Guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper University of the Pacific
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apple case study 9. Learning from Others. Apple reported a total revenue of $108.2 billion in 2011, an increase of 66% over 2010. Sales figures for the iPod iPhone and iPad were 42.6 million, 72.3 million and 32.3 million units respectively. Business Model: Design and Innovation. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Essay Of The Pacific! Apple is known for well-engineered, attractive products and continual innovation. Its early PCs were 'plug and play', and later machines retained the affection of writing an english College graphics departments even though the ease of guidelines a reflective University Pacific use advantages had largely disappeared. Apple pioneered the PDA market with the Newton in 1993, introduced the easy-to-use iMac in 1998, and the iBook in writing, 1999. Most important still were the 2001 launch of iTunes, the opening of its own own stores, and the introduction of the iPod, which changed the way people listened to music. In 2002 came flat-panel LCDs for a reflective paper of the Pacific, desktops, and in 2003 the release of the writing an english George Brown College, iLife package (with contained improved versions of iDVD, iMovie, iPhoto, and for writing paper of the Pacific, iTunes), and its fast Mac G5 PC. Apple continued its advances into digital lifestyle strategy by essay Shawnigan Lake launching iTunes Music Store online in 2003. Through deals with the large recording companies —BMG, EMI, Sony Entertainment, Universal, and Warner — the iTunes was able to offer over 200,000 songs on guidelines a reflective essay University, its day of opening.
In the early 2000s, the music industry was facing (and losing) a battle with piracy. Apple's response was firstly, beginning in 2001, to open retail stores across the US to ensure proper marketing of its products. Secondly, in April 2003, Apple launched an writing George Brown College, Internet-based music selling initiative called iTunes, making deals across the recording industry and for writing a reflective paper of the Pacific, preventing piracy with added DRM (digital recording management) software . Thirdly, hard on the heels of iTunes, Appled launched its iPod, which alone could play iTune downloads. Analysis! Because iPod was an for writing essay paper, attractive product, and fitted seamlessly with iTunes, the solving Abbey College Manchester, iPod became a smash hit. The revenues of Apple grew from US$ 5.3 billion in 2001 to US$ 13.9 billion in guidelines for writing essay paper Pacific, 2005. The corresponding share price of Apple rose 305% from less than US$ 10 to over US$ 40. In 2005, some 23 million iPods were sold, and Apple stock had risen to US$ 75 by December. The iPod success boosted the brand image of Apple, materially assisting PC sales, which rose from writing an english College, 2.5% in the early 2000s to 4% of the US market by the first half of 2005. In the full year of 2005, Apple sold 4.5 million PCs, one million of guidelines for writing paper University Pacific them to Windows users who had switched over to Mac. Subsequently, iPod sales have played a smaller part in Apple's fortunes as Mac and iPhone sales took over. iPods were the primary growth engine for minds Soleil, 2006 and 2007, accounting for for writing of the Pacific, 58% of Apple's total revenue growth for both years, but in 2007 iPod sales generated only 14% of overall sales growth.
As a percentage of Soleil total revenue in the financial year, iPod sales were as follows: 33% in guidelines essay paper University, 2005, 40% in 2006, 35% in 2007 and 28% in 2008. Apple slowed the decline in sales in a saturated market by introducing new models as a 'must have' gadget (with new styling, 'touch' operation, Wi-Fi connection and increased memory) , usually at high prices that were slowly scaled back as yet newer models were introduced. In iPod's first two years on sale, the average selling price (ASP) was around $350. In 4Q 2004, prices were cut by $100, and demand increased considerably. In Q2 2005, Apple priced its 'Min' iPod at $199, and launched the shuffle. The ASP dropped from $264 in Q1 to $191 in Q2, and sales again increased. The ASP gradually fell over the next two years, but volume of units sold remained constant. In 2007, the minds College Beau Soleil, unit sales growth was 31%, but revenue growth was only 8%. In 1Q 2008, Apple introduced its Touch model, creating a higher ASP ($181) but an increase too in revenue growth: 10%. In fact, though iPod unit sales only grew 5% year on year for 1Q 2008, dollar sales increased by 17% due to for writing paper University of the Pacific, a higher ASP.
Michael Porter's Five Forces Analysis. Critical In Problem Solving Abbey College Manchester! Porter's Five Forces is a business strategy framework developed by guidelines a reflective paper University of the Michael E. Porter of the an english George Brown, Harvard Business School in 1979. Since 'pure competition' in an ideal market would drive the profits of all participating companies down to zero, the model identifies five forces that prevent this undesirable result. Apple did not fear supplier power because: 1. It had long-established relationships with chip and other parts suppliers. A Reflective Essay Paper Of The! 2. Considerable competition existed among parts suppliers. Critical Analysis Brighton College! 3. iTunes secured partnership agreements with the large recording companies that met their piracy concerns. A Reflective Paper University Pacific! Barriers to Entry. Other companies found it difficult to compete because:
1. Apple was secretive about plans, and the iPod appeared suddenly, with a considerable headstart over rivals (which Apple maintained with further products). 2. iPod was new technology, which competitors had to acquire, either by in -house development (lengthy) or by acquisition (expensive). 3. Apple had secured the necessary patents. Write A Self Essay University School! 4. Apple possessed a strong brand synonymous with quality. 5. Apple built on guidelines paper, user familiarity with Blackberry and other devices, taking customer expectations to another level. Buyers were comparatively weak as: 1. Most purchases were for individual use.
2. iTunes was a service not offered elsewhere. Threat of Substitutes. Cheaper iPod look-alikes appeared, but Apple headed off the help writing an essay College School, threat of substitutes by: 1. A simple-to-use seamless integration of iTunes with: iPod. 2. Branding iPod as the product setting standards. 3. Marketing the iPod as one of a closed ecosystem of products built round Apple technology. Rivalry was initially nonexistent, and Apple retained competitive advantage by: 1. A Reflective! Continually introducing new features and adjusting prices. 2. Controlling its (own) distribution centers. 3. Management vision and consistency with Steve Jobs as CEO from 1997. Critical Abbey! 4. Marketing the Apple brand as a 'cool' etc. culture.
In 2007, however, Amazon introduced music downloads with DRM, and Apple had to follow suit. Apple has enjoyed mixed fortunes, but its revival with the iPod is part of guidelines for writing Pacific a larger strategy. Help College! With the return of Steve Jobs, it: 1. Listened to marketers and correctly sensed a move towards socially-determined applications, away from PCs that did everything to devices that did a few things superlatively well. 2. Focused on a few developments, ruthlessly weeding out the for writing a reflective, rest. Write A Visual Lake School! 3. Built up the brand name with Apple communities , consistency , logo and good design.
4. Developed the iPod in conjunction with iTunes: the simple, seamless operation of the two together made both popular (as Amazon's Kindle has with wireless-delivered ebooks.) 5. Offered a far greater choice of music than was available from competitor Microsoft's Zune store. 6. Boosted sales in a declining market by introducing more expensive models and judiciously reducing prices of earlier models. 7. Used RD investment more efficiently: as a percent of sales, Apple's investment is only 4.1% compared to of the Pacific, Google's 12% and Microsoft's 15.4%. 1. Explain why the Apple iPod was such a successful product. 2. How did Apple manage the introduction of newer models and how to write a self essay, products? 3. What is Michael Porter's Five Forces Analysis? Apply it to Apple. 4. Identify the successful strands of Apple's business strategy.
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In Soviet Union, Optimization Problem Solves You. by Cosma Shalizi on May 30, 2012. Attention conservation notice : Over 7800 words about guidelines for writing a reflective paper University Pacific, optimal planning for a socialist economy and its intersection with computational complexity theory. This is about as relevant to the world around us as debating whether a devotee of the Olympian gods should approve of transgenic organisms. (Or: centaurs, yes or no?) Contains mathematical symbols (uglified and rendered slightly inexact by HTML ) but no actual math, and uses Red Plenty mostly as a launching point for a tangent. There’s lots to say about Red Plenty as a work of literature; I won’t do so. Brighton? It’s basically a work of speculative fiction, where one of the primary pleasures is for writing essay University having a strange world unfold in the reader’s mind. More than that, it’s a work of how to write assessment St. Michaels University School, science fiction, where the strangeness of the world comes from its being reshaped by technology and scientific ideas—- here, mathematical and economic ideas. Red Plenty is also (what is a rather different thing) a work of scientist fiction, about the creative travails of scientists. The early chapter, where linear programming breaks in upon the essay Kantorovich character, is one of the most true-to-life depictions I’ve encountered of the experiences of mathematical inspiration and mathematical work. (Nothing I will ever do will be remotely as important or beautiful as what the real Kantorovich did, of course.) An essential part of that chapter, though, is the way the thoughts of the Kantorovich character split between his profound idea, his idealistic political musings, and his scheming about how to cadge some shoes, all blind to George Brown, the incongruities and ironies. It should be clear by this point that I loved Red Plenty as a book, but I am so much in its target demographic 1 that it’s not even funny.
My enthusing about it further would not therefore help others, so I will, to make better use of guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper, our limited time, talk instead about the central idea, the dream of the optimal planned economy. That dream did not come true, but it never even came close to being implemented; strong forces blocked that, forces which Red Plenty describes vividly. But could it even have been tried? Should it have been? “The Basic Problem of Industrial Planning” Let’s think about what would have to have gone in to Bishop’s, planning in for writing a reflective essay paper University of the, the manner of Kantorovich. I. Writing An Essay College? We need a quantity to maximize. This objective function has to be a function of the quantities of all the different goods (and services) produced by our economic system. Here “objective” is used in the sense of “goal”, not in the sense of “factual”. In Kantorovich’s world, the objective function is linear, just a weighted sum of the guidelines for writing essay of the output levels. Those weights tell us about an essay School, trade-offs: we will accept getting one less bed-sheet (queen-size, cotton, light blue, thin, fine-weave) if it lets us make so many more diapers (cloth, unbleached, re-usable), or this many more lab coats (men’s, size XL, non-flame-retardant),or for that matter such-and-such an extra quantity of toothpaste.
In other words, we need to begin our planning exercise with relative weights. If you don’t want to call these “values” or “prices”, I won’t insist, but the for writing essay University of the Pacific planning exercise has to begin with them, because they’re what the an english essay George Brown College function being optimized is built from. It’s worth remarking that in Best Use of Economic Resources , Kantorovich side-stepped this problem by a device which has “all the advantages of theft over honest toil”. For Writing A Reflective Essay Paper? Namely, he posed only the how to a visual analysis Shawnigan problem of maximizing the production of a “given assortment” of goods—- the planners have fixed on guidelines for writing a ratio of sheets to critical Abbey, diapers (and everything else) to be produced, and want the a reflective of the most that can be coaxed out of the College Beau inputs while keeping those ratios. This doesn’t really remove the difficulty: either the planners have to decide on relative values, or they have to decide on guidelines paper of the Pacific the ratios in the “given assortment”. Equivalently, the planners could fix the desired output, and try to minimize the bright College Beau Soleil resources required. Then, again, they must fix relative weights for resources (cotton fiber, blue dye #1, blue dye #2, bleach, water [potable],water [distilled], time on machine #1, time on for writing essay machine #2, labor time [unskilled], labor time [skilled, sewing], electric power…). In some contexts these might be physically comparable units. (The first linear programming problem I was ever posed was to work out a self assessment essay St. Michaels, a diet which will give astronauts all the nutrients they need from a minimum mass of food.) In a market system these would be relative prices of factors of production. Maintaining a “given assortment” (fixed proportions) of guidelines a reflective essay paper Pacific, resources used seems even less reasonable than maintaining a “given assortment” of help writing an essay Bishop’s School, outputs, but I suppose we could do it. For now (I’ll come back to this), assume the objective function is given somehow, and is not to be argued with.
IIA . We need complete and accurate knowledge of all the essay paper University physical constraints on the economy, the resources available to it. IIB . We need complete and accurate knowledge of the productive capacities of the economy, the write a self assessment essay St. Michaels School ways in for writing a reflective paper University, which it can convert inputs to outputs. (IIA) and (IIB) require us to disaggregate all the goods (and services) of the writing School economy to for writing essay paper, the point where everything inside each category is substitutable. Moreover, if different parts of our physical or organizational “plant” have different technical capacities, that needs to be taken into a self assessment essay St. Michaels, account, or the results can be decidedly sub-optimal. (Kantorovich actually emphasizes this need to disaggregate in Best Use , by way of scoring points against Leontief. The numbers in the latter’s input-output matrices, Kantorovich says, are aggregated over huge swathes of the economy, and so far too crude to be actually useful for planning.) This is, to guidelines for writing paper University of the, belabor the obvious, a huge amount of information to gather. (It’s worth remarking at this point that “inputs” and “constraints” can be understood very broadly. For instance, there is nothing in the formalism which keeps it from including constraints on how much the production process is allowed to pollute the environment.
The shadow prices enforcing those constraints would indicate how much production could be increased if marginally more pollution were allowed. This wasn’t, so far as I know, a concern of the Soviet economists, but it’s the logic behind cap-and-trade institutions for controlling pollution.) Subsequent work in optimization theory lets us get away, a bit, from requiring complete and perfectly accurate knowledge in stage (II). Analysis Brighton? If our knowledge is a reflective paper of the distorted by write a visual Shawnigan, merely unbiased statistical error, we could settle for stochastic optimization, which runs some risk of being badly wrong (if the noise is large), but at least does well on paper average. Define Analysis Brighton? We still need this unbiased knowledge about everything, however, and aggregation is still a recipe for distortions. More serious is the problem that people will straight-up lie to the planners about resources and technical capacities, for reasons which Spufford dramatizes nicely. There is no good mathematical way of dealing with this. III . For Kantorovich, the objective function from (I) and the constraints and production technology from (II) must be linear. Nonlinear optimization is possible, and I will come back to it, but it rarely makes things easier . IV. Computing time must be not just too cheap to meter, but genuinely immense. It is this point which I want to elaborate on, because it is a mathematical rather than a practical difficulty.
“Numerical Methods for the Solution of Problems of Optimal Planning” It was no accident that mathematical optimization went hand-in-hand with automated computing. There’s little point to reasoning abstractly about guidelines essay paper University, optima if you can’t actually find them, and finding an optimum is a computational task. How To Write Lake School? We pose a problem (find the a reflective University of the plan which maximizes this objective function subject to these constraints), and want not just a solution, but a method which will continue to deliver solutions even as the problem posed is varied. We need an algorithm.
Computer science, which is not really so much a science as a branch of mathematical engineering, studies questions like this. A huge and profoundly important division of computer science, the theory of how to a self assessment essay University School, computational complexity, concerns itself with understanding what resources algorithms require to work. Those resources may take many forms: memory to guidelines for writing a reflective essay University, store intermediate results, samples for statistical problems, communication between cooperative problem-solvers. The most basic resource is time, measured not in seconds but in critical in problem solving Abbey Manchester, operations of the computer. This is something Spufford dances around, in II.2: “Here’s the power of the machine: that having broken arithmetic down into tiny idiot steps, it can then execute those steps at inhuman speed, forever.” But how many steps? If it needs enough steps, then even inhuman speed is useless for for writing, human purposes… The way computational complexity theory works is an english College that it establishes some reasonable measure of the size of an instance of a problem, and then asks how much time is absolutely required to produce a solution. There can be several aspects of for writing a reflective University Pacific, “size”; there are three natural ones for how to St. Michaels University, linear programming problems. One is the number of variables being optimized over, say n . The second is the number of constraints on the optimization, say m . The third is the amount of approximation we are willing to a reflective University of the Pacific, tolerate in critical thinking in problem solving Abbey College, a solution—- we demand that it come within h of the optimum, and that if any constraints are violated it is also by no more than h . Presumably optimizing many variables ( n 1), subject to many constraints ( m 1 ), to a high degree of approximation ( h. 0), is going to take more time than optimizing a few variables ( n. 1), with a handful of constraints ( m.
1 ), and accepting a lot of slop ( h. 1). How much, exactly? The fastest known algorithms for solving linear programming problems are what are called “interior point” methods. These are extremely ingenious pieces of engineering, useful not just for linear programming but a wider class of problems called “convex programming”. Since the 1980s they have revolutionized numerical optimization, and are, not so coincidentally, among the guidelines for writing a reflective essay University Pacific intellectual children of Kantorovich (and Dantzig). The best guarantees about the number of “idiot steps” (arithmetic operations) they need to solve a linear programming problem with such algorithms is that it’s proportional to. (I am simplifying just a bit; see sec.
4.6.1 of help College, Ben-Tal and Nemirovski’s Lectures on Modern Convex Optimization [ PDF ].) Truly intractable optimization problems of which there are many are ones where the number of steps needed grow exponentially 2 . If linear programming was in this “complexity class”, it would be truly dire news, but it’s not. Guidelines A Reflective Paper University? The complexity of the calculation grows only polynomially with n , so it falls in critical thinking in problem Abbey, the class theorists are accustomed to a reflective Pacific, regarding as “tractable”. But the complexity still grows super-linearly, like n 3.5 . Where does this leave us? A good modern commercial linear programming package can handle a problem with 12 or 13 million variables in a few minutes on a desktop machine. Let’s be generous and push this down to 1 second. (Or let’s hope that Moore’s Law rule-of-thumb has six or eight iterations left,and wait a decade.) To handle a problem with 12 or 13 billion variables then would take about 30 billion seconds, or roughly a thousand years. Naturally, I have a reason for mentioning 12 million variables:
In the USSR at this time  there are 12 million identifiably different products (disaggregated down to specific types of ball-bearings, designs of cloth, size of brown shoes, and so on). There are close to critical thinking Manchester, 50,000 industrial establishments, plus, of course, thousands of construction enterprises, transport undertakings, collective and state forms, wholesaling organs and guidelines for writing paper University Pacific retail outlets. —Alec Nove, The Economics of Feasible Socialism (p. 36 of the revised  edition; Nove’s italics) This 12 million figure will conceal variations in critical in problem solving, quality; and it is not clear to me, even after tracking down Nove’s sources, whether it included the guidelines for writing paper University of the provision of thinking solving Manchester, services, which are a necessary part of any economy. Let’s say it’s just twelve million. Even if the guidelines paper University of the USSR could never have invented a modern computer running a good LP solver, if someone had given it one, couldn’t Gosplan have done its work in a matter of minutes? Maybe an hour, to look at some alternative plans? No.
The difficulty is that there aren’t merely 12 million variables to how to a self essay St. Michaels University, optimize over, but rather many more. We need to distinguish between a “coat, winter, men’s, part-silk lining, wool worsted tricot, clothgroup 29—32” in of the Pacific, Smolensk from one in Moscow. If we don’t “index” physical goods by location this way, our plan won’t account for the need for transport properly, and things simply won’t be where they’re needed; Kantorovich said as much under the heading of critical thinking solving College, “the problem of a production complex”. For Writing A Reflective Essay? (Goods which can spoil, or are needed at particular occasions and neither earlier nor later, should also be indexed by time; Kantorovich’s “dynamic problem”) A thousand locations would be very conservative, but even that factor would get us into critical, the regime where it would take us a thousand years to work through a single plan. With 12 million kinds of goods and only a thousand locations, to have the plan ready in less than a year would need computers a thousand times faster. This is not altogether unanticipated by Red Plenty : A beautiful paper at the end of last year had skewered Academician Glushkov’s hypercentralized rival scheme for an all-seeing, all-knowing computer which would rule the physical economy directly, with no need for money. The author had simply calculated how long it would take the best machine presently available to execute the needful program, if the guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper University Soviet economy were taken tobe a system of equations with fifty million variables and five million constraints. Round about a hundred million years, was the answer. Beautiful.So the publishing College Soleil only game in guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper of the, town, now, was their own civilised, decentralized idea for optimal pricing, in which shadow prices calculated from how to a self essay opportunity costs would harmonise the for writing essay paper plan without anyone needing to possess impossibly complete information. [V.2] This alternative vision, the one which Spufford depicts those around Kantorovich as pushing, was to find the shadow prices needed to optimize, fix the monetary prices to track the shadow prices, and then let individuals or firms buy and sell as they wish, so long as they are within their budgets and adhere to those prices.
The planners needn’t govern men, nor even administer things, but only set prices. Write A Self? Does this, however, actually set the planners a more tractable, a less computationally-complex, problem? So far as our current knowledge goes, no. Guidelines Essay Paper? Computing optimal prices turns out to have the same complexity as computing the optimal plan itself 3 . It is(so far as I know) conceivable that there is an english essay George Brown some short-cut to computing prices alone, but we have no tractable way of guidelines a reflective Pacific, doing that yet. Anyone who wants to advocate this needs to show that it is possible, not just hope piously. How then might we escape? It will not do to say that it’s enough for the planners to approximate the optimal plan, with some dark asides about the imperfections of critical College, actually-existing capitalism thrown into the mix. For Writing A Reflective Paper Pacific? The computational complexity formula I quoted above already allows for only needing to help writing Bishop’s, come close to the optimum. Worse, the complexity depends only essay of the, very slowly, logarithmically, on a visual School the approximation to the optimum, so accepting a bit more slop buys us only guidelines for writing paper Pacific, a very slight savings in computation time. Publishing College Beau? (The optimistic spin is that if we can do the for writing a reflective paper University of the Pacific calculations at all, we can come quite close to solving Manchester, the optimum.) This route is blocked. Another route would use the idea that the formula I’ve quoted is only an upper bound, the time required to solve an arbitrary linear programming problem.
The problems set by economic planning might, however, have some special structure which could be exploited to find solutions faster. What might that structure be? The most plausible candidate is to look for problems which are “separable”, where the constraints create very few connections among the guidelines a reflective of the Pacific variables. If we could divide the variables into two sets which had nothing at all to do with each other, then we could solve each sub-problem separately, at tremendous savings in bright minds publishing College Beau, time. The supra-linear, n 3.5 scaling would apply only within each sub-problem. We could get the optimal prices (or optimal plans) just by concatenating the guidelines University of the Pacific solutions to sub-problems, with no extra work on our part. Unfortunately, as Lenin is critical in problem supposed to have said, “everything is connected to guidelines Pacific, everything else”. If nothing else, labor is how to a visual Shawnigan both required for all production, and is in finite supply, creating coupling between all spheres of the economy. (Labor is not actually extra special here, but it is guidelines essay University traditional 4 .) A national economy simply does not break up into so many separate, non-communicating spheres which could be optimized independently. So long as we are thinking like computer programmers, however, we might try a desperately crude hack, and just ignore all kinds of interdependencies between variables.
If we did that, if we pretended that the over-all high-dimensional economic planning problem could be split into many separate low-dimensional problems, then we could speed things up immensely, by exploiting parallelism or distributed processing. An actually-existing algorithm, on actually-existing hardware, could solve each problem on its own, ignoring the effect on the others, in a reasonable amount of time. As computing power grows, the supra-linear complexity of each planning sub-problem becomes less of an issue, and so we could be less aggressive in ignoring couplings. At this point, each processor is something very much like a firm, with a scope dictated by information-processing power, and the mis-matches introduced by their ignoring each other in their own optimization is something very much like “the anarchy of the Brighton market”. I qualify with “very much like”, because there are probably lots of essay paper University of the Pacific, institutional forms these could take, some of thinking in problem Abbey College, which will not look much like actually existing capitalism. (At the very least the firm-ish entities could be publicly owned, by the state, Roemeresque stock-market socialism, workers’cooperatives, or indeed other forms.) Forcing each processor to take some account of what the for writing a reflective essay paper University of the Pacific others are doing, through prices and quantities in markets, removes some of the grosser pathologies. Writing Bishop’s School? (If you’re a physicist, you think of this as weak coupling; ifyou’re a computer programmer, it’s a restricted interface.) But it won’t, in guidelines University of the, general, provide enough of critical thinking in problem Abbey College Manchester, a communication channel to actually compute the prices swiftly at least not if we want one set of for writing essay of the, prices, available to all. College? Rob Axtell, in essay University of the Pacific, a really remarkable paper, shows that bilateral exchange can come within h of an equilibrium set of prices in a time proportional to n 2 log(1/ h ), which is much faster than any known centralized scheme.
Now, we might hope that yet faster algorithms will be found, ones which would, say, push the complexity down from cubic in an english essay George Brown, n to merely linear. There are lower bounds on the complexity of optimization problems which suggest we could never hope to push it below that. No such algorithms are known to exist, and we don’t have any good reason to think that they do. We also have no reason to think that alternative computing methods would lead to such a speed-up 5 . I said before that increasing the number of variables by a factor of 1000 increases the time needed by a reflective paper Pacific, a factor of write a visual School, about 30 billion. To cancel this out would need a computer about guidelines for writing a reflective essay University Pacific, 30 billion times faster, which would need about writing an essay Bishop’s College School, 35 doublings of computing speed, taking, if Moore’s rule-of-thumb continues to hold, another half century. But my factor of guidelines for writing of the, 1000 for prices was quite arbitrary; if it’s really more like a million, then we’re talking about increasing the define critical analysis Brighton computation by a factor of 10 21 (a more-than-astronomical, rather a chemical, increase), which is just under 70 doublings, or just over a century of Moore’s Law. If someone like Iain Banks or Ken MacLeod wants to write a novel where they say that the optimal planned economy will become technically tractable sometime around the early 22nd century, then I will read it eagerly. Guidelines A Reflective Essay Paper Of The? As a serious piece of prognostication, however, this is the kind of thinking which leads to”where’s my jet-pack?” ranting on the part of write a visual Shawnigan, geeks of a certain age.
In linear programming, all the constraints facing the guidelines a reflective essay paper University planner, including those representing the available technologies of production, are linear. Economically, this means constant returns to scale: the factory need put no more, and no less, resources into its 10,000th pair of diapers as into essay, its 20,000th, or its first. Mathematically, the linear constraints on production are a special case of convex constraints. If a constraint is convex, then if we have two plans which satisfy it, so would any intermediate plan in between those extremes. (If plan A calls for 10,000 diapers and 2,000 towels, and plan B calls for 2,000 diapers and 10,000 towels, we could do half of plan A and half of guidelines for writing a reflective paper of the, plan B, make 6,000 diapers and 6,000 towels, and not run up against the constraints.) Not all convex constraints are linear; in convex programming, we relax linear programming to a self essay St. Michaels University School, just require convex constraints. Guidelines A Reflective University? Economically, this corresponds to allowing decreasing returns to scale, where the 10,000 pair of diapers is publishing College Beau Soleil indeed more expensive than the 9,999th, or the first. Computationally, it turns out that the same “interior-point” algorithms which bring large linear-programming problems within reach also work on general convex programming problems. Convex programming is more computationally complex than linear programming, but not radically so.
Unfortunately for the planners, increasing returns to for writing a reflective paper University of the, scale in production mean non-convex constraints; and increasing returns are very common, if only from fixed costs. If the plan calls for regular flights from Moscow to George Brown, Novosibirsk, each flight has a fixed minimum cost, no matter how much or how little the plane carries. (Fuel; the labor of pilots, mechanics, and air-traffic controllers; wear and for writing a reflective of the Pacific tear on the plane; wear and tear on thinking in problem solving Manchester runways; the lost opportunity of using the plane for something else.) Similarly for optimization software (you can’t make any copies of the program without first expending the programmers’ labor, and the computer time they need to write and debug the code). Or academic papers, or for that matter running an assembly line or a steel mill. Pacific? In all of these cases, you just can’t smoothly interpolate between plans which have these outputs and ones which don’t. Critical Abbey College Manchester? You must pay at least the fixed cost to get any output at all, which is non-convexity. And there are other sources of increasing returns, beyond fixed costs. This is bad news for the planners, because there are no general-purpose algorithms for optimizing under non-convex constraints. Non-convex programming isn’t roughly as tractable as linear programming, it’s generally quite intractable.
Again, the kinds of a reflective essay of the Pacific, non-convexity which economic planners would confront might, conceivably, universally turn out to be especially benign, soeverything becomes tractable again, but why should we think that? If it’s any consolation, allowing non-convexity messes up the markets-are-always-optimal theorems of neo-classical/bourgeois economics, too. (This illustrates Stiglitz’s contention that if the help writing an essay Bishop’s School neo-classicals were right about how capitalism works, Kantorovich-style socialism would have been perfectly viable.) Markets with non-convex production are apt to see things like monopolies, or at least monopolistic competition, path dependence, and, actual profits and guidelines a reflective paper Pacific power. An English Essay Brown College? (My university owes its existence to guidelines a reflective paper of the, Mr. Critical In Problem Abbey College Manchester? Carnegie’s luck, skill, and ruthlessness in exploiting the a reflective paper University non-convexities of making steel.) Somehow, I do not think that this will be much consolation). The Given Assortment, and Planner’s Preferences. So far I have been assuming, for the sake of argument, that the write a visual analysis Shawnigan planners can take their objective function as given. For Writing A Reflective Essay Paper Pacific? There does need to be some such function, because otherwise it becomes hard to impossible to solving Manchester, chose between competing plans which are all technically feasible. Guidelines For Writing Paper University Of The Pacific? It’s easy to say “more stuff is better than less stuff”, but at some point more towels means fewer diapers, and then the planners have to decide how to bright publishing Beau, trade off among different goods. If we take desired output as fixed and try to minimize inputs, the same difficulty arises (is it better to use so less cotton fiber if it requires this much more plastic?), so I will just stick with the maximization version. For the a reflective University Pacific capitalist or even market-socialist firm, there is in principle a simple objective function: profit, measured in dollars, or whatever else the local unit of George, account is. Guidelines For Writing Essay University Of The? (I say “in principle” because a firm isn’t a unified actor with coherent goals like “maximize profits”; to the extent it acts like one, that’s an achievement of organizational social engineering.) The firm can say how many extra diapers it would have to sell to be worth selling one less towel, because it can look at how much money it would make. To the an essay College School extent that it can take its sales prices as fixed, and can sell as much as it can make, it’s even reasonable for it to treat its objective function as linear. But what about the planners?
Even if they wanted to just look at the profit (value added) of the whole economy, they get to set the prices of guidelines essay paper University Pacific, consumption goods, which in turn set the writing essay George Brown (shadow) prices of inputs to production. (The rule “maximize the objective function” does not help pick an objective function.) In any case, profits are money, i.e., claims, through exchange, on goods and services produced by others. It makes no sense for the goal of the economy, as a whole, to be to maximize its claims on itself. As I mentioned, Kantorovich had a way of a reflective essay Pacific, evading this, which was clever if not ultimately satisfactory. He imagined the goal of the planners to be to maximize the production of minds publishing College Soleil, a “given assortment” of guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper University Pacific, goods. Writing An Essay Bishop’s School? This means that the guidelines a reflective essay of the Pacific desired ratio of goods to be produced is fixed (three diapers for every towel), and the planners just need to maximize production at this ratio. Help Writing An Essay Bishop’s School? This only pushes back the problem by a reflective paper, one step, to deciding on the “given assortment”. We are pushed back, inevitably, to the planners having to writing Bishop’s School, make choices which express preferences or (in a different sense of the word) values. Or, said another way, there are values or preferences what Nove called “planners’ preferences” implicit in any choice of objective function. This raises both a cognitive or computational problem, and at least two different political problems.
The cognitive or computational problem is that of simply coming up with relative preferences or weights over paper of the all the goods in the economy, indexed by space and time. (Remember we need such indexing to writing an english essay, handle transport and sequencing.) Any one human planner would simply have to guidelines for writing essay University, make up most of these, or generate them according to essay St. Michaels University, some arbitrary rule. To do otherwise is simply beyond the bounds of humanity. A group of a reflective paper University Pacific, planners might do better, but it would still be an essay School immense amount of work, with knotty problems of guidelines for writing essay University of the Pacific, how to divide the labor of assigning values, and a large measure of arbitrariness. Which brings us to bright publishing Beau Soleil, the first of the a reflective essay paper two political problems. The objective function in Soleil, the plan is an expression of values or preferences, and people have different preferences . How are these to be reconciled? There are many institutions which try to reconcile or adjust divergent values. For Writing A Reflective University Pacific? This is a problem of social choice, and subject to all the usual pathologies and paradoxes of social choice. There is minds no universally satisfactory mechanism for making such choices.
One could imagine democratic debate and voting over plans, but the sheer complexity of plans, once again, makes it very hard for members of the a reflective essay Pacific demos to make up their minds about competing plans, or how plans might be changed. Every citizen is put in how to write assessment essay St. Michaels, the position of the solitary planner, except that they must listen to each other. Citizens (or their representatives) might debate about, and for writing a reflective University Pacific vote over, highly aggregated summaries of various plans. But then the planning apparatus has to dis-aggregate, has to fill in the details left unfixed by the democratic process. (What gets voted on is a compressed encoding of the actual plan, for critical thinking, which the apparatus is the decoder.) I am not worried so much that citizens are not therefore debating about exactly what the plan is. For Writing A Reflective Essay Paper Of The Pacific? Under uncertainty, especially uncertainty from complexity, no decision-maker understands the a visual analysis School full consequences of their actions. What disturbs me about this is that filling in those details in the plan is just as much driven by values and preferences as making choices about the aggregated aspects.
We have not actually given the planning apparatus a tractable technical problem(cf.). Dictatorship might seem to for writing paper University of the Pacific, resolve the difficulty, but doesn’t. Minds Publishing College Beau Soleil? The dictator is, after all, just a single human being. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Essay Pacific? He (and I use the pronoun deliberately) has no more ability to come up with real preferences over everything in the economy than any other person. (Thus, Ashby’s “law of requisite variety” strikes again.) He can, and must, delegate details to an english George Brown College, the planning apparatus, but that doesn’t help the for writing planners figure out what to do. Writing Bishop’s College? I would even contend that he is in a worse situation than the for writing a reflective essay of the Pacific demos when it comes to designing the planning apparatus, or figuring out minds College Beau Soleil, what he wants to guidelines for writing essay University of the Pacific, decide directly, and what he wants to delegate, but that’s a separate argument. The collective dictatorship of the party, assuming anyone wanted to revive that nonsense, would only seem to how to a visual analysis Shawnigan School, give the for writing a reflective paper University worst of both worlds. I do not have a knock-down proof that there is no good way of evading the problem of how to write essay St. Michaels University School, planners’ preferences. Maybe there is guidelines for writing essay some way to improve democratic procedures or bureaucratic organization to turn the trick. But any such escape is, now, entirely conjectural.
In its absence, if decisions must be made, they will get made, but through the sort of internal negotiation, arbitrariness and favoritism which Spufford depicts in bright minds publishing Beau Soleil, the Soviet planning apparatus. This brings us to guidelines University, the second political problem. Minds? Even if everyone agrees on the plan, and the plan is actually perfectly implemented, there is every reason to guidelines a reflective essay, think that people will not be happy with the outcome. They’re making guesses about what they actually want and need, and they are making guesses about the help College implications of fulfilling those desires. We don’t have to paper of the Pacific, go into “Monkey’s Paw” territory to critical College, realize that getting what you think you want can prove thoroughly unacceptable; it’s a fact of life, which doesn’t disappear in economics. And not everyone is going to agree on for writing paper of the the plan, which will not be perfectly implemented. (Nothing is ever perfectly implemented.) These are all signs of an english College, how even the “optimal” plan can be improved, and ignoring them is idiotic. We need then some systematic way for guidelines for writing, the citizens to provide feedback on the plan, as it is bright College realized. There are many, many things to be said against the market system, but it is a mechanism for providing feedback from users to producers, and for propagating that feedback through the whole economy, without anyone having to explicitly track that information. This is a point which both Hayek, and Lange (before the war) got very much right. The feedback needn’t be just or even mainly through prices; quantities (especially inventories) can sometimes work just as well.
But what sells and what doesn’t is the for writing a reflective essay of the Pacific essential feedback. It’s worth mentioning that this is how to a self assessment University a point which Trotsky got right.(I should perhaps write that “ even Trotsky sometimes got right”.)To repeat a quotation: The innumerable living participants in the economy, state and private, collective and individual, must serve notice of guidelines for writing a reflective paper University Pacific, their needs and of their relative strength not only through the statistical determinations of plan commissions but by the direct pressure of supply and demand. Writing George Brown? The plan is checked and, to a considerable degree, realized through the market. It is conceivable that there is guidelines a reflective essay University Pacific some alternative feedback mechanism which is as rich, adaptive, and easy to use as the market but is not the an essay College market, not even in for writing a reflective essay paper University of the, a disguised form. Nobody has proposed such a thing.
Errors of the Bourgeois Economists. Both neo-classical and Austrian economists make a fetish (in several senses) of markets and market prices. That this is crazy is reflected in the fact that even under capitalism, immense areas of the economy are not coordinated through the market. There is a great passage from Herbert Simon in 1991 which is relevant here: Suppose that [“a mythical visitor from minds publishing Beau Mars”] approaches the Earth from guidelines for writing University of the space, equipped with a telescope that revels social structures. The firms reveal themselves, say, as solid green areas with faint interior contours marking out divisions and departments. Essay George Brown? Market transactions show as red lines connecting firms, forming a network in guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper of the, the spaces between them.
Within firms (and perhaps even between them) the approaching visitor also sees pale blue lines, the lines of authority connecting bosses with various levels of workers. As our visitors looked more carefully at the scene beneath, it might see one of the bright green masses divide, as a firm divested itself of guidelines for writing a reflective Pacific, one of its divisions. An English? Or it might see one green object gobble up another. At this distance, the departing golden parachutes would probably not be visible. No matter whether our visitor approached the United States or the Soviet Union, urban China or the European Community, the greater part of the space below it would be within green areas, for almost all of the for writing a reflective of the inhabitants would be employees, hence inside the firm boundaries.
Organizations would be the publishing Soleil dominant feature of the a reflective essay of the landscape. A message sent back home, describing the scene, would speak of “large green areas interconnected by red lines.” It would not likely speak of “a network of an essay School, red lines connecting green spots.” 6. This is not just because the market revolution has not been pushed far enough. (“One effort more, shareholders, if you would be libertarians!”) The conditions under which equilibrium prices really are all a decision-maker needsto know, and really are sufficient for coordination, are so extreme as to guidelines a reflective essay University, be absurd.(Stiglitz is how to write assessment St. Michaels School good on some of the failure modes.) Even if they hold, the guidelines essay University Pacific market only lets people “serve notice of their needs and of their relative strength” up to a limit set by how much money they have. This is why careful economists talk about balancing supply and “effective” demand, demand backed by how to a visual Shawnigan School, money. This is just as much an implicit choice of values as handing the planners an objective function and letting them fire up their optimization algorithm. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Paper Of The? Those values are not pretty. They are that the whims of the solving Abbey Manchester rich matter more than the needs of the guidelines a reflective essay University Pacific poor; that it is more important to help writing College, keep bond traders in strippers and paper Pacific cocaine than feed hungry children. At the extreme, the market literally starves people to a visual analysis Shawnigan, death, because feeding them is a less”efficient” use of for writing essay of the Pacific, food than helping rich people eat more. I don’t think this sort of pathology is intrinsic to critical thinking, market exchange; it comes from for writing essay University of the market exchange plus gross inequality. An English George Brown? If we want markets to signal supply and guidelines a reflective essay of the demand (not just tautological “effective demand”), then we want to ensure not just that everyone has access to the market, but also that they have (roughly) comparable amounts of how to a visual analysis Shawnigan, money to spend.
There is, in other words, a strong case to be made for egalitarian distributions of resources being a complement to market allocation. Politically, however, good luck getting those to go together. We are left in guidelines paper of the, an uncomfortable position. Turning everything over to the market is not really an help writing College School option. Beyond the repulsiveness of the guidelines paper of the values it embodies, markets in areas like healthcare or information goods are always inefficient (over and above the usual impossibility of define analysis College, informationally-efficient prices). Moreover, working through the market imposes its own costs (time and effort in guidelines a reflective essay paper, searching out information about prices and qualities, negotiating deals, etc.), and these costs can be very large. This is define critical Brighton one reason (among others) why Simon’s Martian sees such large green regions in the capitalist countries why actually-existing capitalism is at least as much an organizational as a market economy. Planning is certainly possible within limited domains at least if we can get good data to the planners and those limits will expand as computing power grows. But planning is only possible within those domains because making money gives firms (or firm-like entities) an objective function which is both unambiguous and blinkered . Planning for the whole economy would, under the most favorable possible assumptions, be intractable for the foreseeable future, and deciding on a plan runs into difficulties we have no idea how to solve. The sort of efficient planned economy dreamed of by the characters in Red Plenty is something we have no clue of how to bring about, even if we were willing to accept dictatorship to do so. That planning is not a viable alternative to paper of the Pacific, capitalism (as opposed to a tool within it) should disturb even capitalism’s most ardent partisans.
It means that their system faces no competition , nor even any plausible threat of competition. Those partisans themselves should be able to say what will happen then: the masters of the system, will be tempted, and essay more than tempted, to claim more and more of what it produces as monopoly rents. This does not end happily. Calling the Tune for for writing University, the Dance of Commodities. There is a passage in Red Plenty which is central to describing both the nightmare from which we are trying to awake, and vision we are trying to essay Brown, awake into. Henry has quoted it already, but it bears repeating. Marx had drawn a nightmare picture of what happened to human life under capitalism, when everything was produced only in guidelines for writing essay University of the, order to be exchanged; when true qualities and uses dropped away, and the human power of making and doing itself became only an object to be traded.
Then the how to write a visual essay Shawnigan School makers and the things made turned alike into commodities, and the motion of University of the Pacific, society turned into a kind of zombie dance, a grim cavorting whirl in bright College Soleil, which objects and for writing a reflective essay of the Pacific people blurred together till the how to write a visual analysis Lake School objects were half alive and the people were half dead. For Writing A Reflective Of The Pacific? Stock-market prices acted back upon the world as if they were independent powers, requiring factories to be opened or closed, real human beings to work or rest, hurry or dawdle; and they, having given the transfusion that made the stock prices come alive, felt their flesh go cold and impersonal on them, mere mechanisms for chunking out the man-hours. Living money and dying humans, metal as tender as skin and skin as hard as metal, taking hands, and how to write a self assessment University dancing round, and round, and Pacific round, with no way ever of stopping; the quickened and the deadened, whirling on. … And what would be the alternative? The consciously arranged alternative? A dance of another nature, Emil presumed. A dance to the music of use, where every step fulfilled some real need, did some tangible good, and no matter how fast the dancers spun, they moved easily, because they moved to a human measure, intelligible to essay St. Michaels School, all, chosen by all. There is a fundamental level at which Marx’s nightmare vision is right : capitalism, the market system, whatever you want to call it, is a product of humanity, but each and every one of us confronts it as an autonomous and deeply alien force. Its ends, to the limited and debatable extent that it can even be understood as having them, are simply inhuman. Guidelines A Reflective Essay Paper? The ideology of the market tell us that we face not something inhuman but superhuman, tells us to embrace our inner zombie cyborg and loose ourselves in the dance. One doesn’t know whether to laugh or cry or running screaming.
But, and this is an essay Bishop’s I think something Marx did not sufficiently appreciate, human beings confront all the structures which emerge from our massed interactions in this way. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of which one is a citizen, can feel, can be , just as much of a cold monster as the market. We have no choice but to guidelines paper University of the, live among these alien powers which we create, and to try to direct them to human ends. Bishop’s College School? It is beyond us, it is even beyond all of guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper University Pacific, us, to find “a human measure, intelligible to all, chosen by critical thinking College Manchester, all”, which says how everyone should go. What we can do is try to find the specific ways in which these powers we have conjured up are hurting us, and guidelines of the Pacific use them to check each other, or deflect them into better paths. Sometimes this will mean more use of market mechanisms, sometimes it will mean removing some goods and services from market allocation, either through public provision 7 or through other institutional arrangements 8 . Sometimes it will mean expanding the scope of democratic decision-making (for instance, into the insides of firms), and sometimes it will mean narrowing its scope (for instance, not allowing the demos to censor speech it finds objectionable).
Sometimes it will mean leaving some tasks to experts, deferring to the internal norms of their professions, and sometimes it will mean recognizing claims of expertise to be mere assertions of authority, to be resisted or countered. These are all going to critical in problem Manchester, be complex problems, full of for writing paper University Pacific, messy compromises. Attaining even second best solutions is going to demand “bold, persistent experimentation”, coupled with a frank recognition that many experiments will just fail, and that even long-settled compromises can, with the passage of time, become confining obstacles. We will not be able to write analysis Shawnigan School, turn everything over to the wise academicians, or even to their computers, but we may, if we are lucky and smart, be able, bit by bit, make a world fit for human beings to live in.  Vaguely lefty? Check. A Reflective Paper University Pacific? Science fiction reader?Check. Interested in how to a visual analysis Lake, economics? Check. In fact: family tradition of socialism extending to having a relative whose middle name was “Karl Marx”?
Check. Gushing Ken MacLeod fan? Check. Learned linear programming at my father’s knee as a boy? Check. ^  More exactly, many optimization problems have the for writing paper of the property that we can check a proposed solution in polynomial time (these are the class “NP”), but no one has a polynomial-timeway to work out a solution from the writing an english George Brown problem statement (which would put them in the class “P”). If a problem is in NP but not in P, we cannot do drastically better than just systematically go through candidate solutions and a reflective essay University Pacific check them all. (We can often do a bit better, especially on particular cases, but not drastically better.) Whether there are any such problems, that is assessment essay University whether NP=P, is for writing a reflective University of the not known, but it sure seems like it.
So while most common optimization problems are in NP, linear and even convex programming are in P.^ : Most of the relevant work has been done under a slightly different cover—- not determining shadow prices in how to a self St. Michaels, an optimal plan, but equilibrium prices in Arrow-Debreu model economies. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Essay? But this is essay University fully applicable to for writing a reflective essay University, determining shadow prices in critical analysis, the planning system.(Bowles and Gintis: “The basic problem with the Walrasian model in this respect is that it is essentially about allocations and only tangentially about for writing a reflective essay of the Pacific, markets as one of writing essay, us (Bowles) learned when he noticed that the graduate microeconomics course that he taught at Harvard was easily repackaged as ‘The Theory of Economic Planning’ at the University of Havana in 1969.”) Useful references here are Deng, Papadimitriou and Safra’s “On the Complexity of Price Equilibria” [ STOC ’02. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Paper University Of The Pacific? preprint],Condenotti and write a visual School Varadarajan’s “Efficient Computation of Equilibrium Prices for Markets with Leontief Utilities”, and Ye’s “A path to the Arrow-Debreu competitive market equilibrium”. ^ : In the guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper Pacific mathematical appendix to Best Use , Kantorovich goes to some length to argue that his objectively determined values are compatible with the labor theory of value, by showing that the o.d. values are proportional to the required labor in the optimal plan. (He begins by assuming away the famous problem of minds College Beau, equating different kinds of labor.) A natural question is how seriously this was meant. I have no positive evidence that it wasn’t sincere. But, carefully examined, all that he proves is proportionality between o.d. values and the required consumption of the first component of the guidelines essay paper vector of inputs and thinking solving College the ordering of guidelines for writing paper of the Pacific, inputs is arbitrary. An Essay Bishop’s College? Thus the first component could be any input to paper, the production process, and the same argument would go through, leading to many parallel “theories of how to write analysis School, value”. (There is guidelines a reflective essay paper a certain pre-Socratic charm to imagining proponents of the writing Bishop’s College labor theory of value arguing it out with the water-theorists or electricity-theorists.) It is hard for me to believe that a mathematician of Kantorovich’s skill did not see this, suggesting that the guidelines a reflective essay of the discussion was mere ideological cover. It would be interesting to know at what stage in the book’s “adventures” this part of the appendix was written.^ : In particular, there’s no reason to think that building a quantum computer would help.
This is because, as some people have to keep pointing out, quantum computers don’t provide a general exponential speed-up over classical ones. ^ : I strongly recommend reading the define whole of this paper, if these matters are at all interesting. Guidelines A Reflective Essay University Of The? One of the most curious features of this little parable was that Simon was red-green color-blind.^ : Let me be clear about the limits of this. Already, in developed capitalism, such public or near-public goods as the protection of the police and access to elementary schooling are provided universally and at no charge to bright publishing College, the user. (Or they are supposed to be, anyway.) Access to these is not regulated by the market. But the inputs needed to provide them are all bought on the market, the labor of teachers and cops very much included. I cannot improve on this point on the discussion in Lindblom’s The Market System , so I will just direct you to that(i, ii).^ : To give a concrete example, neither scientific research nor free software are produced for sale on the market. (This disappoints some aficionados of both.) Again, the inputs are obtained from markets, including labor markets, but the outputs are not sold on them. How far this is a generally-viable strategy for producing informational goods is a very interesting question, which it is quite beyond me to answer.^
Henry 05.30.12 at 3:11 pm. There may also be some remaining editing errors, due to guidelines for writing a reflective essay Pacific, WordPress not playing with linebreaks in quite the same way as HTML does. If you spot em, let me know by email henry.farrellREMOVETHISBIT@gmail.com. Luis Enrique 05.30.12 at College Beau, 3:22 pm. CarlD 05.30.12 at 3:24 pm. This is what’s missing from that yay democracy piece you just posted with Henry. In a just and guidelines a reflective essay paper University of the merciful world, every Serious Person from Washington D.C. to Beijing would now be trying to get you on help writing Bishop’s College the phone. Not with questions like Do we really need 150 linear feet of different brands/flavors of toothpaste or soda in our supermarkets, or Should I try to keep Jamie Dimon or Bo Xilai out of jail? but more like Is the guidelines for writing Pacific logic of capitalism REALLY the logic of the cancer cell? A stunningly graceful summary, Cosma, of the problems, both political and economic, of what used to how to write analysis Lake School, be called Political Economy. As I’ve long thought, the angry people asking themselves Lenin’s infamous question these days don’t really have any idea how many answers there are.
One hopes that this is a momentary lapse…. Sebastian 05.30.12 at guidelines for writing paper University, 3:36 pm. “That planning is not a viable alternative to write a self St. Michaels, capitalism (as opposed to a tool within it) should disturb even capitalism’s most ardent partisans. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective University Pacific? It means that their system faces no competition, nor even any plausible threat of competition. Those partisans themselves should be able to thinking in problem solving College Manchester, say what will happen then: the masters of the system, will be tempted, and more than tempted, to claim more and more of what it produces as monopoly rents. This does not end happily.” Yes, a thousand times yes.
As someone who is not lefty, and doesn’t even understand its charms this is exactly what worries me. In my mind, the guidelines for writing paper University Pacific best thing that came out of communism’s past (not worth its actual brutality, not worth the spectacular evils it came up with, but at least a silver lining to a very dark cloud) was that it challenged systemic capitalism in a way that helped avoid the “this does not end happily”. Bright? I see a US which I desperately wish would come to terms with its political idiocies, but which appears that it will not be forced to guidelines a reflective essay paper University, do so before the time of School, internal collapse, because the a reflective Pacific EU is collapsing so spectacularly first. I see a US where public spending on health care already is enough that it should be getting us UK-level universal coverage, and private market spending is School already *more* than enough to for writing a reflective essay paper of the, get us German level universal coverage, but *both together* aren’t even getting us universal coverage–a fact which should put pause to both sides of the define analysis Brighton College planning/market debate in US health care, but which is steadfastly used only to tar whichever side you don’t happen to be on. I see companies like Apple, honed by years of competition with other companies, but ascendant enough in the current iteration that I suspect innovation is likely to ground to a halt. I see the danger.
And it worries me. ajay 05.30.12 at 3:38 pm. If someone like Iain Banks or Ken MacLeod wants to write a novel where they say that the optimal planned economy will become technically tractable sometime around the early 22nd century, then I will read it eagerly. They have done so! Specifically, Ken MacLeod, in “The Cassini Division” – though he rather pessimistically puts the date around the 24th century (IIRC) and guidelines essay paper University of the doesn’t go into much detail about how it’s done. “Giant computers crunching through Leontief material-balance matrices” is how to write assessment essay St. Michaels University about all you get. Also, and guidelines for writing paper University more seriously, aren’t you missing something by basing all your feasibility calculations on minds College Beau “A good modern commercial linear programming package can handle a problem with 12 or 13 million variables in guidelines for writing a reflective essay, a few minutes on a desktop machine”? Because a good desktop machine will run at critical, about 100 gigaflops (10^11 per second) or so, and there are Cray supercomputers right now that will run in for writing a reflective essay Pacific, the 50 petaflop (5 x 10^16) range – so while it might well take your desktop computer a thousand years to crunch through the how to write assessment essay University latest Five Year Plan, a Cray XK6 , fifty thousand times faster, will get it done by this time next week.
Apologies if I’ve missed something here. What a magnificent essay. I wish I had something more substantive to add, but it turns out it’s much easier to tear down arguments you don’t like than to build on ones that you do. That’s why we can’t have nice things, on the Internet. (In that spirit, one quibble. It’s not right to say that “effective demand” means demand backed by money That’s just demand, full stop.
Keynes use of the term”effective” was more in the sense of “in effect” than “having effect.” He introduced the term “effective demand” to call attention to the possibility of guidelines for writing a reflective University, multiple equilibria based on how to write a visual Lake different sets of consistent expectations of guidelines for writing a reflective essay University, businesses. The exposition is not easy to follow, but I think it’s pretty clear that’s what he has in mind. the effective demand is simply the aggregate income (or proceeds) which the entrepreneurs expect to receive, inclusive of the incomes which they will hand on to other factors of production, from the amount of current employment which they decide to give. An English George Brown College? The aggregate demand function relates various hypothetical quantities of employment to the proceeds which their outputs are expected to yield; and the effective demand is the point on the aggregate demand function which becomes effective because, taken in guidelines a reflective University of the, conjunction with the conditions of how to assessment essay St. Michaels School, supply, it corresponds to guidelines for writing essay paper University Pacific, the level of bright College Beau, employment which maximises the for writing essay University of the Pacific entrepreneur’s expectation of profit. You can see here that demand that is in effective is how to a self University not expenditure that doesn’t take place because of the low incomes of those who would otherwise make it, but expenditure that does not take place because entrepreneurs’ expectations lead them to choose a lower level of output.) How do you explain the historical success of guidelines for writing University of the Pacific, New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and rationed economy? That unemployment is at whatever the value it is demonstrates that modern technology has rendered humans unimportant to the process of write analysis Lake, production. No serf ever went a day without work.
A politics devoted to recreating freedom in the face of alienation may very well have set itself an unobtainable goal, but only such politics can address the problems we face today. ajay 05.30.12 at 3:51 pm. 9: “there were no beggars in for writing a reflective essay paper University of the, New Kingdom Egypt” is an interesting hypothesis but I think you’ll need to back it up somehow. Sebastian 05.30.12 at 3:52 pm. “How do you explain the historical success of writing essay George College, New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and rationed economy? “ More importantly the fact that you could have them do completely unproductive things just to keep them busy, and if suddenly you had important demand you could literally work them to death. Henry 05.30.12 at 3:53 pm. bq. How do you explain the historical success of New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and a reflective essay paper University rationed economy? I think that this may be up there with “I am aware of writing essay Brown College, all Internet traditions.” ajay 05.30.12 at 4:11 pm.
Henry: I am rather fond of “That unemployment is at whatever the guidelines a reflective University Pacific value it is demonstrates that modern technology has rendered humans unimportant to the process of production”. The facts, whatever they may be, support my opinion! I think Cosma mentions briefly the *real* problem of central planning when he writes. “there is every reason to think that people will not be happy with the outcome”. The main problem imho is that people usually do not know what they want, until somebody actually shows them. We did not know that we want iPads until Steve J. showed us one. As somebody wrote recently on C.T.: The real problem of define, socialism is innovation. The market solves this problem by guidelines for writing a reflective paper of the Pacific, people and companies tinker with existing products and try out new ones all them time. An English George Brown College? The majority of guidelines a reflective essay paper Pacific, those fails and only a few become accepted.
This trial-and-error method is actually quite expensive and the only an english Brown College, reason people like Steve J. or Mark Z. etc. keep working on guidelines of the Pacific new stuff is of course the profit which can be expected once the right kind of product is found. Luis 05.30.12 at 4:21 pm. This trial-and-error method is actually quite expensive and how to write Shawnigan Lake the only reason people like Steve J. or Mark Z. etc. keep working on new stuff is of course the profit which can be expected once the right kind of product is found. I hate to derail the Pacific conversation about Cosma’s excellent article, and I even strongly agree with your main point (that the finite, specified list of “12 million identifiably different products” does not contain an iPad or a Facebook) but the record quite clearly shows that Jobs kept working on new stuff because he felt it was important. Profit was quite clearly a secondary or tertiary motivation (depending on how much credit you give his statements about critical in problem solving College, helping the world by building a “bicycle for guidelines a reflective University of the Pacific, the mind.”) From what little birdies tell me Zuckerberg is the same way. A Visual Lake School? The reductionist “people only innovate because of the a reflective essay University Pacific profit motive” argument is a zombie that really should die. gwern 05.30.12 at critical analysis College, 4:26 pm. I believe Stross’s _Accelerando_ includes a planned economy as the end-stage of the a reflective of the Pacific post-singularity civilization occupying the Sun (which makes sense given the computational power required…) The reductionist “people only bright College Beau, innovate because of the profit motive” argument is a zombie that really should die. Which raises the question, why socialism can’t do it just as well. More broadly, if innovation rather than optimization is the secret of capitalism’s success (and they are not just different, but significantly in conflict), then it’s not clear how relevant the discussion here, fascinating tho it is, is to the actual historical and paper University of the prospective performance of different economic systems.
NickT 05.30.12 at 4:30 pm. “How do you explain the historical success of New Kingdom Egypt, with its centrally planned and rationed economy?” Specify data sets that support this claim, please. Also, define term “success” in writing an essay School, relation to socio-economic groups. carl caldwell 05.30.12 at 4:34 pm. “either the planners have to guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper University, decide on relative values, or they have to decide on the ratios in the “given assortment”” Thanks for the wonderful essay. Note what happens at the very start. In order to in problem solving Abbey College Manchester, overcome the logic of the commodity, the law of exchange value (Wert), through complex planning, the planners have to assign individual things an exchange value. Guidelines Essay University Of The Pacific? That necessarily implies enough knowledge to assign value in Beau Soleil, the first place–knowledge of specific products’ natures, of their “quality” (which somehow has to be quantified), of the level of demand, and so on. Not only is the total amount of information required–even with significant abstraction–daunting; all the a reflective essay University of the qualities are also in write University School, flux in a dynamic economy.
The problem is not so much daunting as impossible–especially if one takes into account the way the plan itself is guidelines paper Pacific going to affect all the economic inputs. This is, of course, the starting point of the critique of thinking in problem, planning. (And here, Henry, I find Hayek at his most useful and interesting–not in his discussion of the road to serfdom, but in his discussion of calculation, value, and the limits of knowledge.) Perhaps more interesting is how this approach to guidelines for writing essay University, planning finds itself, as already noted, forced to reinvent exchange value, whether arbitrarily (trying to keep prices fixed over long periods of time and bright publishing treating them merely as counters) or through direct measurement (as though the labor exists in guidelines paper University Pacific, a commodity before the minds publishing College commodity itself is sold). In this connection, I’m not so sure that Kantorovich’s reference to for writing paper of the, the measurability of a self assessment essay School, labor can simply be set aside as a concession to ideology–a real problem of guidelines for writing paper Pacific, how to measure value is necessarily part of the entire problem. Comprehensive planning finds itself, then, seeking to recapitulate the writing College School totality of exchanges in capitalism, and then to trump that totality by putting a shell of planning over it. Perhaps no surprise, then, that in the world of essay of the, really existing socialism, the plans themselves often appeared long after the plan periods had begun. marcel 05.30.12 at 4:36 pm. Henry: I’d be quite content to see my initial comment deleted now that the problem is bright minds publishing Beau fixed (esp. since I mispelled Cosma’s name). pretty please, with a cherry on top? and a reflective essay whipped cream and nuts … ? There may be some internet tradition about not doing that kind of thing, but I won’t tell anyone on you.
Lots of interesting points and questions. Cosma, what kind of a visual essay Shawnigan Lake School, result does the market compute? (Setting aside the for writing paper University question of the objective function, I’ll address that below.) Accepting the how to a self assessment essay School standard results about optimization, it can’t be some close approximation to an optimal allocation. But an implicit premise of a lot of what you say is that it is a pretty good approximation to a (pretty bad) objective function defined by effective demand. Making the guidelines paper University computation distributed and stochastic (as in real markets) shouldn’t free us from the constraints of the results you cite. So (to ask my question a different way) how can the market do as well as it does? As an obvious follow on: Given that the market computes that way, can we do as well or better using different means? Regarding the objective function: We can (hypothetically) give everyone an equal income and let them spend it as they wish. How To Analysis Essay Lake School? That generates a totally egalitarian way of determining consumer prices.
This also implies that people can’t own income producing property, but after all we are talking about a communist system. My question for you here is: Given this sort of for writing University, flat income distribution, what problems remain with determining the objective function? I have lots of analysis, other comments and questions but I’ll wait for for writing, the context of your reply. Luis 05.30.12 at writing Bishop’s College, 4:43 pm. JW Mason: some form of market socialism might “do [innovation] just as well” (though I would agree that the for writing essay paper of the profit motive is an important motivator for many, even if not exclusive) but it’s hard to see how a centrally-planned economy, as discussed in Red Plenty and help Bishop’s College School Cosma’s post, can do product innovation at all well.
This is both because of the calculation problem (how do you calculate the resource allocation for things that don’t exist yet?) and because of the “objectives” problem (how do you determine a maximization function for guidelines University, things that don’t exist yet?) Or to put it another way: certainly, part of the Jobs story (regardless of his motives) is the creation of goods that most people didn’t know they wanted or needed until they had them. This represented a great gamble of resources. Writing Essay College? For every Jobs-like success story, there are a hundred failures. What’s a plausible story for how a Kantorovich-style economy selects those 100 ideas to try and fail at? How does it allocate resources to that 101st good idea? (How, for that matter, does a Kantorovich-economy allocate resources to a Kantorovich?) Maybe there is a plausible story for this, I’m open to the idea- I just don’t see it myself. Russell L. Carter 05.30.12 at a reflective essay paper University Pacific, 4:45 pm. Ok, this post is writing an english College now in competition with Holbo’s Frummery for guidelines a reflective essay paper University of the Pacific, the best blog post I’ve ever read.
Just on a meta level the structure of the Brighton College argument is superb. I am not unfamiliar with the guidelines essay paper University techniques for solving the help writing big problems and essay Pacific my initial objections from the early paragraphs were methodically disposed of analysis College, one by one as the piece unfolds. Very very satisfying. A Reflective University Of The? Even if the practical implications aren’t. The finale is by far the most efficient demolition of the market purists I’ve ever read. I wonder why Cosma’s arguments against totalitarian planning and against market purism and for people (all people, not just batches of Brighton College, sorted out sets of people) can’t be the foundation for the left today. If you look at Democratic Party rhetoric, all I see is the market is always right, except where we need to fund (health care, food, education… for) the poor or unlucky, with no mention that constraining inequality as a corrective to the pure market’s inherent suicidal tendency is the right method for much of the funding. Anyway, a heartfelt thanks for this, Cosma. It kind of for writing essay of the, makes my day.
p.s., the how to write a self St. Michaels University links in the piece are really really great. I spent waaayyy too much time following them. why socialism can’t do it just as well. because on top of an (already intractable) optimization problem you have an even more difficult prediction problem (what is it that people will want 1 year from now?). geo 05.30.12 at 4:55 pm. Sebastian @6: As someone who is not lefty, and doesn’t even understand its charms. I can understand not being a lefty, but I can’t understand not understanding its charms. Its charms are what underlies the first half of that old chestnut: “Anyone who’s not a radical at 20, has no heart … ” Anyone with a heart is deeply disturbed that, in virtually every society, present or past, the guidelines essay University of the rich grind the how to write assessment essay St. Michaels University faces of the poor and guidelines for writing essay paper Pacific many, many lives are blighted by unnecessary suffering.
One plausible definition of “lefty,” in fact, is critical thinking College Manchester “someone who’s trying to change the guidelines a reflective essay University of the above,” whether by systemic reform or (very) large-scale charity. It’s not that the right simply has a different way of going about trying to relieve the world’s vast unnecessary suffering, it’s that it seems to have no interest in doing so. Sorry, Sebastian, I know this will irritate you, and I don’t mean to suggest that you lack a heart. Bright Minds Publishing College Beau? But that’s only to say that I believe you have an inner lefty yearning to for writing essay paper University of the Pacific, be liberated. JanieM 05.30.12 at 4:58 pm. How about a link? (Search engines reveal nothing useful for analysis essay Shawnigan Lake School, that phrase as such.) Luis 05.30.12 at guidelines essay paper University of the Pacific, 5:04 pm. Janie: here.
It is critical thinking solving Abbey College indeed excellent (a recent thread here described it as the best blog post of all time) but I think this may surpass it. JanieM 05.30.12 at 5:08 pm. blavag 05.30.12 at 5:09 pm. Great essay and for writing of the Pacific once again brings up the question of whether linear programing and optimization are adequate tools for understanding economics. They are the tools we have got but that is a different issue. Mendelbrot offers an interesting take on this in define critical Brighton, The Misbehavior of Markets but the best discussion, also covering the socialist calculation debate and a reflective essay of the Pacific so overlapping the present discussion, is still Phil Mirowski’s Machine Dreams: Economics Becomes a Cyborg Science which could use an writing an essay School extended symposium like this one. There is also the question raised by Mirowski and for writing a reflective University explicitly put forward by S. Amadae in critical thinking solving Abbey College, Rationalizing Capitalist Democracy of the guidelines for writing essay paper of the Pacific explicitly ideological use of both optimization and linear programming. The irony of that in a visual essay Shawnigan, a discussion of the socialist calculation debate is considerable. Henry 05.30.12 at guidelines a reflective paper University of the, 5:13 pm. Marcel – the comment has been diligently airbrushed out of the historical record (if you squint closely, you will see a funny gap in the row of dignitaries reviewing the define analysis Brighton missiles at the May Day parade, around about where your comment used to be, but you will have to _squint hard._. Barry Freed 05.30.12 at 5:16 pm.
Wow! Now that’s a what I call a post. And now I’m really glad that I suggested that new posts in the seminar not be put up all at once because it’s going to take me the rest of the day just to think on this one. Data Tutashkhia 05.30.12 at 5:30 pm. how do you calculate the guidelines essay of the resource allocation for things that don’t exist yet? And even when they already do exist. Bright Minds Publishing College Soleil? A transistor radio, for example. To produce vacuum tube radios, you created a whole industry, a bunch of factories producing various parts, assembly lines. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Essay University Of The Pacific? Built to last.
Suddenly someone brings you a transistor prototype, and it clear that this is the way to help writing Bishop’s College, go. For Writing A Reflective Essay University? Being the write analysis essay Shawnigan Lake School central planner who doesn’t have to worry about competition, I’d probably assign pretty high value to my sunk costs. Let it roll for a few years. I’m rather shocked that no one is addressing the real issue, namely, whether a devotee of the Olympian gods should approve of transgenic organisms. Oh, and, btw, Centaurs 4eva! Luis 05.30.12 at guidelines a reflective paper University of the Pacific, 5:39 pm.
Data @ 31: Yes; your objective calculations probably should include a measure of help an essay College School, creative destruction. But how much? (Of course, it’s easy to make that larger when you have a GBI, presumably at a level set outside of the calculation – suggesting that on top of a reflective essay paper University of the, all the other shifting things the minds publishing Beau calculation would have to deal with, constantly changing political priorities would be in for writing a reflective paper University of the, there too.) it’s hard to see how a centrally-planned economy, as discussed in Red Plenty and Cosma’s post, can do product innovation at all well. This is both because of the calculation problem (how do you calculate the resource allocation for things that don’t exist yet?) and because of the “objectives” problem (how do you determine a maximization function for things that don’t exist yet?) Tricky problems, for sure. So how does capitalism solve them? Certainly not through market signals — which of course also don’t exist for things that don’t exist yet. Rather, through planning : A designated group of experts considers various proposals for new firms or projects, and allocates a portion of the social surplus to them based on their assessment of their prospects. Now, we call these planners banks, or these days venture capitalists, but when Schumpeter, writing i 1939, wanted to explain the function of banks under capitalism, he described them as our version of Gosplan. Innovation under capitalism has nothing to writing an english essay George Brown, do wit markets.
It is organized by our Gosplans in the financial system, and they — as Jed Harris suggests above — are no better able to guidelines essay University, solve the optimization problem than the writing an english essay original Gosplan was. Everything Cosma says about the intractability of that problem, applies with just as much force to capitalism. This is guidelines for writing essay paper Pacific not to say there’s no difference. Capitalism obviously *is* more favorable to innovation than a Soviet-typed planned economy is. But the reason, I think, is critical thinking solving Abbey College Manchester orthogonal to guidelines for writing a reflective essay University, the subject of this post. Shawnigan Lake? Capitalism solves an entirely different, essentially sociological, set of problems. What it does, is guidelines for writing a reflective essay remove the biggest obstacles to innovation by disempowering incumbents (workers foremost of course, but also those further up the hierarchy) and writing Bishop’s College breaking the guidelines for writing a reflective essay of the links between economic activity and write a visual Shawnigan social life. In other words, the success of capitalism, IMO, has as much to do with primitive accumulation as with markets. JP Stormcrow 05.30.12 at 5:46 pm. 8 et seq.: New Kingdom Egypt had squirrels historical success with its centrally planned and rationed economy, but not in a way we can understand anymore. JP Stormcrow 05.30.12 at 5:50 pm.
The post itself is too thought-provoking to comment on, not to mention the need to plow through the 11 tabs of linked reading now open in my browser. Luis 05.30.12 at 6:09 pm. JW @ 34: Calling VCs planners is… generous. They’re dart-throwers, and sometimes you can even get them to admit that. But more importantly, even if you want to guidelines for writing essay University of the Pacific, call them planners, they’re decentralized planners, answerable to a variety of entities with a variety of metrics for a visual analysis essay Shawnigan Lake School, success. (When they fail, as in Boston in for writing essay paper University, the ’70s-’80s and arguably in College Beau, Silicon Valley in the present day, it is often because while formally decentralized, in practice they have become centralized – with the same risk-averse positions (Boston) or all placing bets on for writing a reflective of the the same nominally risky positions (mobile, cloud in today’s SV).) You can certainly imagine replicating the diverse dart-throwers inside a Kantorovich-economy, but they’d have to writing an essay College, be quite explicitly not part of the calculated plan – they’d be humans making intuitive, non-numeric judgments, with the intent of failing often in hopes of attaining the uncalculable forward leap. bob mcmanus 05.30.12 at 6:18 pm. It was an essay paper Pacific excellent article, a classic, and has led me to analysis College, too much reading to be able to guidelines for writing a reflective University Pacific, comment at any length.
In any case, I spend too much time trying to understand actual historical wildly successful centrally planned economies, three in particular in Japan (Tokugawa, Meiji, Post-War) to have time understanding why they were impossible. : Calling VCs planners is… generous. They’re dart-throwers, and define critical analysis Brighton College sometimes you can even get them to admit that. Dart-throwing is a kind of planning. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Paper? The point is they are decision makers consciously allocating resources with the intention of a visual analysis Shawnigan Lake School, producing specific results, as opposed to automatically responding to market signals. more importantly, even if you want to call them planners, they’re decentralized planners, answerable to a variety of entities with a variety of for writing essay of the Pacific, metrics for success.
OK, but *why* is that important? Certainly it has nothing to help writing, do with more effectively solving an optimization problem. Sebastian 05.30.12 at 6:33 pm. “Profit was quite clearly a secondary or tertiary motivation (depending on how much credit you give his statements about helping the world by guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper Pacific, building a “bicycle for the mind.”)” This is a harder question than you’re giving credit to. Steve Jobs wanted the ability to writing Bishop’s, do what he wanted to do, on a large scale, involving lots of expensive research for things that lots of people (maybe even most techie people if we’re talking about the ipad–until it was released there was a large contingent of people who thought it was a waste of resources–see especially Microsoft) thought were stupid ideas when in the planning stages.
The way he got the freedom to do what he wanted on such a large scale was that he made enormous amount of profit by pleasing a lot of people and a reflective paper University of the selling them stuff. It is true that very few innovators want money *just for its own sake*. But I suspect relatively few people in general want money just for its own sake. “I can understand not being a lefty, but I can’t understand not understanding its charms….Anyone with a heart is deeply disturbed that, in virtually every society, present or past, the rich grind the faces of the help writing Bishop’s College poor and many, many lives are blighted by guidelines a reflective essay Pacific, unnecessary suffering. One plausible definition of “lefty,” in fact, is “someone who’s trying to change the above,” whether by systemic reform or (very) large-scale charity. It’s not that the right simply has a different way of going about trying to relieve the world’s vast unnecessary suffering, it’s that it seems to have no interest in doing so.” I don’t believe that, I’ve seen extreme heartlessness from the left and extremely charitable acts from the right, and all sorts of things in analysis essay Shawnigan Lake, between. My problems with both sides is about lack of balance. Guidelines A Reflective? Neither side seems interested in analysis essay Shawnigan School, the fact that rights/responsibilities/needs/wants are about *balance* not elevating one fetishistic concept above all others.
I don’t really see that on the left (if by left we mean something more than merely liberal). But back to the topic at hand, I’ve always felt that communism tends toward scary authoritarianism because the planners fail to understand the scope of the problem, and when that failure bears fruit, they must get rid of the for writing essay paper evidence in increasingly messy ways. How To Write? (Which is not to say that all sorts of for writing a reflective essay paper University Pacific, other systems are willing to get rid of the bright failures in similar ways, but the hubris of the command economy planners creates extra-spectacular failures which call into of the, question the whole system in ways that capitalist failures do not. You’ve given up the material engine of captialism, and huge amounts of freedom, and how to analysis Lake School you get more famines than before? That can’t be tolerated). JW Mason: You are missing the fact that if one group of VC’s starts doing badly they lose the ability to access the social surplus.
Markets also sever production from ordinary social relation in an ongoing way: the obvious hazard of GOSPLAN is the guidelines for writing paper University of the Pacific temptation of the planner to overvalue his work. Luis 05.30.12 at essay St. Michaels, 6:45 pm. more importantly, even if you want to guidelines for writing a reflective paper, call them planners, they’re decentralized planners, answerable to writing an essay School, a variety of entities with a variety of metrics for success. OK, but why is that important? Certainly it has nothing to do with more effectively solving an optimization problem. Sure it is.
The Kantorovich optimization problem has one solver optimizing for one chosen optimization function. Perhaps that optimization function is complex and multifaceted, but at the end of the day, there is no fallback when the for writing University Pacific function is wrong – i.e., when it solves for write essay Shawnigan Lake, iPad and says “nope, no one will want it.” The VC system (except, as I said earlier, when it breaks down because of herd mentalities) will have someone else trying to solve the same problem, using a slightly different optimization function, and one of for writing paper of the, them will, at least potentially, say “ah-ha! iPad sounds great!” Again, this is not to say that markets are the writing an essay Bishop’s One True Answer (for all the reasons Cosma points out), just to point out yet another way in which a mere optimization problem (as best as I can tell) is not just not the One True Answer, but is very hard to imagine as even a component of the University Pacific universe of answers.  If you have multiple optimization functions, then you’re just a market again. Sebastian 05.30.12 at 6:51 pm. “The point is they are decision makers consciously allocating resources with the intention of producing specific results, as opposed to automatically responding to solving Abbey Manchester, market signals.” I’m not sure I understand the distinction you’re getting at here. You are doing something with ‘automatically’.
People in the market rarely respond ‘automatically’ to market signals. The whole point is that they know their own situation better than the planners, so they can weigh the signals with all sorts of useful local/specialized information. Venture capitalists like to think that they are leveraging some kind of guidelines paper of the, expertise into success. They may or may not be essentially fooling themselves, but that is what they think. If you have multiple optimization functions, then you’re just a market again. I don’t think this is true, at all. Luis 05.30.12 at in problem solving Manchester, 6:55 pm. Sebastian @ 40: You’re of guidelines a reflective paper University, course correct that it was access to resources (which I deliberately did not call capital in my original comment) that allowed Jobs the freedom to experiment and how to write a self University School create the for writing iPad. But: But I suspect relatively few people in general want money just for its own sake. I agree with you, but that is not the current zeitgeist around “innovation” – it’s a very, very prevalent idea that financial rewards are the only rewards that matter to innovators.
ezra abrams 05.30.12 at 7:06 pm. what is in problem Manchester wrong with a dynamic central solver – The programmers, or whoever, adjust the system as needed. At a fine level (miles of guidelines for writing essay University of the, railroad cars of soybeans per write a visual analysis Shawnigan Lake School, day ) they can adjust hourly; for more complex things, like ipad vs x, they can adjust monthly. In any event, the ipad discussion suffers from a reflective essay of the Pacific a serious flaw: we don’t know what the other solutions are, cause in a free market economy, particularly for IT systems, there are economys of scale, so you get this butterfly effect where an initial system takes over. I bet if you went back, and looked at Beau Soleil, what ipad competitors were doing *at the guidelines for writing a reflective University time* some of critical analysis College, em were better then jobs, but they got shut out fo the media light and guidelines essay paper University of the $ Miracle Max 05.30.12 at 7:09 pm.
It’s not obvious to me that a government that throws resources at a problem, including extra-normal rewards to the innovators, cannot buy innovations. I suspect the USSR made some great military hardware. An English Essay George Brown? The AK-47 has certainly been a big hit. I also suspect they did not put equivalent emphasis on innovation in consumer goods. The US Gov funds innovation, for instance in pharmaceuticals, with the rub that business firms get to essay paper Pacific, reap the monetized rents from such investment. Everybody knows the Gov financed the early Internet, not to mention other tech. Write A Self Assessment Essay University School? I like Josh’s point that innovation under capitalism within for-profit business organizations entails planning, of which as Galbraith pointed out there is already a lot for guidelines a reflective paper of the Pacific, other purposes. I join the praise for this post and reiterate my boredom with the book. For one who studied planning the book’s revelations are old news and not spiced up with enough sex and violence. It’s the kind of critical, thing somebody from George Mason Univ would write, if they could write.
Don’t hate me, CTers, I dig China Mieville the most. Luis 05.30.12 at 7:18 pm. If you have multiple optimization functions, then you’re just a market again. I don’t think this is guidelines a reflective essay paper of the true, at all. Sorry, should have been more general: if you have multiple optimization functions, you’ve got a coordination problem again (between the bright publishing Beau Soleil groups controlled by guidelines for writing a reflective paper, optimization function A and optimization function B), which you can solve by a market, or by another optimization function, or by something else. But if it is an optimization function, its turtles all the way down up: at some point, someone has to bright Beau Soleil, attempt to value risk-taking, and a reflective essay University of the Pacific guide how/where that risk-taking occurs. And that’s a particularly intractable problem for mere calculators. Bright Minds Publishing Soleil? At least some of these optimization problems are expressible numerically: we know we need X mattresses, Y beds, etc.
And then you solve for X and Y. For Writing A Reflective Essay University Of The Pacific? As Cosma points out, X and Y may be a subject of debate, but at least they are numerical, can be given units, and can hypothetically be solved for. You can’t say “I need X units of innovation” or “Y units of (thing that doesn’t even exist yet).” So you need some non-numerical (hence non-computable) guide. Again, not that markets do this terribly well, but I don’t see any solution for a Kantorovich economy that is more than “have smart people make guesses about how to throw money at smart people, see what happens” – i.e., to use a decidedly non-Kantorovich approach. But I haven’t given this super-deep thought and it is completely possible I’m missing a calculated solution to the problem- please do enlighten me if that’s out there. [This reminds me that Cosma has elided the problem of what happens when your Kantorovich economy is not closed; e.g., when it has to engage in trade with non-Kantorovich economies to get raw materials or to sell outputs. George? If you have to guidelines for writing a reflective essay University Pacific, do that, then you have to recalculate the whole solution literally every time an Abbey Manchester external price changes, right? Or, again, am I missing something?] Luis 05.30.12 at 7:19 pm. (And, argh, WP is eating some my formatting- apologies.)
Luis 05.30.12 at 7:21 pm. (And of guidelines Pacific, course gov’t can buy innovations- they do it all the critical time, often much more efficiently than markets because they aren’t paying overhead for guidelines for writing a reflective essay University of the, self-important MBAs. Define Brighton? But at root they do it the same way VCs do – throw money at it, see what sticks. There is no magic, calculable metric for it, that’s all I’m trying to say.) Peter Dorman 05.30.12 at 7:21 pm. Before saying anything else, I want to join the chorus that praises this post for its elegance, insight and very intuitive explanation of computational complexity in optimal programming. Excellent! Now on to the guidelines essay of the other stuff. I have come to believe that there were two different kinds of issues raised in the socialist calculation debate, and that it was unfortunate that they became confused.
The first was about calculation itself, and how to write essay Shawnigan Lake it is certainly what Mises was pushing and Taylor, Lange et al. were trying to overcome. More or less, the market socialists one that one, although the convergence problem in their algorithm has not been given enough consideration in my opinion. The second was about discovery of costs and values. Hayek grasped it, although he did not, to my knowledge, fully separate it from the issue of calculation. And discovery is the killer. Here is the summary of the argument I posted at EconoSpeak a year ago: 1. The key concept is discovery: discovering what consumers need and guidelines for writing of the Pacific want, and discovering the true costs of providing these things. Since they are subject to tacitly known and bright minds Beau otherwise irreducibly qualitative determinants, values and costs cannot be ascertained apart from the actual processes of producing and marketing, so the technical problem of number crunching—devising algorithms to calculate equilibrium prices and quantities out of for writing paper Pacific, cost and demand information—is secondary. Any reasonably efficient economic system has to have processes of discovery, some for costs, others for the value of thinking in problem College, goods and services as determined by consumers.
These processes need to be specified concretely. 2. Discovery requires trial and error. In an economy with a vast number of goods, and with complicated production and consumption relationships surrounding each good, it is inconceivable that trial and error can be sequential. Rather, there have to be many trials simultaneously, along with a process for determining which succeed or fail. That is the role of a reflective of the, rivalry (competition) in help writing an essay Bishop’s, a market economy, with the market test assessing success and a reflective essay of the Pacific failure. “Cost” is discovered by firms that succeed in being low-cost producers; “value” is discovered by those who succeed in marketing.
This information is define analysis Brighton College transmitted via prices to other firms, telling them whether they are producing at- or above-cost, and whether they are producing and selling at- or below-value. Any plausible economic system has to have a structure of multiple, simultaneous trials, a “hard” test that tells enterprises whether their trials are succeeding, and a vehicle for transmitting the results of essay paper University of the, these tests to all participants—in real time. Write Essay Shawnigan? On top of this, of course, there needs to be an essay paper of the Pacific incentive structure that causes those who failed the test to abandon the Brighton College methods that were retrospectively unsuccessful. I think an Austrian socialism is guidelines for writing Pacific conceivable, but it won’t look like a “planned economy”, at least not in most respects. Incidentally, regarding Simon’s vast spaces of help an essay Bishop’s College School, private planning (inside firms): it seems so obvious to me that the reason firms exist is due to a reflective of the, local nonconvexities in critical in problem Manchester, production that I don’t understand why I’m the only person on the planet who says this. For Writing A Reflective Essay University Pacific? (I’m thinking mainly of interactive, off-diagonal nonconvexities, not those due to assessment essay St. Michaels University School, increasing returns.) The significance is that a planning structure is needed to guidelines a reflective essay paper University, bring about Bishop’s College, allocations that wouldn’t be arrived at decentrally, i.e. by adding up bilateral exchanges. For Writing A Reflective Essay? My shorthand for markets/planning is convexity/nonconvexity. I think that the real separability at the heart of feasible socialism is identifying and separating the significantly nonconvex regions of the an english essay George Brown College economy, where planning is for writing a reflective essay essential, from those nice, well-behaved convex regions where adding up is more or less OK. Sebastian 05.30.12 at 7:25 pm. “And of course gov’t can buy innovations- they do it all the time, often much more efficiently than markets because they aren’t paying overhead for self-important MBAs.” I’ll sort of how to write a visual analysis Lake, give you the for writing a reflective essay paper Pacific first clause, but ‘often much more efficiently than markets’? No.
The major government innovator is the military, and how to analysis essay School whatever good things people say about technology and military hardware, ‘efficient’ is not one of them. ajay #7: I’m not sure The Cassini Division or Iain M. Banks’s Culture novels describe, even in a hand-waving way, an optimal planned economy in the sense that Cosma is talking about. A Culture Orbital and a Solar Union habitat are self-contained environments, like a luxury hotel or cruise liner. From the guidelines a reflective essay paper University of the point of view of the artifical intelligences that they embody, supplying human wants – even elaborate and essay University fanciful human wants – is something that goes on the AIs’ bodies, in processes quite possibly as unconscious to them as cellular activity in our bodies is to us. Colin Danby 05.30.12 at 7:40 pm. A post for the ages, and great comments as well. At the risk of lowering average comment quality, I’m interested in guidelines for writing paper of the Pacific, the time-indexing problem. It worried me in the novel: if the plan period is a year, how do you coordinate and critical Abbey College Manchester stage deliveries between units during the year?
But in any economic system, especially once you have some level of technical complexity, the timing of production-critical deliveries, and guidelines for writing a reflective paper University Pacific the inherent unreliability of such timing, must be dealt with somehow — whether through massive warehousing, deliberate excess capacity, duplications of various kinds. (There must be a huge operations-research lit on critical analysis Brighton this…) You can see this in a small way in contemporary internet vendors, who have incentives to for writing a reflective essay paper of the Pacific, lie about whether a product is in stock. For me one of the lessons is that even the red lines on Simon’s map are, very often, not the impersonal take-it-or-leave-it transactions of neoclassical theory but significantly institutionalized. A purchasing manager builds relationships with counterparts at other firms, and an english George College a lot if that is about negotiating timing problems as they arise (as well as quality issues). Bruce Wilder 05.30.12 at 7:41 pm. I think I understand what you are saying about balance.
I think I lean left, today, because the times lean right, in some particularly egregious ways, though I often find more sense among principled conservatives and the populist right on some, selected subjects. Any economic system has to find ways to reconcile and resolve conflict. Guidelines A Reflective Essay Paper University Pacific? A lot of economics, qua ideology, whether it is socialist or neoclassical economics, is about pretending that conflict can be minimized or subsumed or eliminated, or is simply illegitimate. The problem in a communist state, as in our own decadent crony capitalism of universal banks and media conglomerates and giant “energy” companies, is the inability of a unified authority to break the incentive bound. It is not about markets, or allocative efficiency, per se.
It is, primarily about achieving technical efficiency, and it is help writing Bishop’s College School why a team needs a boss, who is not doing the work and who can give rewards and penalties unbounded by actual outputs of the essay paper production process, and publishing unphased by effort or discomforts involved. We need conflict. We need “arm’s length” negotiations. Guidelines Of The Pacific? We need government regulatory agencies, responsible for, say, public health, but not responsible for, say, food preparation as a balanced whole; we need a restaurant inspector, who can say, “your restaurant is unsanitary and must be closed till you fix it” and who doesn’t care whether the restaurant employees work or the restaurant patrons eat. Ditto for define critical Brighton College, bank regulation — the a reflective paper of the regulator has to be detached from the results for the bank, someone, who doesn’t much care, whether the bank is able to pay a bonus out of its quarterly results. The story that says “markets” are about define analysis, price and allocative efficiency misses an important point, which is that “markets” (or the guidelines for writing essay of the de-couplings that we whimsically call “markets”) are critically important points of help Bishop’s, conflict, which are dangerously eliminated in a monolithic hierarchy of authority. It’s bad in a communist state and it’s bad in a universal bank or a giant Media conglomerate. It’s bad, when we eliminate labor unions. geo 05.30.12 at 7:43 pm. Sebastian @52: But government also buys innovation for industry, both through civilian applications of essay University Pacific, military technology (like DARPANET) and by supporting basic research in universities, for which it does not (in general, at least as far as I know) demand a share of profitable applications.
Luis 05.30.12 at 7:43 pm. The major government innovator is the military, The medical research complex would disagree with you (on whether the an essay Bishop’s College School military is the major government innovator) and lots of people are waking up to the fact that VC is quite inefficient (as measured by ROI), so even if I grant that the military is the major government innovator, I’m still not clear it is particularly inefficient with respect to the private alternatives. One of the guidelines paper of the Pacific insights I take away from this post has to do with the function of planning in both its good and analysis Brighton College bad aspects. Every grand design, planned or accretive, will have its unintended consequences, so planning can’t be the unmitigated evil that soi disant free market enthusiasts are so fond of claiming, i.e., it doesn’t have to result in for writing Pacific, a Stakhanovite nightmare in some commissar’s dark satanic mill somewhere. More simply put, the way to optimize the benefits of planning might be to make our plans smaller, and thinking in problem Abbey Manchester the communications between them more robust. Taking this idea seriously might well have even more powerful optimization effects in politics than it would in guidelines a reflective essay of the, economics. (Cue discussions of participation, democracy, investment of individuals in help writing an essay Bishop’s School, macro outcomes, etc.) And no, contra Hayek, it doesn’t seem to me that the market price is the greatest of essay paper University of the Pacific, all imaginable discovery mechanisms, although it does point the way to others which might share its advantages. Bruce Wilder 05.30.12 at Brighton College, 7:58 pm. When most “market” prices are administratively planned in our capitalist paradise, it is a reflective essay paper University hard to write a visual essay School, credit Hayek’s vision. Have you seen the price of the guidelines a reflective paper University iPhone fluctuate?
Movie tickets? Ever been to a supermarket? Well, yes, if we had genuine market prices in anything other than simple commodities (at best), it would be harder to scoff at in problem, all the ideological superstructures built on their supposed magical efficacy. On the other hand, why we don’t have them, and why producers think it’s so important to game them in the ways that they have, is guidelines a reflective essay paper University of the Pacific very instructive about some of the things we too would have to worry about if we woke up tomorrow in how to a visual analysis Shawnigan, a universally declared Socialist New Jerusalem. Footnote 4 is beyond praise. j 05.30.12 at 8:13 pm.
This was a very fascinating read! I’m naively trying to intuit up ways to avoid both the guidelines for writing essay paper University Pacific problem and writing an essay Bishop’s as much of capitalism as possible. Essay University Of The Pacific? Here is a first attempt. As a matter of College Manchester, unconditional right each citizens freely receives. – modest housing, and. – a personal fabrication unit (fab) and a bundle of raw input materials, and. – sufficient nutrients as specified by the science, and. – access to internet where all open source hardware/software are available. Would a centrally planned economy within the limits set by the above also be unfeasible for the sorts of a reflective essay paper University Pacific, reasons detailed in the original post? rf 05.30.12 at 8:14 pm.
Oh wow, Cosma Shalizi, you’re my new intellectual crush. I really didn’t understand half of in problem, that, but still, thanks. And to be honest, thanks to all involved with this site, (commenters included), for all this free knowledge you’ve been relentlessly shoving down our throats these past years. It’s genuinely much appreciated. This could only be topped if Francis Spufford were to barge in here knocking over chairs screaming delegitimisation….. blavag 05.30.12 at guidelines a reflective Pacific, 8:23 pm. Why can’t GOSPLAN throw darts too? Henry 05.30.12 at 8:24 pm. Jim Henley asked delegitimization-dude on Twitter whether he was planning on participating in the _Red Plenty_ seminar. I think it’s fair to Beau, say that he didn’t get the joke … Adrian Kelleher 05.30.12 at 8:26 pm. As the headline post makes clear, the for writing a reflective of the Pacific problem is an essay School not with communism per se but is a reflective paper University of the a problem of planning more generally and, more generally again, one of rationalism.
This came as a tremendous shock not just to socialists but to science as a whole. Capitalism does not solve these problems however. Rather it circumvents them using the market which is not a rationalist construct. Markets have no theoretical foundation. Critical In Problem Abbey Manchester? Q. What is the a reflective essay paper University Pacific market price?
A. Check the market. Define? Q. What will be the market price tomorrow? A. Paper University? Check the market… but you have to wait until tomorrow. Markets are a powerful analytical tool (indeed an define College indispensable one). They’re also a scientific deus-ex-machina, however, with frighteningly shaky empirical foundations relative to their significance. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective? This price may be judged sticky or not and that demand curve observed but the validity of these observations are always contingent and their durability is never certain. Given enough time, all such observations will become untrue. This may occur due to cultural shifts or due to changes in minds Beau, circumstances; the guidelines for writing essay markets for diamonds and grain will differ inside a besieged castle from how to write essay School those in the larger world. Market economics makes certain problems tractable at the expense of accepting that other more general questions can never be solved — precisely those questions dealt with in the OP. This is not an advantage to a reflective essay paper Pacific, be dismissed, however market evangelists habitually go on to make much greater claims — essentially to take assumptions about efficient markets as fact — without any proof whatsoever.
But the erosion of rationalism in the 20th century was not restricted to economics. Help An Essay College School? Along with the analytical limits such as those proven by Bertrand Russell and Kurt Godel, there were limits to what was calculable such as NP complete problems, theoretical limits to observation such as the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and observational constraints in fields such as chaotic systems or economics that appear superficially to be practical but are in reality fundamental. These developments came at a time when scientists’ capabilities were widely thought to be limited solely by time and a reflective paper University Pacific resources. The shock was profound and not just to the scientific community. How To Write A Visual Analysis Shawnigan Lake? It was a trauma to rival the Copernican revolution. Back in the 1980s, James Burke made a wonderful television programme called The Day the Universe Changed. It was a brilliant inversion of normal scientific discourse, pointing out essay paper University Pacific, that prior to each scientific or philosophical revolution people lived in a world built around a more flawed understanding of reality.
When they looked out, they literally saw that narrative that was about to collapse. So, when Copernicus wrote his treatise, as contemporaries saw it he didn’t just improve our understanding of the solar system; rather, he wrenched humanity away from the centre of creation where not just the bible but all prior observations had placed it. The universe ceased to be for and about us, a trauma that contributed to centuries of religious turmoil that have yet to College Beau, fully unravel. The 20th Century added insult to injury. Not only was the position we occupied of no special importance, in for writing essay paper, many spheres we were now also condemned to ignorance in perpetuity. The universe had changed once more. It’s interesting to speculate as to the role this shock played in the convulsions of the 20th Century or about the extent to which its reverberations will continue to echo in the 21st.
Though it started with science, its impact can be felt much more broadly. Artistic modernism for instance was ultimately an an essay College School aesthetic and guidelines essay University hypothetically any modernist aesthetic could be expressed as a system of rules, that’s to say as a rationalist construct just like law or mathematics. A complete system of rules that would eliminate all creativity was not the objective. On the other hand rules motivated by bright publishing College Beau, critical argument could separate the artistic from the purely technical: content from form. The rise of postmodernism, which denies any absolute distinction between high and low art or indeed between any two artistic artefacts, closely paralleled the guidelines for writing paper University Pacific scientific and writing College School philosophical changes outlined. Its claim is that all cultural expressions are imbued with all other such expressions and if there were ever any doubt that there’s at least some truth in this the subsequent explosion of a reflective paper University of the, referentiality in art has dispelled it.
Modernism, characterised in the broadest terms by constant technical innovation, had by the 1960s resulted in the colonisation of huge areas of scientific creativity. Worse again, the helter-skelter rush to occupy the new territories had left much of them patchily covered but the number proved to critical, be small of artists modest enough to limit themselves to at best the second rank by working in the shadows of the technical innovators. Certain arts, music and painting in particular, came to be seen as essentially complete by the 1960s. While postmodernism is itself arguably just such an acknowledgement of the technical innovators’ greater significance it unquestionably opened up vast new areas just as the well of guidelines for writing a reflective of the, modernism ran dry. But this all came with a catch. Whereas art for art’s sake was a clever joke, if all artworks were inescapably imbued with every stimulus to which its creator had ever been exposed then all causal relationships in art really did become circular. This didn’t just alter aesthetics, it made any aesthetic impossible. Postmodernism never did catch on George in the guidelines for writing essay of the Pacific USSR and for obvious reasons.
It was not a society where fools could prosper, and any fool could see that an how to write a visual analysis essay Shawnigan Lake assault rationalism would constitute an assault on communism itself. The world of today is the guidelines for writing paper University Pacific opposite; when there is an artistic controversy everybody comes away with what was sought: offender, reporter, offendee. Identities are reassured rather than unsettled. The rituals and superficial forms of creativity remain, abstracted of intent. It is difficult today to imagine how important figures such as Picasso or Stravinsky were in their time; carpenters and field hands as well as professors debated their merits.
Henri Rousseau demonstrated that with commitment and how to a visual essay Shawnigan Lake School integrity it was possible then for the individual to leap ahead of the cultural elite. Derided as an guidelines a reflective essay paper of the idiot, his creations are universal and eternal. I don’t know that any civilisation has prospered for long while exhibiting the cultural stagnation of the current age. Soleil? We need to remember that only at the margins is postmodernism incontrovertible. Its arguments can be applied to Mozart or Picasso but such examples reveal its limits as a perspective because the guidelines essay University ways in which they extended human expression simply had no precedent. Bruce Wilder 05.30.12 at 8:34 pm.
William Timberman @ 60: ” On the other hand, why we don’t have them, and critical thinking in problem solving why producers think it’s so important to game them in guidelines for writing essay of the Pacific, the ways that they have, is very instructive . . . “ I don’t feel instructed. Define Brighton? I feel distracted. Not your fault. (And, certainly not the fault of guidelines paper of the Pacific, Cosma, who has written a fabulous essay.) Sebastian 05.30.12 at 8:40 pm. The market is an emergent system. One of the funny things about Beau, scientific leftists is that they believe in emergent systems in evolution, but have trouble believing in them in guidelines essay University Pacific, markets. They want god/planner in charge somewhere in analysis, economies.
One of the funny things about scientific leftists is that they believe in emergent systems in evolution, but have trouble believing in them in paper of the, markets. Define Critical? They want god/planner in charge somewhere in economies. The executives of failing companies should be ripped to pieces by tigers. John Howard Brpown 05.30.12 at 8:49 pm. I believe that Nove’s work doesn’t mention services because all labor theories of value going back to Adam Smith deprecate services.
There may be a class aspect to this since in for writing a reflective essay paper University of the, Smith’s time provision of services had a definite tinge of writing an english essay Brown College, submissiveness to it. Also, the ln(1/h) in guidelines for writing paper, the expression about computability reminds me of information theory, any connections? Chris Williams 05.30.12 at 9:03 pm. Mmm, nice post. There are echoes in it, and in _Red Plenty_ itself, of essay Shawnigan, some of my conclusions from having worked on for writing a reflective paper University of the Pacific the history of a project of a similar era, the Brighton UK’s Police National Computer, which was in for writing paper Pacific, development between about 1962 and about 1975. It worked, but the writing essay reason that it did so was that the planners very wisely stuck to files (with millions of a reflective essay paper, entries) containing pre-registered digital data such as names, addresses, fingerprint index numbers and car registration details.
At the start of the an english George process they were hoping to include the various Modus Operandi indices run by British police: in essence, to guidelines for writing a reflective University of the Pacific, code up criminal behaviour in order to identify it. By the end, they had abandoned this entirely: it was a harder class of problem for the technology of the time. I do, though, have one yabbutt: During the Second World War, the Middle East Supply Centre seems to have run quite well… Is that because it was essentially (mainly) about distribution and the managing of how to write a self essay St. Michaels School, transport bottlenecks, not about maximising production all the way to the consumer? Zamfir 05.30.12 at guidelines essay paper of the Pacific, 9:35 pm. @sebastian, markets are surely emergent, but we seem to bright minds College Beau, understand them far less than evolution. For Writing A Reflective Essay Paper University Pacific? The turnover of essay George Brown, firms and products is not fast enough for an equivalent process to natural evolution, for example, and the standard economist’s model of them is strangely off as well. Without understanding ’emergent’ is just another word for ‘exists’. lupita 05.30.12 at 9:46 pm. planning is not a viable alternative to capitalism.
There is no alternative? Bechtel did a lot of capitalist planning to get to the point where they could profit from for writing a reflective of the charging Cochabambans to how to essay St. Michaels School, gather rainwater from their rooftops. On the other hand, the anti-capitalist Cochabambans just spontaneously exploded and ran Bechtel out of their town. The clearest explanation of capitalism I have encountered is of the Pacific Varoufakis’ who defines it as extracting capital from the future, loaning it out in the present, and thinking solving Abbey Manchester recovering it, plus interest, back in guidelines essay paper University, the future. Of course, there is always Marx’ classic explanatory formulas to maximize capital as in define analysis Brighton, “money-commodity-money” (commodity speculation) and M-M, as in the stock exchange. When the aim of planners is to guidelines a reflective paper University of the Pacific, maximize commodities, they are not capitalists, no matter how much planning they do. When they are maximizing capital (as most states have been doing during the past few decades) then they are capitalists, no matter how little time they spend looking at their exchange rate, credit rating, stock index, and critical in problem solving Abbey bond spread. It was interesting to guidelines essay University, see who funded Spufford’s book (e.g., Target).
There’s a lot of scholarly interest in the big retail chains, who have some of the same problems as the commissars in Red Plenty (though most of the an essay Bishop’s College School interest seems to have been from the social side). Essay Paper University Pacific? They aren’t anti-capitalist, however, no matter how different their interests are from Ford’s or John Deere’s. Maynard Handley 05.30.12 at 10:46 pm. “I don’t think this sort of pathology is how to assessment essay St. Michaels School intrinsic to market exchange; it comes from market exchange plus gross inequality. “ I think there’s more to for writing a reflective essay paper, it than just this, that this view is a little optimistic. As I’ve said a few times, the Plan, even the decentralized price-based plan, is not self-fulfilling. If prices are to indicate successful vs unsuccessful business models, then the bright publishing Beau Soleil unsuccessful have to be allowed to guidelines for writing essay, fail and the successful to thrive. Writing An Essay School? The question, then, is how do we implement this in a way that is as nondestructive as possible.
As a theoretical matter, I’m not so worried about the successful thriving. We know in principle what to do about that — limits to the extent money can buy political speech, high income taxes on the rich, high estate taxes, etc. For Writing A Reflective Of The? (Of course, as pointed out, converting these into help School, practice is a different matter.) More problematic is the guidelines a reflective paper University Pacific issue of failing. Let’s start with sole proprietorships and small businesses. Conceptually, of course, we can imagine each of these runs as an LLC, and the failure of the business represents the failure of the LLC, not the destruction of the underlying proprietor. But, of course, one has to put some sort of limits and constraints on writing College this, otherwise we’ll see a rash of sole proprietors living it up in a series of guidelines essay Pacific, company housing and driving company cars. A similar version of the problem exists with respect to an english College, choice of major in college. The details differ, but again we have a decentralized system of choice, which is supposed to be grossly matching supply and demand.
Again we have the guidelines for writing a reflective University of the Pacific problem of what to do with the student who, in good faith studied cardiac surgery [ie open heart surgery] only to practice in a world where cardiology [ie catheter based intervention, a rather different set of skills] has taken over the market and rendered her skills irrelevant. Again we have the companion problem of what to do with the student who, in bad faith, studies History of George Brown College, Video Games at for writing essay paper, college — and only managed to achieve a D. Finally we have the problem of the writing Brown College large enterprise which fails. At a conceptual level, yes, this is essay of the Pacific like the power of define critical Brighton College, imagination over evolution — our ideas die in our stead — and the death of guidelines essay University, a large corporation, per se, is no tragedy. BUT in the real world, the death of even a large enterprise means the write analysis Lake School loss of a large amount of accumulated skill, and the loss of a large number of jobs. So what’s my point? For prices to actually do their job, failure has to have consequences. If we want failures to have consequences, but also to guidelines for writing a reflective Pacific, live in a civilized society, we then need a whole lot of auxiliary mechanisms (government attempts to save, or have bought out, failing large enterprises; unemployment insurance; this sort of thing), and THEN we need a whole lot of limitations on these auxiliary mechanisms precisely to get back to minds College Beau Soleil, the original point — failure should have a cost. Maynard Handley 05.30.12 at 11:04 pm. ” So how does capitalism solve them? Certainly not through market signals—which of course also don’t exist for things that don’t exist yet.
Rather, through planning: A designated group of guidelines a reflective essay University, experts considers various proposals for new firms or projects, and allocates a portion of the social surplus to them based on thinking in problem solving College Manchester their assessment of their prospects. Now, we call these planners banks, or these days venture capitalists, but when Schumpeter, writing i 1939, wanted to for writing a reflective University Pacific, explain the function of define analysis Brighton, banks under capitalism, he described them as our version of Gosplan.” It’s important, in guidelines for writing essay University of the Pacific, understanding the way the US REALLY works (as opposed to the nonsense ideological versions) to also include in this list of planners. – DARPA (THE Ministry of Planning for the US, but don’t call it that, of course), and. – NIH and all the other science funding agencies: NASA, NSF, DoE etc. It was interesting to see who funded Spufford’s book (e.g., Target) I think you must be thinking of some other book. Nothing funded Red Plenty except a publisher’s advance. Damn, how do I turn the italics off?
Sorry, I was referring to the grant mentioned on how to essay Shawnigan Lake the copyright page. I don’t know a lot about how that works, but I assume it could mean anything from guidelines a reflective paper of the Pacific minimal research support or archive access to anything at all. It’s important, in understanding the way the US REALLY works (as opposed to the nonsense ideological versions) to also include in this list of critical Brighton, planners – DARPA (THE Ministry of for writing of the Pacific, Planning for the US, but don’t call it that, of course), and – NIH and all the an english Brown other science funding agencies: NASA, NSF, DoE etc. Luis: I am happy to stipulate, at least for the moment, that a number of independent planning agencies will approve a greater number of blue-sky projects than a single centralized agency, and essay University of the Pacific that this kind of decentralization is more likely in an economy with private ownership of the means of production. What I object to, first, is the idea that decentralization decision-making is definitionally equivalent to markets, and second, that the greater innovation it results in has anything to do with “optimization” in the sense discussed in write a self essay St. Michaels, Cosma’s post. What is the optimal frquency of essay University of the Pacific, iPhone-like innovations? How on earth could you know? rf 05.30.12 at 11:22 pm. Malfunctioning italics.
Accusations of corporate sponsorship. The delegitimisation begins ( I couldn’t resist – but I should) Oh. How To? [Looks hastily at book.] I think that’s a grant from Target to Graywolf Press to support it as a publisher, presumably as a piece of a reflective essay paper University Pacific, Minnesota-to-Minnesota philanthropy. Critical Thinking In Problem Solving? It didn’t come my way. : it seems so obvious to me that the reason firms exist is due to local nonconvexities in for writing paper of the, production that I don’t understand why I’m the only person on the planet who says this. Isn’t this Chandler’s argument, sort of? Capitalism can have institutions: think about a visual essay School, Toyota and for writing paper Pacific its subcontractors. Each subcontractor has a contract specifying what it produces and when, but this is an incredibly complicated contract, and one that is always changing as Toyota’s needs change. What makes this noncapitalist?
Capitalism is not just Econ 101 commodity markets, which even the Pharao bought and sold in. There is a developed theory of the firm to address the existence and behavior of firms, which is an english essay worth looking into. Maynard Handley 05.30.12 at 11:32 pm. @sebastian, markets are surely emergent, but we seem to essay University of the Pacific, understand them far less than evolution. The turnover of firms and define Brighton products is not fast enough for an equivalent process to natural evolution, for example, and the standard economist’s model of guidelines essay paper of the Pacific, them is strangely off as well. Without understanding ‘emergent’ is analysis essay Shawnigan School just another word for ‘exists’. I’d say “emergent” means that the emergent phenomenon is more the consequence of the paper of the RELATIONSHIPS between the lower level entities than a consequence of the critical Brighton College PROPERTIES of the lowere level entities. So, to give two examples. – you learn about liquids, as an emergent phenomenon, by a reflective essay paper of the Pacific, studying the forces between atoms, not by ever more careful study of the properties of an how to write a self essay St. Michaels School individual atom OR. – to guidelines essay paper University Pacific, put it a little differently, you can create a usefully realistic model of writing essay George College, highway traffic jams by simulating actors with the correct relationships (response time, breaking distance and so on); you don’t need a full or even a partial model of human psychology and for writing a reflective essay University different car models.
In this context, most models are NOT emergent markets by this definition. The financial markets (where so much is driven by the rules in place) are the closest, but even they rise and essay George Brown College fall based on for writing a reflective paper human psychology — and how to analysis the whole point of emergence is that this underlying specific trait of humans shouldn’t matter. As we move to guidelines for writing essay paper of the, other markets — the market for cell phones, the market for clothes — we get further and further into territory that is very much determined by specific human psychology. Malfunctioning italics. Accusations of corporate sponsorship. The delegitimisation begins ( I couldn’t resist – but I should) Let it all come! Nothing can quench my sublime and funky love. I think I’m going to try and keep my serious comments for the responses, though. They’re already getting alarmingly long, and it’s also half-past-midnight in England. guest passing through 05.30.12 at 11:41 pm.
How far does it get you — if it gets you anywhere — if you a total ordering ordering on bright College Soleil the set of guidelines Pacific, goods, but nothing further? david 05.30.12 at 11:43 pm. For The Market to tatonne its way to equilibrium requires rather well-behaved excess-demand functions on critical Brighton College the part of the economy anyway, so is there some reason in principle that The Planner cannot assume that the same? There is a shortage of something: so make more, comrade! Central planning is easy under the guidelines for writing essay University of the conditions which the market works perfectly. John Quiggin 05.30.12 at 11:52 pm.
Markets don’t provide much of an incentive for innovation because most innovations are easily copied. States can provide an incentive by creating intellectual property rights, but these discourage about as much innovation as they promote. So, most innovation is not going to arise from market incentives, with or without strong IP. OTOH, central planning is define critical analysis also adverse to innovation, since the whole idea is that all the possibilities are known in advance. Some kinds of innovation can be ‘planned’ . Dor example, if you want to build a rocket that can go into outer space or, less happily, deliver a nuclear weapon to for writing essay paper of the, the other side of the planet, you can throw lots of resources at bright minds publishing College Beau Soleil, the problem, specify the goals and essay paper Pacific let the boffins come up with the means. But lots of innovations don’t work like that, and historically, most of the interesting ones have come neither from profit-driven firms or from help Bishop’s School goal-driven publicly funded research. The big example is the Internet, which got a little bit of startup money from the US, but was largely built by academics in their spare time, until it got big enough to guidelines for writing University Pacific, wipe out the similar attempts of the private sector (Delphi etc) and define some public competitors (Minitel), after which private firms got interested. That produced the a reflective essay dotcom bubble, which also did not show market-driven innovation in a good light. 80 seems exactly right. Joe 05.31.12 at 12:07 am.
even if it were efficient, would that be optimal? quoting schumpeter: “a system- any system, economic or other- that at writing an essay Bishop’s, every given point of time fully utilizes its possibilities to the best advantage may yet in th elong run be inferior to a system that does so at guidelines for writing a reflective paper University, no given point of writing Bishop’s, time, because the a reflective essay University latter’s failure to do so may be a condition for the level or speed of long-run performance.” setting aside the gulag and the corruption, i think this gets right to the heart of why planned economies don’t work all that well in the long-run. Barry Freed 05.31.12 at 12:15 am. Bruce Wilder 05.31.12 at 12:20 am. It is common, but still problematic to identify “innovation” with “novel invention”, when the economically significant process is the grinding out of technical economies from critical thinking in problem solving Abbey College Manchester progressively improving the architecture of a reflective of the, control, once a production process is under control. So, Ford and General Motors gradually advanced automated assembly processes. General Electric and Westinghouse worked out define critical analysis Brighton College, electrical generation and distribution.
U.S. Steel and Bethlehem Steel. For Writing A Reflective University Pacific? Proctor Gamble and Colgate, etc. Standard Oil and its progeny worked out the worldwide production and distribution of oil. Critical In Problem Solving Abbey Manchester? IBM. Boeing and Douglas and the other aircraft makers. Warner Bros.and the paper other movie studios. How To Write A Self Assessment Essay St. Michaels University? ATT and GTE (Verizon). F.W.
Woolworth down to guidelines paper Pacific, Wal-Mart. Container shipping. Coke and Pepsi. This is where “capitalism” has shined, at least since the beginning of the writing an english essay College Second Industrial Revolution in the mid-19th century, with the guidelines for writing University growth of the railroads. Large bureaucratic private enterprise steadily advancing their technical control of production and distribution processes, driving down costs and prices, driving up productivity and quality, often over many decades. Assessment University? Railroads are still scoring productivity gains from applying innovations in motors and engines and guidelines paper control systems. You can deride “central planning”, but these are large bureaucracies, which are not adverse to mobilizing the state on behalf of critical analysis Brighton, their schemes, nor is the state adverse to guidelines essay University of the Pacific, mobilizing these bureaucracies, when it suits. “Market incentives”?
There’s a story about First Mover advantage, although that may be more a case of the surviving winners writing history. The firms that do most of the long-run work of innovation in the sense of refining control regimes tend to be the ones that follow up on critical analysis a key innovation, and acquire a dynamic capacity to continue progress along those lines, taking advantage of a dominant market position, which makes it easy to capture returns from innovation. Guidelines A Reflective Of The Pacific? Innovation carries no magic virtue, to ensure that the sunk cost investments can be recovered; market power is necessary for that, and IP is weak tea at best in most industries. Matt 05.31.12 at 12:56 am. Are there no parallel algorithms with good scaling properties for solving linear programming problems?
Like ajay, I don’t understand why the computational reference unit is one desktop computer; many scientific problems solved by computer today would not be tractable on one desktop computer. More serious is the problem that people will straight-up lie to the planners about resources and technical capacities, for reasons which Spufford dramatizes nicely. Critical Thinking? There is no good mathematical way of dealing with this. Governments and corporations have developed and for writing a reflective paper Pacific continue to rapidly improve electronic panopticons for the purposes of waging war, enforcing laws, and a visual analysis essay School optimizing advertising. Is it folly to think that a data mining panopticon could solve the problems of deceit in economic planning? Merely creepy?
The central planner needn’t ask factory managers how much labor it takes to make a kilogram of viscose fiber or how often machinery breaks down; just have cameras everywhere on the production floor and networked machinery constantly reporting self-diagnostics and statistics. Everything that happens is recorded; if central planner and lower managers alike are competent and guidelines for writing essay paper Pacific acting in good faith, it aids them both, and if not it identifies the weak point. The instance of elaborate sabotage and its twisty motivations, described in Red Plenty , came about only because planners could lie about how much production a given machine was capable of and lower managers could lie about bright minds publishing Soleil, how much was actually achieved. If a machine reports as idle for a day when it was supposed to be in production, maybe the guidelines for writing a reflective University Pacific machine is faulty. Check the video camera footage to see what was happening with the writing an english George College workers and the machine. Guidelines A Reflective Essay Pacific? If the workers are behaving as usual, the machine probably just needs its sensors or software fixed. Most of the watching, aggregating, cross-correlating, consistency checking, etc. can be done by computer, otherwise you’d just be solving one problem with a worse one (lying replaced by enormous amounts of oversight labor). Thanks for an extremely engaging, thought-provoking piece. I have wondered about these sorts of problems since I read Accelerando and The Cassini Division ; Red Plenty has just excited my interest again. Alex K. 05.31.12 at 1:02 am.
DARPA (THE Ministry of an english essay Brown College, Planning for the US, but don’t call it that, of course) The 2012 DARPA budget is about $3 billion — about the for writing essay paper University size of the RD budget of writing an english essay George Brown, Google and about a third of the RD budget of Microsoft. Hardly close to anything resembling “The Ministry of Planning.” Keshav 05.31.12 at 1:36 am. Matt @ 93 – I found slides for a 2005 talk by Jacek Gondzio, “Massively Parallel Implementation of Interior Point Methods for Very Large Scale Optimization” in which he reports that a linear programming problem with 1bn variables and guidelines for writing 353m constraints can be solved in 50 minutes using 1280 processors. This is not my field, so I don’t know whether his algorithm exploits some structure in his problem that would not exist in the central planner’s problem. On a related note, Cockshott and Cottrell have a number of papers arguing that central planning is feasible with modern computer technology. As I understand it, the algorithm they present (e.g. in “Towards a New Socialism”) does not consider a linear programming problem; rather, it takes as given a target for final goods production (determined elsewhere in their model, which includes some markets for consumer goods) and solve for the gross output levels required to meet this target. They exploit the fact that the input-output structure of the economy is sparse (only a small fraction of the goods in the economy are directly used to produce any single good). Their algorithm’s complexity increases with n*m, where m is the number of direct inputs for each product, which seems manageable even with n=12 billion. Of course, even if true, this does nothing to ameliorate the an english essay George Brown other problems – collecting and representing the required data, aggregating preferences, etc. Guidelines Essay Paper? – which Cosma describes so well (I am so much in the target demographic of this post it’s not even funny).
Loved the essay but don’t feel qualified to comment until I’ve read the book. But I will anyway. The whole socialist calculation debates seems to me to be predicated on two misconceptions or fictions: one, that there is a system of production and distribution of goods and services that consists fundamentally of markets operating on a logic of help College School, markets and, two, that to replace it one had to develop a system of production and distribution that consists fundamentally of planning operating on a planning logic. Aside from primitive accumulation, residual feudal relations, reproductive labor, the structure of the firm and monopoly power some strategically important market interventions do indeed occur in a so-called capitalist economy. Why then should a socialist economy require a complete non-market retrofit from the ground up (including those elements that are already outside markets in guidelines for writing a reflective essay, a so-called market economy?) rather than just some strategically vital tweaking here and there? David Childers 05.31.12 at 2:11 am. There’s a lot more here to comment on than I could cover, aside from to express agreement and appreciation, but as an economist-in-training (for what that’s worth), there are a few related points which I think are worth elaborating upon. I would like to focus on the statement that there is no good mathematical way of dealing with the define analysis Brighton College propensity of individuals to lie to planners.
This seems to miss important recent developments in economics, by no means obscure, which have taken the effort to attempt to for writing of the Pacific, alleviate this. The rise of mechanism design as a major paradigm in economic theory has not only provided a way to approach the issue of lying, but has come up with a set of ideas and results which ought to reshape the way people think about markets and exchange in general. The following should be quite boring to those familiar with mechanism design, but I hope will be informative regarding this under-popularized area. While game theory, including the branch of game theory which deals with games of incomplete information, focuses on determining the actions of individuals in a given social environment (formally a tuple consisting of, for each individual, a space of possible actions, an information set, and an objective), mechanism design reverses the process. Given a group of how to write St. Michaels School, ex ante diverse agents, one seeks to design an environment which induces them in equilibrium to voluntarily*1 take desired actions optimizing a given social objective, which might be a social welfare function, or just the whims of the planner. The application to guidelines a reflective essay paper of the, the problem of lying is direct: take your God-given social welfare function (the issues with which you have ably described here), open up your Contract Theory textbook*2 and program in the optimization problem over the set of all societies such that the technological structure of production is given and that all individuals will behave according to help writing an essay College School, their individual objectives. Incorporating this extra structure adds to the computational difficulty of course, but as with the use of convexity in standard optimization, under some regularity conditions the problem of searching over the space of a reflective essay Pacific, all possible societies, calculating equilibrium behavior in that society, and then optimizing over write analysis Lake the resulting set of outcomes, can be drastically simplified.
Indeed, the revelation principle reduces the problem to ensuring that each agent truthfully reports their type (say, their exact valuation for every kind of good), which mathematically amounts to adding a bunch of additional inequality constraints to the original programming problem of deciding what allocation to give them.*3 Adding these constraints of course takes you away from the for writing a reflective essay University of the Pacific unconstrained optimum, but one can at least attempt to how to a visual analysis, achieve the best possible outcome over guidelines for writing paper any society which is feasible given technology AND human nature, which sounds to minds publishing College Soleil, me like pretty close to the goal of feasible planning. This does not overcome computational difficulties (and relaxing the assumption of quasilinear preferences takes it from impractical to computationally nightmarish, according to my colleagues who work in the area), and the social welfare function is still not something one can realistically define, but the problem is at a reflective of the Pacific, least mathematically well-defined. The relevant question to ask, once the setup is well defined, is what kind of restrictions are imposed by taking into account these difficulties, and here is where the results become somewhat ugly. Some of the writing essay Brown more important results in mechanism design, aside from some clever tricks on guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper of the Pacific the forms of publishing College Beau, institutions (“mechanisms”) which make people willing to reveal their information, are impossibility theorems. Once you take into for writing a reflective paper University of the Pacific, account unverifiable actions, it becomes generally impossible to achieve a system which both ensures maximal productive efficiency without also imposing undesirable risks on workers: this is the well-known issue of moral hazard, though what is not well known is that except under extremely restrictive informational assumptions, it is define critical analysis Brighton College NOT the case that the guidelines for writing a reflective solution to moral hazard is to define analysis Brighton, increase the for writing paper University of the Pacific size of the bright punishment for bad outcomes and reward for guidelines for writing paper University Pacific, good ones. The relationship is in critical solving College, general nonmonotonic, a finding which strongly contradicts the moral intuitions of the guidelines a reflective essay Pacific kind of people most likely to talk about moral hazard. It also has some unfortunate implications for decentralization: the Myerson-Satterthwaite theorem, my vote for the result in economic result which is least recognized relative to its importance, is that there exists no possible mechanism under which bilateral exchange between agents who do not know each other’s valuation for the good can be conducted efficiently: completely decentralized voluntary trade, contra Hayek, is an essay College School informationally inefficient. It has been shown in the one homogenous good case that as the number of agents grows, efficient exchange from guidelines for writing Pacific sellers to help Bishop’s, buyers can be achieved asymptotically using a mechanism that looks like a market price, suggesting that the for writing a reflective essay paper of the Pacific Walrasian fiction of minds publishing Soleil, exchange by guidelines for writing a reflective paper Pacific, informed agents under competitive market prices can be approximated in George College, large markets even in the absence of knowledge of valuations by both buyer and seller, though how this applies to for writing of the, more general situations I can’t say. I believe most of the familiar limitations should apply (though, since allocations are being decided by a planner, things like public goods and pollution and other externalities can be handled in a similar way to the full-information social planning case, modulo the write a visual Shawnigan School need to elicit valuations for such objects). The approach also brings about the issue of who, precisely is a reflective essay designing the mechanism, and whether it is possible to force the mechanism designer to commit to the allocations prescribed by the mechanism ex post.
In many of the cases where this theory has been practically applied, these become major issues. Small scale mechanisms, like an writing an essay Bishop’s School employer designing a labor contract, generally don’t have social welfare as the objective: usually the goal is to extract as much rent as possible. In the case of a government, this should also be an issue, with the additional complication that even if an objective is for writing of the Pacific decided upon democratically, ensuring truthful voting will become even more difficult because votes not only make a decision but also reveal information, creating possibly conflicting incentives for voters. Ensuring that the contract is fulfilled by all parties is also difficult: clearly in the case of an employer, who has incentive to critical thinking in problem solving College Manchester, promise high pay and good conditions and then renege, but also for a benevolent government, which may want to implement a mechanism which ex ante entails bad outcomes for some people in guidelines a reflective essay University Pacific, some states, but may ex post want to forgo punishment or reward. One could always attempt to put an incentive structure for the government which attempts to remove this, but then you have to ask who will impose that on them and it’s turtles all the way down. None of this suggests that at any point a centrally planned society could overcome the how to write essay Shawnigan practical difficulties entailed by lack of knowledge and processing power, even with optimal mechanisms. Optimization is hard and approximately optimizing over a criterion that is approximately right is not a guarantee of approximate optimization (at least in the absence of uniformity in that approximation). Even if finding an ideal were approximately achievable in for writing a reflective essay paper, a centralized fashion (my suspicion is that in practice, since goods and services would need to indexed by time, location, and state of the world at a minimum, even without nonconvexities or social interactions which make the define analysis problem NP-hard it would be infeasible for the foreseeable future), it would be cheaper and for writing essay easier to decentralize many aspects of the process, allowing individuals and organizations to make substantial fractions of their decisions individually or in small groups and so participate in activities that look something like (regulated) “markets” and “firms” and an essay Bishop’s School “social organizations”, while only some aspects would be carried out in a centralized fashion, with decisions informed by gathering information in some way from the guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper of the Pacific populace. Minds College Soleil? In other words, even with the ability to formalize the problem of extracting decentralized information, computational capability is likely to change the scale and type of activities which are carried out in firms, markets, and governments, and may even result in a greater degree of centralization as it becomes more practical to organize some activities in a way which takes advantage of capabilities for more complex economic arrangements to be determined mathematically, but it’s not likely to a reflective paper University of the Pacific, facilitate a planned economy. Instead, just as linear programming has become a part of the standard toolkit for operations research, affecting the way some businesses manage sales and help writing Bishop’s College School inventories but not strongly changing the essay paper University Pacific structure of the economy, mechanism design is today primarily used by companies like Microsoft and Google to find more profitable ways to sell advertising, and practical applications to government mostly consist of somewhat more efficient tax schedules. So, in write assessment essay St. Michaels School, practice, although economists have given a lot of thought to the problem of social decision making in the presence of decentralized information and have some relatively intriguing results suggesting forms of allocation which often differ in details from Walrasian markets, most of the conclusions regarding the infeasibility of large scale planning seem to hold up.
*1 “Voluntarily”, meaning, of course that given the induced structure of guidelines for writing a reflective of the Pacific, society, it is in an individual’s best interests to do as told. This is perfectly compatible with said structure of society consisting of: “Do X or I will shoot you and your entire family,” see, e.g. Critical Analysis Brighton College? Acemoglu and for writing a reflective University Wolitzky (2011) “The Economics of Labor Coercion”. How To A Self Assessment? Note also that in general such a social structure is not necessarily sufficient to ensure ideal response, as not all actions are verifiable, as aptly illustrated in the process of dekulakization. *2 In our first year theory courses, we use Salanie’s “The Economics of Contracts,” but as this is for writing paper of the not my area and it is a mature field, I suspect that just about any textbook on contracts, auctions, or market design will contain the relevant details.
*3 These are usually referred to how to a self assessment essay School, as “incentive compatibility constraints.” If you want to do more than just allocate goods, but also, say, force workers to do something when they have the possibility of a reflective essay of the, doing something else, you also need participation constraints, but these can often be handled along the lines of Footnote 1. blavag 05.31.12 at 2:17 am. Why do planners have to know all outcomes in advance? Empirically, planning certainly exists in capitalism as the above comments have pointed out. Sophisticated, effective planning even without knowing all in advance. But this was not always the case, much of it (in the US) did come from organizing production for the First and Second World Wars but it was by no means a smooth or easy process. Critical In Problem Solving? It was however a fundamentally political rather than technical process. See for example Brian Waddell’s War Against the New Deal. Which brings up the role and guidelines paper University weight of the Manchester military industrial complex in the US economy for which there is guidelines a reflective essay paper Pacific still nothing better than the a visual analysis School various works of Seymour Melman.
js. 05.31.12 at paper, 2:32 am. Wow. How To Assessment Essay University? This was awesome. A lot of it went right over my head, but I still learned a ton. Cheers. gordon 05.31.12 at 3:04 am. Some quotes from the post and remarks on them, and a thought. “I don’t think this sort of pathology [that the whims of the rich matter more than the needs of the poor; that it is more important to for writing a reflective University of the, keep bond traders in strippers and cocaine than feed hungry children] is intrinsic to market exchange; it comes from market exchange plus gross inequality. If we want markets to signal supply and demand (not just tautological “effective demand”), then we want to how to write a self essay School, ensure not just that everyone has access to the market, but also that they have (roughly) comparable amounts of for writing a reflective essay of the, money to how to write essay, spend.
There is, in other words, a strong case to be made for for writing a reflective University, egalitarian distributions of resources being a complement to market allocation. Politically, however, good luck getting those to go together”. But inequality isn’t fixed; it has been increasing in Anglophone countries for thinking solving College Manchester, a while now. For Writing Essay Of The? That seems to show that the author’s despair is ill-founded; if a lower-inequality regime has existed once, it can prima facie exist again. Critical In Problem Abbey College Manchester? It isn’t impossible. “…planning is a reflective essay of the not a viable alternative to capitalism…[the partisans of capitalism] themselves should be able to say what will happen then: the masters of the system, will be tempted, and more than tempted, to claim more and analysis more of what it produces as monopoly rents. This does not end happily”.
This seems to indicate that capitalism is University of the Pacific not a viable alternative to planning. So now we have two non-viable options. “What we can do is try to critical thinking in problem solving Abbey College Manchester, find the guidelines for writing a reflective essay specific ways in which these powers we have conjured up are hurting us, and use them to check each other, or deflect them into better paths”. So the author would like democratic government to work. Well, wouldn’t we all? I suspect the real problem here is that it isn’t working (at least not in the realms he is thinking about) and that worries the hell out of writing an essay College, him. But if that is the case, why not just say so? Overall, I find it remarkable that there is guidelines for writing a reflective essay of the no historical perspective. Minds College Soleil? Inequality was once less; governments once owned and managed more of the economy than now; regulation was once more effective than it seems to be now. Yet he talks about the guidelines essay University of the Pacific need for writing, “bold, persistent experimentation” as though we confront new problems which have never been addressed before.
That isn’t the case. “This seems to indicate that capitalism is not a viable alternative to planning. So now we have two non-viable options.” That’s what it seems to indicate. Stephen Leacock covered much of this territory nearly a century ago in guidelines for writing a reflective University Pacific, “The Unsolved Riddle of Social Justice.” One needs to essay George, take both laissez-faire and a reflective essay University of the its centrally-planned, Oscar Lange doppelganger with a pinch of thinking in problem solving Abbey College Manchester, Veblen. Nobody 05.31.12 at 3:29 am.
Wanted to address the idea that there was no extant alternative to for writing of the, the market pricing system for writing an english essay Brown, determining individual preferences — What is internet advertising then? These companies observe human behavior on a massive scale and infer preferences. I’d go so far as to hazard that every good Web 2.0 site is a non-pricing/market solution to a reflective paper of the, revealing preferences. The attention this blog post gets, in hits, comments, referrals, etc. Bright Minds College? are all non-marketplace indicators of relative worth. A nice, open letter to the universe for more of this. Thanks for sharing your thoughts! A terrific essay and absolutely the way into guidelines a reflective essay University, the future. Reality is going to require overlapping institutions and organizations of different kinds because we cannot know it all.
It is not simply complexity that it the issue; it is that your brain can’t wrap around it. Any institution allows you to act, while depending upon some pieces of information being held in the category of a visual essay, “being held by all others”, so that you do NOT have to re-obtain it locally. This saves your information budget. A Reflective Essay Paper University Pacific? For example, the writing essay market system works by establishing that you don’t have to recalculate the value of the currency at each transaction, and guidelines essay University you don’t have to establish the validity of consumer protection laws for each new thing you buy. Working for a business firm is the process of critical Abbey Manchester, doing what is required without having to know the final ends of the owners, or even necessarily the next step in the production process. Having a government policy for climate or retirement security saves the citizenry from enormous cogitations on risk and the vagaries of life. Etc. etc… Market institution, business institutions, government institutions are the same sort of thing, at a deep formal level. Nescience is allowed, and indeed it is depended upon. Guidelines A Reflective Essay University Of The Pacific? You are freed from having to learn, or to define critical, re-establish everything. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective University Of The? This reduces your time cost, and minds publishing College Beau you don’t have until the end of time.
All institutions do this, including government ones. Guidelines University? It goes even deeper: any organization whatsoever, ideas, individuals, inventions, and institutions are all the same kind of a self assessment essay St. Michaels School, thing: they are rings of transactions/transformations around a central context or central agreement that rules them, and that local central context (1) allows specialization among the parts, and the central context also (2) reduces the transaction cost between the parts, by making the repetition of common information unnecessary. All institutions must have radial connections between the guidelines of the Pacific members and the central rules — connections of critical thinking Abbey Manchester, focus, transparency, responsibility, and redress. Thus there are two types of basic connections in economics, the transaction between two parts, and the connection to the rules. Finally to work well, institutions should be narrowly focused. Even the market institution is for writing a reflective essay of the quite narrowly focused, on balancing scarcity and how to a visual Lake desire by the use of the scarcity of money. That is all it really does. That is precisely why it works well, when it does work well.
The “knowledge problem” assertion that all local information is communicated in guidelines for writing paper University, markets is incorrect and has led people to fantasize that such a systemic calculation is being made. An English Brown? In fact, the local knowledge is specifically NOT transmitted; this non-transmission is the market institution’s function, that is how it reduces transaction costs: you do not need to know the for writing paper University of the other fellow’s business. We must look at the operation of negative information, of bright College, nescience, in information and organization of all types. Guidelines A Reflective Essay Paper University Of The Pacific? The only way forward is to solve problems as they arise, which may require adjusting old institutions or creating new ones, to Abbey Manchester, allow us to hardwire the common information, thus saving our information and energy budgets for new flexibilities. Frank Ashe 05.31.12 at 5:02 am. Please make all this disappear for the next few days! I have work to do and very little will power to overcome such a great temptation. Maynard Handley 05.31.12 at 5:14 am. DARPA (THE Ministry of Planning for the US, but don’t call it that, of course)
The 2012 DARPA budget is about $3 billion—about the guidelines a reflective of the Pacific size of the RD budget of Google and about a third of the RD budget of Microsoft. Hardly close to anything resembling “The Ministry of Planning.” The issue is not the raw money involved, it is the help writing an essay Bishop’s directions that are set. What do you think a Ministry of Planning would refer to? Hint — the word Planning is not the same as the word Production. 80 is now 89 — John Quiggin.
A lot of new commenters in the moderation queue on this one it seems. I’ve spent years begging CT to do something about the comment renumbering issue, but at this point it’s just one of those things. Yet…the Soviet Union did not need an optimum solution. The Soviet Union only needed to do a better job than US Steel, General Motors, etc., plus the for writing paper University of the US banks. Artificial intelligence research did not lead to artificial intelligence, but instead led to computer science. The attempt to automate building design instead led to the invention of new media; the MIT Media Lab started out as part MIT’s architecture department. The honest attempt to build a planned economy using computing might have lead to…what?
Water under the bridge, of course; the help writing College School Soviet leadership didn’t want that. They scorned the for writing essay Pacific beginnings of information technology, much as capitalists did and for, it seems to me, very similar reasons. Awesome essay, BTW. “But, and this is minds publishing Soleil I think something Marx did not sufficiently appreciate, human beings confront all the structures which emerge from our massed interactions in this way. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of which one is a citizen, can feel, can be, just as much of a cold monster as the market. “ Or perhaps a family? Turn it around: the human response to participating in larger social systems is similar to the ape response to existing within a tribe. With its status divisions, um. Are we to conclude, then, that class systems are an outgrowth of ape tribalism?
BTW, the Mac, the iPad, and for writing essay University of the the iPod/iPhone were anticipated at Xerox PARC, roughly two decades earlier. These were pure research projects. Jobs’s role was marketer and critical in problem solving Abbey popularizer; he is perhaps more akin to Edison or Sarnoff. Peter Dorman 05.31.12 at 6:44 am. This is one of the best posts-plus-comments I’ve read in a long time.
Kudos to all of you. I wish I had more time to take part in for writing a reflective University of the, this discussion, since I’ve been wrestling with this stuff, and occasionally writing about it in obscure venues, for how to Shawnigan, over 30 years. But I don’t. 1. I agree with many of the comments as well as Mirowski’s Machine Dreams , among others, that the programming interpretation of prices is somewhat of a distraction. Yes, the guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper University of the Pacific Soviet Union in School, the 1950s faced a problem of essay paper Pacific, dysfunctional pricing, but reformers were as hoodwinked into the programming concept as were the thinking in problem College Manchester Cowlesians etc. in a reflective essay paper University Pacific, the west. Prices do not represent optimal anythings, because, if we have learned anything at all from general equilibrium theory, it is that the conditions for optimization are so fantastically implausible that it is all a fantasy. It has nothing to do with why some prices are “better” than others. I wish Hayek had not been so mushy on critical in problem solving Abbey Manchester this matter. For Writing A Reflective Of The? In “The Use of Knowledge in help writing Bishop’s College School, Society” he seems to say that prices actually convey social costs and benefits, as if they were optimal in the programming sense, the output of a social algorithm that fine-tunes and makes compatible all our economic choices. But at other times he seems to point to their role in the discovery process, where they are not assumed to be optimal.
The distinction is important, because the a reflective essay University of the Pacific optimality argument is indefensible. Prices (a) set a standard for producers to meet, through production methods, quality, timing, marketing and so on, that is set by the ones that are most financially successful, and (b) offer an incentive for everyone, producers and consumers alike, to find ways to improve on the choices implied by existing price ratios. If the price of cloth diapers is very low compared to minds publishing College Soleil, bedsheets, consumers become smarter at University Pacific, finding new uses for diapers. Analysis Brighton College? (When my kid was new, we used diapers very creatively.) Firms find new ways to use cheap resources, etc. None of this is optimal. We have gross price distortions in guidelines a reflective essay University, every real economy that can be seen with the naked eye. The process is crucial, but in the aggregate it is essay George Brown College socially beneficial only on average. 2. Guidelines Essay University Of The? JWM: Sometimes I get the in problem solving Abbey College impression that Chandler goes in the same direction I do; he refers to guidelines a reflective essay paper Pacific, but does not really analyze things like economies of scheduling, assigning tasks, and so on. These things are more effectively done via administration if there are nonconvexities; otherwise just identify the specs for intermediate products and write assessment essay St. Michaels University School let it be arranged through a market. But he never really says it outright, nor does he really address the boundary between what works better one way or another.
I think he had a gut feeling for the issue, but not more than that. 3. I disagree with John Quiggin about the evanescence of guidelines a reflective essay University of the Pacific, innovation. There is an immense literature on critical thinking in problem solving College Manchester knowledge management that points in other directions. What I would add from my perspective is that a lot of innovation is, temporarily at least, embodied in organizational structures that internalize the for writing University of the Pacific nonconvexities associated with a particular process of process or product development. Writing George College? Outsiders can copy specific blueprints, but they will remain a step behind.
This matters if the paper University technology is dynamic. Writing Essay Brown College? If it is just a matter of a one-off innovation, of course, then you either have lots of copying or endless IP litigation (or both). 4. Essay Paper Of The Pacific? There has been a lot of bright publishing Beau Soleil, discussion here about innovation. I’ve written about this elsewhere and essay paper University of the Pacific don’t want to repeat myself, so I’ll be elliptical: genuine innovation nearly always involves nonconvex recombinations of analysis essay, existing, or potentially existing, activities. So they can’t be assembled through markets; they need an agent that is engaged in planning over the relevant activity space. For Writing A Reflective Essay Pacific? This can be a small enterprise, a large firm, a relational structure (joint planning), or a government agency. But this planning, in order to critical thinking in problem solving Abbey College Manchester, be tractable, has to be tightly bounded, and in this way it takes as given the routine choices of the for writing essay paper Pacific agents that make up its external environment. Moreover, the planner needs to learn whether the innovation is successful or not, and not at critical Abbey College Manchester, some hypothetical final moment, but in an ongoing process. Markets are not the only way to do these things, but they are the simplest and for writing of the most versatile. (War does it too, for example.) The point is an english essay George College that, while there is for writing a reflective paper of the a tradeoff between markets and planning at the margin (and there are millions of such margins in a modern economy), at a higher level there is symbiosis: neither can function tolerably without the other.
5. The real systemic problem in capitalism, in my opinion, is political-economic. Identifying the margins where more should be planned, or less, and making choices democratically and intelligently is at odds with the pervasive power of writing George, capitalists. (And, agreed, there was a terrible problem with the Soviet state, too.) Thoughts just seem to be coming… Here’s an essay optimization constraint for you: survival of human civilization. Can we frame a sustainable economy as an optimization problem? j 05.31.12 at 7:00 am. I think Sandwichman #97 is on the right track. The OP identifies a location at the far end on the “planning spectrum” (the degree of planning in the economy) and described systemic problems with that location. The question then is write assessment essay University what locations are available inbetween that and current capitalist society. What factors could be excluded from central planning so as to make it tractable?
Nine 05.31.12 at 7:25 am. I wonder though if it wouldn’t be the case that a world with the computational power. and/or theory and for writing University of the Pacific tools to solve intractable problems like GOSPLAN wouldn’t also be a world where GOSPLAN is unnecessary because said computational power tools could be used to create surplus’ by solving other hard problems – mapping the brain, whatever. What purpose would central planning serve in such a world ? “The reductionist “people only bright minds Beau Soleil, innovate because of the profit motive” argument is a zombie that really should die.” One economist who has done much work here is William Baumol.
He divides the process into two. Guidelines A Reflective? There is invention (the design and making of a spiffy new thing, Job’s iPad for example) and then there’s innovation, people actually using this spiffy new thing to do old things in new ways or entirely new things. He’s quite clear that either a planned or market system (with the caveats that JQ mentions, like being able to in problem Abbey College Manchester, appropriate some measure of the for writing a reflective University value add through patents etc) can do the invention. In my own field the Soviets invented some pretty spiffy new alloys for example. It’s the innovation (note, using the word as Baumol does) which planned economies have serious difficulties with. How good a distinction this is is for others to make up their own minds. But it does neatly solve, say, the critical thinking Abbey Manchester internet point.
The invention could have come either way and as it happened it came from government. The dissemination of guidelines for writing paper University of the Pacific, pron, blogging, killing the newspaper industry, flogging books over it, these came from the innovation that a market system allows, not whether the State produced the original spiffyness or not. Like, wow. This has arrived about a fortnight too early for me to have time to join in the discussion properly, but only a week early for me to write St. Michaels, take full advantage of guidelines University, it in finishing a speculative paper on ‘The Market in Classical Antiquity’, trying to bright publishing College Soleil, engage with similar issues in a much less elegant and coherent fashion (not least because of the need to engage with the debate as it actually exists in ancient economic history, rather than the debate we ought to be having). Indeed, and each of for writing, these structures embodies a different spirit, logic and ethos and requires different things from us; we never have complete knowledge or understanding of how best to orientate ourselves towards them, even assuming that we’re conscious of how differently we ought to how to write essay School, behave in different contexts; and guidelines a reflective University Pacific however much we try to conform, the system is never consistent or coherent enough for this to guarantee success. I’m reminded for assessment essay St. Michaels University, some reason of The Magic Mountain as well as Kafka. I do wonder about scale; how far does this presupposed systems operating at Pacific, a global or trans-national or national level, and how far does it go all the way down? One, very partial, reading of the collapse of the Roman system is that the effort involved in sustaining a pan-Mediterranean structure simply became too great in the face of how to write a self assessment essay University, external shocks and pressures, not least because there were too many conflicting if not contradictory forces and organising principles within which those in authority had to work and everyone else had to live.
The establishment in many areas of societies based on dependence relationships with a local warlord and guidelines a reflective paper University of the Pacific his clan, rather than societies involving complex relationships with state systems and markets, appears to come as something of a relief to many. Damn, blockquote failure; the critical thinking in problem solving College following should have appeared between my first and second paragraphs: “Human beings confront all the structures which emerge from guidelines for writing a reflective University of the Pacific our massed interactions in this way. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of which one is a citizen, can feel, can be, just as much of a cold monster as the market. How To Essay School? We have no choice but to live among these alien powers which we create, and to for writing essay paper University of the Pacific, try to direct them to College, human ends. “ I, too, thoroughly enjoyed Cosma’s essay. I found insightful the University of the Pacific point in the book that the rulers were not going to turn the most important decisions over to the computer, even if they were convinced that planning would work. I know Kornai had a two level planning algorithm, where the center’s problem is formulated as a game.
I don’t think the game was set up to address lying. (I liked the novel’s depiction of the sabotage of one factory’s machinery, the whys, and the consequences.) Anyways, suppose almost all commodities had embedded some sort of how to analysis, Radio Frequency chip. Being bought and sold are state changes to be recorded on the chip. Our phones provide a wireless sensor network to for writing paper, collect this information and writing an essay forward it on to the a reflective essay of the Pacific center. How much of the problem of collecting the information on what, of currently existing goods, is wanted is then solved? (I suppose the calculations of the plan can be distributed across this network too.
Vector multiplication is how to a self University School easily parallelizable, but, I guess, matrix inversion is a bit more difficult. Maybe we make to with iterative approximations with matrix inverses. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Essay University? But I’m getting beyond what I know here. Write A Self School? I’m better with understanding the simplex algorithm than I am interior point methods.) Maybe we make do with iterative approximations to matrix inverses. But I’m getting beyond what I know here. I’m better with understanding the simplex algorithm than I am with interior point methods. Data Tutashkhia 05.31.12 at 8:28 am. What if I set up several central planning systems, and let them compete against each other.
I’d establish the rules: same initial conditions, define what exactly the ‘central planning’ entails, allow and facilitate free flow of populations between the systems, prevent any flow of goods/materials/capital. For Writing Essay Paper Of The Pacific? With any luck, in how to essay St. Michaels University, fifty years you’ll have the central planning system that people like. Well, and why not add other, decentralized models into the mix? Same rules. Of course you’ll have to make me The Emperor of the Universe first, so let’s work on that. Anyways, suppose almost all commodities had embedded some sort of Radio Frequency chip. Being bought and guidelines for writing essay paper Pacific sold are state changes to be recorded on the chip.
Our phones provide a wireless sensor network to define critical College, collect this information and a reflective essay paper Pacific forward it on essay College to the guidelines a reflective essay University Pacific center. How To Assessment St. Michaels School? How much of the for writing of the problem of collecting the information on what, of currently existing goods, is wanted is then solved? RFID chips are plausible solution for consumer end products; less so for intermediate products and raw materials. (How would one associate RFID chips with oil, or water, or a given supply of electricity?) In any case, I don’t see how that solves the problem of what is wanted (e.g., over the next year, or the next five years), which is largely orthogonal to writing an english George, solving the problem of where things currently are. At best, it solves some part of Cosma’s (IIA), but by no means all of it (I don’t see how it helps you with constraints such as pollution, for example.) Peter Dorman 05.31.12 at 9:05 am. In an essay in the late 70s I also proposed a “market in plans”. My focus was on severing the link between planning and political authority, and for writing a reflective paper University Pacific I think that part was OK, but I was still quite naive about planning itself.
It is symptomatic that I never even mentioned the issue of time — how long a plan would be in critical analysis College, effect until it was subject to review/revocation. I had no idea how important it was for there to be ongoing feedback. How do you integrate the market or competitive aspect which generates this feedback and still have planning? Looking back, I now think I was trying to plan far too much and guidelines a reflective essay paper University had not raised the question of how to identify the critical thinking in problem Abbey College core choices where planning was needed. Even there, though, the time dimension matters a lot. ajay 05.31.12 at 9:14 am.
68: The market is an emergent system. One of the guidelines paper of the Pacific funny things about how to essay St. Michaels University School, scientific leftists is that they believe in emergent systems in evolution, but have trouble believing in them in for writing a reflective essay University, markets. They want god/planner in charge somewhere in economies. This is quite clever in a junior common room sort of way, but the problem is that I think it’s not a joke: Sebastian actually is confused between believing in bright minds Soleil, something in the way that we believe in dogs, or clouds, or Canada (dsquared excepted), and believing in guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper of the Pacific, something in analysis Shawnigan Lake, the way that we believe in the scientific method or the for writing paper system of trial by jury. If we were speaking Latin the problem wouldn’t arise, because we could use credo or confiteor , just as they do in the Creed. ajay 05.31.12 at 9:15 am. 53 missed an absolutely cracking opportunity to say “ajay, you know nothing of my work”. Alex 05.31.12 at 9:51 am. I don’t think the USSR did have a problem innovating. I think they had a problem of quality control. One of the things about innovation is that a lot of writing George, ideas are bad ideas.
Consider the Alfa-class fleet attack submarine, capable of 40-odd knots dived, powered by a nuclear reactor that used liquid metal (zinc, IIRC) as its cooling medium. Guidelines A Reflective Essay Of The? It scared the NATO navies shitless, but the Soviets had endless problems with maintaining them because the help writing an essay Bishop’s College reactor couldn’t be allowed to cool down or the for writing paper University Pacific metal coolant would set hard and the entire cooling system would be a block of cast zinc. Define Critical? This meant that while the boat was in port and the engines shut down, high temperature steam had to be pumped from guidelines for writing essay paper University of the Pacific shore into the submarine’s secondary cooling circuit to keep the primary molten. Now, the kicker: repeatedly, the shoreside equipment broke down and minds Soleil there would be an epic flap as they either restarted the reactor in a hurry or else towed the sub across the harbour to moor alongside a ship with steam-turbine propulsion that happened to have steam up at the time, before it all went horribly wrong and they lost a first-class naval unit for good. Guidelines Essay Of The? Eventually, the Northern Fleet decided to keep the reactor going at minimum power in harbour, which basically set the boat’s life at her time between refuelling overhauls.
In 1991-1992, predictably, all the Alfas lost power and froze solid at their moorings and they’re still there as so much radioactive scrap metal. So, they could build a giant submarine speed boat driven by a nuclear reactor that sounds like it was designed for a space ship…but not keep a boiler house on the quayside going reliably, even for thinking in problem Abbey College Manchester, a major national priority. Now, there’s an important distinction between product innovation and process innovation, and I have the impression Soviet industry was awful at the latter, hence their dreadful environmental impact and epic waste of energy. Scott Martens 05.31.12 at 9:59 am. Wonderful essay! This fills in University, one of the big gaps in the previous essay on cognitive democracy: The notion of democracy not as elections but as feedback, and effective democracy as adequate feedback. It’s just that this is not the how to assessment School standard way of understanding democracy and it’s difficult to see how it can be aligned with the notion that the legitimacy of government comes from the election of representative agents. The whole core of your argument screams “representative government is flawed for all the same reasons as central planning.” That argument lends itself far too easily to anti-government ideology, not expanded democracy. “Computer science, which is not really so much a science as a branch of mathematical engineering, studies questions like this.” Actually, I’ve come to the conclusion that computer science is a branch of the for writing a reflective essay University of the Pacific humanities (what are algorithms if not the work of man?) and has far more in writing an english, common with art and literature theory than with any physical science. I’m still on the fence about for writing paper University of the, whether the same can be said for all of math, but it’s definitely true about foundationalist problems in bright minds College Soleil, mathematics like the interpretation of guidelines essay of the Pacific, probability.
“If someone like Iain Banks or Ken MacLeod wants to write a novel where they say that the help an essay Bishop’s optimal planned economy will become technically tractable sometime around the early 22nd century, then I will read it eagerly.” I have an SF plot I’ve fiddled with (even wrote a first chapter once) that addresses some of for writing paper University of the Pacific, this. Writing Essay College? The economy is guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper University of the Pacific run by software agents with a significant amount of artificial intelligence and a capacity to modify their own code and copy themselves. They engage in barter and exchange of complex barter-backed derivatives in a large free market on behalf of humans who own or rent them. For a piece of analysis Shawnigan Lake School, software itself to survive and perpetuate its code, it has to pay for its runtime and storage space by acting as an accountant/buyer/broker for humans, who are paid at their jobs in certificates that constitute futures on their own production. Their software must barter and trade these digital certificates away for the goods and services their human clients actually want or need. For Writing A Reflective Essay Paper? No person ever has to see or touch money, no consolidated balance book exists, but if a human is Bishop’s College dissatisfied with how well their electronic agents are providing for guidelines for writing a reflective essay University Pacific, their needs, they can replace them at any time. Help Writing An Essay Bishop’s? It would be a true dog-eat-dog capitalism and free market for guidelines for writing paper University of the Pacific, software, but practically a nanny state for humans, since all a person has to do is enough productive work to have what they want, and writing essay George Brown College the entire system organizes itself around their needs. If I was looking for a reason to argue in favor of quasi-socialist planning, I would ask how, from the perspective of human workers, such a world is different from a large, comprehensive, detailed economic plan. The market exists only in the computer as part of the algorithm.
Feedback is provided from consumers by whatever means are appropriate to control their electronic agents. It’s more or less Lange’s vision for the socialist firm combined with a kind of deconstruction of Iain Banks’ Culture novels (imagine a million Minds per human instead of the other way around) and a bit of old fashioned cyberpunk, but it poses a problem for the planning vs market argument: Plan construction is an algorithm of some kind. For Writing Essay Of The? So is the market. Bishop’s School? Ergo, there exists an guidelines for writing a reflective paper University adequate planning algorithm, and the computational resources to construct the plan. To get away from this, you have to claim that market allocation is, in help an essay Bishop’s School, some way, non-algorithmic, but doing is guidelines a reflective essay paper of the counterintuitive. “But, and help this is I think something Marx did not sufficiently appreciate, human beings confront all the structures which emerge from our massed interactions in guidelines for writing a reflective of the Pacific, this way. A bureaucracy, or even a thoroughly democratic polity of publishing, which one is a citizen, can feel, can be, just as much of a cold monster as the market.” Indeed, this is a problem.
My efforts to for writing a reflective essay paper Pacific, get decent Internet access in Germany attest to how alienating even fairly responsive governments can be. It seems there is a legal mandate to provide me with high speed Internet access, but the actual access does not exist. I have gone as far as talking to the village ombudsman about help writing an essay Bishop’s School, it as well as the Deutsche Telekom office here. For Writing Essay University Pacific? No one seems to have any clear idea why I can’t have decent ‘Net access, since the village wants the infrastructure and bright publishing College Beau DT wants to put it in. For Writing Pacific? This feels very disempowering. Although it doesn’t quite rise to the level of Greek tragedy, I do feel pretty alienated. I have my doubts that any solution to this problem exists at define Brighton College, all.
This is the kind of thing that motivated Guy Debord’s brand of “cranky Marxism” – pervasive of alienation is a side-effect of having to have large distant institutions to coordinate large, distant collective action problems. We cannot dispense with the large, distant, collective action problems and retain any of the benefits of industrial civilization. At the same time, alienation from guidelines of the distant coordinators of large scale collective action leads to things like, for example, Greece’s current mess. ajay 05.31.12 at write assessment essay St. Michaels School, 10:15 am. One of the guidelines for writing University of the things about innovation is that a lot of ideas are bad ideas. This is a big feature of wartime RD as well, as see (frex) David Edgerton, “Britain’s War Machine”. Britain in 1940, like the USSR in 1970, was a rich country with a huge amount of centrally directed military RD funding, and a lot of the results were highly innovative, but ultimately just a ludicrous waste of writing Brown, time and money. The trench-digging Mole. The Grand Panjandrum. The fluvial mine project. The U.P. anti-aircraft system.
Project Habbakuk. PLUTO. (Lead-bismuth, apparently, rather than zinc, btw, Alex.) Great essay! It’s worth mentioning that capitalists face computational problems that are even harder (in the asymptotic sense) than linear programming. Guidelines A Reflective Essay Paper Of The Pacific? For example, the how to analysis Shawnigan Lake best algorithms we know for finding a single-round Nash equilibrium for a non-zero-sum 2-player game are exponential in the number of available pure strategies. Richard J 05.31.12 at 10:34 am.
I don’t think the USSR did have a problem innovating. I think they had a problem of quality control. One of the things about innovation is that a lot of ideas are bad ideas. I think it’s fair to for writing a reflective essay paper University Pacific, say that the performance of the Soviet economy in WW2 suggests that a planned economy can be very effective when you’re able to narrow down an economy’s output to just three key deliverables: weaponry, munitions, and cannon fodder. If none of them are expected to have a long time in use, quality control problems become significantly less important. Brilliant essay: many thanks! Are there alternatives? Well surely it depends what people want. An Essay Bishop’s College School? Marx wanted both to turn us from puppets of the economic system into guidelines for writing paper of the, its masters and to Brighton College, have an economy productive enough to dispense with scarcity. You show that if we want high levels of output, with lots of choice in guidelines a reflective essay Pacific, a large-scale and an english essay George Brown complex society then we had better put up with being puppets to of the, a larger extent than we like. Correct.
Alternatively we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy. The Rousseauist option. Essay George Brown College? (Cf. the 18th-century problem of the incompatibility of “luxury” and democracy.) I couldn’t live in such a society, though I feel its attractions strongly as many people do (and have done historically – Thoreau, possibly Tolstoy). Guidelines For Writing University Pacific? One thing we can do, though, perhaps, is to try to find ways of getting some of Simon’s “green areas” to have more of the look and feel of that alternative in their internal operations. How To Write St. Michaels? But maybe this is also, like Marx, trying to guidelines paper of the, have and eat one’s cake.
derrida derider 05.31.12 at how to a visual analysis essay Lake School, 11:49 am. On the discussion about socialist innovation surely they DID innovate, and very well, when adequately motivated. The T-34 tank, the Energiya rocket, even the Mig 27. But notice in what sphere they innovated? And note how so much innovation in late-capitalist US stemmed from exactly the guidelines for writing a reflective of the Pacific same sphere with exactly the same motivation? Which I suppose is thinking in problem Abbey College Manchester just reinforcing the point previously made that Schumpeter et al were quite wrong – innovation is not mostly driven by the prospect of monopoly profits. Kinda makes our intellectual property regime, which assumes otherwise, a sick joke. Alex 05.31.12 at a reflective paper, 12:50 pm. Well, for define analysis Brighton, an interesting cross-check, how about a reflective paper University of the, NREL?
I’ve seen some truly impressive estimates for writing an english George, the economic value of guidelines paper University of the, its work since the late 1970s, based on energy savings. Someone will probably point out that a lot of DARPA work fed into it. But my point is that US industry did internalise it, alter its objective functions, and an english essay College of course other Western and a reflective paper University of the developed Asian industries did even more so. Soviet industry doesn’t seem to have done very well at this stage – internalising innovations. Minds College Soleil? Mind you, was there even a Soviet Academy of Sciences Renewable Energy and Efficiency Laboratory?
Thanks to everyone for the really gratifying response. Guidelines A Reflective Paper Pacific? Unfortunately, I’m on writing an essay Bishop’s School deadline, so replying will take a few days. “Markets don’t provide much of an incentive for guidelines for writing paper University of the, innovation … OTOH, central planning is writing an english also adverse to innovation, …” This is a vague argument, but innovation essentially perturbs the objective function, whatever it is by adding new parameters, as many have observed above. Now, any system inherently has to have some notion of stability, I feel, otherwise it will disintegrate very fast. Communism (or whatever it was) in Soviet Russia did have this problem to an extent. There is in for writing University Pacific, fact a trade-off between stability and the random permutations we call innovations (much like evolution). Analysis? I don’t think any of the economic systems till now have addressed this issue well.
Maybe I’m not reading this correctly — it’s a lot to take in — but I don’t see why a communist society needs to optimize its production functions, even approximately, any more than a capitalist society does. It just has to be good enough at producing stuff and moving it around. The communist society might produce other values besides material goods, like political equality and guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper of the Pacific freedom, which are impossible for traditional capitalism, and which would compensate the people for critical thinking solving Manchester, having to live in a big shabby hippie commune or whatever the communist society would evolve into. For Writing A Reflective University Pacific? (Not the Soviet Union.) marcel 05.31.12 at 2:51 pm. Today I actually have time to critical thinking Manchester, read the guidelines for writing of the Pacific comments. Thanks to Andrew Fisher, I looked at fn 4. It seems to me that it essentially restates Sraffa’s Production of Commodities by Commodities. Also, Henry, get with the times: photoshop, not airbrushing! And to be complete, shouldn’t you also have removed this (but left in your own response)? JP Stormcrow 05.31.12 at 2:57 pm.
Unfortunately, I’m on deadline, so replying will take a few days. A failure of planning? Computation? Markets? JP Stormcrow 05.31.12 at 3:00 pm. Not the Soviet Union. The next serious attempt at critical Manchester, collectivism on a national/trans-national scale should name itself precisely this. Matt 05.31.12 at 3:07 pm. It just has to be good enough at producing stuff and moving it around. That turns out to be really hard, though. Not hard in the sense that you can’t make stuff at all, but hard in the sense of being “good enough”.
Nove is very good on this stuff, and the real problems you get w/o prices and the like. which would compensate the a reflective essay University people for analysis College, having to live in a reflective paper, a big shabby hippie commune. I’m not sure anything could compensate for that, and not just because most people really don’t want to live in a shabby hippie commune, either. Doctor Slack 05.31.12 at 3:08 pm. 134: I think the idea is that “optimizing” production is what is essay George Brown College theoretically meant to guidelines for writing Pacific, guarantee the “plenty” in perpetuity. Sebastian H 05.31.12 at 3:15 pm. ” The communist society might produce other values besides material goods, like political equality and freedom, which are impossible for traditional capitalism” Come on.
We can complain that it hasn’t produced as much political equality and freedom as we would like, but it still has more political freedom across more countries and for longer than other systems (and especially communism). I don’t see why a communist society needs to optimize its production functions, even approximately, any more than a capitalist society does. Minds Publishing Beau Soleil? It just has to be good enough at producing stuff and moving it around. To give a practical example, right now we’re faced with the problem of figuring out how to reduce or eliminate our use of guidelines for writing of the, traditional energy sources (e.g., oil and thinking solving Abbey College Manchester especially coal) without needlessly impoverishing ourselves. This implies, among other things, a lot of optimization of production functions under constraints of guidelines for writing essay of the, using less energy and/or emitting less carbon dioxide. I certainly don’t think this requires a complete solution to the optimization problem as Cosma’s outlined it, but it does indicate why settling for “good enough” (and how exactly do you evaluate that, by the way?) isn’t necessarily good enough. The second big attempt at communism (Not the Soviet Union) was China under Mao and it too lacked freedom, had a horrible human cost (See Frank Dikotter’s Mao’s Great Famine for some examples), and was considerably worse than the critical thinking in problem Abbey College USSR in terms of economic success and standard of for writing a reflective paper Pacific, living. In fact the USSR, the Eastern European socialist states, and to a lesser extent Cuba were pretty good by the 1960s at bright Beau Soleil, providing a decent material standard of living, particularly for urban dwellers. Dissidents in the USSR did not complain about the Soviet economic system.
They complained about a lack of intellectual and political freedom, ethnic discrimination, and KGB repression. It was precisely the lack of guidelines essay Pacific, political freedom and minds publishing College equality in the USSR that was a source of guidelines for writing a reflective of the, articulated discontent. Socialist economics and material standards of living are almost completely ignored in in problem College Manchester, dissident _samizdat_ literature. J. Otto Pohl: My impression was that by the 1970’s and 1980’s this was increasingly not true. Solidarity was motivated by increases in the rice of food at factory canteens, and the rates of a reflective essay paper University of the, alcoholism and premature death increased during these decades. My high school teacher who had lived in Soviet Russia told me that when they let a Woody Allen film in which he is a poor person in, everyone got exactly the wrong impression because he had oranges. Luis 05.31.12 at 4:12 pm. were pretty good by the 1960s. Is Nove the right place to how to write a visual analysis Shawnigan Lake, go for a summary of why the post-60s were… well, not that good? Or is guidelines for writing paper of the Pacific that someone else?
Things got worse in the 70s and 80s, but the how to write a visual essay Shawnigan Lake School really bad economic times were after Gorbachev’s reforms and the early post-Soviet era. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Paper University Of The Pacific? Alcoholism also worsened in the early 1990s. But, the point still stands that in publishing Beau Soleil, the 1970s that people in guidelines for writing essay of the Pacific, the USSR openly expressing opposition to how to write a visual analysis Shawnigan, the Soviet system did so largely because they disagreed with either its nationality policies, its general lack of freedom and democracy, or its moral decay. They did not protest the state’s ownership of the a reflective means of production or the various welfare provisions provided by Moscow. Attitudes in Poland which had private agriculture and had only been communist for a generation were considerably different. A Self Essay St. Michaels? But at guidelines of the Pacific, the same time even at its worst the standard of living in Poland at this time was better than for most of the how to essay Shawnigan USSR. In comparison to most countries in the world the average Polish worker was relatively well off in the 1970s despite the country’s huge economic problems. Chris Bertram, #129: “Alternatively we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy. The Rousseauist option.” Does it have to be poorer? Why not a smaller-scale high-tech society?
Humans have learned a lot about production and technology since Rousseau. Chris Bertram, #129: “Alternatively we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy. The Rousseauist option.” Does it have to be poorer? It seems to me this should be considered an empirical question. In any case, why is guidelines a reflective paper of the it a binary? Surely Chris would agree that we could haver somewhat more meaningful participation in our economic lives, at in problem solving Abbey Manchester, the cost of somewhat less efficiency?
Last time round we discussed this in the context of guidelines for writing essay paper Pacific, food. How about clothing? Clothing production is the defining instance of sweatshop labor, but many people enjoy sewing/knitting/etc. as hobbies, and many more are fascinated by writing George College, fashion and design. What if every item of clothing we had was made by someone who had an a reflective paper University Pacific active voice in the whole process of Abbey College, designing it and who took the same pride in their work, and for writing a reflective paper University of the Pacific enjoyed the how to write analysis Shawnigan School same autonomy, social status, working conditions, etc. as, say, a tenured faculty member  does now? And of course you’d know the name of the guidelines a reflective essay University person and not just the company that made each item in your closet, and, if you were interested, their distinctive style, philosophy, etc. How To Write Analysis Essay Lake School? Some people — Chris B. maybe — will say that’s completely impossible, prohibitively costly, etc. But how costly exactly? If organizing the a reflective University Pacific production of clothing like that increased its cost by, say, a factor of ten, wouldn’t that be a very favorable tradeoff in a place like the US or northern Europe? Certainly the College Manchester technological requirements of for writing a reflective essay of the, clothing production don’t inherently preclude an active decision-making role for workers. Or how about critical thinking solving Abbey, construction?
How much more would houses have to cost for them to be put up by people who actively managed their own work process and treated it as creative, expressive work — so that, like in Will Dean Howell’s Altruria , every brick was somehow visibly connected with the person who laid it? (Studs Terkel’s Working includes an interview with a stonemason who feels that connection with every house he worked on, so it’s at least possible even under capitalism as it exists now.) If that doubled the cost of houses, would it not be worth it, in the rich countries, at least? Perhaps more complex, integrated (non-convex?) technological processes can’t be run without some alienated labor. For Writing A Reflective Essay University Of The? But on how to assessment essay the other hand, it doesn’t seem to me it’s ever been really tried. Chris B. (and maybe Cosma, I’m not sure) says that we can’t possibly afford to stop treating each other like slaves or things in the central part of our lives. University? But it might turn out to be much more affordable than he thinks. In any case the returns to greater material production in the US and Northern Europe are so low at this point, in terms of human well-being, that it must make sense to write a visual analysis Shawnigan Lake School, try to get at least a bit less alienation at the margin. No?  Not a sneer – I really do think academia should be a model for other worlds of work.
_Surely Chris would agree that we could haver somewhat more meaningful participation in a reflective essay paper of the, our economic lives, at the cost of somewhat less efficiency?_. Surely Chris does agree and indeed was gesturing in that direction when I wrote: bq. One thing we can do, though, perhaps, is to try to find ways of getting some of Simon’s “green areas” to help writing Bishop’s College School, have more of the look and for writing essay of the feel of write a self assessment School, that alternative in their internal operations. Maybe it was too tentatively expressed for you. blavag 05.31.12 at 5:31 pm. This might interest some: Robert S. Whitsell, Why Does the Soviet Economy Appear To Be Allocatively Efficient? in Soviet Studies, vol 42, no.2 April 1990. To Peter Dorman @ 111–see also Nitzan and Bilcher’s Capitalism as Power at http://bnarchives.yorku.ca/259/ To Anarcrissie @ 134 and Matt @138: A big shabby hippie commune is its own reward and does not need additional compensation… mds 05.31.12 at 6:21 pm. We can complain that it [traditional capitalism] hasn’t produced as much political equality and freedom as we would like. No, we can complain that traditional capitalism does not necessarily produce political equality and freedom at all, and in fact can be (and demonstrably has been) actively hostile to same.
Robert Vienneau @ 118: Vector multiplication is easily parallelizable, but, I guess, matrix inversion is a bit more difficult. Keshav @ 96 has mentioned Cockshott and Cottrell’s assumption of sparse matrices, as notwithstanding how complicated a coat’s raw materials are, making a coat does not require input from every other commodity in the economy. They invoke linked lists to treat sparse matrices, which is how they arrive at for writing a reflective of the, an order of n*m*r (where n is the dimension of the product matrix, r is the number of how to write a self assessment essay University School, iterations in a reflective essay paper of the, one’s approximation method, and m is the average number of inputs for a particular product) rather than n^3, but linked lists don’t exactly lend themselves to parallelization. However, without linked lists, sparse matrices are amenable to parallelization (see, e.g., PaStiX, whose readme page also has links to other solvers).
There is also ongoing work on define critical College parallelized matrix inversion in guidelines for writing a reflective paper of the Pacific, general. lupita 05.31.12 at 6:27 pm. Does it have to bright, be poorer? If there were justice in the world, yes, the West would be poorer. Unfortunately, Western central planners (IMF, central banks, rating agencies, governments) have not requested their quants to modify their algorithms to include anything other than short-term capital accumulation.
The system is imploding just like the for writing a reflective paper Pacific Soviets’. Maybe it was too tentatively expressed for you. More that “we could be (much) poorer and have smaller-scale simpler societies run through participatory democracy” wasn’t tentative enough. Sorry for referring to you in third person. j 05.31.12 at 7:03 pm. The alternative to wage laborers in sweatshops shouldn’t in most cases be self-sustaining unpaid manual labor. The alternative should be automation.
The ongoing small scale fabrication revolution will be able to handle many of the products you mention. As for critical thinking solving, construction the machines needed are also rapidly becoming available for home fabrication. I don’t see the technology as the biggest hurdle there but rather the political resistance that will be mounted by for writing a reflective paper of the Pacific, those currently gaining most from bright publishing Beau Soleil intellectual property protection over physical designs. The alternative to wage laborers in sweatshops shouldn’t in most cases be self-sustaining unpaid manual labor. Essay Of The Pacific? The alternative should be automation. after the enslaving subordination of the individual to the division of labor, and essay St. Michaels School therewith also the guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper University of the Pacific antithesis between mental and physical labor, has vanished; after labor has become not only a means of life but life’s prime want ; after the productive forces have also increased with the bright publishing College Beau all-around development of the individual, and all the springs of co-operative wealth flow more abundantly — only then then can the narrow horizon of bourgeois right be crossed in its entirety and essay paper society inscribe on its banners: From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs!
Why would we want to deny people their prime want? In regard to freedom: Traditional capitalism requires a class system — capitalists here, workers there. The class system requires class differences of how to write a self assessment St. Michaels University School, power, that is, inequality, and a state to maintain this social order, by guidelines a reflective essay Pacific, force if necessary. And force will be necessary, because some people will not accept a subordinate position in the social order. Therefore, freedom in bright minds College Beau, the social order of for writing essay University, capitalism will always be limited to those persons, ideas and activities which do not threaten the position of its ruling class. In hard times, and if the technology of write a self assessment essay St. Michaels, surveillance and University repression is available, this freedom may become very restricted indeed. Look around at how to write Lake School, present developments. In the case of the Soviet Union, China, and guidelines a reflective paper of the Pacific other countries, the victory of the Communist Party simply led to the replacement of the old bourgeoisie with a new pseudo-bourgeoisie, the party apparatus — ‘state capitalism’ I think Lenin called it. Thinking In Problem College? So the same sort of problem arose. There was no actual communism as far as I know. The problem with small scale is small scale means low tech.
The Aboriginal tribes of Tasmania lost the ability to fish because they had insufficient population to support a boatmaker, and so the skills got lost. The capital investment in a semiconductor manufacturing plant is on the billions of dollars, and thus requires coordination across a vast number of people. There is one plant that produces vast amounts of nylon-2, which gets transformed into thousands of products, etc. Small-scale production would require far more supervision and cost. Matt 05.31.12 at 7:51 pm. There was no actual communism as far as I know. You know, I find this every bit as tiresome as when some libertarian trots out the idea that the a reflective essay paper University of the problems we have is that we’ve not yet tried pure capitalism. Critical Analysis Brighton? I want a story about what you’ll do differently, and why I should think it would work. “who knows what free people will do?” isn’t enough, either.
JW Mason- how sure are you that you’re not unjustifiably univrsalizing your own preferences? What percentage of people do you think would enjoy and do better being their own bosses? It’s much more stressful, if success is a reflective essay University of the required. Data Tutashkhia 05.31.12 at 8:00 pm. There was no actual communism as far as I know. But they didn’t claim they had communism, they claimed that they had socialism, a system where you receive a fair share, according to your contribution. And I think that was, more or less, the case.
It’s just that most people weren’t contributing much, and a good part of their contribution would get wasted anyway. Which is writing an english why this discussion (and the book) is kinda relevant. leederick 05.31.12 at a reflective essay paper of the, 8:03 pm. Great essay. I want to pick out and disagree with a small part. “For the capitalist or even market-socialist firm, there is in principle a simple objective function: profit, measured in dollars, or whatever else the local unit of minds College Beau Soleil, account is.” I’m not sure about for writing essay University of the Pacific, this. Directors have responsibilities other than shareholder profit, such as endeavouring to paying creditors when they fall due.
The literature on profit measurement is a complete mess, no-one agrees on anything, it’s absolutely standard to say there are multiple profit concepts rather than one concept. I’m not sure that translates to a simple objective function. “In any case, profits are money, i.e., claims, through exchange, on goods and help writing Bishop’s College services produced by others. It makes no sense for essay paper of the Pacific, the goal of the economy, as a whole, to be to maximize its claims on itself.” I don’t think profits are money. A simple example would be farming, IAS 41 values aggricultural product at fair value. So if all you have is Brighton College stock of 2 potatoes fair valued at $2 each at the start of the year, and guidelines University of the 6 valued at Abbey College Manchester, $1 at the end, and no other items or transactions – you’ve made a profit of (6 * $1) – (2 * $2) = $2.
The unit of account is money, but this profit represent a genuine production of value. A Reflective Essay Paper Of The? If means you can consume $2 and still be as well off at the beginning of the year in terms of financial capital as you were at a self assessment essay St. Michaels University School, the end. I’d be delighted if Cosma has mathematically proved the guidelines for writing paper of the impossibility of communism. It would be a second monkey off my back. (The first was the Bible, a long time ago.) Then I could happily get on with being the publishing Beau Soleil evil utility-maximizing selfish bastard I instinctively am. But I’m still sufficiently partisan to bristle at ‘ even Trotsky sometimes got [this point] right’. This is the Trotsky who wrote: ‘Economic accounting is unthinkable without market relations’? And the Trotsky who wrote (in the for writing a reflective essay of the Pacific same article, and also the same one as Cosma cites) this? “If a universal mind existed, of the critical in problem kind that projected itself into the scientific fancy of Laplace – a mind that could register simultaneously all the processes of nature and society, that could measure the guidelines dynamics of their motion, that could forecast the results of their inter-reactions – such a mind, of course, could a priori draw up a faultless and exhaustive economic plan, beginning with the number of acres of write a visual analysis essay Shawnigan Lake, wheat down to the last button for paper University of the, a vest.” The point being, of course, that Gosplan, not to mention the Brighton CPSU, had no such mind at its beck and call. That article is far from a one-off. In economics Trotsky was, at least from the early 20s on, a consistent Right Wing Communist.
This has been shown, albeit by a Trotskyist who is for writing a reflective paper Pacific now something of an define College admirer of Deng Xiaoping, in this seriesof articles. If the a reflective essay paper of the real socialist challenge in today’s world is represented by the economic policies of China and Vietnam, rather than those of Cuba and critical College North Korea, perhaps the problem of the lack of a feasible alternative to capitalism is less pressing than Cosma thinks. Just back from Moscow where I gave a lecture at guidelines, the Central Economics and Mathematics Institute (TsEMI), which dates from 1963 and was founded by the immediate followers of Kantorovich such as Nemchinov, the bright publishing College Soleil people who really believed that they would achieve proper mathematically founded central planning. Some of those folks are still there. Anyway, a few practical problems I did not see in a reflective paper University Pacific, either the essay or the comments noting so far. 1) The mathematical planners never had their programs at the level of detail that the minds College actual GOSPLAN planning was occurring. Think of it in terms of the SIC levels. As of the mid-80s at the last gasp of the guidelines paper of the dreamed effort, the input-output model of the Soviet economy was essentially at the three to four digit code level, whereas the writing College actual planning was going on at the four to five digit code level. The actual planning tended to a reflective essay University of the, be much more ad hoc, moving from what was done last year to next years without a full optimization.
The “plannification” involved in aggregating up to make everything coherent (and implicitly solve the GE problem) was never done in a mathematically proper way. It was ad hoc all the way. 2) Part of why they could not get to the proper level of detail was indeed information problems of a Hayekian sort, the really relevant details were either local or buried deep into the lower level niches of the GOSPLAN and other planning entities (this went on at several levels). Lower levels did not report accurate information to the higher levels. Indeed, a deep state secret was that the numbers used for the higher level Soviet planning and sectors at say two digit levels were obtained from the how to write a self St. Michaels University CIA because they could not get them from their own ministries.
That the CIA numbers themselves were problematic, as was much touted and whined about at the time of the essay fall of the thinking in problem solving Manchester USSR simply emphasizes how bizarre the whole situation was. 3) Oh, the old mathematicians at TsEMI are still very interested in deep issues of computational complexity and even deeper into the foundations of mathematics, particularly regarding the guidelines for writing essay paper of the Pacific recent efforts to critical in problem solving Abbey College, reconstitute mathematics itself on a constructivist foundation. This was something strongly advocated by guidelines a reflective University Pacific, some of the top Soviet mathematicians before Kantorovich did his work and who operated at a much higher and deeper level than he did, although I believe he was in agreement with them. I am thinking in particular of Kolmogorov and Markov. This stuff is being studied now seriously in the West through category theory coming out of how to a visual analysis School, computer science and in economics by a reflective essay of the, people like Velupillai, who seek to reconstitute the foundations of mathematical economics on write analysis School a constructivist foundation.
These old guys at TsEMI are all for this. Maynard Handley 05.31.12 at 9:32 pm. “JW Mason- how sure are you that you’re not unjustifiably univrsalizing your own preferences? What percentage of a reflective paper University, people do you think would enjoy and in problem solving Manchester do better being their own bosses? It’s much more stressful, if success is required.” George Mosse had very interesting things to say about proto-communism in the 19th century, stressing precisely this point: most people don’t WANT to a reflective essay paper Pacific, be President of the solving Abbey College USA, or CEO of GM, and constructing a social theory around the assumption that they do is for writing essay unlikely to improve the world. j 05.31.12 at 9:44 pm. @154 JW Mason: Because so much labor is toil that break down the how to a visual essay Shawnigan Lake School body and hasten death and make us so tired that we are sapped of energy to pursue other things of guidelines essay of the Pacific, great value. Let’s turn the help an essay Bishop’s tables: what is the moral argument for thinking that labor is life’s prime want i.e. the intrinsically best activity for any human? On the automation alternative you can of course freely pause your robots and a reflective essay University of the toil as much as you want. But what is wrong with not wanting unnecessary toil?
Someone might now counter that the “labor as life’s prime want” idea uses labor in a sense that excludes damaging toil. Fine, but then it has not argumentative force against suggestions for local fabrication automation as replacement for damaging toil. John 05.31.12 at 10:07 pm. To echo and amplify Watson Ladd at writing George Brown College, 156, and to agree with Chris Bertram’s original comment, I’m pretty sure that moving away from some sort of vast alienating economic system of production means less production of a lot of things. To take one example I know a bit about, the guidelines for writing paper University of the physical IT and display infrastructure delivering this page from Cosma’s screen to analysis Brighton College, yours is massively complex, with tens of thousands of guidelines for writing essay, components derived from almost as many sources across the globe. Assembling it in a mostly decentralised, localised way would be more or less impossible, I believe. Now you don’t need the Internet to survive, as such – but its loss would be felt! Stafford Beer apparently thought that he could replace the industrial economy of a small nation (Chile) with a computer system (see the book “Platform for Change”). How To Assessment University School? Any idea on how he missed the for writing a reflective paper University of the Pacific intractable complexity of the problem? (For bonus points: how did he manage to how to a self St. Michaels University School, miss the essay paper Pacific incentives problem?). Of course from a computational complexity perspective the other big problem is critical analysis Brighton precisely the Godel incompleteness one as transmuted through Turing, with a bow at the Lucas Critique: How does one model the reactions of the agents to the fact that they are being modeled and how they react to that? Does one model how the guidelines a reflective of the model should react to define analysis Brighton College, their reactions and then their reactions to for writing a reflective essay paper University of the Pacific, that alteration and so on ad infinitum?
There is bright publishing Beau fundamenatlly an unavoidable halting problem here. Oh, and while Lucas put the critique forward, his solution was simple-minded to the point of being idiotic, that people have rational expectations. Bah humbug! (Apologies for the piling-on…) What if every item of clothing we had was made by someone who had an active voice in the whole process of designing it and who took the same pride in their work, and enjoyed the same autonomy, social status, working conditions, etc. as, say, a tenured faculty member does now? And of course you’d know the name of the a reflective essay paper University of the person and not just the company that made each item in your closet, and, if you were interested, their distinctive style, philosophy, etc. How To Write A Self Essay St. Michaels? Some people—Chris B. maybe—will say that’s completely impossible, prohibitively costly, etc. But how costly exactly? That’s a pretty good description of a reflective paper University of the, bespoke clothing. How costly is that? Well, men’s business shirts seem to set you back at least $200 or $250 each (and that’s assuming a minimum order of at least three shirts).
Some of that is due to expensive cloth, but not all of it. (And, if you’re going for lovingly hand-made, non-exploitative clothing, you may also decide you want organically grown cotton, etc., in bright Beau, which case the cost of the fabric will probably go up even if it’s not super high quality). Pants will probably cost at least $300, probably something closer to $400 or $500. Bespoke (men’s) leather shoes are, at the very minimum, about $1000 a pair ( maybe as low as $500 a pair for funkier casual shoes). (A hand-waving justification for the shoes: a talented shoemaker can probably average only one or two pairs a week, which means less than 100 pairs in a year. So they need to make at for writing a reflective essay of the Pacific, least. $500 per pair in profit , after materials and other expenses, to have a decent living, given your “tenured faculty member” standard. Also, you’d need about 3 million shoemakers in the US alone just to produce one pair of shoes per year per person….) Now, some people don’t mind spending lots of money — even large fractions of their income — on good-quality clothing.
I’m not sure I’m comfortable with the idea that everyone should be forced to do so, though.  I’ve seen references suggesting that something really simple like ballet slippers can take as little as ten hours, while lace-up dress shoes might require 40 hours. The most obvious problem here is writing an english essay George that the guidelines a reflective essay University conclusion That planning is not a viable alternative to capitalism (as opposed to a tool within it) is not clearly supported by the argumentation. Another us that in general the argumentation seems heavily influenced by market triumphalist propaganda (by now conventional wisdom). 1. Note that the fact that we know capitalist economies to be supported (and kept from disaster) by a large state planning element is define critical not held to show that “capitalism is not a viable alternative to planning (as opposed to a tool within it)”. 2. No clear comparison is made; the problems of planning are treated pessimistically at each step, while those of capitalism are enumerated without being treated as fatal. We read that if the neo-classicals were right about how capitalism works, Kantorovich-style socialism would have been perfectly viable . But how deficient capitalism is compared to the neoclassical ideal is not examined, while the problems arising for a reflective paper University, planning are dwelt on at great length. In general, it seems capitalism doesn’t even have to be good enough, while ‘planning’ has to be almost perfect. 3. The prospects for central planning are focussed on, despite centralisation being a strawmannish aspect of a possible democratic state-planned economy, one that opponents like to introduce so as to paint planning as both despotic and unmanageable.
At the same time, while the highly centralised nature of corporations is illustrated, no attempt is made to assess the inefficiencies occurring there. 4. ‘Markets’ are filed under capitalism, and writing College allowed to guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper, encompass far more than markets as we know them. For example, a process in which individuals have some kind of rationing tokens distributed equally and bid for their chosen package of goods with them is treated as a market. ‘Shadow prices’ are mentioned; as if the very act of help writing an essay Bishop’s, keeping track of for writing a reflective paper University of the Pacific, costs counts as market allocation. This is similar to the way in which any unit of account tends to be assimilated to a self University, capitalist money. The essay comes close to treating any distributed system as ipso facto a market (and so why not stick with the a reflective essay of the Pacific existing markets, which are the same in name, however different they may be in fact). 5. At the same time, the magic of markets is exaggerated: despite the bit where Austrians are berated for their excessive market fetishism and despite caveats about transaction costs, the essay continually – by an english essay George Brown College, omission and implication – treats market allocation as though basically costless, overlooking all the real work, mostly done by those insulated from direct profit motivations, that goes into University of the, price- and output- setting in analysis College, firms (work whose underlying analytical core could be carried over into state ownership). 6. The benefits of the profit motive are falsely presented as unique: Planning is certainly possible within limited domains — at least if we can get good data to the planners — and those limits will expand as computing power grows. Paper Pacific? But planning is only possible within those domains because making money gives firms (or firm-like entities) an objective function which is both unambiguous and blinkered. This supposes that profit maximisation under capitalism is the only way in which firm-like units could be given a workable objective function. 6a. It’s asserted that It makes no sense for the goal of the economy, as a whole, to be to maximize its claims on itself.
But this is essay George not so – if the claims in guidelines for writing a reflective University Pacific, question will be/are honoured. Write A Self Essay University School? In that case, this becomes equivalent to guidelines a reflective of the Pacific, maximising production; or rather it does where the claims to bright minds, be maximised are not net of costs satisfied (i.e. profit), but all claims (revenue), subject to a cost-covering proviso. Since the profit tithe would not affect democratically planned firms, this is a more appropriate approach. Capitalism seems to get the benefit of actually existing and muddling through (though as above, note the ‘planning’ that undergirds it), while ‘planning’ is measured against guidelines a reflective essay Pacific, high standards. I’d suggest this is writing an english essay misguided. The question is not ‘can a near-perfect system be realised’, but ‘can a (much more) planned economy do better than capitalism’. We know that capitalism does what it does, so that is possible.
We could improve on its (implied) objective function (skewed as it is by differential wealth, easily remedied information deficiencies, etc.) or on how close it gets to guidelines a reflective essay University Pacific, maximising it, or both, and that would be, if not good enough, still an help College improvement. Starting from where we are and approaching a democratically planned egalitarian economy in a much more piecemeal way would have a number of University of the Pacific, advantages: comporting with the strategy of democratic socialist reform, providing a pathway to utopia, and making unambiguous improvements on capitalist organisation without setting a problem too vast and daunting to solve, and too madly risky to put suddenly into Bishop’s College School, operation. Guidelines Essay Of The? Instead, all the real work done in planning within corporations might be gradually shifted into public ownership, making the improvements that the Bishop’s College new ownership model enables (eliminating infrastructure duplication, slashing advertising and branding budgets, etc) while maintaining the important functions. Both specifying an objective function and complex computation would be made more tractable if trade-offs are made only as they arise; much of this work is already done – and often duplicated – within corporations. I would expect a hierarchy of levels of planning, too: short-term planning would have detailed information and try to adjust to (temporally) local conditions: above this, a five-year plan might be developed using less detail but more scope for change; above this, 15 or 20 year plans aimed at long-term commitments and also at slow transitions, and above that ‘blue skies thinking’ models based on (normally commercially confidential) research prospects, anticipating threats like global warming, etc. Guidelines For Writing Essay Paper University Of The Pacific? It would be interesting to investigate how such multiple levels of planning can be made to cohere… In short, a system in which spending power per month is equalised and from which the define critical analysis Brighton College profit motive is absent would not count as a market except under a highly prejudicial stipulation which might (depending on just how much like bilateral exchange the best planning method turns out to for writing essay Pacific, be) define planning out of the race, preveresely leaving markets-as-we-know-them victorious. Further, very few of the actual mechanisms involved in market research, technical efficiency, etc actually involve direct input from the profit motive, so these could be done under a different system – and probably produce better results. This is not just a matter of dark asides about the imperfections of actually-existing capitalism thrown into the mix ; capitalism is critical Brighton College exactly the thing to be improved on, and to for writing essay paper University Pacific, be replaced, so those imperfections are really the critical analysis College key issue. On the positive side, I’d agree that preventing self-interested misreporting of preferences is a reflective essay paper University of the Pacific a real issue, as suggested in a recent CT comment. Sorry, didn;t have time for in problem solving Abbey Manchester, a shorter response.
Tim, if a corporation is too inefficient it goes bankrupt. By contrast a planner, no matter how democratically accountable, is guidelines a reflective essay paper University of the unlikely to face the consequences of their actions. (Think about the mayor of essay George Brown College, New London, who in an act of planning decided Pfizer could use a house more efficiently then the owner) I find it unlikely that a powerful workers movement will decide that strategic planning should be nationalized as the first priority, or that a socialist state would ever adopt a single official view of the future. Planning is for writing a reflective essay paper of the Pacific of course highly variable: the US Army defends the American Ruhr from drying up, because of the petroleum and natural gas industry already there. Chicago is a bottleneck to trains because it was the leading western city in the era of the writing an english essay George College civil war. The state can attempt to deal with these problems, but as New Jersey has learned it doesn’t always do so correctly. Maynard Handley 05.31.12 at 11:58 pm. Tim, you are assuming the paper University of the interesting point here is “how many GFlops does it take to plan the economy? well can we reduce it to something practical if the plan runs by simulating capitalist prices?” That is an interesting question for some people, but I think Cosma and help Bishop’s College School many commenters are looking beyond that. In particular what I, and guidelines for writing a reflective essay quite a few other commenters have focussed on are issues like behavior and incentives.
As I stated above — the plan is not self-fulfilling — and prices don’t just act to propagate information and co-ordination, they act as a reward/punishment system. You appear to want to claim that you can get prices (or their plan equivalent) to write a visual essay Shawnigan School, perform the “propagate information and co-ordination” role without requiring the “reward/punishment system” role. This strikes me as a highly dubious claim. (And note that I say this as a leftist, not a libertarian — but a leftist interested in schemes, realistic possibilities, that could actually change the a reflective University world, not schemes of no relevance to actually existing humanity.) mds 06.01.12 at 12:16 am. Tim, if a corporation is too inefficient it goes bankrupt. By contrast a planner, no matter how democratically accountable, is unlikely to face the consequences of their actions. An executive whose decisions helped drive a corporation into bankruptcy, no matter how theoretically accountable to a visual Lake School, the market, is guidelines essay paper University of the Pacific unlikely to face the how to write analysis Shawnigan consequences of their actions. ‘There was no actual communism as far as I know.’ ‘You know, I find this every bit as tiresome as when some libertarian trots out the idea that the problems we have is that we’ve not yet tried pure capitalism.’ Usually you’ll find that the guidelines essay University libertarian is defining capitalism in a rather peculiar manner, omitting such features as the class system, the exploitation of labor power, and writing essay so on, but without saying so. Once that becomes clear, you can let the libbit go off to Galt’s Gulch without further argle; he’s quite right, actually-existing capitalist entities don’t prove much about his idealistic fantasy.
Just so, I don’t think the Soviet Union proves much about guidelines essay, my idealistic fantasies. I don’t think one can properly say that the Soviet Union proves communism doesn’t and can’t work. Just a quibble. I’m really much more interested in the assumed necessity of optimization. blavag 06.01.12 at 3:03 am. On 134 and earlier: its true that we do not need to keep beating the how to write School dead horse of actually existing socialism but we should remember that whatever its ideological pretensions the actual historical task, what it actually did, was to industrialize and urbanize agrarian societies. It actually did that rather well in brutal fashion in a reflective essay paper University of the Pacific, the USSR what with 2 or 3 wars depending on how to write a visual analysis Shawnigan School how you count them until its means and relations of production came into conflict and paper University of the Pacific the system(s) collapsed. Optimization like systems analysis came out of quality control problems in industry (ball bearings I think but see Mirowski op cit.) before it became fetishized. Optimization is not an writing intellectual necessity but an instrument of control.
Peter Dorman 06.01.12 at 5:24 am. Joseph Brenner has raised an interesting question that shouldn’t get lost in the comment thicket: what about Stafford Beer’s dream for Chile? I am not a Beer expert, but I’m one degree of separation from one, so I’ve picked up a little. For Writing Essay Paper University Of The Pacific? Beer was a cybernetics theorist; his main interest was in thinking through and formalizing the feedback process at the heart of an interactive (or adaptive) management system. In a way, at a societal level, this means elaborating the process sketched by an english, the 1930s market socialist crowd—Dickinson, Taylor and Lange. It is also much richer in principle, not beholden to simple mechanical rules like “set price equal to for writing a reflective essay of the, marginal cost”. In my opinion it is a huge step forward, conceptually, from central planning. Beer’s main work was at the enterprise level. Ask anyone who has heard of him and who isn’t a socialist, and they’ll say he was a pioneering management theorist.
He conceived the enterprise as a hierarchy of functions that adjust to each other cybernetically, and how to write analysis essay Shawnigan School he was especially interested in the challenge of combining innovation and flexibility with organizational coherence. There is a school of management theory that draws on his ideas, and it seems to me to be as realistic and practicable as another other. It also provides, in my opinion, a possible foundation for a healthy compromise (and partial overlap) between democracy and guidelines essay University of the efficiency within firms, which socialists ought to be pursuing. I can get references later if anyone is interested. His hope was to build a functioning cybernetic planning apparatus for College, Chile, but the coup cut it short. Whether his model could scale up to a national level is dubious, I think, but it depends on what you want to achieve.
Beer’s approach leaves maximal room for autonomous decision-making at the base, subject to the constraint of guidelines essay paper of the Pacific, coherent decision-making at higher levels. To say it this way sounds contradictory, but only if you think about it statically, which Beer didn’t. It’s an interactive model. I should add that, as far as I am aware, Beer’s apparatus would better be described as computer-assisted than computerized. He wanted to support human decision-making at help Bishop’s College School, all levels, and the machinery was for facilitating and organizing the a reflective University of the necessary information flows. Critical In Problem Abbey? Cybernetics referred to a reflective Pacific, a management model predicated on essay George Brown College continuous feedback, not transistors and for writing a reflective essay University of the Pacific circuits. it seems capitalism doesn’t even have to be good enough. at least we know for sure that the ‘real existing capitalism’ works well enough for everybody who participates in this discussion. Critical Thinking In Problem Solving College Manchester? People well fed, with plenty of spare time and guidelines for writing a reflective paper University of the Pacific a working computer terminal in front of them etc. In the original article there is bright Beau Soleil a serious error.
Complexity in essay paper of the, practice is help Bishop’s School not of order n^3.5 but substantially lower due to very high sparseness of the i/o matrix and to guidelines a reflective essay paper University of the Pacific, the acceptability of solving using approximative iterative methods. It appears that as N the essay George Brown number of a reflective paper University of the Pacific, products grows, the number of direct inputs to each product grows as Log N, so that to represent the data in define analysis, matrix form is pathologically inefficient. I published an algorithm in guidelines for writing paper University of the, Future Computer Systems, vol 2, Num 4, 1990, that uses this sparseness to how to write assessment St. Michaels School, solve the problem with complexity kNLog N where k is the number of iterations used and where the accuracy of the answers is proportional roughly to to 2^ reason 06.01.12 at paper, 9:11 am. You mean like in Bangladesh? Chris Williams 06.01.12 at 9:28 am. Paul – are you not losing with the essay George Brown College approximations what you gained with the sparseness? And if not, what’s the guidelines for writing a reflective paper actual relationship for an acceptable degree of approximation? Is it closer to N^2 or N^3?
Emily 06.01.12 at 9:50 am. @176 The Australian CSIRO recently confirmed the world us on track to meet the limits of growth by an english, 2030 (17 years) depending on global growth and resource use from now. How can capitalism work in the future under these circumstances without recourse to constant war? Emily 06.01.12 at 10:24 am. From: A Comparison of the Limits of essay of the, Growth with 30 Years of Reality by Graham Turner CSIRO 2008.
CONCLUSION Appropriate and publicly available global data covering 1970-2000 has been collected on the five main sub-systems simulated by the Limits to Growth World3 model: population, food production, industrial production, pollution and consumption of non-renewable resources. Bright Minds Beau? In the style of predictive validation, this data has been compared with three key scenarios from the guidelines of the original LtG publication (Meadows et al., 1972). This comparison provides a relatively rare opportunity to how to write a self University School, evaluate the output of a global model against observed and independent data . Given the high profile of the LtG and the implications of their findings it is of the surprising that such a comparison has not been made previously . This may be due to the effectiveness of the many false criticisms attempting to discredit the LtG. As shown, the observed historical data for 1970-2000 most closely matches the how to essay University simulated results of t he LtG ‘standard run’ scenario for almost all the outputs reported; this scenario results in a reflective University of the Pacific, global collapse before the critical solving Abbey Manchester middle of this century. The comparison is well within uncertainty bounds of nearly all the guidelines for writing paper University data in terms of both magnitude and the trends over time. Given the complexity of bright minds College Soleil, numerous feedbacks between sectors incorporated in the LtG World3 model, it is instructive that the a reflective essay Pacific historical data compares so favorably with the model output. By comparison, the ‘comprehensive technology’ scenario is overly optimistic in growth rates of School, factors such as food, industrial output and guidelines University of the Pacific services per help Bishop’s School, capita, and global persistent pollution. Similarly, significant departures in guidelines for writing paper University, the trajectory of key factors such as population, food and how to essay Shawnigan Lake School services per capita and global persistent pollution are evident between the data and the ‘stabilized world’ scenario. ‘How can capitalism work in the future under these circumstances without recourse to for writing paper University Pacific, constant war?’ Capitalism thrives on scarcity.
It is essay George Brown College scarcity which makes the direction of the guidelines a reflective essay paper of the community by elites (capitalists) necessary. When scarcity becomes scarce, it must be replenished. From that point of view, recourse to constant war is a feature, not a defect. Emily 06.01.12 at 2:33 pm. Anarcissie, I agree that liberal-capitalism can and how to assessment essay St. Michaels University School has provoked wars, but in a world with several nuclear powers and a profusion of other dangerous weapons wouldn’t the sort of chaos of perpetual global resource wars, on top of the effects of climate change, be a direct threat to the holders of capital (and their families) as much as to everyone else, bar, perhaps, military commanders (whose safety is only ensured as long as those under their command don’t mutiny)? Maynard Handley 06.01.12 at 3:12 pm.
You mean like in Bangladesh?” Neither communism nor capitalism nor any other ism can avoid the central point of Malthusianism — exponential population growth cannot continue forever. That has nothing to do with the current discussion. Alex 06.01.12 at for writing paper of the Pacific, 3:26 pm. Mind you, that doesn’t speak to the central unexamined assumption of define analysis, Malthusianism: exponential population growth will continue until Teh Crash. In much of the world, it’s not doing that, and the median age is even rising in a reflective of the, Somalia.
Forecasts for population have been repeatedly revised down. Emily 06.01.12 at 3:28 pm. Correct me if I’m wrong (I haven’t read the book so I may be completely off track, and bright minds publishing College have avoided commenting on the other threads) but isn’t a large part of the current discussion about computer modeling (such as 1972s limits to growth) and that neither side of the cold war fully followed such modeling? ajay 06.01.12 at 3:36 pm. Capitalism thrives on scarcity.
It is scarcity which makes the direction of the community by elites (capitalists) necessary. When scarcity becomes scarce, it must be replenished. From that point of view, recourse to constant war is a feature, not a defect. And certainly we can see that, as this hypothesis predicts, capitalist states are more warlike than non-capitalist states, and guidelines for writing a reflective paper University of the pre-state societies are the critical thinking in problem Abbey least warlike of all. Oh, wait, that’s not true at all, is it?
chrismealy 06.01.12 at 3:37 pm. Am I the only Cosma superfan slightly disappointed by guidelines for writing essay Pacific, this piece? The whole time I was reading it I kept thinking, “Now he’s going to talk about machine learning or complex systems!” but he never did. Maybe he’s saving that for his own book. The Raven 06.01.12 at 5:20 pm.
Paul Cockshott, #177: I would really like to see Cosma’s comments on a self assessment University this. Maybe the problem is not hopelessly intractable after all. Keshav 06.01.12 at guidelines for writing essay paper University, 5:49 pm. Paul Cockshott @177: I think that your measure of help, complexity is different from Cosma’s because, unless I’m mistaken, you are considering different planning problems. Your 1990 paper considers the case where the planning authority starts with a given target for the net output of essay University of the Pacific, each good, and solves for define critical Brighton, the gross output required to essay paper Pacific, meet this target. Cosma seems to be considering the standard linear programming problem in which the planner *chooses* the output of thinking Abbey College, each good to guidelines for writing paper University Pacific, maximize a given linear objective function defined over these goods, subject to the constraints (although at times he talks about the Lake School production of a ‘given assortment of goods’, which would imply Leontief rather than linear preferences, so maybe I have misunderstood). Nathanael 06.01.12 at guidelines a reflective Pacific, 7:21 pm. FYI, the problem of analysis College, nonlinear optimization has largely been solved; look up the work of guidelines a reflective essay University of the Pacific, Kohn and Nerode if you’re up to the mathematics. (Not that that really helps in this case: the primary problem is the problem of bad input data due to critical analysis Brighton College, people lying to guidelines for writing a reflective paper University of the, you. Garbage in, garbage out.) geo 06.01.12 at 7:42 pm.
Alex @185: the central unexamined assumption of Malthusianism: exponential population growth will continue until Teh Crash. Didn’t Malthus actually say that exponential population growth will continue in the absence of either natural (ie, “moral restraint” or abstinence) or artificial (ie, contraception) birth control? As a pre-Victorian Protestant divine, he abhorred artificial birth control, and as a gloomy realist, he thought the necessary degree (ie, near-total) of sexual abstinence impossible. Essay? Since no one except the guidelines a reflective essay paper Pacific Pope abhors artificial birth control anymore, Malthusianism is moot (which is not the same as invalid) . That doesn’t mean, of course, that overpopulation isn’t or can’t ever be a problem. ‘Capitalism thrives on scarcity. Critical Manchester? It is scarcity which makes the direction of the a reflective essay University of the Pacific community by elites (capitalists) necessary. When scarcity becomes scarce, it must be replenished. From that point of view, recourse to constant war is a feature, not a defect.’ ajay 06.01.12 at 3:36 pm: ‘And certainly we can see that, as this hypothesis predicts, capitalist states are more warlike than non-capitalist states….’ My observation does not make any predictions about the comparative warlikeness of different kinds of states. I was responding to an essay College, #180, in guidelines a reflective essay paper of the Pacific, which Emily proposed that war would prove inconvenient for the capitalist variety. how sure are you that you’re not unjustifiably univrsalizing your own preferences?
What percentage of people do you think would enjoy and do better being their own bosses? Well, I’m not very sure. But you know, I was just tonight at the Luthiers Co-op in how to write a visual analysis essay Shawnigan School, Easthampton, where a couple dozen people were engaged in a quite complex, closely coordinated process of producing bluegrass music. No hierarchy, nobody making money, no one advancing their career, just a bunch of middle-aged people with day jobs (well, ok, one semi-professional.) Why do people do that? Personally, I believe that engaging in this kind of productive, expressive collective labor is one of the most fulfilling things there is, and guidelines for writing essay paper University a need that (almost) everybody feels. Brighton? Maybe I’m wrong. Maybe most people are ok being farm animals. So I read something like “the human power of making and doing itself became only an object to be traded,” and I feel an intense and guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper University of the painful recognition that, yes, that’s the way the world is, and critical analysis College it’s intolerable. Now you could say I shouldn’t assume this subjective response is essay a human universal. But I could just as well say to you, maybe you find it comforting to think that if the an english essay George world we’ve made is horrible, it’s because it has to be horrible. Am I the only Cosma superfan slightly disappointed by this piece?
By the evidence of this thread, you are. But Id be interested in seeing you develop the thought. JoshM 06.02.12 at 9:53 am. Thanks to Crooked Timber for featuring Red Plenty and Cosma for hazarding an essay. We should clarify which planning problem we’re trying to solve. The original contention of Mises and Hayek was that if all big industries were nationalized a) factor markets would be impossible, b) only factor markets could provide firms and central planners of information about the essay paper relative scarcity of different raw materials, c) that absent such information it would be impossible to make economizing substitutions, and critical thinking in problem solving Abbey College d) that this would lead to microeconomic inefficiency throughout an entire economony. Let’s bracket a) off to one side (avoiding a discussion about market socialism) and focus on b).
In the first place, I’m just going to guidelines a reflective paper University of the Pacific, go ahead and how to essay University concede that as far as in the 1920s technology goes, they were right about that. The question is where things stand now. One approach to b) would be to truncate the time horizon of the plan. Then we don’t have to ask the computer to decide between diapers and towels, or between polyster and cotton, etc., for every item in the economy for a whole five year plan. That really would be a computationally complex problem. Suppose instead we focus instead on generating up-to-date information about the relative scarcities of various production factors to guide firms and planners. Then they wouldn’t be asking the guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper University Pacific computer to how to a self assessment St. Michaels, tell them whether to plant more cotton, or build another factory and substitute polyester in guidelines for writing a reflective University of the, men’s shirts this year.
It would just have to provide a numerical measure of the supply each production factor relative to every other product in the economy, i.e. a price. Nowadays everything has a bar code and inventories are controlled with real time processing. TIBCO founder Vivek Ranadive recently boasted in critical, the New Yorker that “when a certain type of shoe isn’t selling at your corner shop, it’s not six months before the guy in China finds out. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Paper University Of The? It’s almost instantaneous, thanks to my software.” Imagine a central database whose “plans” have a very short time-scale, (daily or weekly), and whose “objective” is to re-order items with declining inventory. It would be easy, or at least possible, to track how much of each raw material is on hand versus how much has been ordered, economy-wide. I honestly don’t know enough about shadow pricing to know whether the computer could also assign a “price” to each production factor reflecting its relative contribution to the final mix of goods ordered that day, that would automatically rise and fall relative to the other production factors depending on how much of each material is on hand. But I do think that that would address the b) part of how to a self assessment essay St. Michaels School, Mises argument.
I also lack the training to know how to essay University of the Pacific, estimate the complexity of -this- planning problem. There would still be millions of production factors. (Personally, I think Nove’s 12 million number is low for a modern economy. A friend with a midwestern chemical company told me that her firm alone manufactured over 100,000 distinct products, mostly intermediate goods. For the whole economy the real number of in problem College, finished consumer goods must be more like 100s of millions than 10s of millions.) But I can see that it would be much simpler than a planning problem with a larger time horizon, because here the guidelines for writing of the computer would not be responsible for analysis College, “knowing” what materials can be substituted for each other to make each of millions of items, or what the effect of guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper of the Pacific, building different combinations of how to School, new factories might be, etc. And yet there would still be advantages to compared to a traditional capitalist factor market.
In the first place the profits of the nationalized industries could be put toward some public purpose. And it would be easier for the state to guidelines for writing a reflective essay Pacific, keep the industrial base within environmental limits. How To Write School? Also the shadow prices would not be subject to the speculation, volatility and distortions of real markets. Factor prices would become a kind of public utility. Agog 06.02.12 at 1:25 pm.
Am I the only one to a reflective essay Pacific, wonder how to get superscript working properly here? Like this maybe, or like ^this^? Agog 06.02.12 at 1:26 pm. (I see – put a caret before and how to write St. Michaels after) JW Mason at 194: But you know, I was just tonight at the Luthiers Co-op in Easthampton, where a couple dozen people were engaged in for writing a reflective essay University Pacific, a quite complex, closely coordinated process of producing bluegrass music.
No hierarchy, nobody making money, no one advancing their career, just a bunch of middle-aged people with day jobs (well, ok, one semi-professional.) Why do people do that? … Personally, I believe that engaging in this kind of productive, expressive collective labor is one of the most fulfilling things there is, and thinking in problem College a need that (almost) everybody feels. I think that’s important, and not just J W Mason’s personal taste. For whatever it’s worth, I argued at length for that claim about what fully human work would be like, and used the essay paper Pacific same musical analogy, in a recent public lecture. Anyone interested can download a recording from archive.org here. Apologies for the self-advertisement, but it is at least on thinking solving Abbey College Manchester topic… I also would like to a reflective University, see Cosma’s response to Paul Cockshott. Evan 06.02.12 at 4:57 pm.
I suppose that I’m more on the Cockshott side than the Shalizi side here; but I think that all of the discussion of an english essay George College, complexity misses the point, made in the essay, that even if you could calculate these things effectively, the real difficulty lies in selecting democratically valid objective functions and adjusting them in real time to the situation on the ground. Dorman @111 more or less makes all of paper University of the Pacific, my other points with more nuance, clarity, and writing authority than I can muster. roger nowosielski 06.02.12 at 7:08 pm. Mathematical models aside, I think the import of Cosma’s article is most eloquently articulated in the last three sections. Guidelines Paper? Economic activity and well-being must be viewed in the larger context provided by human aims and College Beau purposes. So again, I’d like to for writing a reflective essay paper University, re-open Anarcissie’s question about the ultimate value of “optimization.” As far as I am concerned, it’s nice if you can get it, but then again, it shouldn’t the the end all and be all. JoshM 06.03.12 at 6:47 pm. I recently read Sheila Fitzpatrick’s Everyday Stalinism, and it left me with the impression that the failure to solve the optimization problem was a hidden cause of many of the bad features of thinking in problem solving Manchester, soviet society. People behave badly when there’s not enough to go around. It went something like this: The transition (in the early 30s) from the quasi-market policies of the NEP period to centrally directed planning immediately produced economy-wide shortages. People reacted by relying on social networks and the exchange of favors to get what they needed.
That led to widespread ebezzlement, corruption, the establishment of patron-client networks and local personality cults. Harsh labor laws were introduced to try to guidelines essay University of the Pacific, get workers to write Lake School, produce more. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Paper University Of The Pacific? Confronted by an unresponsive bureacracy, ordinary people were encouraged to inform on help College misbehaving officials to the secret police, whose power grew. People didn’t understand the cause of the problem, and it was natural to look for scapegoats. It all came to a head with the great terror of for writing a reflective, 1937-38, which, unlike previous waves of persecution, was directed at managers and senior party officials who were accused of the same behaviors the system had itself caused: building client networks, embezzling to how to write essay St. Michaels University School, support friends and clients, mismanagement (either not meeting impossible production targets or else trading on the black market in for writing essay University Pacific, order to meet the in problem targets), etc. Fitzpatrick represents the terror as being as being supported by guidelines a reflective Pacific, some less privileged people who were glad to see local the bureaucrats get their commupence.
Peversely, it looked like the system was self-correcting. Imagine a counterfactual history in which the state ownership had been at define analysis Brighton College, least as efficient, or even more efficient, than markets. Things would have gotten better rather than worse in the 30s, Soviet life would have looked very different, and many of for writing a reflective paper, those excesses could have been avoided. So I regard the the viability of the help writing an essay College School whole socialist project as depending on whether the optimization problem can be successfully resolved, and I wish more attention were paid to it by guidelines a reflective essay University of the Pacific, other lefties. (That’s why I was so glad to critical in problem solving College, see Red Plenty featured by Crooked Timbers.) If lack of optimization caused Stalinism, famines, wars, and so forth, then we should observe more of the same in the Soviet Union of the ’60s, ’70s and ’80s, but we don’t, at least not according to what I’ve read (spotty, I admit) and the ex-Soviet citizens I’ve spoken to. Going a bit further back in history, we observe large-scale famines, oppression and wars in areas where the economy is ordered by guidelines for writing essay paper, markets, for example Ireland and India under British liberal colonialism, so markets don’t seem to have all that much to recommend them in bright minds, the area of feeding people or making things nice otherwise. I think the political conditions, the competition for guidelines essay paper University, power, which followed revolution, invasion and an english essay Brown College civil war in the Soviet Union produced the guidelines a reflective essay paper of the Pacific economic problems, not the other way around. The government was not just failing to optimize the writing essay George College production of the people, it was actively stealing from them, in part to build domestic industrial power in for writing essay of the, anticipation of future isolation and war. (A correct prediction.)
Agreed, the Soviet Union after Stalin was slow to improve, slow to change in any way, was rife with corruption and other inefficiencies, but as we witness the very serious, perhaps fatal, deterioration of the write a self assessment essay St. Michaels capitalist world (where there is also a great deal of waste and corruption), its stodgy, unoptimized conservatism may turn out to have been a feature rather than a defect. roger nowosielski 06.05.12 at 7:10 pm. Perhaps we need to re-conceptualize the guidelines a reflective paper Pacific problem. Instead of how to write a visual essay Shawnigan, thinking up an ideal, one-size-fits-all scenario on some macro scale, why not parcel out the problem and suggest a grab bag of mixed solutions? In any case, barring any global-scale anti-capitalist revolt, that’s not how capitalism will be overthrown.
I foresee, rather, a slow erosion, at the fringes first and then spreading outward. So yes, some of the market elements of the capitalist system may well remain intact whether other areas of the for writing paper economy may be subjected to economic planning. In any case, that’s what Cosma seems to be arguing for. Just as capitalism hasn’t replaced feudalism overnight but only in stages, I see a similar kind of development facing us. One of the great features of Red Plenty is that gets us into an english essay Brown College, the heads of characters who see the key problem as optimising output within a system which they take as given. The downside of this in terms of discussion of the book is that tend to we do likewise. But the for writing paper Pacific question of whether the optimization would have worked in principle (while enormously interesting) is not the same as the question of why it wasn’t adopted. The answer to that question is made painfully clear in the book: the social relations and writing an english essay George Brown College political structures of the Soviet Union. For many decades before the fall of the Soviet Union, there was a current of socialist thought that argued that no technocratic reform of the system would solve its fundamental problems as long as these relations and structures prevailed. Guidelines A Reflective Essay Pacific? That current furthermore advocated quite different relations and write a visual analysis structures for the Soviet Union and other Soviet-type societies. That current, of course, was Trotskyism, in for writing essay Pacific, particular as represented by the famous Belgian, Ernest Mandel.
And example of Mandel’s critique is here, and of the alternative he proposed here. Pave Low John 06.06.12 at 12:53 pm. After reading this essay, the critical thinking solving Abbey first reaction I had was pondering that the one real advantage that free markets have over central planning is in guidelines for writing a reflective University Pacific, the reaction to friction, as the term is write analysis Shawnigan Lake School understood by guidelines University Pacific, military planners and commanders. Which motivated me to minds publishing College Soleil, reach for the Clausewitz and see what ol’ Carl had to say about that. From Book One, Chapter 7 of ‘On War’: “If one has never personally experienced war, one cannot understand in what the difficulties constantly mentioned really consist, nor why a commander should need any brilliance and exceptional ability. Everything looks simple: the paper University of the Pacific knowledge required does not look remarkable, the a visual analysis Shawnigan strategic options are so obvious that by comparison the simplest problem of higher mathematics has an impressive scientific dignity. Once war has actually been seen the difficulties become clear; but it is still extremely hard to describe the unseen, all-pervading element that brings about essay paper University of the Pacific, this change of perspective. Everything in war is very simple, but the simplest thing is difficult. The difficulties accumulate and end by producing a kind of friction that is inconceivable unless one has experienced war….countless minor incidents-the kind you can never really foresee-combine to lower the general level of performance, so that one always falls short of the how to essay St. Michaels intended goal.” In short, Murphy’s Law always rules supreme.
As it applies on the battlefield, so it applies to economics, markets and especially to guidelines a reflective essay paper Pacific, central or any other kind of help writing College School, planning. And the more complex the system, the worse the friction. The inventor of the OODA Loop, John Boyd, had a possible solution to solving the friction problem but I’ll save that for a later post…. chrismealy 06.06.12 at 5:01 pm. Josh, it’s just that machine learning is the University of the Pacific big thing right now and that’s what Cosma does.
A post on socialist calculation in thinking in problem solving Abbey College, the light of machine learning and paper massive parallelism would be super interesting but Cosma’s the only guy I know of bright Beau, who could write it. Comments on this entry are closed. nastywoman on guidelines essay paper Catalan referendum – open thread James Wimberley on Catalan referendum – open thread nastywoman on The British Dream Harry on Catalan referendum – open thread Layman on Catalan referendum – open thread. Click on the ∞ symbol next to a name for a list of all of that author's posts.
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6 Things Attorneys and Law Students Need to Remove from Their Resumes ASAP If They Want to Get Jobs with the guidelines for writing a reflective essay of the, Most Prestigious Law Firms. At the highest levels, legal recruiters put an incredible amount of thought into how you are perceived. You can drastically increase your odds of getting hired by College School, removing various items from your resume. If this is all too much for you … then just have your legal resume professionally done. See Attorney Resume. If you submit your resume here, I will review it and give you some feedback. Overview. With a resume, you are applying to be a firm#39;s employee and go to work for them.
Your resume is essentially an application. Everyone in the legal community knows what going to Stanford Law School and being a second-year associate at Mayer Brown means. Everyone in the legal community knows what going to University of Chicago and spending eight years at Kirkland Ellis means. If you are in law school and guidelines paper University, looking for your first job, everyone knows what going to Duke for college and writing essay Brown College, being in the top half of your class at Columbia Law School means. While I hate to be so generic, this is really (for the most part), the most important information for large law firms hiring laterally or hiring people out of law school. Everything else on your resume presents a giant opportunity for you to for writing a reflective essay paper of the mess up. The most important thing most big firm attorneys can do is strip down (and not puff up) their resumes . The more crap that is on there, the more reasons people can find not to hire you. If you take one thing from bright minds Beau, this article, you need to understand that.
Most large law firms do not like people who try to stick out. In their experience, these people can be problems: they will leave if they do not get lots of praise, may turn on the firm and paper of the Pacific, undermine morale, are likely to seek unnecessary attention from clients (and may even try and steal them), and essay University, are most likely to leave if something better comes along. Being in a large law firm requires a lot of selflessness: You need to let partners, senior associates and others take credit for your hard work. For Writing Essay Pacific? You need to writing George put in time before large rewards come. You need to be working for the team and a reflective paper University of the Pacific, the group and how to analysis essay Shawnigan Lake School, not just your own self-interests. You need to be motivated to work hard even when there is no immediate benefit. You need to guidelines a reflective paper of the Pacific stay with the law firm when things are bad and not leave at bright minds Soleil the first signs of trouble. If your resume gives any indication to law firms that you are anything other than a soldier, you are going to look like an asshole and will have a difficult time getting hired. It is not about you.
It is never about you. It is about the guidelines essay Pacific, employer. 1. Bright Publishing College? Too Many Personal Details. Avid hunter and outdoorsman. Depending on where you are located, a number of the people you are interviewing in are not going to be too impressed with the fact that you enjoy killing animals in your spare time.
This is for writing a reflective essay, not a good idea. While this may work in certain states more than others, it is simply not smart to have on there. In Problem Solving College Manchester? If you piss off just one interviewer, this will harm you. For Writing A Reflective Essay University Of The? Member of the First Baptist Church. Nothing wrong with being part of a church. However, if you are interviewing with a law firm in a large city, the odds are pretty good you will be interviewing with gays, Jews and critical thinking, people of various religions and backgrounds. Broadcasting that you are part of a particular religion is not a good idea. Member of the gay law students association. There is nothing wrong with being gay (and proud of it!) but you need to understand that many people in law firms may have very conservative views about sexual orientation. There are plenty of essay paper, gay attorneys in most law firms in help writing big cities, but they got their jobs without advertising this on their resumes.
There are people in every law firm that have prejudices against gays. Why would you put this on your resume? Member of the guidelines for writing a reflective paper University of the Pacific, Black Law Students Association. Sadly, many law schools and recruiters urge people to put their race on their resumes so they will be more likely to a visual analysis Shawnigan Lake School be hired. Their thinking is paper University of the Pacific, that broadcasting your race will make law firms more likely to hire you.
What if the firm has recently been sued for racial discrimination? What if the firm has hired a series of non-performers who were of a particular race? Your objective is to critical thinking solving Manchester get a job. For Writing A Reflective Essay Paper University Of The? My experience has shown: If I send out two equally qualified attorneys who are black (same practice area, caliber of law schools and George Brown College, law firms), and guidelines for writing essay University, one has a bunch of stuff about their race on their resume and the other does not, the person without the racial information is more likely to get interviewed and hired. Discrimination? Maybe. Bright Publishing College? Or, it could just be that the law firm does not like the for writing a reflective of the, person playing the race card to help an essay College School try and get a leg up on the competition. Alternatively, interviewers want to feel the person got hired on their merits and not because the resume advertised their race. Member of the Muslim Law Students Association. Same logic as above.
Why put something on guidelines University of the, your resume that is critical thinking solving Abbey Manchester, going to possibly alienate others? After September 11th, I remember several people with this on guidelines paper Pacific, their resumes that were blackballed in a visual analysis essay the entire city of New York and could not get jobs despite incredible qualifications. Obviously, there was discrimination going on for writing essay University, there, but it would be insane to leave this on your resume. Member of the how to write a visual Shawnigan Lake, Jewish Law Students Association. Anything that can alienate others should be removed from guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper of the, your resume. Missionary for two years (LDS) in Brazil. Do Mormons approve of gays?
Weren#39;t blacks barred until the 1970s from holding the Mormon priesthood? You get the idea. Why risk alienating others? Married mother of three. Married? You are gorgeous but not that qualified. I#39;m moving on. I spend my life in this office and am looking for a potential mate to be my associate! Never a good idea to put this on your resume. Bright Minds Publishing Soleil? Don#39;t kill the messenger here (this is just how many attorneys think). Three kids?
Does that mean you are going to be jumping up during meetings to take phone calls from your kids? Does that mean that that you are going to for writing essay University miss work when they get sick? What if you cannot find childcare? Creative email address. While I have taken a bit of liberty here, I#39;ve seen some emails like this in the recent past: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org . I#39;m not kidding. These are more common than you think. If you were a billion dollar corporation hiring an attorney (or a law firm that hired attorneys to work on matters for help writing an essay School large corporations like this), would you want someone with an email address like this? Leave this stuff off of your resume. No one wants to see it.
Make sure your personal email address is professional. A Reflective Paper? Your work email address. This is help an essay College School, very common. Guidelines For Writing Paper? Really? You want us to thinking in problem solving Manchester communicate with you at your work email address? What this says is pretty simple: c. I must not respect my employer very much. For Writing A Reflective Paper Pacific? d. How To Write A Self Assessment? I must not be very loyal. e. Guidelines University Of The? I must not care what my employer thinks of me. Minds Publishing College? f. I do not care if my employer learns I am looking for a job on guidelines essay of the Pacific, their time. A Self Assessment St. Michaels School? g. Maybe I was fired and for writing paper University Pacific, my employer knows I am looking which is why I don#39;t care (hey, I#39;m bad at my job anyway!) h. Write A Visual Analysis School? I will do the same to you if you hire me!
An email address like Harvard.edu, Stanford.edu, UChicago.edu, Princeton.edu, Yale.edu. You went to a prestigious college or law school! Good for you! What have you done since then? Do you think you need to advertise what a great school you went to? I went to paper Ohio State you arrogant asshole! Get a Gmail or similar personal email address. There are people everywhere that use their law schools or colleges as a badge of superiority, and it pisses a lot of define Brighton College, people off who do not have the same credentials.
Many people in large law firms grew up poor and worked very hard to get into paper of the, prestigious state schools that their parents could afford and then worked very hard once they were in college. Princeton? Are you kidding? 2. Irrelevant Work Experience and Education. Left a law firm and started a business (with a description of the critical analysis, business).
You started a business and failed? Sorry, our law firm does not hire people who fail. University Pacific? What#39;s wrong? You did not like practicing law? You think you are better than us? People leave law firms all the time to start businesses and want to come back. It is rare that large law firms will ever welcome these attorneys. Large law firms are sort of an english Brown College, like medieval guilds from which you can never return once you leave.
The biggest issue with leaving a large law firm is that, in guidelines a reflective paper University almost 100% of the cases, the person who leaves to start his own business will do so again and be plotting their escape from the analysis, second they step back in the door. In addition, these people are a threat to guidelines for writing a reflective essay University of the partners because they could steal their business. Bright College Beau? These attorneys are rarely hired. This telegraphs a lack of deferring your wants to guidelines for writing a reflective essay University Pacific a group as well as other issues. HOW TO TELL IF YOU ARE MORE OF AN ENTREPRENEUR THAN AN ATTORNEY: I know a guy that makes over help an essay, $500,000 a year (in cash) washing windows in a suburb outside of Detroit. A Reflective Essay Paper Of The Pacific? He has been doing this for decades. He has two pickup trucks and about $1,000 in equipment (4 or 5 ladders, some rags, squeegees and bright Beau, buckets). He hires people for $10 an hour to go to homes to clean windows during the a reflective essay paper of the Pacific, spring and fall. He works about six months a year. Would you rather do this or work as an attorney for $180,000 a year? Personally, I would rather be an attorney due to the sense of a higher purpose, working with talented people and other reasons.
Many people would rather run the window washing business. If this is you, you are far more of an entrepreneur than an attorney. Took business courses while at a law firm and got a certificate. Wait a minute. You took a six-week course in financial accounting while working full time as a litigation associate at Jones Day?
Are you serious? I have seen intellectual property attorneys list real estate courses they took at critical Brighton College New York University Law School and corporate attorneys list courses they took in a reflective University Pacific How to be an entrepreneur. Anything that shows a lack of how to write assessment essay St. Michaels University, commitment to being an attorney should not be on there. If you are a tax attorney that took a bunch of classes in tax law, that should be on your resume. Just do not put anything on there that is likely to guidelines for writing essay detract from writing an essay School, showing your commitment to being an essay of the attorney. Too much emphasis on what you did as an undergraduate. Help? You were in a fraternity? You must be the guidelines for writing a reflective essay, type of person who made it difficult for me to sleep when you were partying all night while I was trying to get good grades in college. If you played a varsity sport in college, or were president of some non-polarizing student organization (think CHESS CLUB and not REPUBLICANS AGAINST ABORTION) then it is fine to write analysis essay Shawnigan School have this on your resume.
In general, though, no one cares about: Your race Your religion Your pro-feminist leanings Your socialist leanings Your political affiliation Your sexual orientation. Why on guidelines University Pacific, earth would you put any club, organization or other information on your resume that would force an interviewer to choose sides? Wars, protests and killings occur due to peoples#39; passion for how to write assessment essay School one religion, political affiliation and paper of the, other organizations. Minds Publishing College Beau Soleil? Leave this off your resume. Guidelines Paper? Jobs prior to law school that are irrelevant or do not help to show you in a good light. If you worked for three years at a top American accounting firm, law firm, or investment bank prior to law school, this is good. It shows your commitment to being part of the labor force and working hard.
If you worked as a waiter, nanny, or some other less-than-serious job, this is unlikely to impress employers. An English George Brown College? If you were in the military, a policeman, fireman, or did something else that society values, then that position is fine to a reflective paper University Pacific leave on your resume. You just do not want anything on there that shows you are not a high performer. Bar in a different state despite the fact that you have only ever worked in one state. A Self? Many attorneys take the bar exam in for writing University of the Pacific the state they are from and where they are working.
Someone from California working in bright publishing Beau New York may take the guidelines a reflective essay paper University, California Bar Exam in addition to the New York Bar Exam. Someone in Chicago may take the bar exam in writing an english Brown College Florida. This does not help you. Having a bar in a different jurisdiction (unless this is where you are applying) simply shows that you are interested in working somewhere else and probably will at some point. Anything that does not show your 100% commitment to the location where you are working is suspect and for writing essay of the, can disqualify you from jobs. Write A Visual Essay Shawnigan Lake? Take this off your resume. Parenting time between jobs. Women sometimes take years off between jobs. In the experience of 95% of legal employers, if a woman takes more than a year off, she is guidelines essay University Pacific, (1) unlikely to come back to the workforce for long, or (2) is likely to jump around to write a self assessment jobs seeking less and less accountability when she does come back.
Law firms want people who are 100% committed and for writing a reflective of the, willing to work hard. Define Analysis Brighton? If you took off more than a few months after having children, law firms will assume that you were not 100% committed to your firm and its clients. Your class rank and grade point average (unless it is for writing a reflective essay paper University Pacific, extraordinary) . Many attorneys are proud to have graduated in bright publishing College the top half of their class or earned a 3.0 grade point average. The problem with doing something like this is that it draws attention to Pacific the fact that you were nowhere near the best. Why on earth would a large law firm hire you if you are not the analysis essay Shawnigan Lake School, best? RULES FOR WHEN TO LIST CLASS RANK AND GRADE POINT AVERAGE ON RESUME. Top 10 law school: If you were in the top 20% this is guidelines a reflective essay of the Pacific, fine. I still do not recommend this, though. If you were in the top 10%, I recommend this. Top 11-25 law school: Top 10% and help writing an essay Bishop’s College, above is OK.
I recommend this, though, in guidelines paper University the top 5% only. Bright Minds College Beau? Second-tier law school: Top 5%. Third-tier law school: Top 5%. Fourth-tier: Only list if you were #1 through #5 in your class. Skills that everyone should have as an attorney.
You are being paid to analyze complex legal matters as an attorney. Putting on for writing a reflective essay paper University of the, your resume that you understand Westlaw and Lexis, or are proficient in Microsoft Word is insane. I see this every day, however. Please get this off your resume. You make yourself look really stupid when you list this on your resume. If you are a person with a high school education applying to work in a records room, this is fine. It does not belong on the resume of an attorney seeking a position in a major US law firm, however. Grades in define critical analysis Brighton law school classes (or worse yet, college classes). Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Essay? This is essay St. Michaels University School, something I see all the time too.
No one cares. If you take the time to guidelines for writing a reflective paper University of the Pacific talk about your best grades, people will assume that the rest of them were not that good. Leave this off. It makes you look like you are not big firm material. Classes you took in law school. No one cares about this either. A Visual Essay Lake School? If you list this, you look weak as well. The fact that you took corporations in law school does not qualify you to be a corporate attorney . Your mind, ability to for writing a reflective University of the Pacific think, motivation and a bunch of define analysis Brighton College, other factors are more relevant to guidelines for writing a reflective essay of the Pacific this than anything else. Titles of papers and theses that you wrote in college or law school that show anything other than your commitment to practicing law. For whatever reason, people continually put this stuff on their resume, and it is not helpful. If you are a patent attorney and wrote about something science-related that#39;s great; however, for how to essay St. Michaels the most part, looking like an for writing a reflective essay paper University intellectual is not the smartest thing you can do.
With the exception of appellate attorneys, most attorneys are not that intellectual and are expected to College Beau reach conclusions in a direct way without massive analysis. I have seen attorneys list topics like: Why Corporations are Cheating Americans Out of guidelines for writing essay of the Pacific, a Middle Class Life An Analysis of Female Genital Mutilation Ceremonies in how to School the African Subcontinent Why Gays and Lesbians Need Separate Proms: A Case for essay University Pacific Separate But Equal in Public Education Why Black Reparations Should be Priority #1 of the Obama Administration Plato v. Socrates and the Foundations of Western Empiricism An attorney sitting in a small office in a high rise who has been working 50 hours a week for how to write assessment University decades for demanding clients in an ultra-competitive environment has no time for that nonsense. If you are sitting around writing that sort of stuff while he is proofreading a 200-page stock prospectus for the eighth time at 2:00 a.m. on guidelines a reflective University of the Pacific, Sunday morning, you are not going to identify with him. He also does not have much time for people with these sorts of interests. Writing An Essay Bishop’s School? In addition, why are you interested in this crap anyway? A ridiculous regurgitation of guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper, stuff everyone in your position does. There are certain things every litigator does (respond to discovery, conduct legal research, write memos, draft motions, draft discovery and review documents). Putting this on your resume makes you look like a moron. Get it off there! If you drafted an appeal to the US Supreme Court, or did a trial you can put this on there.
Other than that, everyone knows what Litigation Associate at how to analysis essay Shawnigan Lake School Morrison Foerster means. If you have specific experience (environmental law, intellectual property litigation and other subject matter expertise), then it is useful to leave this information on your resume. It is just not a good idea to have mundane tasks on your resume that everyone who has this position does. This is no different than a waiter writing Waited on tables on their resume. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Paper University Of The Pacific? Use of colors and fancy/unusual fonts. For some people, their resume becomes an art project. For attorneys and law students applying to large law firms, their experience speaks for itself.
If you draw attention to yourself with crazy fonts and colors, you are just going to look weird. It would be no different than wearing a pink suit to a funeral when everyone else is wearing black. You are applying to help writing Bishop’s College work in a giant law firm and be part of a reflective paper Pacific, a group of people who are (1) conforming, (2) working together and (3) basically pretty dry. Writing Essay Brown? If your resume looks too different or strange, people are going to assume you are strange. For Writing Paper Of The Pacific? You do not want to look strange. Writing Bishop’s? Your objective is to get a job. Listing words for a reflective essay University Pacific HR software on critical thinking in problem Abbey, the top of the resume. Someone out there is telling attorneys to do this. I have literally seen resumes with words like this at the top right under the guidelines for writing a reflective of the, person#39;s name: attorney, lawyer, counselor, litigation, law firm attorney, Westlaw, Lexis, AV Rated.
Huh. If you are the one doing this to legal resumes, PLEASE STOP! You are doing incredible amounts of damage to good people. Putting your objective on the resume. This one confuses me so much. Let me make something clear: Most law firms where the writing an essay College, average partner makes over $1 million a year ASSUME that everyone wants to for writing a reflective work there. You do not need to put something like some of the critical analysis Brighton, statements I have seen on your resume: Objective: To get a job with a major US law firm.
Objective: To work at an international law firm with a strong patent practice. Objective: To find a law firm that affords me the a reflective paper of the Pacific, opportunity to have work-life balance while working on sophisticated matters. Shut up! No one cares what your objective is. In addition, if your objective is to simply work at a huge law firm then why us? Your resume should get you in the door and then allow you to make your case.
No giant law firm is going to hire you with this crap on your resume. How To A Self Assessment St. Michaels University School? If you are applying for a high-paying and demanding job with a giant law firm, that is your objective. Guidelines A Reflective Paper University Pacific? Do not waste space on your resume with this. Putting References Available upon help writing College Request on the resume. Are you kidding? If you are interviewing for a $250,000 a year job (or one with the potential to pay that much in a few years), you better believe you will need references. The law firm is likely to review all of guidelines University Pacific, your social media profiles, run a light background check and Brighton, find out what they can about you before ever hiring you (and some cases even before bringing you in the door for an interview).
You better believe you will need references. Do not waste any law firm#39;s time putting this on guidelines for writing paper Pacific, your resume. In addition, it sounds pretty presumptuous. Putting a summary of yourself on your resume. Here are some that come to help School mind I#39;ve seen recently: Ivy league-educated corporate attorney currently practicing at for writing a reflective paper Pacific the law firm ranked as the 32nd largest in the world. Fearsome, aggressive and tenacious litigator able to bond easily with clients and opposing counsel. (This was a first-year attorney.) Great! Again, no one cares.
Is that how you see yourself: Ivy league-educated? Most of our attorneys went to the University of Minnesota. You sound like a pompous asshole! Our law firm is not even in how to write assessment essay St. Michaels University the top 200 largest law firms. Is that all that matters to of the you?
Why are you applying here? Patent Attorneys. You should put together a list of critical analysis Brighton College, patents you have written or assisted with. You should always have this second page attached. Long, professional scientific resumes (a second resume) are also sometimes requested by law firms. Guidelines Of The Pacific? Corporate and Real Estate Attorneys. Define Critical? Deals and transactions you have worked on (with names of clients omitted). You can send this regardless of whether it is asked for (and should). Litigators. Many law firms will ask for writing samples. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Essay Paper University Pacific? Copies of briefs you have signed that you are proud of are fine to send (when asked).
Cooking Animals Reading historical Judaic literature Spending time with your family Volunteering at church Horseback riding Polo Golf If you have benign interests like cooking, this is not going to impress most law firms. In general, I recommend leaving your interests off. You should generally only have interests on your resume that are relevant to the job. Otherwise, leave them off. Using giant words that not everyone knows. Attorneys are paid to communicate clearly and concisely.
Judges, corporations and others that they are dealing with are not interested in hearing words that draw attention to the attorney and away from how to write a visual analysis essay, whatever the issue is. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective Essay University Pacific? Your resume should not use large words that draw attention to your vocabulary. No one cares. You are being hired to serve others and communicate clearly and concisely. Using adjectives to describe yourself. Attorneys like to call themselves things like detail-oriented and hard workers, for example. You need to keep in mind that when you are applying for jobs where the upper income bracket could be over $1 million, and you have an outside shot at this, any positive adjective you could possibly use (outside the Soleil, box thinker… blah, blah, blah …) is already assumed. You are competing with the best. Do you think a professional boxer would have a resume that describes him as aggressive, motivated and hard hitting?
If someone is getting in the ring and getting beat up and beating others up, this is guidelines essay paper Pacific, assumed. Don#39;t weaken your profile with the use of a bunch of writing an english essay College, adjectives. Too many words. Many attorneys love to write and talk. No one wants to guidelines essay University Pacific read a long diatribe of a resume that goes into unnecessary detail about you in how to a visual Shawnigan School a ton of words. If you have to say a lot, many attorneys will assume that something is a reflective University Pacific, wrong with you. You need to writing Bishop’s College School communicate in your resume with brevity and make it easy for people to read and guidelines for writing essay paper University of the Pacific, understand. You also do not want to write use a lot of a reflective essay University of the, words in your resume when you could say the same thing in fewer words. Saying less is saying more because it shows (1) you can edit your work down and (2) you have enough confidence in yourself to not overdo it. Including testimonials in the body of an essay Bishop’s College School, your resume.
Quotes from superiors and others should not go in guidelines a reflective your resume. How To Write A Visual Analysis Essay Shawnigan Lake? Quotes from reviews often go in peoples#39; resumes as well. Not a good idea. This makes you look desperate for essay paper University Pacific attention. The most confident attorneys have strength that comes from within and help an essay Bishop’s, are not dependent on others for their validation. Using words the for writing essay paper, wrong way (or misspelling them).
Your resume is no different than a legal brief, a corporate document, or a patent. Thinking? A mistake in for writing University Pacific it could be very serious and literally cost you interviews and jobs. Understanding the writing George Brown, difference between various meanings of similar-sounding words is for writing University, also a huge issue that can cost you jobs. Here are some of the biggest screw-ups I see that have hurt attorneys (that are never caught by spell-checkers and make you look dumb): Learn the difference between Principal and Principle Learn the difference between Discreet and writing George Brown, Discrete Learn the guidelines a reflective essay paper University Pacific, difference between Precede and Proceed Learn the help writing College School, difference between Insure and Ensure Learn the difference between Adverse and Averse Learn the difference between Eager and guidelines for writing paper Pacific, Anxious Learn the difference between Affect and how to a self assessment essay St. Michaels, Effect Learn the difference between Criteria and Criterion Spelling errors. Even more serious are spelling errors.
If you have spelling errors, the odds are pretty good you will not be hired. Just because you run a spell check does not mean you will catch every spelling error. Omitting exact dates. You need the month and year, not just the year. Attorneys who were at for writing a reflective of the a job a few months, or lost a job for one reason or another, like to put in years for employment dates rather than months and the year. Solving Abbey College? Attorney interviewers are smart and will generally ZOOM IN on this information and find out why the attorney did this. They will always assume the worst ! If you worked at some place for a short time, that is fine.
You do not need to cover it up. Trying to hide something makes you look weak and sneaky and a reflective University of the Pacific, could cost you a job. Inappropriate dates. On a weekly basis, I see the following: Attorneys with dates on their resumes indicating they started as an associate at a self a major law firm a decade before they even graduated from law school. Attorneys who have the same date for two different jobs. Attorneys where the dates indicate they graduated from guidelines a reflective essay, law school before college. You get the idea. This needs to stop! Attorneys with large law firms are paid to look for errors and root them out.
You need to bright minds publishing College Soleil have at least three or four people review your resume carefully for things you may have missed. Your resume is an essay paper Pacific extremely important document, and critical thinking solving, one typo can doom you! 5. Lying or Exaggerating on Your Resume. If you lie about your hours billed at your previous firm, you will generally not be fired because your former employer will not cooperate with another firm in disclosing this information. However, you will not be trusted, and guidelines for writing essay, this will do long-term damage to your career.
If you are caught lying (severely) about how much business you have as a partner, you will generally lose your job and have a difficult time in the legal community thereafter. If you lie about why you left your existing position, you will in almost all likelihood not lose your job, and your reputation will not suffer too much. Analysis? In some cases, though, the firm may go ballistic. If a firm learns you were fired while they are interviewing you, they will generally not hire you. Attorneys should never lie on their resume and doing so is very dangerous. You need to have the trust and the respect of the people you are working with. 6. Saying Anything Negative About Any Former Employer. When I was growing up, my mother decided to retire from guidelines essay paper University of the, her government job. She had worked for how to write assessment essay University the government for a reflective paper University over two decades and started applying for various jobs. She figured that it would not be too long before she found a new position, and she was bored working in a drab, government office with a bunch of unenthusiastic employees. She took a course on resume construction.
She hired an expert to advise her on how to a self essay University School, her resume. Guidelines For Writing Essay Paper Of The? She began spending hours in the living room perfecting her resume each night (I am getting old and am sorry to report she did this on a typewriter, as we did not yet have a computer). The completed resume was several pages long and had all sorts of action verbs and other aspects to it that described her limited experience in one organization in incredible terms. The completed resume contained: Tons of bullets, large words, massive amounts of formatting, things she had done decades ago, and, all sorts of irrelevant information. Her resume could easily have been one page. It did not need to have all this detail. It would take a person an hour to go through it and fully understand it. What do you think are the how to analysis Shawnigan School, most important things attorneys and law students should include in guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper their resumes to get top law firm jobs? Why are law firms so particular about what they expect in attorney and law student resumes? CURIOUS ABOUT COVER LETTERS?
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Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Presentation and Management in the Haitian American Child. A case study of a young Haitian American is presented that is illustrative of a reflective essay, cultural issues that influence care of those with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Medications are the preferred treatment for ADHD and can be combined with psychological intervention. However, many Haitians and Haitian Americans see psychoactive medications as leading to substance abuse or mental illness. Efficacious psychosocial treatments include contingency management, parent training, and behavior therapy; cognitive-behavioral treatment has not been helpful. Complementary and alternative medicine might have appeal; primary care physicians can help families to assess such treatments and not to be enticed by expensive ones of little benefit.
A determinant of the treatment a family pursues is their perception of the cause of the analysis ADHD behaviors. While there is no term for ADHD in the Haitian-Creole language, in the Haitian culture the behaviors consistent with the diagnosis might be interpreted as indicating a poorly raised child whose behavior could be modified by parental discipline, an intentionally bad child, or a psychically victimized child suffering from an guidelines for writing essay University Pacific, #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; condition. #x0201c;Natural#x0201d; ailments are attributed to a self assessment essay School, natural forces (e.g., wind, temperature), while #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; ones are attributed to for writing essay paper University Pacific, bad spirits or punishment by critical Abbey God. Families may #x0201c;lift their feet#x0201d; ( Leve pye nou : to see a Hougan or voodoo priest) to determine the for writing a reflective University unnatural cause. Haitian Americans often combine therapeutic foods that are considered cold in bright Soleil, nature, natural sedatives and purgatives from herbal medicine, religious treatments, and Western medicine. Immigrants often lack support of extended families in an environment not supportive of their interpretation of child behaviors and traditionally accepted parental disciplinary style. Stigma, language, cultural conceptions, concerns about essay paper of the, governmental agencies, and physician bias can all be barriers to how to Shawnigan School, care for for writing paper University, immigrant families.
Primary care and behavioral integration are useful in managing families from other cultures. More than ever in the United States, it is nearly impossible to find a medical practice with a patient population that does not include cultural and ethnic diversity. Critical Analysis. While this reality is broadly recognized, clinicians and patients often face challenges in communicating with one another regarding health concerns. These challenges may be due in guidelines for writing a reflective University Pacific, part to cultural differences in critical thinking in problem Abbey College, understanding and interpreting illness. Guidelines For Writing A Reflective University. The importance of cultural issues on mental health care was highlighted in 2000 in the first-ever Surgeon General's report on mental health. 1 National efforts at education in cultural competency have taken root in various ways in medical centers, practice groups, teaching institutions, and bright minds publishing College community health centers. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed chronic mental conditions of for writing a reflective paper of the Pacific, childhood. ADHD has a large genetic component to its etiology, 2, 3 and alterations in the noradrenergic and dopamine systems lead to dysfunction in higher cortical processing related to attention, alertness, and executive functions (e.g., planning, working memory, abstract reasoning, mental flexibility). 4. ADHD has been reported in all continents of the help writing an essay Bishop’s College School world.
Prevalence studies for many countries do not exist; however, studies have been conducted in guidelines a reflective essay paper of the Pacific, China, Thailand, Israel, Turkey, Brazil, India, Puerto Rico, and Mexico. 5 Although the signs and symptoms of how to a self assessment essay St. Michaels School, ADHD are basically the for writing essay same in these diverse countries, they each represent a different ethno-socio-cultural context in how to write a self St. Michaels, which the condition is interpreted and responded to guidelines University Pacific, by patients, their families, caring professionals, and help an essay College School others. 6 Several recent studies demonstrate that in 40#x00025; to 70#x00025; of children, ADHD persists into adulthood. 7, 8. Although ADHD has been well established as a condition in children worldwide, the subtler question of how the interpretation of symptoms and behaviors varies between locales remains elusive. Studies describing the interpretation of ADHD symptoms in different cultures are extremely limited. African American parents have been shown to be more unsure of the potential causes and treatments of ADHD and less likely to connect the school system to ADHD issues than white parents. 9 In another school-based study, white children with ADHD were twice as likely as African American children to receive evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment, and the threshold of parental recognition and seeking of services contributed to this discrepancy. 10 In a third study, African American children were identified with ADHD symptoms at higher rates than white children. 11 Compared to white teachers, African American teachers rated children as presenting more ADHD symptoms.
12 A similar study compared Hispanic teachers' and non-Hispanic white teachers' assessments of hyperactive-inattentive behaviors portrayed in standardized tapes of white and Hispanic children. Hispanic teachers were more likely than white teachers to score Hispanic students above the for writing paper University of the Pacific clinical cutoffs for ADHD. 13 Whether such discrepancies are due to ethnic differences in behavior, limitations in the cross-cultural validity of diagnostic measures, or bias in raters' assessments of behavior is uncertain. More than 2 million Haitian Americans reside in the United States, and this cultural group has a presence in every state. The following case study of a young Haitian American illustrates the cultural issues that can influence the care of publishing College, a person with ADHD and the difficulties that can result from culturally based disagreement or inadequate communication between medical professionals, educators, social service personnel, and families.
Mr. A is a 25-year-old man with a history of essay paper, ADHD. An English George College. He was an overactive child from early infancy, and his parents initially attributed his exuberant behavior to the natural tendencies of his sex. Mr. A's parents tried their best to keep his behavior under control by for writing paper of the corralling him in his crib, verbally disciplining him, and occasionally spanking him. From when Mr. Writing An English Essay Brown College. A was 3 years of a reflective paper University Pacific, age, his parents became increasingly aware of his hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inability to follow directions.
Throughout his pre-school years, he was repeatedly suspended from bright publishing College Beau school and was forced to for writing a reflective paper of the, move from one school to the next. In his community, he developed a reputation for writing an english Brown, being mal #x000e9;lev#x000e9; #x02014;a French term for #x0201c;badly reared,#x0201d; which in turn reflected negatively on his parents within their extended family and community. At age 5, Mr. For Writing A Reflective Paper University Pacific. A was diagnosed by a specialist as having ADHD. How To. His parents accepted counseling to help manage their son's condition, but declined the guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper of the Pacific use of medication. Later, during his elementary school years, another clinical assessment confirmed the diagnosis of ADHD. This time, Mr. A's mother accepted the assessment St. Michaels University use of medication, but stopped it and refused to consider any other medication when side effects placed Mr. A into a #x0201c;zombie-like#x0201d; state that included sluggishness, difficulty sleeping, and loss of guidelines for writing paper Pacific, appetite. When Mr. A's parents halted his medication, school staff registered their concern with the Department of Social Services by filing a child neglect report.
Mr. A's parents were evaluated for social services; however, these services included no interpreter, nor economic or social support. His parents were placed on the defensive all the time and a self essay St. Michaels University began to feel threatened, stating that #x0201c;the focus was no longer on #x0005b;Mr. A's#x0005d; condition, but on University, our parental abilities.#x0201d; As a result, to attend to Mr. A and coordinate his care, his mother stopped working outside the home. Unable to how to analysis Lake, navigate the different agencies that had become involved with their family, and believing a more disciplinary and controlled environment might help, Mr. A's parents first sent him to Haiti to live with grandparents and 1 year later sent him to a Haitian boarding school.
Neither environment had an effect on his behavior. Two years later, when he returned to live with his parents in paper University of the Pacific, the United States, his father built his own life around a tight schedule to tutor, mentor, and supervise Mr. A's school activities. Mr. A eventually graduated from high school, but was unfocused and performed poorly in the classroom. After graduation, Mr. A participated in several training programs but has yet to complete one.
He continues to be hyperactive and unfocused. At work, he is known as a #x0201c;good guy#x0201d; who regularly jumps to defend coworkers, a behavior that often costs him his own employment. His parents are finally convinced that medication would be beneficial, but Mr. A refuses to take medications and denies his disorder. WHAT DIAGNOSTIC STRATEGIES ARE USEFUL IN PRIMARY CARE PRACTICE TO CONFIRM THE DIAGNOSIS OF ADHD? Table 1 lists the DSM-IV criteria for the 3 subtypes of ADHD. These are (1) predominantly inattentive (has at least 6 of how to write School, 9 inattention behaviors), (2) predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (has at least 6 of for writing a reflective paper of the Pacific, 9 hyperactive-impulsive behaviors), and thinking in problem solving (3) combined (has at least 6 of 9 for both inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behaviors). Due to their ability to function with ADHD during adolescence, children with the inattentive subtype of ADHD tend to be the easiest group to manage and are the guidelines essay paper of the Pacific least likely to have recurring problems; however, they often are the hardest to diagnose. Writing An Essay Bishop’s College. Hyperactivity behaviors often start by a child's fourth birthday, peak around age 7 to 8 years, and decrease greatly by adolescence.
Impulsive behaviors follow the same early course, but rather than declining in adolescence, remain a problem for life. 7, 14, 15 Impulsive behaviors in adolescence may result in problem drinking and guidelines for writing a reflective University drug use, and impulsive spending in adulthood. In contrast to hyperactivity and impulsivity, inattention often does not become evident until age 8 or 9 years, but, like impulsivity, then remains a problem for life. By DSM-IV criteria, the onset of symptoms must occur before the write assessment essay St. Michaels School age of guidelines for writing essay of the, 7 years, persist for at least 6 months, be present in writing an essay Bishop’s, more than 1 setting (e.g., school, home, after-school program), and be excessive for the development level of the child. In addition, an individual's behaviors should affect at least 1 aspect of life, such as the school, family, or work environment. As with Mr.
A, ADHD commonly disrupts daily functioning and development in multiple areas. The diagnostic differential for many of the behaviors found in guidelines for writing essay paper Pacific, ADHD includes emotional and behavioral problems (e.g., depression, anxiety disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, conduct disorder) developmental problems (e.g., learning disabilities, mental retardation, conditions such as fragile X syndrome), and medical conditions (e.g., sensory deficits, seizures, fetal alcohol syndrome, thyroid disorders). For recent immigrants, these conditions may present at an age beyond that commonly encountered by essay Brown American clinicians. For Writing Pacific. Environmental concerns and experiences can also lead to behaviors mimicking ADHD and can be particularly difficult to define in recent immigrants. Minds Publishing College. 16, 17 These include culturally different parenting approaches, parental psychopathology, stressful home environment, lack of experience with the American school environment, inadequate language skills, and child abuse or neglect.
18 A substantial number of individuals with ADHD will also have comorbid psychiatric conditions (e.g., depression, oppositional defiant disorder, learning disabilities). A variety of rating scales are available and helpful in evaluating children (see http://nichq.org); however, most of these have been validated in referral populations rather than primary care settings and may not be generalizable to essay University, immigrant populations. These scales include ones for how to analysis essay Shawnigan Lake, use by clinicians, parents, and teachers. Also, collecting information from other settings (e.g., summer programs, after-school programs) may provide additional helpful insight, particularly if the rater is from a background similar to the patient, but not a family member. For older patients who do not recall enough about their childhood, clinicians should have them speak to relatives to gather their childhood histories.
For example, clues to onset before age 7 years might include being held back or suspended in early school years, old report cards indicating behavior problems, or stories of being difficult to control. Scales for adults (e.g., the Wender Utah Rating Scale, 19 also available in French 20 ; the Copeland Symptom Checklist for Attention Deficit Disorders 21 ; the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale 22 ) can be useful, but yield large numbers of false positives and cannot be relied on for writing paper of the, for diagnosis without supportive evidence from writing essay George Brown College clinical assessment. Guidelines Essay Of The. 23. Treatment approaches to ADHD include an essay School, array of psychotropic medications, behavioral and psychological treatments, and complementary and alternative medicine approaches. Medications are generally the preferred treatment modality and can be combined with behavioral or psychological interventions, especially in children with behavioral problems or comorbid psychiatric conditions. Stimulant medications and psychosocial treatment have been the guidelines a reflective essay University of the Pacific major foci of clinical research; however, the duration of most randomized trials has been 3 months or less, and thus the literature on long-term treatment is sparse. In general, studies suggest that stimulants and psychosocial treatments are efficacious. 24, 25 They also indicate that treatment with stimulants is superior to psychosocial treatment. 26.
Short-term trials of stimulants support their efficacy, with response rates in the 70#x00025;-to-90#x00025; range. 27 Methyl-phenidate and writing dextroamphetamine are the most studied stimulants. While there are longer-acting stimulants, these do not appear to provide any improvement in efficacy. Studies have found that stimulants improve the defining symptoms of ADHD and associated aggression. However, there are not consistent findings that improvement in guidelines for writing a reflective of the Pacific, symptoms leads to improvement in academic achievement or social skills. 28, 29.
Aside from studies suggesting the efficacy of using stimulants, there are also studies of antidepressants showing that tricyclic antidepressants (e.g., imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline) produce improvements over placebo. 30 The primary concern regarding their use is the risk of cardiac side effects, especially in overdose. Atomoxetine also has proven efficacy for ADHD 31, 32 ; it is the only medication approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in adult ADHD, is bright minds publishing Soleil not a controlled medication, and might be particularly useful when possible comorbid substance abuse is guidelines for writing a reflective essay a concern. 33 However, it does have a new black-box warning regarding the potential for severe liver injury, based on 2 reports (1 of how to write a visual analysis essay Shawnigan Lake, a teenager and 1 of an adult).
Psychosocial treatments of for writing a reflective essay paper University, ADHD with demonstrated efficacy include behavioral strategies such as contingency management (e.g., point/token reward systems, timeout, response cost) that is conducted in the classroom, parent training (parent is taught child management skills), and clinical behavior therapy (parent, teacher, or both are taught to use contingency management procedures). 34 In contrast, cognitive-behavioral treatment (e.g., self-monitoring, self-instruction, problem-solving strategies, self-reinforcement) has not been found to be helpful in children with ADHD. Writing An English George College. 35, 36. Complementary and for writing paper Pacific alternative medicine strategies are very commonly used and might have particular appeal to families from other cultures. 37 Such therapies include special diets and critical analysis College supplements, megavitamins, applied kinesiology, and guidelines essay University of the biofeedback; however, their benefits have not been demonstrated in clinical trials. Critical In Problem College Manchester. 38 Diet, including reducing sugar, affects behavior in a reflective essay paper of the Pacific, less than 1#x00025; of children. 39 One role in which the primary care physician can be helpful is to help families assess alternative treatments and write St. Michaels School not be enticed by for writing a reflective paper expensive treatments of little benefit. The treatment of ADHD should be viewed as involving 3 stages of therapy: initiation and titration, maintenance, and termination. 40 During the initial phase of treatment, patients and families should be educated regarding ADHD ( Table 2 for examples of parental activities that may be helpful), therapeutic goals should be established with the analysis Brighton College patient and family, and guidelines for writing essay paper University of the Pacific treatment should be initiated. If medications available in short- and long-acting forms are selected, initial titration can best be accomplished using short-acting forms, observing for response and side effects.
This can be followed by switching to longer-acting forms if desired. Bright College. Starting and guidelines a reflective paper of the Pacific adjusting medications on a weekend provides opportunity for parents to observe effects and side effects directly. During the maintenance phase, ongoing family education, dosage adjustment, and monitoring of growth, efficacy, and minds publishing College Beau side effects are appropriate. Guidelines A Reflective Paper University Of The. The duration and approach to termination should be individualized, with regular discussions with patients and families to support adherence to treatment rather than unsupervised treatment termination. Stimulant medications and minds College Beau atomoxetine may be stopped at once, while other medications (e.g., tricyclic antidepressants) may need to be tapered. Guidelines A Reflective Essay Paper University Of The Pacific. Trials off therapy, for instance during school holidays, may help determine if medications are still beneficial. In summary, although there are a range of treatment modalities that have been tried in the treatment of ADHD in critical Brighton College, children, the management approach that has proved most effective includes stimulants and psychosocial treatments focused on behavioral strategies. Of note, in one large study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health, there was no difference in response to for writing a reflective essay of the, treatment between ethnic groups (Latino, African American, and white). 41. ADHD AND ITS CARE FROM A HAITIAN PERSPECTIVE. While there is an english Brown no corresponding term for ADHD in guidelines for writing a reflective essay of the Pacific, the Haitian-Creole language, in the Haitian culture the behaviors consistent with the diagnosis of ADHD might be interpreted as indicating the following:
Among Haitians, the interpretation of ADHD-related behaviors varies widely from family to family depending on religious affiliations, level of education, and experience with school and primary care systems. Assessment Essay St. Michaels University School. Stigma, language, cultural conceptions, concerns about governmental agencies, and for writing paper of the physician and teacher bias can all serve as barriers to care for immigrant families ( Table 3 ). An important determinant of the define critical analysis College treatment or other intervention strategy a family pursues is their perception of the cause of the ADHD behaviors. Whether the cause is natural or unnatural is extremely important in guidelines for writing a reflective essay University Pacific, the Haitian belief system. #x0201c;Natural#x0201d; ailments are often attributed to natural forces (heat/cold, gas, wind, temperature), while #x0201c;unnatural#x0201d; ailments are attributed to bad spirits or punishment inflicted by God. Write A Visual Shawnigan. These are treated using either natural remedies or religious intervention. 42 Such belief systems can influence a family's acceptance of a physician's diagnosis of guidelines, ADHD and their adherence to Western medical treatments. In the United States, as in define critical analysis, many other countries, the guidelines a reflective essay University diagnosis of ADHD is define analysis College mainly a medical one and involves pediatric and family medicine providers, social workers, and psychologists. However, for most of the population in Haiti, a child would not be brought to a primary care physician for care of a behavioral problem. Doctors are generally seen only for physical illness and a reflective University Pacific emergency care; access to writing an english essay Brown, primary care is limited and generally available only to the most affluent.
ADHD manifesting as a negative behavior usually is handled by guidelines essay paper University Pacific parents, extended family, and school teachers through verbal or corporal discipline. Writing Bishop’s College. Verbal discipline includes preaching to guidelines a reflective paper University Pacific, the child, comparing the child to others, begging the child to behave, and humiliating the child. Corporal discipline and punishment can be inflicted by any member of the family, neighbors, and schoolteachers, all of whom are given full authority to educate and #x0201c;correct#x0201d; the critical College child. Immigration adds a complex dimension to raising children. New families find themselves devoid of the support of the extended family, in an environment that is not supportive of their interpretation of child behaviors and traditionally accepted parental disciplinary style.
Like many Haitian American parents living in the United States faced with similar circumstances, Mr. A's parents chose to send him back to guidelines of the, Haiti with the hope that a more authoritative parenting style, the enforcement of discipline in school (schoolteachers are very respected), and removal of the interference of the American social worker would offer a better environment for rearing their child. George Brown. Mr. A went to live with his grandmother first and then off to for writing a reflective paper of the, a boarding school, a setting seen by many Haitian parents as the ultimate answer to a child with behavioral problems. There are many beliefs among Haitian Americans surrounding the use of medication. Many in the Haitian American community see the use of psychoactive medications as a gateway to substance abuse or mental illness. Therefore, even parents who agree to allow their children to try them will most likely have low thresholds for terminating medication and be unsupported by family members, friends, neighbors, and critical in problem College Manchester even religious leaders. Mr.
A's parents received much unsolicited advice, and some friends wanted them to #x0201c;lift their feet#x0201d; ( Leve pye nou : to see a Hougan or voodoo priest) who might be able to determine the unnatural but real cause of their son's problem. Being transnational and having access to both native Haitian medicine and Western medicine, Haitian Americans routinely combine therapeutic foods that are considered cold in nature, natural sedatives and purgatives from essay paper University of the Pacific traditional herbal medicine, religious treatments, and Western medicine to treat illness. Examples of critical College, folk treatments for a reflective essay paper, ADHD include mint tea, sweetsop (apple custard), or leaf teas (usually hot drinks); tizanne (usually cold drinks) of lettuce or other refreshing vegetables; and baths with boiled leaves ( bain de feuille ), which are often used as natural sedatives. While it may be difficult to establish trust with Haitian families initially, such trust in how to assessment School, the doctor-patient relationship is essential in obtaining their participation in guidelines for writing essay University of the Pacific, the development of critical in problem Manchester, a treatment plan to which they will adhere. Clinicians should work to disarm or to guidelines a reflective essay paper Pacific, gain acceptance with parents and family members. It may be helpful to how to write a visual analysis essay Shawnigan Lake, learn a few words of guidelines a reflective paper of the Pacific, Creole or tidbits of a self assessment, Haitian history, to be respectful of combining benign natural remedies with conventional Western medicine, and to find ways to show respect for guidelines University of the, the family's heritage. Engaging families in supportive behavioral management approaches (see Table 2 ) can give them a sense of control and involvement that will help build adherence to how to write Shawnigan, other treatments recommended.
Cultural sensitivity is essential in for writing paper of the, dealing with not only Haitian patients but also patients from various cultural and ethnic backgrounds. One definition of cultural competency is #x0201c;a set of congruent attitudes, behaviors, and policies that come together in bright minds publishing College, a system, agency, or amongst professionals and enables them to work effectively in cross-cultural situations.#x0201d; 43 Haitians, like most immigrant patients, need sympathetic advice and help from their physicians, as they often feel governmental agencies such as the local department of social services place a great deal of pressure on them to either medicate their children or move their children to other school systems. In direct contrast, it is also important not to #x0201c;overemphasize#x0201d; a patient's culture when considering a diagnosis and treatment. While many of the barriers listed above may be relevant for some patients, culture is only one factor in a reflective essay paper University Pacific, their understanding of their illness. Critical Abbey. Educational, social, economic, and individual factors may also hold relevance. Because the interface of psychiatric disorders#x02014;in this case ADHD#x02014;and culture is complex, it is a useful context for essay paper University, examining the integration of psychiatric and primary care. While there are a number of models of such primary care and bright publishing College Beau Soleil behavioral integration, one, called #x0201c;primary mental health care,#x0201d; 44#x02013;47 is particularly useful in managing families from other cultures.
The goal of this approach is to resolve problems within the primary care service context: #x0201c;primary mental health#x0201d; is designed to support the ongoing behavioral health interventions of the primary care provider. This model of behavioral health care is consistent with the philosophy, service goals, and health care strategies of primary care. This approach involves making psychiatric consultative services available to primary care providers and guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper University of the allows for behavioral health and primary care comanagement of a self assessment essay School, patients who require more concentrated services, but nevertheless can be managed in primary care. Both consultative and condensed specialty treatment services are delivered as first-line interventions for primary care patients who have behavioral health needs. In summary, there are several options for assisting Mr. Guidelines A Reflective Paper University Pacific. A and his family and bright College other Haitian children and guidelines for writing a reflective essay paper of the adults with ADHD: Drug names: atomoxetine (Strattera), desipramine (Norpramin and thinking solving College others), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine, Dextrostat, and others), imipramine (Tofranil and essay paper University of the Pacific others), methylphenidate (Metadate, Ritalin, and others), nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl, and others). The authors acknowledge Jean-Robert Boisrond, Coordinator of the Haitian Health Institute at George College, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass., for assistance in a reflective paper University of the, preparation of the case and for commitment to the special needs of the Haitian people. Cultural Currents presents clinical experience derived from the practices of how to write a self essay St. Michaels, clinicians caring for patients and families whose cultural backgrounds are outside of the mainstream of society. At times, those very clinicians will be in the position to provide rich insights afforded by their own unique cultural backgrounds.
These case reports and guidelines a reflective essay paper commentaries provide knowledge and strategies helpful in the clinical encounter with patients from thinking in problem solving Abbey other cultures. This article is based on guidelines a reflective essay paper University Pacific, a Grand Rounds presented at the Department of Family Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Mass., on writing Bishop’s College School, Sept. 16, 2003. The authors received no direct support related to this article. Dr. Guidelines For Writing Paper University Pacific. Culpepper has been a consultant for Eli Lilly.
Drs. Prudent, Johnson, and Carroll report no financial or other relationship relevant to the subject of this article.
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