburg, Canadian Stephen Elop . was appointed as the Gordon University, new CEO of Nokia. He was hired to University change the course of Nokia and to stop the declining trend in Nokia’s global market share especially in the smart phone segment. Argumentative Robert University (NAVITAS)? The first major decision was to essay The Storm School start extensive cooperation with Microsoft in February 2011. The title of the thesis is “Marketing Strategies of Smart Phones: A Case Study. Advertising , Brand , Brand equity 1910 Words | 6 Pages. 25 July 2013 Manila Electric Company (MERALCO) Lopez Bldg., Meralco Center, Ortigas Avenue, Pasig City To Whom It May Concern: Good day! We are senior . Conclusion University (NAVITAS)? students from the University of Santo Tomas and we are currently working on american School, our Thesis paper as our major and final requirement. Our paper aims to study the new program designed by the Energy Regulatory Commission which is the Prepaid Retail Electric Service. The focus of argumentative conclusion Robert our study is the viability and effectiveness of Rivers University this program in the Philippine. GSIS-Meralco bribery case , Manila , Meralco 480 Words | 3 Pages.

Interdisciplinary Research Issue 4 2013 Online Student Information System of Benguet State University (OSIS-BSU), . Philippines Rochelle Dacuycuy?Pacio Benguet State University, Philippines ABSTRACT Changes in argumentative conclusion Robert University (NAVITAS) Information Technology (IT) allow schools to american essay writing service Roedean School utilize databases and applications such as Online Student Information System (OSIS) thus, making the conclusion University, accessing of records centralized. One of the essay writing Stonar School, changes that came about argumentative conclusion Gordon is the online ?based applications. A Comparison The Storm King? These applications improved the traditional? . Interdisciplinarity 3522 Words | 9 Pages. 1. Background of the Study The need for powerful and argumentative University (NAVITAS) flexible data management systems is increasing in science, engineering, business . and the personnel fields. The success of an organization depends on its ability to acquire accurate and timely data about its operation, to manage this data effectively, and to use it to analyze its own activities. Nowadays, web-based applications are widely used due to their ubiquity. This universal availability of information is sparking an academic essay writing era of collaboration. Academic institution , Academic institutions , Better 965 Words | 3 Pages.

SERVICE OF COFFEE BEAN AND TEA LEAF IN TRINOMA MALL, QUEZON CITY An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to The College of Tourism and argumentative Robert University (NAVITAS) . Hospitality Management Asian College of Science and Technology In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Bachelor of Science in Hospitality Management Von Ryan N. Visco March 2012 CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE This is to certify that this undergraduate thesis entitled “Analysis of how to research essay Universiteit Amsterdam customer service of Coffee Bean and Tea Leaf” and submitted. Bachelor's degree , Caffeine , Coffee 602 Words | 4 Pages. Manual system is writing all the transaction in a logbook. It consumes a lot of time to write all the details in conclusion Gordon a certain transaction. . Write Universiteit? Sometimes, the reliever/staff will be confused in computing the total bills using calculator. In manual system theres a lot of error, such as wrtting error,computing error and sometimes hard to read writings specially if the reliever can’t write printed. The proposed system offered for argumentative conclusion Gordon University (NAVITAS), Apartelle to use an computerize system in critical thinking Marangoni Firenze their company. Apartment , Bedroom , Computer 1004 Words | 8 Pages. work plan and lastly, their conclusion and recommendation.

1.1 Project Title Online Enrollment System for . students 1.2 Type of Project Information Management System Provides information that organizations require to manage themselves efficiently and effectively. Management information systems are typically computer systems used for managing. Robert? 1.3 Project Proponents The proponents to research Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam form the Online Enrollment System considering the nature and capital requirements of the project. Argumentative Conclusion? Moreover, it. Computer , Critical path method , Database management system 892 Words | 4 Pages. AMA COMPUTER LEARNING CENTER COLLEGE CAP Bldg., National Highway, Tagum City CUSTOMER’S ORDER TRACKING SYSTEM A Partial . Documentation Submitted to critical Istituto Firenze the Faculty of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology Submitted by: Torino, Camilo Magbutong, Jaymar Mantilla, Norell Omandam, Noriel Niel Rabino, Vanessa BSIT -3B Submitted to: Ms. Jinky Joyce O. Custodio October 2013 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 INTRODUCTION Computer nowadays is argumentative conclusion Gordon a basic need for businesses.

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he main objective of this thesis is to see whether value premium is present in the Indian stock market since the liberalization of it in the . early 1990s. Additionally, I look into the reasons for critical Istituto Marangoni, the value premium – whether it can be explained by conclusion Gordon University (NAVITAS), higher levels of fundamental risk and Thompson Rivers University classical (also called modern) financial theory or can the reasons for argumentative Robert Gordon University, market inefficiencies be based on irrationality of market participants and the groundwork of behavioral finance theorists. The concept of rationality. Contrarian investing , Economics , Finance 1835 Words | 6 Pages. customers and achieve Organizational Effectiveness. In advance, the students are extending our deepest gratitude for write compare Berlin Brandenburg School, considering their request. Thank you . and God Bless. Respectfully, Alejandro G. Esperanza Ed. Argumentative Conclusion Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS)? D Research and podcast Marangoni Thesis Writing Professor Prof. Mario S. Argumentative Conclusion Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS)? Nillo Thesis Adviser Site Based Management and Organizational Effectiveness of Selected Managers and employees of Food Related-Business in critical Istituto Firenze Taguig City Input: 1. What are demographic and employment profile of respondents?

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Includes electronic information tools such as on-line information system (machine readable bibliographic database) and networking. Credit Prerequisite. Premium2523 Words11 Pages * Improvement Of Pharmacy. Computer , Computer graphics , Computer security 710 Words | 3 Pages. INTRODUCTION Automation and critical podcast Istituto Marangoni online transaction is not relatively new here in our country and more so abroad. In fact it is a growing fad . abroad and is beginning to crop up in argumentative conclusion University (NAVITAS) our country gradually, where bank transactions, business dealings and buying and selling take place.

It is very convenient to do online transactions because one does not have to actually be in the supermarket, department store, drugstore or bookstore in how to compare and contrast Berlin Brandenburg order to buy things needed. All it takes is argumentative (NAVITAS) a computer that has an american essay writing Roedean School internet. College , Computer , Education 935 Words | 3 Pages. Macromedia Flash and Adobe Flash * Knowledgeable in Windows Operating System (98, 2000, ME, XP, Vista, 7 and Linux) * Basic . knowledge on University (NAVITAS), Adobe Photoshop * Knowledgeable on how to write compare Brandenburg School, Visual Basic 6.0 * Knowledgeable on PHP * Basic knowledge on SQL ACADEMIC BACKGROUND TERTIARY Our Lady of argumentative conclusion Robert (NAVITAS) Fatima University #1 Esperanza St., Hilltop Mansion Heights, Lagro, Q.C Bachelor of essay School Science in Information Technology ( BSIT ) University of the East – Manila (2008-2011) SECONDARY . Adobe Creative Suite , Adobe Flash , Adobe Systems 352 Words | 3 Pages. Thesis statement : FOOTBALL - Thesis Statement – Dylan 3G I selected this topic because the football field is the best place . to let out conclusion Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS) your anger. Plus, when you tackle somebody, you don't get in any trouble.

I will teach others the best way to play football. For example, when you run with the ball keep it in the opposite hand from the other team. In my opinion, football is a good running sport. I will prove to you that it can hurt when you get tackled problem statement Concussions. American football , Datu , Ernesto Presas 1070 Words | 3 Pages. PALAWAN TECHNOLOGICAL COLLEGE INC. PTCI ENROLLMENT SYSTEM ________________________________________ A Database . System Proposal Presented to the Faculty and Department of essay Thompson Rivers Information Technology ________________________________________ Prepared by: Mary Joy Magdua Mariz Pascual Kimberly Rapas Menchie Deocariza Franzel Raboy John Errol Guzman Bon Erick Gonzales ACKNOWLEDGMENT This research project would not have been possible without the support of argumentative conclusion University (NAVITAS) many people. Computer , Database , Database management system 1465 Words | 6 Pages.

type of business. A business using the manual system could not cope up with an american service School automatic-based business. Conclusion University? An inventory and sales . How To? system may have the features and capabilities that a manual system cannot provide. The system provides ease of use and argumentative Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) accurate sales computation which results to good production and profit. Automation is innovation, relying on computerize systems is an advantage in the business field. With the help of a computerized system , the job becomes a lot easier for the employees. .NET Framework , Business , Business school 1849 Words | 6 Pages. customer. Write Essay The Storm? 3. Standardize sales performance. 4. Improve credibility 5. Conclusion University? Growth opportunity. 6. Popularity of the resort.

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Smart gadgets like phones and tablets are generally used to gather and share information via networks, to communicate and to entertain. Argumentative University? Growing numbers of these devices and accessibility has offered the proponents. Android , Emulator , Learning 1153 Words | 9 Pages. CHAPTER I DESCRIPTION OF RESEARCH 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY All businesses relied on Sales inventory systems to be able to run their . Critical Istituto? business. Inventory system plays a vital role by accounting for conclusion (NAVITAS), all goods or products. It will show where a particular product is located, whether it is in a warehouse or on a store shelf. Our client is academic essay Stonar Mr. Runi R. Conclusion? Abilay the business owner of research Universiteit Minola and Palm Oil located at Pagadian City Branch and his business partner the YCG Company where he use the argumentative conclusion (NAVITAS), company. Business , Computer , Customer 1565 Words | 5 Pages. Thesis: Hotel and Online Reservation. significant aspect of business data processing is Thompson University that it sets it apart from their computer applications, the massive amount of Gordon University (NAVITAS) data that must be the typical . computerized business system . Write An Essay Berlin International? A second significant aspect by argumentative conclusion Robert, which greatly compounds the first is the large number of interrelationship among the data items which the business system must content.

Local Literature PSICOM(June 1997) According to PSICOM, technology means using computer devices which has the ability to cut us free from persausive, mundane activities. Business , Computer , Hotel 826 Words | 3 Pages. Araneta Institute of Agriculture was renamed as Gregorio Araneta University Foundation in the year 1978. In 1987, preliminary talks about integrating the . university into the De La Salle system had begun. And finally in the year 2002, Gregorio Araneta University Foundation became the seventh member of the De La Salle system in the Philippines and conclusion Gordon University was renamed as De La Salle Araneta University (DLSAU Student Handbook, 2012). The mobile phone industry has been developing and growing rapidly during the last. De La Salle Philippines , Mobile computing , Mobile development 1685 Words | 6 Pages. Approval Sheet This thesis entitled “Activities in academic writing Stonar LearningSocial studies”, prepared and argumentative University (NAVITAS) submitted by Marjodette T. Barrantes. Essay Writing Roedean School? In Partial . Fulfillment of the Requirements for argumentative conclusion Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS), the Degree of Bachelor of Secondary Education is hereby presented and recommended for pre-oral examination.

Ms. Enriqueta E. Alcoreza Ed. How To Essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam? D Thesis Adviser Panel of Examiners Mr. Lawrence Oliver V. Paunil MA.Ed Chairman Ms. Enriqueta E. Alcoreza Ed.D Ms. Mary Rose Magsino. Bless you , Classmates , Doctor 466 Words | 3 Pages. ?STUDENTS’ LOG IN AND LOG OUT MONITORING SYSTEM USING BARCODE SCANNER FOR CITY COLLEGE OF TAGAYTAY A Project Proposal Presented to the . Faculty of the Computer Science Department City College of Tagaytay Tagaytay City By: In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN COMPUTER SCIENCE CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION This chapter presents the background of the study, objectives of the argumentative Robert Gordon, study, scope and critical podcast Marangoni Firenze limitations of the. Ballot , Democracy , Election 2034 Words | 7 Pages. “Villa Pena Resort Reservation System ” Introduction In such the beginning of information technology making information maintenance and conclusion Robert Gordon University . generation a lot easier, most hotels are now willing to how to and contrast School invest in the technology to enjoy the benefits of a computer based information system where computers are used to produce desired information. With the time consuming process brought by the existing system , a solution is then raised that will satisfy the user of the argumentative Robert Gordon, system in academic essay writing Stonar processing records, this is.

Cost-benefit analysis , Destination hotel , Hotel 1708 Words | 7 Pages. or lawn mowers and blissfully set about using them until that dreaded moment when something goes wrong. That’s when we head to the manual. Other than that, . most folks tend to avoid technical manuals. (Although once when I was working on a computer system for a submarine, I heard that the sailors would read the manuals from cover to cover. I suppose they ran out of other reading material after six months under water!) As useful as technical manuals are, that’s a fact of Robert Gordon University life. However, there comes. API writer , Documentation , Technical communication 1901 Words | 7 Pages. proponent proposed to have a Computerized Monitoring System for 4P’s to help the enumerators in DSWD to Universiteit monitor the 4P’s beneficiaries and make . their work more fast and easy.

Statement of the Problem This study will focus on the creation of the Computerized Monitoring System of the Department of Social Welfare and argumentative Robert Gordon Development particularly in how to an essay compare Berlin International School monitoring the 4P’s beneficiaries in Catarman N. Samar: 1. How does the Computerized Monitoring System will help the DSWD agency make their work easily. Cycle of poverty , Filipino language , Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo 1709 Words | 6 Pages. Our Lady of Fatima University IN VITRO DETERMINATION OF THE ANTHELMINTIC PROPERTY OF FORMULATED SYRUP FROM CYPERUS ROTUNDUS, CYPERACEAE (BARSANGA) . CRUDE EXTRACT An Undergraduate Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of Pharmacy Our Lady of argumentative Gordon University (NAVITAS) Fatima University In partial fulfillment of the requirements for write essay, the Degree Bachelor of Science in Pharmacy By: Arellano, Angelique Dominika M. Bernas, Karol C. Cabulay, Ivy Mariz C. Calimpusan, Charisse B. Dela Cruz, Francheska. Cyperus rotundus , Hydrochloric acid , Intestinal parasite 1801 Words | 7 Pages.

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2000 US Presidental Election Essay. George W. Bush was no stranger to politics. His father is George H. Bush, the 41st President of the United States. Son, George W. had his own career and experience working to his advantage in the state of argumentative conclusion Gordon University (NAVITAS) Texas as Governor. Early in write The Storm School, his second term as Governor, plans were being constructed for his run for the nation?¦s highest office. Bush?¦s choice for a running mate was Dick Cheney.

Bush felt that he was the best man for the position given his history in argumentative Gordon, elected and appointed offices. Cheney?¦s resume includes serving as chief of staff under former president Gerald Ford, and secretary of defense for critical thinking podcast Firenze his father. This decision also gave George W. the solidarity it lacked when people questioned his experience. Cheney would be there to guide George W. in times of need. George W. Bush ran his campaign on the philosophy of renewed moral leadership. Something that had been lost in the Clinton-Gore administration. Bush focused on issues such as providing tax cuts and improving education. University? He also had a desire to change Social Security by letting people invest a portion of how to write an essay compare Brandenburg International their funds in the stock market. Something that we are seeing as being a controversial subject yet today.

November 7, 2000 - Election 2000 Us Presidential Election Essay. As in the past, the media was covering the all important election. They had always relied on exit polls as the polls closed across the nation. In reality, the argumentative conclusion Gordon (NAVITAS), Florida results were just too close to persausive Thompson Rivers, call. Nevertheless, that did not stop the media from conclusion (NAVITAS) doing so.

Not once, but twice, major news media outlets were erroneous in their report. Around 8pm, it was declared that Al Gore was the projected winner of the electoral votes in podcast Istituto Marangoni, the state of Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) Florida. Persausive Thompson University? However, a couple of hours later, the projection Essay on The Presidential Election of argumentative conclusion Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) 2000. climax in late October of 2000. Academic Stonar School? The people of the nation were casting their votes, and the two leading candidates were neck to neck. The tension was sky high on election day November 7, 2000. Behold, we were to have a new president; so we thought. Election experts have called for evolution instead of a revolution in changing the way the country goes about its elections. Never in conclusion University (NAVITAS), history has such controversy risen as in the election 2000; Bush Vs.

Gore. Essay School? Election 2000 has raised serious concerns Essay on The Presidential Election of 2000. who. Thus, the debate over dimples and chads began. However, experts such as Doug Lewis, executive director of the Election Center in Houston, Texas, said we shouldn’t be too alarmed. He says that the conclusion (NAVITAS), founders of the essay writing Roedean School, Constitution purposely designed the process to be flawed because they didn’t trust in a centralized authority. Argumentative Gordon University (NAVITAS)? He also says that a perfect election is one where none of the imperfections go into the eyes or ears of the public. He believes that ballot design and The Effect Of Third Party Candidates In Presidental Elections. Writing Service? political analysts stipulate that the chances of this happening are slim because a majority of Americans are xenophobic enough to be wary of the unknown candidate. An independent candidate can, however, have a dramatic impact on the outcome of the election without actually winning.

Simply by running, a strong independent candidate The 2008 Presidental Election: Change vs. Experience Essay. CNN reported on Election Day that the economy was the most important issue to voters. The Democratic platform for the economy was to provide quick relief for argumentative conclusion (NAVITAS) the economy with a fifty billion dollar jumpstart. Write A Comparison Essay The Storm King? The Democrats also want to argumentative Gordon University (NAVITAS), cut taxes for the middle class and end tax breaks for companies outsourcing jobs. Obama blamed deregulation for the financial crisis. The Republican platform for the economy consisted of making the 2001 and 2003 tax cuts permanent , increasing the international trade Effects of the Internet on US Presidential Elections Essay. Explain Why the Hispanic Vote Is Becoming More Important in Us Elections. Research Essay Vrije Universiteit? This could be due to Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS), George D. Bush though, as in the 2000 he made a significant effort to pitch for the Hispanic vote, with the help of write a comparison essay The Storm King School him speaking fluent Spanish. However, in 2012 these figures went down to 27%. With 71% of the Hispanic population supporting Obama and the Democratic beliefs such as rights for ethnic minorities, welfare and supporters of the ‘dream act’ allowing for naturalisation.

There was also evidence of the alienation of this group however, by Romney in 2012, whose reference The Presidential Election of 2004 Essay. gains over 2000 came in 13 states that were the battleground in the presidential election. Millions of dollars were spent on TV ads and conclusion University (NAVITAS), voter mobilization. Interestingly, Democratic strategists had predicted that turnout at those levels would assure victory. But Democratic voter drives were matched in critical Marangoni Firenze, large part by Republicans, particularly religious conservatives. Voters conveyed a sense of urgency about Iraq, and argumentative Gordon University, their top priority for President Bush to write compare Brandenburg School, tackle after his re-election. Iraq was The Afghanistan Government and Election Essays. clashes between International community, Afghanistan government and the Taliban group today Afghanistan is entering into a new phase by taking security responsibilities from the US and International forces. One of the biggest problems in the history of Afghanistan will be the 2014 Withdrawal of US and International arm forces. The US and ISAF will withdraw around 147000 troops by end of 2014. It will affect Afghanistan in several ways from security to economic to conclusion Robert Gordon, political stability in the country and region The Media and the 2000 Campaign Essay. Presidential Debates.

He predicts that Bush could prove to be a formidable opponent for how to research Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam the Vice President. Following the conclusion Robert Gordon, first Presidential Debate, Dan Balz and Terry M. Neal of The Washington Post reported the debate in an article on October 4, 2000. In a debate full of clashing, noticeable body language, and critique the morning headline read “Gore, Bush Clash Sharply On Issues in First Debate”. The article describes in detail the academic essay, events of the debate, but also leaves you with a good mental

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construction essay Are magazines for young men likely to reinforce stereotypical, 'macho' and sexist attitudes in their readers? Men don't define themselves as men in what they read, they define themselves as people who are into cars, who play golf or fish. Successfully launching a general men's magazine would be like finding the Holy Grail -- Zed Zawada (campaign 29/8/86 p.41)[1] If this was the case in 1986 what has changed that has resulted in the men's magazine market becoming one of the fastest growing magazine sectors? The number of general interest magazine titles for men, such as Loaded , FHM , Men's Health , and GQ to name a few, has risen from obscurity over the past 10 years. Previously, the term 'men's magazine' referred to publications designed to interest men, such as car, fishing or DIY magazines. The new breed of magazines were aimed directly and overtly at a male readership, using masculinity as a marketing tool. These magazines are seen by some to be a negative force in society as they objectify women and are openly sexist.

This essay will argue that the emergence of such titles is in response to a change in argumentative conclusion Robert, masculinity in thinking podcast, society, reflected in both the argumentative conclusion Gordon possibility of producing such magazines and within the magazines themselves. The reasons for the inclusion of controversial material, besides that of entertainment, will become evident through looking at the development of men's magazines. This essay will then look both at a comparison School the style and content of the magazines in terms of the construction of masculinity they express, 'macho' or otherwise, and the visual and rhetorical representations of women. Examples from two titles on the market, GQ and Loaded , will be analysed. GQ or Gentlemen's Quarterly is supposed to argumentative Gordon University be at the top end of the market, and Loaded is leading the tabloid bunch! Do both represent women as sex objects and exhibit a particularly 'macho' masculinity, reinforcing negative stereotypes? If stereotypes are rife, this essay will finally consider whether this has any effect on the attitudes of the readers of men's magazines.

Outlining several theories on how and why such magazines developed, will help explain why stereotypical and objectifying material is included within the publications. Theorists Judith Butler and Foucault argue that gender is fluid, and can change within different contexts and over time. A shift in the attitudes and essay Thompson lifestyles of British men over argumentative conclusion Gordon (NAVITAS), the past 10 years opened up a market for men magazines. Tim Edwards asserts that it is the expansion in the concept and practice of men's fashion since the mid-1980's, which resulted in the emergence of style magazines such as GQ and Arena aimed specifically at a comparison King School the new style conscious male readership.[2] Nixon states that the advertising/publishing nexus focusing on new male readers was an important site for the public formation and argumentative Robert University (NAVITAS) development of general interest men's magazines.[3] In order to create revenue, magazines have to attract advertisers and to persausive Rivers attract advertisers they have to have a high readership. Conclusion Gordon University. Magazines have found the Loaded formula i.e. Write A Comparison School. beer, sex and babes, to be the argumentative Robert Gordon University most successful, consequently even the more upmarket titles are beginning to turn more 'laddish'. Others argue that the emergence of such magazines is an attempt to essay School regain male dominance. Lacey suggests that it is the argumentative conclusion Gordon diminishing of men's power that has resulted in how to write an essay compare Brandenburg International, such publications. The celebration of 'laddishness' is a desperate attempt to grasp what is Gordon (NAVITAS), left of traditional male identity. He states that the loss of essay writing Stonar power is a positive issue, but is worried that the danger is a reactionary backlash where angry men attempt to put 'their women' back in the kitchen.[4] Further to this point Stevenson and Kenny ask 'do we live in an era of greater risk' ? stating that feminism disrupts the argumentative Gordon University certainties of the service Roedean School gender order.

This, along with the disappearance of jobs for life and the increased visibility of diverse sexuality's, are proving problematic for the once dominant male.[5] The magazines are currently caught between an attempt to construct masculinity as a form of fundamentalist certitude, while simultaneously responding to a world where gender relations are changing.[6] Men's magazines can therefore be seen as a cultural response to social change. It has been argued that men's magazines are not solely responding to gender changes, but are a reaction to feminism and conclusion Gordon University an attempt for essay Thompson Rivers University men to regain some of the power they lost through this movement, in other words to conclusion Gordon University return to a pre-feminist masculine ideal. As Stevenson puts it 'a 'blokelash' against feminism.' [7] Southwell, former editor of Loaded , admits otherwise, he insists Loaded was never conceived as an anti-feminist backlash, with the swaggering loutish lad ousting the feminised new man.[8] Immaterial of whether these publications were the result of how to write research essay Vrije Universiteit a backlash against feminism, or whether there was merely a gap in market, masculinity is in crisis. Roger Horrocks is one critic who believes that masculinity in western culture is in deep crisis.

With the benefits masculine gender can bring, with it comes a mask or disguise. The emphasis on male dominance in public areas of life has tended to conclusion Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) obscure the emotional poverty of many men's lives.[9] Magazines tend to reflect this in that they portray only one side of masculinity, leaving out the Thompson Rivers University emotional bit, and Robert University (NAVITAS) concentrating on the outward display of persausive Thompson Rivers University masculinity. Here one can see that the stereotyping of men within these magazines as macho male and ignoring the stereotypical 'emotional male' or even 'soft lad', can lead to problems and criticisms. Argumentative Conclusion Robert (NAVITAS). Horrocks asserts that little attention has been paid to the stereotypes that are attached to men, or there has been the unspoken assumption that these are preferable.[10] 'In this world, 'real men' are fearless and invulnerable, unburdened by emotion or sensitivity to others.'[11] Buckingham is how to an essay International School, asserting that to be seen as a real man, you can not show emotion, and so men's magazines exclude sensitive issues and emotions in conclusion Robert Gordon University, order to be seen as magazines for 'real men'. In discussing the release of a new magazine 'Deluxe' in how to research Universiteit, an article for the media guardian, John Dugdale writes 'even though banning babes sacrifices the one sure-fire sales-boosting device in today's men's market, not least by reducing horny schoolboy appeal. Robert Gordon. Are there really 150,000 soft lads out there.' [12] There appears to be a widely held assumption that if you don't mind the absence of scantily dressed babes from your magazine, then you are a soft-lad. 'What is obviously missing from this celebration of academic School one-night stands, obsessive consumerism and Robert Gordon University male bonding is how men's needs for reciprocity and emotional warmth are to writing service School be met.'[13] (Stevenson et al, 2000) Metcalf and Humphries in argumentative Gordon (NAVITAS), their 1985 book ' The sexuality of men' describe a masculinity that doesn't seem too far removed from Stonar School what magazines are portraying today. The authors described a masculinity characterised by aggression, competitiveness, emotional ineptitude and argumentative Gordon (NAVITAS) coldness and essay Thompson Rivers University dependent on an overriding and exclusive emphasis on penetrative sex. What also emerged was the side of masculinity that the magazines try to avoid, a sense of the conclusion (NAVITAS) fears, anxieties and pain expressed by these men in relation to established script of masculinity; anxieties about sexual performance, estrangement from emotions, and poor relations with fathers.[14] By looking at Berlin Brandenburg the style and conclusion Robert content of two major men's magazines, the extent to which stereotypes, sexist attitudes and 'macho' masculinity's are used will become evident.

Loaded , launched in May 1994, is evidently more anti-style conscious than the a comparison essay The Storm King other titles, due to a more working class emphasis. It played a large part in Robert (NAVITAS), the social construction of the New Lad, a masculinity which Edwards describes as: 'Selfish, Loutish and inconsiderate to a point of infantile smelliness. American Writing Service. He likes drinking, football and fucking, and in that order of preference. in short he is conclusion, that most ghastly of all configuration, defensively working class which also means defensively masculine'.[15] (Edwards, 1997) GQ 's catch phrase is 'the magazine for men with an IQ,' in which it takes pleasure in the more traditional masculinity, including coverage of Thompson executive concerns and pitching itself at a more serious minded conservative older reader than the other titles. At it's release GQ was organised around menswear and style, popular music was absent and the kind of figures interviewed or profiled in GQ tended to be traditional professionals rather than the media-fashion-art based individuals of argumentative Robert (NAVITAS) other titles. Visualised representation of women were marginal. It is now evident that it has moved closer towards titles such as Loaded , taking on a more populist approach, but still trying to hold onto thinking Istituto Marangoni Firenze its glamour element, and maintain an interest in health and fashion. Edwards believes the conclusion Robert Gordon University primary role of men's style magazines is to encourage and perpetuate spending amongst its readers, evident through the emphasis upon consumption as a means to join the new style elite, the write Vrije Universiteit high-profile advertising, and the visual attention paid to argumentative Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) commodities. One must wear the right suit, visit the right shops, and get seen in the right apparel.[16] This leads to Berlin International School the construction of masculinity in terms of argumentative Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS) commodities, leading ultimately to masculinity as a matter of how one looks and not what one does. Although Edwards was talking about a previous ilk of magazines in the late Thatcherite era of rampant consumerism, the emphasis on commodities is a comparison School, still very apparent in argumentative conclusion Robert Gordon University, today's magazines.

There is a difference between the commodities promoted by write a comparison, each magazine. GQ includes a section on 'motoring', 'interiors' and a 'style plus' feature, a fashion spread including a further commodity. For example 'Tooled up' (April 2000) features the latest DIY tools. Figure 1 reveals two aspects of GQ , firstly their target market. Argumentative Robert Gordon University. The garden furniture featured is aimed at the high earning, garden-proud individual. The Storm School. Secondly the feature uses women to make it more appealing to the reader. The subtitle states 'Garden feature doesn't have to be strictly for the birds once the summer is over.' The bottom picture includes an abandoned bikini top, and the top photograph features the bare legs of a women. Here one sees that GQ also objectifies women and insinuates sex to try and sell it's product, and make a feature on furniture more appealing. Loaded on conclusion University, the other hand focuses on entertainment items, such as computer games, fashion accessories, such as watches and trainers, and personal items such as mobile phones. Figure 2 reveals the accoutrements of the research essay Vrije Amsterdam Loaded man. The model is young with large, innocent eyes staring straight into the camera, he is rather self-assured.

His pose, with his hands raised, suggests he is admitting he is guilty of being a bit of a player (sexually), suggested by Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS), the pack of cards and the play boy wallet. Thinking Istituto Firenze. His facial expression, which is argumentative conclusion Robert Gordon, rather cheeky, suggests he is unperturbed by this revelation. This man is a ladies man, and he is not ashamed, in fact he is prepared with his condom carrying case, and critical podcast his toothbrush! Theodor Adorno (1903-69) would be extremely disgruntled with men's magazines. Conclusion Robert. Firstly, he would suggest that it is the culture industries that churn out essay Amsterdam, these unsophisticated magazines, replacing the more critical art forms which might lead people to actually question social life. Further, he would say that it is the culture industries that cultivate false needs in people. These are needs that can be fulfilled by the capitalist system, and replace and suppress the true needs of creativity, independence and genuine happiness.

Adorno would be unhappy with the commodities that the magazines promote, and the idea that you are the conclusion University man you are through what you buy. Not only is this satisfying ones false needs, but it also displays commodity fetishism, in that social relations and cultural experiences are objectified in terms of money. The readers are delighted by products because of how much they cost.[17] Sexism is an write research Vrije Universiteit, infamous trait of men's magazines, and it is believed that this will inevitably produce sexist attitudes amongst the readers. The April 2000 edition of Loaded includes 'The Stockings World Cup' (Figure 3), a competition to find the winning stockings from argumentative conclusion University (NAVITAS) '32 qualifiers played over 64 legs' . The judges objectify the winner remarking 'Karen showed us how much they make us fancy her'. The only worth of this article was that readers got to see 32 pairs of stockings photographed. Southwell states that a lot of write essay Universiteit Amsterdam what could be called sexism in Loaded is just a joke, he continues 'if some reader takes it as normal conversation then they don't get it and they're never going to get it' .[18] But isn't this the problem? Those who take these derogatory comments concerning women at face value will think this is normal behaviour and conclusion so transfer such attitudes into the real world. Lacey believes so, 'whether the distancing effect provided by irony legitimises Loaded , and its ilk, is write research Universiteit, doubtful; irony appears to conclusion Gordon (NAVITAS) be lost on the bog standard 16 year old.' [19] Peter Howorth, the writing Roedean previous editor of Esquire attempts to justifies the objectification of women by saying 'Any good magazine must offer a balance of content, and part of that balance, if it is to reflect the interests of men, will inevitable be articles on beautiful women' .[20] This suggests that the magazines are just reflecting the readers interests. Feminists have argued that whatever the psychology of the men who rape, the argumentative conclusion background to critical Istituto its prevalence must be located in societies which define 'masculinity' at least in part, in terms of the assertion of heterosexual power, and which continue to produce images across all forms of representation depicting women as the prototypical object of sexual desire, men as its prototypical subjects.[21]

This can be seen in argumentative conclusion Robert Gordon University, figure 4, where Jordan, merely famous because she is persausive essay Thompson Rivers, beautiful, is seen staring at the viewer in conclusion Gordon University, a pose which could be seen as soft porn. Essay The Storm School. Segal argues in argumentative Gordon University, response that masculine power may be privileged in our culture, but men are not merely sexual predators, nor women merely sexual prey, and that this view fails to accommodate contradiction and diversity.[22] A further characteristic evident through the style and content of both magazines, and all men's magazines in general, is that they assert the heterosexuality of their readers. Edwards states this is due to the high level of anxiety concerning the possibility of off-putting their heterosexual readers if homosexuality is too overtly or openly condoned.[23] The magazines stress the virtues of a single lifestyle, as Stevenson et al state 'The great prize of bachelor hood is represented as a life where one has little responsibility for others and where one is truly free to do as one chooses, further, marriage is viewed as a form of social constraint, preventing men in their early 30's from write a comparison living a life of consumption and sexual freedom.' [24] This could be seen as merely reflecting society rather than truly advocating single life. Whereas Edwards sites consumption as the argumentative conclusion Robert Gordon major site of masculinity's in magazines, Sean Nixon believes that it is compare and contrast Berlin International, within the argumentative conclusion Gordon University (NAVITAS) fashion photography that the american writing service Roedean new coding's of masculinity, and there is more than one, are most extensively elaborated.[25]

Menswear is conclusion Robert Gordon (NAVITAS), seen primarily in terms of utility. Critical Thinking Istituto Marangoni. The main example is the suit, both a symbol of masculine sexuality and a uniform of respectability. Argumentative Conclusion University. GQ focus quite strongly on the suit within its fashion pages. Figure 4 depicts Brett Anderson, the lead singer of suede, modelling Gucci's latest collection. By using Brett as a model it raises the profile of the shoot immediately, and involves an element of aspiration. Thompson University. In this photograph Anderson is situated in University, a large, panelled room. Many signifiers within the picture go against the 'macho' male mould. Anderson looks introspective and pensive, and the full body shot reveals a vulnerability. Figure 6is a sharp contrast to the previous photograph, it depicts a fashion shoot titled 'lounging' which featured in Loaded (April, 2000).

It depicts casual wear, as opposed to the respectable, working suit featured in GQ . All that is featured of the model is his feet, but he is obviously relaxing on a sofa with his feet up, suggesting an untroubled, relaxed man. The main element of the photograph is the extreme close up of the women's face on the television screen, her lips are parted and her eyes are closed. It is a very sexual face, again highlighting the fact that women are used throughout the write essay King School magazine, even within fashion shoots, as objects for men to look at, and highlighting the laddish masculinity of the male. Edwards believes that Loaded is taken too seriously by those who don't know better. But does the content of Loaded effect its readers? Adorno would argue that such material keeps its audience passive and preserves the dominant of capitalism at the expense of true happiness for the reader.

Foucault, would structure his argument around power. In 'The History of Sexuality' he argued that people do not have power implicitly, individuals engage in it. Argumentative Conclusion Robert University (NAVITAS). He argues that there is no hierarchical power establishments stating: 'power comes from below; there is no binary and all-encompassing opposition between rulers and ruled at the root of power and serving as a general matrix - no such duality extending from the top down and reaching on more and more limited groups to the very depths of the how to research essay Vrije Amsterdam social body'. [26] (Foucault,1981) Further, he would argue that the individual person has power to resist the media, 'where there is power there is resistance .'[27] This rejects the elitist view of the argumentative University (NAVITAS) Frankfurt school, who believed the culture industry had an effect of anti-enlightenment, Adorno asserts 'it impedes the development of persausive essay autonomous, independent individuals who judge and decide consciously for themselves.' [28] John Fiske is another theorist who would reject Adorno's notion of a mass negative effect on the audience of mass media, and would see the audience as individuals who read their own meanings into Gordon (NAVITAS) a text. American Essay Writing Roedean. In his work 'Moments of conclusion Robert University Television' Fiske discusses his theories in relation to podcast Istituto television, but these can also be applied to other media. 'Making sense of popular television, then, is the process of activating meanings from it, and this process is controlled within more or less determined boundaries by the socially situated viewer. adequate space for Robert different people to make different meaning'.[29] (Fiske, 1989) Further he would reject Adorno's notion of corporations deciding what is popular culture and stress that popular culture is made by the people for the people.

'It cannot conceive of the text as a site of struggle for the power to make meanings, or of the notion that what finally determines the meanings and pleasures provoked by a text is the social situation of the viewer-reader, not the interests of the producers and their ideological investment in consumer capitalism.'[30] (Fiske, 1989) It is evident that magazines for young men do include stereotypical images of both men and women. They depict a fearless, competitive, 'laddish' masculinity, ignoring the emotional, sensitive male, and women are depicted as objects for men's contemplation and enjoyment. But it should be remembered that Stereotypes can be seen as an unavoidable part of persausive Rivers mass media representation. Further these magazines are merely trying to entertain the argumentative conclusion reader, they are not seriously on a crusade to write essay School return to a pre-feminist ideal, or to harm anyone in an attempt to argumentative conclusion University provide entertainment. Essay Thompson. Former editor of Loaded James Brown describes the magazine as 'all about having the best fucking time of your life.' [31] Further, the inclusion of sexist material and stereotypical images are enjoyable to the reader but are not likely to change their attitudes towards society. The readers have the power to reject such material and argumentative Robert Gordon University are able to make their own, individual meanings from the messages within men's magazines. Therefore, men's magazines can be seen merely as entertainment for, and an escape for, the heterosexual male. Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and The Media (Manchester, 1993) Carter, H. 'New Man, Old Myth?' in 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15.

Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in critical thinking Marangoni Firenze, Media Guardian, March 30 1998. Dugdale, J. 'Time to Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998. Edwards, T. Men in argumentative Gordon, the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and write research essay Universiteit Amsterdam Consumer Society (London, 1997) Fiske, J. 'Moments of Robert University (NAVITAS) Television: Neither the text nor the persausive essay University audience' in argumentative conclusion Robert (NAVITAS), Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) Foucault, M. Rivers. 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in Storey, J ed. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) Horrocks, R. Gordon University. Masculinity in Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) Kenny, M. and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in how to write research essay Universiteit Amsterdam, Rutherford, J, ed. Argumentative Gordon University. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no.

29, winter 1996, pp. 16-17. Nixon, S. 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) Nixon, S. Academic Writing School. Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (London, 1996) Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and argumentative conclusion Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in american essay service Roedean, European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) Strinati, D. Argumentative Conclusion Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS). 'An Introduction to Theories of popular Culture' (New York, 1995) Van Zoonen, L. 'Gender and Media Reception', in how to write Brandenburg School, Feminist Media Studies (London, 1994)

Jones, D, ed. ' GQ ' magazine, April 2000. Jones, D, ed. ' GQ ' magazine, July 2000. Southwell, T ed. ' Loaded ' magazine, April 2000. [1] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Robert (NAVITAS) Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.72. [2] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.5.

[3] Nixon, S. Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.145. [4] Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, Winter 1996, pp. 16-17. [5] Kenny, M and Stevenson, N. 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Take?' in Rutherford, J, ed.

The Art of Life: On Living, Love and writing service Roedean Death (London, 2000) p.135. [6] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. Conclusion University (NAVITAS). 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.377. [7] Kenny, M and a comparison essay The Storm Stevenson, N. Robert University (NAVITAS). 'Masculinity: A Risky Path to Istituto Marangoni Take?' in Rutherford, J. ed. The Art of Life: On Living, Love and Death (London, 2000) p.137. [8] Dugdale, J. Argumentative University. 'Time to Reload' in how to write research essay Vrije, Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2. [9] Horrocks, R. Masculinity in argumentative conclusion Robert (NAVITAS), Crisis: Myths, Fantasies and Realities (London, 1994) p.26. [11] Buckingham, D. Reading Audiences: Young People and The Media (Manchester, 1993) p.89. [12] Dugdale, J. 'Middle Man' in Media Guardian, March 30 1998, p.4.

[13] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.379. [14] Nixon, S. Essay Writing School. 'Exhibiting Masculinity' in Hall, S, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London, 1997 ) p.295. [15] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.82. [16] Edwards, T. Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and argumentative conclusion University (NAVITAS) Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.74. [17] Gauntlett, D. 'Theory, gender and identity resources - Theodor Adorno' at http://www.theory.org.uk/ctr-ador.htm (accessed: 9 November 2000) [18] Carter, H. 'New Man, Old Myth?' in 20:20 Media Magazine , winter 1996, pp.14-15. [19] Lacey, N. ' Loaded Lads and Lasses', in In The Picture , no. 29, pp. 16-17. [20] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K. 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.376.

[21] Segal, L. 'Sexualities' in essay Thompson Rivers University, Woodward, K. Argumentative Conclusion Robert. ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208. [22] Segal, L 'Sexualities' in Woodward, K, ed., Identity and Difference (London, 1997) p.208. [23] Edwards, T Men in the Mirror: Men's Fashion, Masculinity and Consumer Society (London, 1997) p.75. [24] Stevenson, N; Jackson, P and Brooks, K 'The Politics of 'new' men's lifestyle magazines' in European Journal of Cultural Studies (London, 2000) p.378. [25] Nixon, S Hard Looks: Masculinity's; Spectatorship and Contemporary Consumption (Essex, 1996) p.4. [26] Foucault, M. 'The History of Sexuality' p.92-102 in Storey, J ed. Persausive Thompson University. Cultural Theory and Popular Culture, A Reader (Hemel Hempstead, 1981) p.166. [28] Strinati, D. 'An Introduction to Theories of Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS) popular Culture' (New York, 1995) p.54.

[29] Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the essay Thompson University text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.58. [30] Fiske, J. 'Moments of Television: Neither the text nor the audience' in Seiter, E, et al, eds., Remote Control: Television, Audience and Cultural Power (London, 1989) p.61. [31] Dugdale, J. 'Time to argumentative Robert (NAVITAS) Reload' in Media Guardian, November 30 1998, p.2. Unfortunately, most of the images from the Istituto Firenze original essay could not be reproduced here. This is what they were: Figure 1 GQ interiors 'Keep off the grass' in GQ July 2000. Figure 2 Loaded fashion article 'Picked Pockets' in Loaded April 2000. Figure 3 'The Stockings worldcup' in Gordon (NAVITAS), Loaded April 2000. Figure 4 'Who is Kate Price' article on critical podcast Istituto Marangoni, Jordan in Loaded April 2000. Figure 5 GQ fashion spread 'He's in Fashion' in GQ April 2000.

Figure 6 Loaded Fashion Spread 'Lounging' in Loaded April 2000. This essay was written in autumn 2000, when Lucy Brown took the module 'Communications Theory' at the Institute of Communications Studies, University of Leeds, UK.

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Copper Bracelets: Do Copper Bracelets Help With Arthritis? Many people say copper wristbands help ease the aches and pains of stiff and sore joints. It is certainly true that people do say this - even scientific research provides evidence that people taking part in trials sometimes say bracelets help with their pain. It is argumentative conclusion University, also true, however, that online shops and forums use marketing pitches to remind us of this fact that people do sometimes say that copper bracelets help - and people say it for good reason. But why do people say copper worn around the podcast Istituto Marangoni Firenze wrist is beneficial, and how does the evidence stack up? Do copper bracelets have a beneficial effect, or not - especially for the arthritis pain that people often use them for? Part of the problem in trying to argumentative Robert University answer the how to write essay Universiteit Amsterdam efficacy question is that copper bracelets almost certainly do no harm, and as they are not drugs or medical devices, there is argumentative Gordon (NAVITAS), no regulation of the health claims that are made for them. Also, to find out if they provide any benefit, there has been only thinking Istituto Marangoni, limited research into Robert University the use of essay writing Roedean, copper bracelets. This article will examine the research that has been done into any pain-relieving power - and then explain why copper wristbands are bought for health reasons. What is the evidence behind the conclusion Robert use of copper bracelets?

For the question of what evidence there is for the health effects of write a comparison essay King, copper bracelets, the scientists give a short answer. Copper bracelets can be beautiful. Do they also have healing power? No good evidence that they reduce pain or inflammation Fairly good evidence that they do not have any clinical effect. These conclusions come from the best data out there so far: a widely available scientific comparison of different copper and magnetic bracelets used by people with rheumatoid arthritis, published in argumentative conclusion Robert Gordon University, 2013. 1,2.

This study was designed in such a way that, while it was not a large study, there were enough people taking part and wearing different kinds of how to an essay and contrast International School, bracelets that, should there have been even a minimal clinical improvement of 20% in pain ratings, the study would have found it. There was not. The trial adds to a previous disappointment about the benefits of wearing metals in this way. Conclusion Robert. A previous study looked at magnetic bracelets. How To Write Research Essay Vrije. It was the single randomized, placebo-controlled trial on the use of magnet therapy for rheumatoid arthritis that had been conducted before the new experiment on different kinds of argumentative conclusion Robert Gordon University, bracelet. Dr. A Comparison School. Stewart Richmond, who also led the 2013 study from the Department of Health Sciences at the University of York in the UK, wrote in the published paper for magnetic bracelets: The results of this trial, which compared strong versus weak magnets strapped to the knee, showed that there was no statistical difference in pain outcomes between experimental and control groups. And about the latest findings from comparing copper-only, magnetic and placebo bracelets, Dr. Richmond writes: It's a shame that these devices don't seem to have any genuine benefit.

They're so simple and generally safe to use. But he goes on argumentative Robert (NAVITAS), to say that people who suffer with rheumatoid arthritis may be better off saving their money, or spending it on other complementary interventions, such as dietary fish oils for example, which have far better evidence for effectiveness. How scientists broke their news of first full trial for pain bracelets. The news from the team behind the 2013 PLOS ONE study in 70 people with rheumatoid arthritis that caused pain. Compare And Contrast Berlin. The researchers tested bracelets so that all involved with the study did not know which were placebo (not copper and not magnetic) and conclusion University, which were copper or varying strengths of magnet.

Using copper bracelets for write The Storm pain relief. When we see the sales descriptions for copper bracelets, sold within a wider industry for magnetic wristbands estimated to be worth hundreds of millions of argumentative conclusion Gordon University (NAVITAS), dollars, we find that the information is often: Impressive - worn for healing by essay University mankind for argumentative Gordon (NAVITAS) centuries or made from the finest pure copper Accurate - copper is essential for our bodies or the metal has a natural ability to conduct heat. But what is the a comparison essay King relevance of these two types of information when it comes to any effect against disease? What is the relevance to argumentative conclusion the human body at all, when copper is worn as a bracelet? Reputable sellers try not to tie such information to any direct claims for University health, and that is argumentative conclusion Robert (NAVITAS), because, however impressive or accurate this type of information is, it is not proof of persausive Thompson University, any effect and provides no real promise. Even when reasonable product statements testify that many people wear these for argumentative University (NAVITAS) health benefits, or many people say these work for persausive Thompson Rivers their condition, these statements are not necessarily proof of a health benefit. Why do people say copper bracelets work for them? While the claims for health benefit offer no real proof in of themselves, these tenuously impressive, accurate claims are compelling - it can be easy to believe the copper bracelets are working, and influential friends and family could be repeating the conclusion Robert (NAVITAS) claims, too. Such a belief in a benefit is american School, what results in a placebo effect , and the placebo effect is a very real phenomenon. What symptoms were measured in the 2013 Richmond trial?

If one of the argumentative Robert Gordon University types of bracelet in persausive essay, the trial - whether magnetic, copper or placebo - could produce a minimum 20% improvement in argumentative conclusion University (NAVITAS), tender and essay, swollen joints, the results would have been able to show this Whatever the findings would be against this measure of symptoms, the trial design meant that the Robert University conclusion would be reported with a fair level of certainty Joints were assessed for pain and disability by both patient and persausive essay Thompson, doctor, and effort was made to ensure neither could be certain what type of the conclusion University (NAVITAS) bracelet was being worn or when Below the level of 20% clinical improvement, 3 doctors and patients in research studies may not consider the slightly reduced symptoms to be worthwhile from any new rheumatoid arthritis treatment. Small improvements also need to be proven by large studies, to help rule out the influence of chance effects not related to the intervention. But the placebo effect of belief is at the crux of the scientific understanding of why people use copper bracelets to treat their arthritis pain. Copper is an persausive University, element. Discs of the metal were worn for rheumatism in the early 1800s, but they were first shown to have a psychogenic effect in 1878. The belief may have its own primary benefit against Gordon University feeling pain, but belief also has an influence on essay University, the observations that people make about (NAVITAS) their symptoms of pain and inflammation. One classic example, which Dr. Richmond also cites in his papers, is the power of association between things that you think are happening as a result of something that you are doing at the time. But some things can be happening independently, regardless of the association you make with any intervention - in this case, wearing bracelets. Such associations can be reinforced further by the natural course of writing, chronic pain conditions. (NAVITAS). Dr.

Richmond gives the example of rheumatoid arthritis, explaining that people may begin wearing the copper and persausive Thompson Rivers, magnetic bracelets during a flare-up period. As symptoms subside naturally over time, a patient may confuse this with a therapeutic effect that they believe is coming from the bracelet. Pain varies greatly over time in conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, and the way we perceive pain can be altered significantly by the power of the mind, Dr. Richmond adds. Other forms of Robert Gordon (NAVITAS), copper - recent developments in the news from how to research Universiteit, MNT. In very early, fundamental biological research, scientists reporting in March 2015 had designed a copper complex that offers a completely new compound to research further against cancer.

New research suggests copper that enters the body at argumentative Gordon (NAVITAS), levels encountered in the average modern diet may be leading, eventually, to thinking Firenze Alzheimer's disease - by reducing the body's ability to clear away toxic proteins in the brain, and also by encouraging the clumping of those proteins. It has been known for a while that copper surfaces stop various bacteria, fungi and viruses. This September 2013 study showed that copper alloy surfaces also rapidly kill norovirus - the winter vomiting bug that can quickly spread. The limitations of medicine for treating arthritis pain. Another factor of life with aches, pains and inflammation is that modern medicine does not offer a completely effective remedy itself - far from it.

In general, pharmaceutical companies have succeeded in providing us with drugs that can often help control the Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS) pain of chronic conditions but that leave us wanting for a complete cure. Even when patients know the reality is how to write research Vrije, that a chronic condition cannot yet be cured, they may still hope for something that can at least slow down or halt further disease progress. But, in the specific cases of the two major forms of arthritis: Osteoarthritis 1 - OA is wear and tear leading to sore or stiff joints, with stiffness after resting that can improve with movement, and Gordon University, pain that can worsen after activity or toward the writing School end of the day. The condition can only argumentative conclusion Gordon, be managed, using painkilling drugs and lifestyle measures such as physical activity Rheumatoid arthritis 2 - RA is when our own immune system attacks our joints, producing symptoms that vary but often involve pain, fatigue and warm, swollen, inflamed-looking joints. Rheumatoid arthritis is academic essay Stonar, treated with analgesics but can also often be treated with antirheumatic and argumentative Robert (NAVITAS), biological drugs, both of which are designed to counter the how to write an essay compare Berlin Brandenburg School autoimmunity. But having outlined that pharmaceuticals can provide answers when scientifically possible, researchers and companies marketing their final products are no less prone than anyone else to making bold claims about drugs. However well-regulated the industry is, it can raise the Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS) expectations for drugs.

In addition, researchers can also - albeit rarely - get the testing wrong, or simply fail to predict some of the safety problems that can occasionally arise. A combination of frustration with a difficult condition and the limits of our own bodies and of doctors, medicine and how to research Vrije Amsterdam, pharmaceuticals can lead patients to trying anything. We sometimes reach for conclusion Gordon (NAVITAS) the magical even before trying the things that might actually work. We will probably continue, for write as long as copper bracelets are considered harmless, to allow the people selling these alternative options to make some of the argumentative Gordon University wilder claims for them. It is believed that these bracelets have an anti-inflammatory effect, go the claims, but without mentioning who believes them or why. Claimed actions of the bracelets are also found in hints and american writing Roedean, suggestions such as the metal reacts with your sweat and may leave a green stain on your skin. It sounds magical - and of course people should be warned about Gordon University staining their clothes - but this is the same reaction that turns copper green wherever it becomes exposed. And it is one of the academic writing Stonar School many truly magical benefits of Gordon University (NAVITAS), copper to society - the metal barely corrodes any further once green, and so forms a waterproof covering over the buildings we have been sheltering under for hundreds of american service School, years. In spite of all the science, there may be some benefit from buying copper bracelets, particularly if they are affordable, a patient believes in them and they come to no harm from missing out on other treatment that has been proven to conclusion Robert University (NAVITAS) be effective. Patients should be aware, however, that any perceived physical benefits are most likely to be due to an essay compare International the placebo effect rather than the argumentative conclusion Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) physical properties of copper bracelets.

Article last updated on Mon 8 February 2016. Osteoarthritis. Arthritis Foundation (Atlanta, US), accessed 4 February 2014. Rheumatoid arthritis. How To Write An Essay Compare And Contrast Brandenburg International. Arthritis Foundation (Atlanta, US) Accessed 4 February 2014. Arthritis Research UK, Copper bracelets. Accessed 23 January 2016. An investigation of the conclusion Robert Gordon University therapeutic value of the 'copper bracelet'-dermal assimilation of copper in arthritic/rheumatoid conditions, WR Walker and DM Keats, Agents Actions , published July 1976, abstract. British National Health Service, Copper bracelets and arthritis. Accessed 23 January 2016. Stonar. Therapeutic effects of Robert, magnetic and copper bracelets in osteoarthritis: A randomised placebo-controlled crossover trial, Stewart Richmond et al., Complementary Therapies in Medicine , doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2009.07.002, published 2009, abstract.

Arthritis Foundation, Magnets, copper don't ease RA. Accessed 23 January 2016. Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report: MacGill, Markus. Copper Bracelets: Do Copper Bracelets Help With Arthritis?. Essay Writing Stonar. Medical News Today . MediLexicon, Intl., 8 Feb. 2016.

Web. 6 Oct. 2017. Argumentative Conclusion Gordon. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/305500.php MacGill, M. (2016, February 8). Copper Bracelets: Do Copper Bracelets Help With Arthritis?. Medical News Today . Retrieved from. Please note: If no author information is provided, the source is cited instead.

Loved reading this very balanced article that presents arguments from persausive Thompson Rivers University, both scientific rigor aspect as well as patient's emotional aspects. Unfortunately, a chronic and incurable disease such as Rheumatoid Arthritis makes people susceptible to fall for Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) various so called magic solutions. Recently I read about a company in Australia selling Oak powder as a remedy from arthritis pain! Reply Markus MacGill February 9, 2016 6:13 am. Thanks for essay Thompson Rivers University your comment, Sandeep. I'm glad you enjoyed the article. I loved researching and writing about the argumentative conclusion Robert University (NAVITAS) topic. The study was very limited but the medical community seems to have found the results they were hoping for. Figures. I have considerable pain in essay Thompson Rivers, my legs from arthritis and post polio syndrome.

After watching a TV commercial for Sabina copper magnet my wife decided to get me one for my birthday as a joke since we felt that if these bracelets really worked as advertised, they could charge $thousands. Well, I put it on and pain reduced by 80%. Took it off once years later and unbearable pain returned. Put bracelet back on and pain immediately sudsided. Conclusion (NAVITAS). It works for me. Magnets do not work for write research essay Vrije arthritis. Argumentative Conclusion Robert Gordon University. Copper bracelet work in how to write research essay Vrije Universiteit, taking away arthritic pain ,especially in the hands I can turn faucets on and open jars. Unfortunately being of argumentative Robert Gordon University, a certain age that I treat almost everything supposedly from the medical scientific community with a rather jaundiced eye. That is not to say that modern medicine does not in podcast Firenze, so many instances provide alleviation of pain and argumentative Gordon University, even sometimes cures. I have had radioptherapy in critical Istituto Marangoni Firenze, 2012 for Gordon cancer and academic essay School, currently have no further trace; however when it comes to the profession with supposed data refuting methods that have proven efficacious over millenia then we are entitltled to argumentative University ignore these results.

As with some of the other replies I have found that even 2 copper bracelets worn on the wrist have been fantastic in the alleviation my awful shoulder arthritic pain and when no longer used find that the pain returns very quickly. placebo or not as a very sceptical individual by nature the use of my copper bracelets is the business. Healthline Media UK Ltd, Brighton, UK. 2004-2017 All rights reserved. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Podcast. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for conclusion Robert University informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.