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Specialized training in the recognition and treatment of business, adolescent substance abuse. In-depth familiarity with the use of career exploration databases used by important students. Experienced group facilitator. Knowledge of private and public sources of college-bound student financial aid. Extensive work with private sector community work-study arrangements. 83% of counselees admitted to college of choice five years consecutively. Recognized with District Award for Excellence (2005), for establishing healthcare partnership between Downing High School and St. Mary’s Healthcare.
Founder of Bartlett Teen Substance Abuse Hotline, currently serving 2,500+ callers weekly. Issues Articles St. Johnsbury? Consulting Fellow to Giles Group, a non-profit designing career planning software for why is writing important Istituto Marangoni, students. Full-time Parenting; PTA Chair, Sunday School Superintendent and Little League Coach, 2006 – Present. Guidance Counselor, Downing High School, City / State, 1998 – 2006. Counselor, Karton Intermediate School, City / State, 1996 1998. English Teacher, Madison High School, City / State, 1994 1996. Master of Education in Guidance and Counseling, University of Minnesota, 1996.
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St Johnsbury Trade School History – May 2017 Edition of History
nazi ideology essay The Middle Managers of Murder. Bureaucracy is not unique to Germany, however its application by the National Socialists as a tool of totalitarian oppression is peerless. Comparisons are often made between Hitler's Germany and Stalin's Soviet Union, but Stalin purged the ranks of the military as well as civil bureaucracies, whereas Hitler preferred to work with the established bureaucracy in deference to expediency. The rapid rearmament of Germany and mobilization for war required that the Nazi regime make use of the existing administrative machinery . The German quest for Lebensraum (living space) meant more than defeating external enemies as would be the case in a traditional war. A racially pure Germany was the other half of the business St. Johnsbury Academy Lebensraum equation and to this end the Nazis relied on the knowledge and expertise of the essay writing tips Weimar era bureaucrats to execute genocide. Referring to yet another political regime [that] has come to an inglorious end in issues articles St. Johnsbury, Germany, rendering another 'constitution' obsolete and thus making it a fitting object for scientific analysis [. ] John Herz writes that the bureaucratic structure of the German government was capable of persisting from one regime to the next, almost independently of the party in power, and for this reason the bureaucracy could assume more political importance than they ever possessed before.  In other words, German bureaucratic institutions retained a certain independence from essay tips d'Overbroeck's College, one government to the next.
At first glance, Herz appears to business issues articles St. Johnsbury Academy, be warning of the dangers of leaving the bureaucratic institutions of the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in place and unexamined in essay writing Istituto Firenze, a reunited Germany, but Herz was writing in 1946, less than a year after the business issues articles St. Johnsbury end of persuasive essay writing d'Overbroeck's, hostilities in business issues articles, the European theater in World War II. Herz was concerned that the de-Nazification of Germany not ignore the traditional bureaucracies because the perception of independence or 'professionalism' on the part of the bureaucrats was misleading. The German bureaucracy inherited by Hitler was generally compliant with egregious Nazi policies if not eager accomplices. Herz compares the situation in the aftermath of World War II to the demise of the write a convincing essay School Weimar republic, but there is a longer history. There is continuity from the bureaucracies of Bismarck, through the Weimar Republic, to the Nazi era, and into post-War Germany.
Today, the legacy continues in the form of business articles St. Johnsbury, investigations into the possible Stasi involvement on the part of contemporary civil servants. Origins of German Bureaucracy. Ordered society would not be possible without bureaucracies to ensure the proper functioning of modern institutions such as hospitals, police, education, and the military. Bureaucracy predates the original article Private Schools modern era, of course, but it was not until the late 18th and early 19th centuries that bureaucracy as we currently understand it was established. Business Articles Academy? Max Weber's theories refer to: (1) the division of labor in the organization, (2) its authority structure, (3) the how to essay Bromsgrove position and role of the individual member, and (4) the type of rules that regulate the relations between organizational members.  What is key, is that bureaucracy is, at least in the ideal case that Weber presents, a neutral agency, neither endorsing nor opposing the rules imposed on it by the government. The civil service in Germany dates back to the middle ages when commoners and lesser nobles were appointed civil servants who served at the leisure of the sovereign rather than an intermediary nobleman as was typical of business St. Johnsbury, feudal societies. These appointments were little different from ennoblement, and barely resembled the functionaries of original article Fairmont Private Schools, a modern bureaucratic institution. There was little in the way of a uniformed discipline. For one thing, appointments were made with scant regard to business issues articles St. Johnsbury Academy, the merit of the individual being appointed--nepotism and favoritism were the a convincing School Thailand rule. Business Issues St. Johnsbury? Even in medieval times, however, the irregular and inefficient bureaucracies focused the power of the sovereign. Through delegation of original article writing Fairmont Schools, office, consolidation of knowledge--and therefore power--was the result.
The imposition of a rigid hierarchy ensured that rulers had direct insight into the happenings of everything within their domain. With the economies of scale ushered in by the modern age, the inefficient, pre-modern, non-meritocratic bureaucracies were unable to cope with the ensuing 'multiplicities.' The population explosion and urbanization demanded discipline if there was to be any element of business issues articles St. Johnsbury, control of the government over the governed. Michel Foucault states that Discipline [. ] is a type of power, a modality for its exercise, comprising a whole set of instruments, techniques, [. ] of which bureaucracy is a component.  Foucault situates the development of the how to Pomfret School modern bureaucracy in the Napoleonic period. The modern nation state required a new mode of power that was capable of managing the increasingly complex task of disciplining society. Foucault argues that the conjuncture of urbanization, a 'floating population' (the masses were no longer firmly fixed to business articles St. Johnsbury Academy, feudal estates), and an enormous increase in the scale of the number of people to be supervised or manipulated necessitated development of disciplinary methods. Furthermore, mass production and write Bromsgrove International School rationalization of the economy also required more complex management processes. The old feudal society was not equipped for the industrial revolution and mass production. Remnants of issues St. Johnsbury, feudal society persisted, but the how to School role of the nobility diminished as professional bureaucrats assumed greater control over St. Johnsbury, the administration of the military, hospitals, police, and the market economy. The ascendancy of disciplines in governance and bureaucratic institutions can be seen as a profound shift in how power was wielded. Rather than deploy the ostentatious signs of sovereignty in taming the populace, power is manifested through the brilliance of those who exercise it. Essay Writing Tips College?  For the old order, violence, or the threat thereof was the tool used when exercising power.
This was costly in a political and economic sense, and more importantly was insufficient to the task. One of the primary roles of the modern bureaucrat is to classify and identify individual members of society so that they may be better managed. In a very real sense, knowledge for the bureaucrat is power--power that was once wielded exclusively by the sovereign. Max Weber argued that bureaucracies were more developed in Germany than in France, England, or America in the 19th century. Business Issues Articles Academy? However, the thick bureaucracy of Germany had more to do with Germany's adoption of the Napoleonic Code during its occupation by Napoleon than the rigidity of Prussian militarism. The pre-Napoleonic Prussian military had more in common with medieval feudalism than modern bureaucracy. However, one element of essay Bromsgrove Thailand, modern bureaucracy found in business articles St. Johnsbury, the Prussian military was professionalism and dedication to the institution in addition to or beyond any other loyalties. Writing Academy? The sense that the Army as an business issues, organization, and not just the sovereign or government it served, was worthy of fealty was a characteristic to how to writing School, which the modern bureaucracy aspired.
In this sense, the rules, structure, hierarchy, duty and other abstract notions all became the articles mission of the solider or the bureaucrat. This dual loyalty--to the institution as well as the nation or regime--would later be recognized by the National Socialists. As mentioned above, the essay Sidcot Nazi party had to accept this fact if it was to expedite its struggle for power and its subsequent war effort. The organizational technique of large armies was requisite to the formation of bureaucracy in business St. Johnsbury Academy, Germany and elsewhere. In 1415, it was possible for Henry V to visit with individual members of his army, even those of the lowest rank, the night before the battle at Agincourt. Certainly, he knew every officer no matter how junior. On the field of philosophy essays, battle, most if not all of his men could see the king.
His orders could be issued via verbal commands, and heard and relayed quickly across the short distance of the battle field (the French and English lines were only 1000 yards apart). Perhaps most importantly, the English king could see the entire field of battle and act accordingly. He had no need to issues St. Johnsbury, rely on messengers to relay commands or on scouts to provide situation reports. In contrast to original writing Fairmont Schools, the Battle at Agincourt, four centuries later in the war leading up to Waterloo, Napoleon's army of issues articles, 200,000 men fought against approximately 500,000 Austrian, Russian, Prussian, English, and Dutch soldiers. The front at Waterloo was six times the how to write International length of the front at Agincourt. Business Issues Articles St. Johnsbury? Napoleon's headquarters was over a mile from the front line. Both Napoleon and Wellington received only article writing Private Schools glimpses of the battle firsthand, relying almost exclusively on subordinates for very detailed, if imprecise information on business articles Academy the battle. Nevertheless, both commanded capably. Command and control was preserved by means of a rigid, hierarchical command structure.
Each commander had generals under them who led divisions the size of Henry's army. From the generals down to the lowest private soldier, no one individual needed to know more than what was happening in essay writing Istituto Firenze, their immediate environment and one level of command above and beneath them. Rules governed communication, and strict discipline ensured that each soldier would carry out their assigned task even if they could not appreciate the immediate effect of their actions. There were perhaps four or five different classifications of participants on the English side at the Battle of Agincourt. There were foot soldiers, archers, knights, and non-combatants in the rear. Articles St. Johnsbury? In Napoleon's army there were a dozen tiers of rank between the General of the Army and the private soldier. Soldiers were further classified as riflemen, light and heavy infantry, artillerists, dragoons, grenadiers, light and heavy cavalry, signalmen, engineers, scouts, etc. Each unit had a different mission, every soldier a designated proficiency. In order for effective control to article Fairmont, be maintained so that the army could function as a unified body, each individual within the army had to be identified, classified, trained and controlled.
It is business, ironic that the impersonal leadership exercised by Napoleon and original Private Wellington was predicated on an intimate knowledge of business issues St. Johnsbury, their armies' constituents, whereas Henry was able to exercise personal leadership over an undifferentiated army. Minimizing the gap between the command and its flawless execution provided one of the principles of bureaucracy: the persuasive essay tips delegation of authority. The delegation of power was manifest in multiple levels of the hierarchy. This principle of business issues articles Academy, administration used by how to essay Pomfret armies would prove extremely effective in business issues Academy, other institutions and for different applications than wholesale slaughter. Factories, hospitals, schools and universities were all to benefit. The German Civil Service Inherited by the National Socialists. When the writing Fairmont Nazis assumed power in 1933 they inherited the civil servants appointed in the Weimar years, who in turn, were a legacy of the bureaucracies of Kaiser William II and Bismarck.
German civil servants as a group tended to be quite conservative, and while not originally enthusiastic supporters of National Socialism, the two groups shared values such as anti-Semitism and opposition to articles, communism. Article? While in theory the business issues articles St. Johnsbury civil servants were to be neutral with regards to political parties, they tended to why is important Firenze, be anti-republican, and thwarted the liberal policies of the Weimar politicians while the republic was still viable. Though they were beholden to republican law, they were partial to how it was administered and adjudicated. Even before 1933, communist agitators were more harshly treated and received tougher sentences than Nazis convicted of similar crimes. The light punishment Hitler received as a result of the Beer Hall Putsch was an example of the conservative bias as well as the latitude the German civil servants had with regards to the execution of business issues St. Johnsbury, their duties.
The ideal sought by the Nazis was the complete merger of the state with the Nazi party. However, as the majority of state officials were not originally party members, the Nazis had to choose between cleansing the bureaus of writing essay School, their most effective staff or tolerating their existence. As the Nazi's needed a functioning administration in its preparation for war, they chose a path of piecemeal appropriation. One result was a certain amount of redundancy as on the one hand the Nazi party attempted to business issues articles, merge with existing state bureaucracies, blurring the line between state and party, and on the other hand, in a sign of resignation to the power, in the form of knowledge, still wielded by the bureaucrats, the party was forced to establish parallel administrative machinery. In his article German Administration Under the Nazi Regime, John Herz points out that Hitler forced the essay SA (Sturmabteilung or storm troopers) under Röhm, at that time his mightiest party organization, to abstain from 'taking over' the business issues St. Johnsbury Academy army, the mightiest part of the state machinery.  The Waffen SS is a perfect example of the duplication of agencies evident in the Nazi regime. Originally the Waffen SS was established to serve as Hitler's personal body guard--as much to protect him from the SA as to protect him from the party's real and imagined enemies. Initially numbering just two hundred men, the Waffen SS would ultimately comprise thirty-eight divisions. (For purposes of comparison, the U.S. How To Teach Writing School? has deployed approximately eight divisions in Iraq.) So, while the Nazis were never able to exercise total control over the Wehrmacht (Germany's regular army) they did field a sizeable army of Academy, their own.
This dual nature of state and party was replicated many times throughout the Nazi regime. Hitler was chief of state and government as well as party Führer . Goebbels was head of party propaganda as well as state propagandist. Himmler was Reich Leader SS and Chief of the Pomfret German police. Issues Articles? Regional party leaders, Gauleiter , were also responsible for the civil administration of everything related to war, in original Private, other words they were effectively the civilian authority as well as party head.  Two charges have been leveled against German bureaucrats. They have been labeled as stooges for the Nazi party, retaining only the appearance of administrative neutrality. At the articles St. Johnsbury same time, the German civil service has been accused of blindly following the criminal orders of the Nazi leadership, acquiescing so long as the order bore the vaguest semblance to the letter of the law.
Neither extreme was in fact the case. The civil service retained some degree of autonomy throughout the Nazi regime. At the writing essay onset of war, The 'revolutionaries,' inclined as always to business articles, underestimate the role of expertise (just as much as conservatives are inclined to over estimate it), had to give in. From that time on, in the main, the aim was to how to teach essay writing, turn officials in to Nazis instead of turning Nazis into officials.  The German civil servants, like bureaucrats everywhere, endeavored to find the balance that would preserve their positions by not antagonizing the ruling elites while also retaining a measure of power. Early on, the bureaucrats did cater to one demand of the Nazi state. When the Nazis sought to 'aryanize' the civil service, they found the 'Aryan' administrators eager to assist.
Anti-Semitism was widely shared by business articles many Germans by the time Hitler took power, although it was generally of the 'not in my country club' variety rather than the homicidal variant of the war time Nazis. Nevertheless, this low-grade (later it would become more virulent) racism coupled with careerism spelled a quick exit for non-Aryans from the how to essay writing Pomfret civil service. Widespread endorsement of the ousting of Jews is evident in the diary of Thomas Mann, the Nobel prize winning German author. Marion Kaplan writes in Between Dignity and Despair that though married to business issues St. Johnsbury, a Jewish woman, and essay important Marangoni Firenze a staunch anti-Nazi, he nevertheless confided to business issues Academy, his diary: 'it is no great misfortune . that . the Jewish presence in the judiciary has ended.' Kaplan cites another example where a woman expresses joy that her daughter's suitor has better job prospects since they began firing so many people.  The similarities between Nazi bureaucrats and the everyday variety of original writing Private, bureaucrats are uncanny and disturbing. They were frightening because their motivation often derived not from extraordinary Nazi ideology, but from the issues articles oridinary desire to preserve and promote their positions. The Topography of Terror. Mass deportations and murder could not begin immediately. First, the Jews, once fully assimilated members of German society, had to be turned into non-citizens, and ultimately into essay tips College, non-humans. The dehumanizing process was achieved easily by bureaucrats already comfortable with viewing other humans as numbers on a ledger. Issues Articles? Hitler made a point of distinguishing between 'rational' and 'emotional' anti-Semitism. The latter found its outlet in pogroms, while the former promised a 'systematic legal opposition' to achieve 'removal of the Jews altogether.' Himmler and Heydrich likewise sought a systematic approach to the 'Jewish Question.'  Thus, despite the low regard in which Hitler held civil servants and jurists, the German bureaucracy was an essential component of the machinery of destruction.
The Topography of Terror is sited on the former location of the persuasive tips d'Overbroeck's College Reich Security Main Office. All that remains are the foundation and cellar walls that enclosed a kitchen. The exhibit and memorial is perhaps unique in that it is articles St. Johnsbury, a remembrance of the perpetrators. Article Private? Memorials to the victims of the Nazis are to issues St. Johnsbury Academy, be found throughout Germany and Berlin, but remembering the victims of the Nazi past and acknowledging that Germans were the perpetrators of these crimes is quite different. Why Is Essay Writing Important Firenze? To varying degrees Germany has memorialized the victims of business issues St. Johnsbury, Nazi terror, although it has often equated the suffering of Germans with the marginalized social groups (Jews, Scinta and Roma, Homosexuals, etc.) who were specifically targeted by the Germans. There has been a tendency to perceive the perpetrators not as 'ordinary' Germans, but as people from Mars who attacked and invaded a peaceful Germany.  The purpose of preserving a site such as the Topography of Terror is to acknowledge that the perpetrators were in fact German, and that the most heinous crimes in history were committed not by a brutal mob but by Schreibtischtäter (deskbound criminals)--in other words by bureaucrats. Furthermore, these crimes were committed in how to a convincing essay Bromsgrove International, central Berlin, and in the case of the SS and Gestapo headquarters, no secret was made of the general purpose of the building they occupied. How much the general population knew of the crimes being committed is debatable, although clearly most Berliners were aware that their Jewish friends and articles St. Johnsbury Academy neighbors were not on holiday. Yet, sites such as the writing philosophy essays Academy Topography of Terror and Tiergartenstrasse 4 (the site where mass killing of mental patients was planned) remained largely invisible to Berliners until the 1980's. In part this was due to a conscious or sub-conscious desire on the part of Germans to disassociate themselves from the perpetrators. Germans were--and remain--more open to accept their role as victims and witnesses to the atrocities of the Nazi regime than to confess their role as the perpetrators.
In the business issues articles government quarter of Berlin, the area bounded by Prinz-Albrecht-Straße (now Niederkirchestraße), Wilhelmstraße, Anhalterstraße, and Private Stressemanstraße, was the administrative center of the National Socialist terror apparatus. Situated in close proximity were the issues articles Gestapo ( Geheime Staatspolizei , Secret State Police), the Reichsführung SS (SS Reich Leadership), the Sicherheitsdienst (SD, Security Service), and the Reichsicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office, RSMO). How To Essay Writing? Within a few years after the National Socialists seized power, the entire Prinz-Albrecht-Terrain was occupied by these Nazi organizations. Business Issues Articles St. Johnsbury Academy? The area housed the offices of Heinrich Himmler and Reinhard Heydrich, the philosophy Thornton Academy state and business party security forces and the Gestapo prison. Virtually all the evil that was unleashed on Germany, Europe, and the world emanated from this area that comprised a few blocks in downtown Berlin. Order and Function of the Bureaucracy of Terror. According to Topography of Terror: A Documentation , the primary tasks of philosophy, Heinrich Himmler and the SS ( Schutzstaffel , 'protection squadron') were:
Surveillance, persecution and elimination of all political forces [. ]. Preservation and advancement of the Aryan race and the creation of a racially pure Germany [. ]. Conquest of living space (Lebensraum) and the national and racial reorganization [. ]. Business Issues St. Johnsbury?  In other words, the SS were chartered with the main objectives Hitler envisioned for d'Overbroeck's National Socialism. Were it not for the fact that the Wehrmacht maintained some autonomy and were the primary combatants of the business issues St. Johnsbury world war, the SS would have been responsible for National Socialism's entire misanthropic agenda. Himmler was in how to teach writing School, charge of a vast bureaucratic empire. He was responsible for the SS , as well as the municipal police.
His most important lieutenant was Reinhard Heydrich, chief of the business issues St. Johnsbury Academy Gestapo and the SD , and original article writing Fairmont Private until his assassination in 1943, head of the Reich Security Main Office. The SD was the business issues articles St. Johnsbury intelligence service of the NSDAP, while the Gestapo was responsible for state security. Heydrich was the head of article Private, both organizations. One of Heydrich's most infamous employees was Adolf Eichman, chief organizer of the mass deportations, and the man who prompted Hannah Arendt to coin the phrase 'banality of evil.' Also incorporated in Himmler's empire were the Ordnungspolizei , the business Waffen SS including Death Head's Units (those responsible for the 'wet work' of the Holocaust), the Main Office for Economic and Administrative Matters ( Wirtschafts- Und Verwaltungshauptamt ) which bore responsibility for administering the concentration camps, and administration of the conquered Eastern territories. Teach Writing School? If Himmler had comparable authority in business issues articles, present day United States, he would be responsible for persuasive writing tips d'Overbroeck's College the CIA, the FBI, the Department of Justice, the Department of business issues articles Academy, Homeland Security (including the Coast Guard, immigration and customs, and counter-narcotics), the Attorney General's office(including the U.S. Original Schools? Marshals), Special Forces Command, large segments of the regular Army, the National Guard, the State Police of every state, and the municipal police of every city and county.
Himmler sat atop a massive bureaucracy. One result of the consolidation of Academy, power was infighting between the various bureaus under Himmler. As an example, which could almost be funny if not for the inhumanity of it, the original article writing Private different security offices and police departments often made use of the issues articles St. Johnsbury same jail facility at the Prinz-Albrecht terrain. The jail was nominally a temporary holding facility. Those who survived were later delivered to another prison or concentration camp. How To Teach Essay Pomfret School? When a bureaucrat felt that a detainee held some piece of vital information they would request that the prisoner be brought to their office for interrogation. Although all that remains of these institutions is the earthen floor and business articles St. Johnsbury cellar walls, suggesting a medieval dungeon with torture chambers, all interrogations were held on the above ground levels, in the civilized offices of the bureaucrats.
With secretaries and stenographers within earshot, officials would sit on the edge of their mahogany desks and direct their subordinates to how to teach essay writing Pomfret School, torture their victims until the right information was obtained. Torture and brutal mistreatment of the prisoners was commonplace, and business issues St. Johnsbury Academy was as often performed for sport as it was to extract information or to punish. However, assuming information was actually obtained, it would be closely guarded by the bureaucrat who obtained it, and coveted by functionaries in other agencies. It was more expedient to requisition the same prisoner and interrogate him again than it was to obtain the desired information from another agency. Both inhumane and inefficient, such redundancies revealed that German bureaucracy was far from the ideal imagined by Max Weber.
The 'Final Solution' From Welfare to Eugenics. In his article The Genesis of the 'Final Solution' from the essay Spirit of business issues articles St. Johnsbury, Science , Detlev Peukert makes a compelling argument linking the triumph of science and reason over religion to genocide. Breakthroughs in science and medicine led to a dramatic reduction in the occurrence of death as an every day phenomenon. As death became an why is important Marangoni, increasingly rare, albeit inevitable occurrence, it became even more ineffable. Even as death, disease and decay eluded the reach of science and medicine, science overshadowed faith in God's ability to issues articles St. Johnsbury, triumph over our ultimate demise. This resulted in an existential crisis that we have still not come to terms with. Though death remained, decay could be retarded through modern medicine and article writing Fairmont 'healthy' living. Peukert argues that this led to an idealization of youth and health. [. ] The obvious move was for the actual target of scientific effort to business issues St. Johnsbury Academy, switch from the Fairmont Schools individual, whose case in business articles Academy, the long run was always hopeless, to teach essay Pomfret School, the 'body' of the issues articles St. Johnsbury Academy nation, the Volkskörper .  So, while death awaited each individual, the Volkskörper held the essay writing d'Overbroeck's College potential for immortality, but only if it was kept healthy.
To this end sociologists and welfare workers went about tending to the health and well being of the Volkskörper . In treating the 'national body', as with treating the body of an Academy, individual, it was necessary to identify unhealthy elements in an effort to cure them. Those elements that were identified as curable were cured. Write Essay School Thailand? Those elements that were unhealthy were to be excised. Articles St. Johnsbury? But there was also the racist option of the essays Thornton primacy of the Volkskörper over articles St. Johnsbury, the individual, of the 'valuable' over the individual without 'value.'  And this misguided utopianism of the social sciences worked synergistically with Nazi racist ideology to writing a creative essay School, promote a climate where genocide presented itself as a rational plan. Social and welfare workers who were originally charged with identifying and helping those members of German society who were in need of business issues articles St. Johnsbury, assistance, and then allocating the Private limited resources of the Weimar treasury appropriately, assumed the role of denouncers and Schreibtischmörder in the Nazi regime. St. Johnsbury Academy? Those who were once proponents of the original writing needy became their enemies with the business issues Academy change in Sidcot School, government. The same bureaucratic apparatus that was used to identify and track the mentally and physically disabled, and others of limited means in order to provide public welfare, to 'heal' the business issues articles Volkskörper , was later tasked by the Nazis with identifying individuals of 'no value' and writing 'useless eaters' and selecting them for the 'euthanasia' program. Business Articles St. Johnsbury Academy? Peukert cautions against any 'monocausal' explanations of the Holocaust, yet he does establish that the teach essay writing Pomfret distinction between persons of 'value' and those of 'non-value', and their 'selection' and 'eradication' is the central thread of the decision to annihilate an abstract classification of victims using the technology and techniques of mass production.  The destruction of humans of 'no value' was not an business St. Johnsbury Academy, invention of the Nazis. In the 1920's, a very influential book on the subject was written by Karl Binding and Alfred Hoche entitled Permission for the Destruction of Worthless Life: Its Extent and Form . While this book set the persuasive d'Overbroeck's ground work for Germany's euthanasia program and provided some of the 'scientific' justification for the program it in no way advocated murder--rather it was close to what we might term today assisted suicide for terminal patients.
What the book did promote however, was the concept that human life which could not contribute materially to society was worthless. Business Academy? The Nazis extended the persuasive writing tips College definition of what constituted 'worthless life' to business articles St. Johnsbury Academy, include increasingly broad categories: degenerates, 'asocials', delinquents, alcoholics, etc. Ultimately, race became a category for determining 'value' and 'non-value'.  The bureaucrats responsible for the medical and social welfare of these segments of society adapted right along with the changing times and shifting ideologies. The Villa at Wannsee and the 'Final Solution.' On a cold, overcast day in December, I made a trip out to why is essay writing Istituto Marangoni Firenze, the Wannsee, a beautiful lake to the south-west of Berlin. There, located directly on the lake, is the Villa Wannsee, where high-ranking officials of the SS and civilian ministries met in January 1942, to put the finishing touches on the plan for the mass extermination of Jews and others of 'non-value.' As I rode the train through the Grunewald forest on my way to business issues articles Academy, Wannsee, I wondered how many of the article writing Fairmont Private Schools officials came by train. Did they travel the same line that I did? It is likely that many came by chauffeured car given their positions of authority. The suburban train station at Wannsee appeared quite old and business articles Academy little changed since the war.
While waiting for the bus that would take me the rest of the way to the Villa I had the opportunity to look out over the placid lake. Teach Writing Pomfret? Marinas, parks, and grand mansions dotted the shoreline. At the bus stop I noted thirty or so German suburbanites waiting to be taken home. Some were waiting to go to issues, the hospital that was less than a kilometer from the tips infamous Villa. I appeared to be the only tourist. Business Issues Articles St. Johnsbury? It was a perfectly ordinary town. The area around the Villa at Wannsee is and writing Pomfret was a rather idyllic suburb. The impressionist painter Max Lieberman had his summer house there.
During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the area was known for the liberal attitudes of its residents which included a fair number of Jews. In the winter the place is issues articles, very quiet, but the number of closed recreational sites would suggest that the place is quite lively in the summer. Philosophy? The Villa itself is a gorgeous mansion and garden that was acquired by the Nazis for use by issues St. Johnsbury Academy senior party members. Nothing about it or its environs speaks of the murderous plans made there. As the officials made their way there from Berlin, what were they thinking? Did they jump at Academy the chance to business articles St. Johnsbury, get away from the daily grind and to how to write Bromsgrove, meet with their colleagues out in the country? Was it an honor to be invited? With the business St. Johnsbury exception of Reinhard Heydrich (Chief of Reich Security), these were not the most senior officials in Germany. Notably missing were, Goebbels (Minister of Propaganda), Göring (commander of the how to International Luftwaffe and founder of the Gestapo ), Himmler ( SS Chief and Chief of Police), and of course Hitler. Adolf Eichman is the most well known of the conference attendees; more recognizable than his boss because of Eichman's much publicized trial in 1962 in which he was sentenced to death.
It was Eichman's job to manage the 'final solution.' The people attending the conference, much like the houses in the surrounding area, were rather mundane. They were civilized in appearance and quite unremarkable. Except for articles St. Johnsbury Academy Heydrich, the attendees were of a rank equivalent to that of a creative School, deputy under-secretary. Business Academy? In other words, they were middle managers. Middle managers are the epitomical bureaucrats. They lack the responsibility and philosophy essays Thornton the blame of their superiors, but neither must they dirty their hands. Eichman's plea for leniency was based on his being a middle manager.
He was 'just doing his job.' The 'final solution' was not his idea, and in any event he never actually shot or gassed anyone. This plea was made by many Nazis seeking to avoid harsh punishment for articles facilitating genocide, an philosophy essays Academy, approach which was to prove successful for many middle- and low-ranking Nazi officials. Eichman and his ilk are disturbing to us not because they are monsters, but because they are so perfectly ordinary. In his court appearance during his trial, he appeared in a modest business suit and could have passed for a typical businessman on his way to work in a Manhattan insurance company. His defense rested on his inability to refuse orders. He may have been unwilling, but not because he would have faced certain death.
In his book Ordinary Men , Christopher Browning explains that many of those on the frontlines of the Holocaust, the men in the Order Police battalions which operated in German occupied countries in the East, were typical Germans. Prior to issues, the war they were not homicidal maniacs, nor were they especially anti-Semitic or even eager Nazis. Many of these men also claimed after the war that they were just following orders. Essay Writing Pomfret? Browning clearly demonstrates that their refusal to carry out orders might have been disastrous for their careers, but, in the cases he examines, never led to severe punishment.  Claiming fear of retribution was a frequent justification made by business articles St. Johnsbury Germans in defense of their action or inaction regarding genocide. The SS ensured that outright resistance to National Socialism was negligible, but refusal to participate in persuasive essay d'Overbroeck's College, murder was tolerated.
In 1933, SA storm troopers established the business first concentration camp in Prussia at Oranienburg. By the war's end tens of writing philosophy Academy, thousands will have died here or in the death marches preceding liberation by the allies. The camp was not the business St. Johnsbury largest or the most lethal (Auschwitz claims that title), but it was the administrative center of the concentration camp system. Writing Fairmont Private Schools? In the T-Building located just a few hundred meters from the camp proper, bureaucrats administered the entire concentration camp system: The men who sat behind the desks in the inspectorate determined conditions for imprisonment, coordinated forced labor and business issues Academy organized mass murder. Write Essay?  The SS guards at business issues St. Johnsbury all the camps might have been the ones 'getting dirty' with the how to business of killing, but administrators at Sachsenhausen were the ones issuing the orders. Like Wannsee, Oranienburg is a quiet suburb. A quaint housing development abuts the camp; many houses make use of the old concentration camp razor wire fence to keep their children and pets from wandering outside the yard.
On the business St. Johnsbury Academy day that I visited, I saw a woman walking her two little terriers on the grounds of the concentration camp. Nothing belies the camp's original purpose--in its current state it looks like any disused military camp. Even while visiting the barracks where unhygienic conditions were once as deadly as the hangings from meat hooks in writing d'Overbroeck's College, the crematorium basement, the terror of the place is not immediately apparent. Yet, in this place techniques for murder were tried and tested. In the issues St. Johnsbury Academy infirmary, medical experiments of dubious scientific merit were carried out on the prisoners. One case involves children who were saved from the ovens at Auschwitz and delivered to Sachsenhausen where they were infected with a hepatitis virus. Their livers were later biopsied, without the use of anesthetic, to see how the disease progressed.
While female prisoners were brought in for use as sex slaves, while prisoners marched endlessly, and often to their deaths, on the shoe-testing track, and while the ovens burned furiously, the how to teach writing School bureaucrats came to articles, work each day to how to essay, shuffle papers and organize further torments. Meanwhile, in the surrounding houses, the local suburbanites went about their daily lives, much as they do today. Comparisons between the Holocaust and other mass murders are generally wanting. The Holocaust differs from urban crime sprees in that it was ordained by the state. It differs from war between nations or civil war in that the victims were utterly defenseless. The genocide of Native Americans while approximating the scale of the Holocaust took place over hundreds of years and was not nearly so systematized.
The genocide of the Armenians by the Ottoman Turks, was nearly of the same scale and rapidity of the Holocaust, and made use of modern technology such as trains and machine guns. Yugoslavia, Rwanda, Burundi, and the Sudan, are all recent examples and ample evidence that as human beings we are still capable of bottomless violence. But, none of these genocides reached the scale of the Holocaust, and neither were they the result of such a sophisticated bureaucracy. The number of business St. Johnsbury, victims of the Holocaust is how to write Bromsgrove School Thailand, a benchmark of shame, and it was only achieved through the efficiency of German bureaucracy. Only a fully modern, highly literate state was capable of the business Academy division of labor necessary to kill six million Jews, two thirds of whom were killed within a twelve month period.
This required massive coordination of effort between military and civilian agencies. The German bureaucracy responded to the increasingly radicalized demands of Nazi policy regarding Jews and facilitated their murder all without leaving the comfort of how to School, their desks. Their rubber stamps were as deadly as any bullet.  John H. Herz, German Administration Under the articles St. Johnsbury Nazi Regime, The American Political Science Review , Vol. 40, No. 4. (Aug., 1946), pp. 682-702. [2 ] Herz, 683. Emphasis in original. [4 ] Michel Foucault, Panopticism, Foucault Reader , ed. Writing Essays Thornton Academy? Paul Rabinow (New York: Pantheon Books, 1984) 206 - 207.
From Discipline and Punish . [5 ] Foucault, 208. [9 ] Marion A. Kaplan, Between Dignity and Despair, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998) 26. [10 ] Christopher R. Browning, The German Bureaucracy and business St. Johnsbury the Holocaust, The Simon Wiesenthal Center http://motlc.wiesenthal.com/index.html . [11 ] Brian Ladd, The Ghosts of Berlin: Confronting German History in the Urban Landscape, (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997) 163. [12 ] I have seen this expressed as Schreibtischmörders (desk-bound murderers) and Schreibtischverbrechers (also desk-bound criminals). [13 ] Ed. Reinhard Rürup, trans. Writing Philosophy Essays Thornton Academy? Werner T. Angress (Berlin: Verlag, Willmuth, Arenhövel, 1989) 36. [14 ] Detlev J.K. Peukert, The Genesis of the 'Final Solution' From the Spirit of business issues articles St. Johnsbury, Science. 1989. [15 ] Peukert, 282.
[16 ] Peukert, 287. [17 ] Peukert, 278. [18 ] German title: Die Freigabe der Vernichtung lebensunwerten Lebens. Ihr Maß und Ihre Form. [19 ] Nazism 1919 - 1945, ed. J. Noakes and G. Pridham. Vol. 3 Foreign Policy, War, and Racial Extermination (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1997) 1001.
[20 ] Christopher R. Browning, Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the final solution in Poland, (New York: HarperCollins, 1992) [21 ] Information Leaflet, Memorial and Museum Sachsenhausen, (Oranienburg, Berlin: Brandenburg Memorial Foundation, 2004).
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95 theses essay 1. When our Lord and Master Jesus Christ said, Repent (Mt 4:17), he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance. Business Academy? 2. This word cannot be understood as referring to the sacrament of penance, that is, confession and satisfaction, as administered by the clergy. 3. Yet it does not mean solely inner repentance; such inner repentance is worthless unless it produces various outward mortification of the flesh. Philosophy Essays Thornton? 4. The penalty of sin remains as long as the hatred of articles St. Johnsbury, self (that is, true inner repentance), namely till our entrance into the kingdom of article Fairmont Schools, heaven. 5. The pope neither desires nor is issues St. Johnsbury, able to remit any penalties except those imposed by his own authority or that of the canons. 6. The pope cannot remit any guilt, except by declaring and writing essay Sidcot School showing that it has been remitted by God; or, to business be sure, by remitting guilt in cases reserved to his judgment. If his right to grant remission in these cases were disregarded, the guilt would certainly remain unforgiven.
7. God remits guilt to no one unless at the same time he humbles him in all things and makes him submissive to the vicar, the priest. 8. The penitential canons are imposed only on the living, and, according to the canons themselves, nothing should be imposed on the dying. 9. Therefore the Holy Spirit through the pope is kind to us insofar as the pope in his decrees always makes exception of the article of death and of necessity. 10. Those priests act ignorantly and wickedly who, in the case of the dying, reserve canonical penalties for how to, purgatory. 11. Those tares of changing the canonical penalty to issues articles Academy the penalty of purgatory were evidently sown while the bishops slept (Mt 13:25). 12.
In former times canonical penalties were imposed, not after, but before absolution, as tests of true contrition. Why Is Essay Important Marangoni Firenze? 13. The dying are freed by death from all penalties, are already dead as far as the canon laws are concerned, and have a right to be released from them. 14. Imperfect piety or love on the part of the dying person necessarily brings with it great fear; and the smaller the love, the greater the fear. 15. This fear or horror is sufficient in itself, to say nothing of other things, to constitute the penalty of purgatory, since it is business articles Academy, very near to the horror of despair. Essay Bromsgrove School Thailand? 16. Hell, purgatory, and heaven seem to differ the same as despair, fear, and assurance of salvation. Articles St. Johnsbury Academy? 17. It seems as though for the souls in purgatory fear should necessarily decrease and love increase.
18. Furthermore, it does not seem proved, either by reason or by Scripture, that souls in purgatory are outside the state of merit, that is, unable to grow in love. 19. Nor does it seem proved that souls in purgatory, at least not all of them, are certain and assured of how to teach Pomfret, their own salvation, even if we ourselves may be entirely certain of it. 20. Therefore the issues articles Academy, pope, when he uses the words plenary remission of all penalties, does not actually mean all penalties, but only those imposed by himself.
21. Thus those indulgence preachers are in teach essay, error who say that a man is absolved from every penalty and saved by papal indulgences. 22. As a matter of fact, the pope remits to business souls in writing important Istituto Firenze, purgatory no penalty which, according to business issues articles canon law, they should have paid in this life. 23. If remission of all penalties whatsoever could be granted to writing a creative essay Sidcot anyone at all, certainly it would be granted only to the most perfect, that is, to very few.
24. For this reason most people are necessarily deceived by that indiscriminate and high-sounding promise of release from penalty. Articles St. Johnsbury? 25. That power which the pope has in general over purgatory corresponds to the power which any bishop or curate has in a particular way in how to a convincing essay Bromsgrove School Thailand, his own diocese and parish. 26. The pope does very well when he grants remission to souls in purgatory, not by the power of the keys, which he does not have, but by way of intercession for them. Issues? 27. They preach only philosophy Thornton Academy, human doctrines who say that as soon as the St. Johnsbury Academy, money clinks into the money chest, the soul flies out of purgatory. 28. Essay Writing School? It is certain that when money clinks in the money chest, greed and avarice can be increased; but when the church intercedes, the result is in the hands of God alone. Issues Academy? 29.
Who knows whether all souls in purgatory wish to be redeemed, since we have exceptions in St. Severinus and St. Paschal, as related in a legend. 30. No one is sure of the integrity of his own contrition, much less of having received plenary remission. 31. The man who actually buys indulgences is as rare as he who is really penitent; indeed, he is exceedingly rare. 32. Those who believe that they can be certain of their salvation because they have indulgence letters will be eternally damned, together with their teachers. 33. Writing Fairmont? Men must especially be on business St. Johnsbury Academy, guard against those who say that the how to essay International Thailand, pope's pardons are that inestimable gift of God by which man is reconciled to him.
34. St. Johnsbury? For the graces of indulgences are concerned only with the penalties of sacramental satisfaction established by man. 35. They who teach that contrition is not necessary on the part of those who intend to buy souls out of purgatory or to buy confessional privileges preach unchristian doctrine. 36. Writing Fairmont Private Schools? Any truly repentant Christian has a right to full remission of penalty and guilt, even without indulgence letters. 37. Any true Christian, whether living or dead, participates in all the blessings of Christ and the church; and this is business issues articles Academy, granted him by God, even without indulgence letters. 38.
Nevertheless, papal remission and blessing are by no means to be disregarded, for they are, as I have said (Thesis 6), the proclamation of the divine remission. Teach School? 39. It is very difficult, even for the most learned theologians, at one and the same time to commend to the people the bounty of business issues Academy, indulgences and the need of true contrition. 40. A Christian who is truly contrite seeks and loves to pay penalties for his sins; the bounty of indulgences, however, relaxes penalties and causes men to philosophy hate them -- at least it furnishes occasion for hating them. 41. Papal indulgences must be preached with caution, lest people erroneously think that they are preferable to other good works of love. 42. Christians are to be taught that the St. Johnsbury, pope does not intend that the buying of indulgences should in any way be compared with works of mercy. 43.
Christians are to Istituto Marangoni be taught that he who gives to the poor or lends to the needy does a better deed than he who buys indulgences. 44. Because love grows by business articles works of love, man thereby becomes better. Man does not, however, become better by essay School means of indulgences but is merely freed from penalties. 45. Christians are to be taught that he who sees a needy man and business issues Academy passes him by, yet gives his money for indulgences, does not buy papal indulgences but God's wrath. Essay D'Overbroeck's? 46. Christians are to be taught that, unless they have more than they need, they must reserve enough for business Academy, their family needs and by no means squander it on indulgences. 47. Christians are to be taught that they buying of how to teach writing Pomfret School, indulgences is a matter of articles, free choice, not commanded. 48 Christians are to be taught that the pope, in granting indulgences, needs and thus desires their devout prayer more than their money.
49. Christians are to be taught that papal indulgences are useful only if they do not put their trust in them, but very harmful if they lose their fear of God because of them. 50. Christians are to be taught that if the pope knew the exactions of the indulgence preachers, he would rather that the basilica of St. Peter were burned to ashes than built up with the skin, flesh, and bones of his sheep. 51. Christians are to be taught that the persuasive writing d'Overbroeck's College, pope would and should wish to give of his own money, even though he had to sell the basilica of St. Peter, to many of business issues St. Johnsbury, those from whom certain hawkers of indulgences cajole money. 52.
It is vain to trust in salvation by indulgence letters, even though the indulgence commissary, or even the pope, were to offer his soul as security. 53. They are the enemies of Christ and the pope who forbid altogether the preaching of the Word of God in some churches in order that indulgences may be preached in others. 54. Injury is done to the Word of God when, in the same sermon, an equal or larger amount of time is devoted to indulgences than to the Word. 55. It is certainly the pope's sentiment that if indulgences, which are a very insignificant thing, are celebrated with one bell, one procession, and one ceremony, then the essay tips d'Overbroeck's College, gospel, which is the very greatest thing, should be preached with a hundred bells, a hundred processions, a hundred ceremonies. 56. Issues St. Johnsbury? The true treasures of the how to write a convincing Bromsgrove International, church, out of which the issues Academy, pope distributes indulgences, are not sufficiently discussed or known among the people of Christ. 57.
That indulgences are not temporal treasures is certainly clear, for many indulgence sellers do not distribute them freely but only gather them. 58. Essay? Nor are they the merits of Christ and the saints, for, even without the pope, the latter always work grace for the inner man, and the cross, death, and hell for the outer man. Business Articles Academy? 59. St. Lawrence said that the poor of the church were the treasures of the church, but he spoke according to the usage of the word in his own time. 60. Without want of consideration we say that the keys of the church, given by the merits of Christ, are that treasure. 61. For it is clear that the pope's power is original, of itself sufficient for the remission of penalties and cases reserved by himself. 62.
The true treasure of the articles Academy, church is the most holy gospel of the glory and grace of God. 63. But this treasure is naturally most odious, for it makes the first to be last (Mt. Why Is Essay Important? 20:16). 64. On the other hand, the treasure of indulgences is naturally most acceptable, for it makes the last to be first.
65. Therefore the treasures of the gospel are nets with which one formerly fished for men of wealth. 66. The treasures of indulgences are nets with which one now fishes for the wealth of St. Johnsbury Academy, men. 67. The indulgences which the demagogues acclaim as the greatest graces are actually understood to be such only essay writing School, insofar as they promote gain. Issues Academy? 68. They are nevertheless in truth the most insignificant graces when compared with the grace of God and the piety of the cross. 69.
Bishops and curates are bound to admit the commissaries of papal indulgences with all reverence. 70. But they are much more bound to strain their eyes and ears lest these men preach their own dreams instead of what the pope has commissioned. 71. Let him who speaks against writing Sidcot the truth concerning papal indulgences be anathema and accursed. 72. But let him who guards against the lust and issues articles Academy license of the indulgence preachers be blessed. 73.
Just as the pope justly thunders against those who by any means whatever contrive harm to the sale of indulgences. Essay Istituto? 74. Much more does he intend to thunder against those who use indulgences as a pretext to issues articles Academy contrive harm to holy love and truth. 75. To consider papal indulgences so great that they could absolve a man even if he had done the write International Thailand, impossible and had violated the mother of God is madness. 76. We say on the contrary that papal indulgences cannot remove the very least of venial sins as far as guilt is concerned. 77. To say that even St.
Peter if he were now pope, could not grant greater graces is blasphemy against St. Peter and the pope. 78. Issues Articles Academy? We say on the contrary that even the present pope, or any pope whatsoever, has greater graces at his disposal, that is, the gospel, spiritual powers, gifts of healing, etc., as it is written, 1 Co 12[:28]. 79. Writing Philosophy Thornton? To say that the cross emblazoned with the papal coat of arms, and set up by the indulgence preachers is equal in worth to the cross of Christ is blasphemy.
80. The bishops, curates, and theologians who permit such talk to be spread among the people will have to answer for business issues articles, this. 81. This unbridled preaching of indulgences makes it difficult even for learned men to rescue the reverence which is due the pope from slander or from the essay writing important Marangoni, shrewd questions of the laity. 82. Such as: Why does not the pope empty purgatory for the sake of holy love and the dire need of the souls that are there if he redeems an infinite number of souls for business issues, the sake of miserable money with which to writing essay Sidcot School build a church? The former reason would be most just; the latter is most trivial. 83. Again, Why are funeral and anniversary masses for the dead continued and why does he not return or permit the articles St. Johnsbury Academy, withdrawal of the endowments founded for them, since it is write a convincing Bromsgrove, wrong to pray for the redeemed?
84. Again, What is this new piety of business articles St. Johnsbury Academy, God and the pope that for a consideration of money they permit a man who is impious and their enemy to buy out of purgatory the pious soul of persuasive writing tips College, a friend of God and do not rather, because of the need of that pious and beloved soul, free it for pure love's sake? 85. Again, Why are the penitential canons, long since abrogated and dead in actual fact and through disuse, now satisfied by the granting of indulgences as though they were still alive and in force? 86. Again, Why does not the pope, whose wealth is issues St. Johnsbury Academy, today greater than the wealth of the richest Crassus, build this one basilica of St. Teach Essay Pomfret? Peter with his own money rather than with the money of poor believers? 87. Again, What does the pope remit or grant to those who by perfect contrition already have a right to full remission and blessings? 88. Again, What greater blessing could come to the church than if the articles St. Johnsbury, pope were to bestow these remissions and blessings on every believer a hundred times a day, as he now does but once?
89. Since the pope seeks the salvation of souls rather than money by his indulgences, why does he suspend the indulgences and pardons previously granted when they have equal efficacy? 90. To repress these very sharp arguments of the laity by force alone, and not to resolve them by giving reasons, is to expose the original writing Schools, church and the pope to the ridicule of their enemies and to issues St. Johnsbury Academy make Christians unhappy. 91. Writing Philosophy? If, therefore, indulgences were preached according to the spirit and intention of the pope, all these doubts would be readily resolved.
Indeed, they would not exist. 92. Away, then, with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Peace, peace, and there is no peace! (Jer 6:14) 93. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, Cross, cross, and there is no cross! 94.
Christians should be exhorted to be diligent in following Christ, their Head, through penalties, death and hell. 95. And thus be confident of entering into heaven through many tribulations rather than through the false security of peace (Acts 14:22).
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Orientation - St Johnsbury Academy
Biology/The Human Heart term paper 895. Click Here For Research Papers Online! The Human Heart. Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary defines the heart. as the viscus of cardiac muscle that maintains the. circulation of the blood. It is divided into four. cavities; two atria and two ventricles. The left atrium. receives oxygenated blood from the lungs.
From there the. blood passes to the left ventricle, which forces it via the. aorta, through the arteries to supply the tissues of the. body. The right atrium receives the blood after it has. passed through the tissues and has given up much of its. oxygen. Issues Academy! The blood then passes through the right ventricle. into the lungs where it gets oxygenated. There are four.
major valves in the heart; the left atrioventricular valve. (also known as the why is essay writing Istituto Firenze mitral or bicuspid valve), the right. atrioventricular valve (tricuspid), aortic valve, and the. pulmonary valve. The heart tissue itself is nourished by. the blood in the coronary arteries.2. Position of the Heart Within the Body: The heart is St. Johnsbury placed obliquely in the chest. The two atria.
are directed upwards and teach essay writing backwards to the right and are at. the level of the fifth through the eight dorsal vertebrae. The apex of the heart points downwards and articles forwards to writing Marangoni the. left and corresponds to the interspace between the fifth and. sixth ribs, two inches below the left nipple. Its atrial. border corresponds to a line drawn across the sternum on a. level with the upper border of the third costal cartilage. Its lower border (apex) corresponds to a line drawn across.
the lower end of the same bone, near the xiphoid process. Its upper surface is business issues rounded and convex, directed upwards. and forwards, and formed mainly by the right ventricle and. part of the left ventricle. The posterior surface of the. heart is flattened and rests upon the diaphragm muscle.
Of. its two borders, the right is the longest and thinnest, the. left is shorter but thicker and round. In an adult, the heart measures about five inches in. length, three and a half inches in the broadest part of its.
transverse diameter, and two and a half inches in its. antero-posterior. The average weight in writing philosophy the male varies. from ten to twelve ounces. In the female, the average. weight is eight to ten ounces. The heart will continue to. grow in size up to an advanced period of life.
This growth. is more obvious in men than in women.3. Circulation of Blood in an Adult: The heart is subdivided by a longitudinal muscular septum. into two lateral halves which are named right and left. according to their position. A transverse muscle divides. each half into two cavities. The upper cavity on each side. is called the atria/auricle, and the lower side is called. the ventricle.
The right atrium and ventricle form the. venous side of the heart. Dark venous blood is pumped into. the right atrium from the entire body by the superior (SVC) and inferior vena cava (SVC), and business St. Johnsbury the coronary sinus. From. the right atrium, the how to Pomfret School blood passes into the right ventricle. and from the right ventricle, through the pulmonary artery. into the lungs.3 Once the blood becomes.
oxygenated/arterialized by its passage through the lungs, it. is returned to the left side of the heart by the pulmonary. veins which open into the left atrium. From the issues articles left. atrium, the blood passes into writing philosophy Thornton Academy, the left ventricle where it is.
distributed by business articles St. Johnsbury the aorta and its subdivisions through the. Morphology of Each Heart Chamber: The right atrium is a little longer than the left. Its. walls are also somewhat thinner than the left.
The right. atrium is capable of article Fairmont Private containing about business issues articles, two ounces of fluid. It consists of two parts, a principle cavity/sinus, and an. appendix auriculae. The sinus is a large. quadrilateral-shaped cavity located between the IVC and the.
SVC. Its walls are extremely thin and writing Schools are connected on St. Johnsbury, the. lower surface with the right ventricle and internally with. the left atrium. The rest of the right atrium is free and. unattached. The appendix auricle is a small conical.
muscular pouch. It projects from the writing Firenze sinus forwards and to. the left side, where it overlaps the root of the pulmonary. There are four main openings into the right atrium; the. SVC, IVC, coronary sinus, and the atriculo-ventricular. opening. The larger IVC returns blood from the lower half. of the body and opens into the lowest part of the articles right. atrium, near the septum. The smaller SVC returns blood from. the upper half of the body and opens into the upper and.
front part of the right atrium. The coronary sinus opens. into the right atrium between the IVC and. auriculo-ventricular opening. It returns blood from the.
cardiac muscle of the heart and is protected by a. semicircular fold of the lining membrane of the atrium, called the coronary valve. The auriculo-ventricular opening. is the large oval aperture of original writing Schools communication between the. right atrium and ventricle. There are two main valves. located within the right atrium; the Eustachian valve and. the coronary valve.3 The Eustachian valve is located.
between the anterior margin of the IVC and the. auricule-ventricular orifice. It is semilunar in business issues articles Academy form. Essay Pomfret! The. coronary valve is a semicircular fold of the lining membrane. of the right atrium, protecting the orifice of the coronary.
The right ventricle is triangular-shaped and extends from. the right atrium to near the apex. Its anterior surface is. rounded and convex and forms the larger part of the front of. the heart. Its posterior surface is flattened, rests on the. diaphragm muscle, and forms only a small part of this.
surface. Its inner wall is formed by the partition between. the two ventricles, the septum, and St. Johnsbury Academy bulges into the cavity. of the right ventricle. Superiorly, the ventricle forms a. conical structure called the infundibulum from essay School which the. pulmonary artery arises. Business Articles Academy! The walls of the original article writing Fairmont Private right ventricle.
are thinner than those of the left ventricle. Business Issues Articles Academy! The thickest. part of the wall is at persuasive d'Overbroeck's the base and it gradually becomes. thinner towards the apex. The cavity can contain up to two. ounces of fluid. There are two openings in the right ventricle; the. auriculo-ventricular opening and the opening of the.
pulmonary artery. The auriculo-ventricular opening is the. large oval opening between the right atrium and the right. ventricle. The opening is about an inch in diameter. It is.
surrounded by a fibrous ring, covered by the lining membrane. of the heart (endocardium), and is larger than the opening. between the left atrium and the left ventricle. It is. protected by the tricuspid valve. The opening of the. pulmonary artery is round and is situated at the top of the. conus arteriosus, close to business issues articles St. Johnsbury Academy the septum. It is on the left. side and is in front of the auriculo-ventricular opening. It is protected by the semilunar valves.3.
There are two main valves associated with the right. ventricle; the tricuspid valve and the semilunar valves. The tricuspid valve consists of three segments of a. triangular shape, formed by the lining membrane of the heart. (endocardium). They are strengthened by a layer of philosophy Thornton fibrous.
tissue and muscular fibers.1 These segments are connected. by their bases to the auriculo-ventricular orifice, and by. their sides with one another, so as to form a continuous. membrane which is attached around the issues articles St. Johnsbury Academy margin of the. auriculo-ventricular opening. Persuasive Essay Tips D'Overbroeck's! Their free margin and. ventricular surfaces are attached to many delicate tendinous. cords called chordae tendinae. The central part of each.
valve segment is thick and strong while the lateral margins. are thin and business issues indented. The chordae tendinae are connected. with the adjacent margins of the writing a creative Sidcot main segment of the valves. The semilunar valves guard the business issues articles St. Johnsbury Academy opening of the pulmonary. artery. They consist of three semicircular folds formed by. the endothelial lining of the heart and are strengthened by.
fibrous tissue. They are attached by their convex margins. to the wall of the artery at its junction with the. ventricle. The straight borders of the valve are unattached. and are directed upwards in the course of the philosophy essays Academy vessel, against the sides of which they are pressed during the. passage of blood along its canal. The free margin of each.
valve is somewhat thicker than the rest of the valve and St. Johnsbury Academy is. strengthened by a bundle of tendinous fibers. During the. passage of blood along the pulmonary artery, these valves. are pressed against the sides of its cylinder. During. ventricular diastole (rest), when the current of blood along. the pulmonary artery is how to writing Pomfret checked and partly thrown back by. its elastic walls, these valves become immediately expanded. and close the entrance of the tube. 3.
The left atrium is Academy smaller but thicker than the right. atrium. How To A Convincing Bromsgrove International! It consists of two parts; a principle cavity/sinus. and an appendix auriculae. The sinus is cuboidal in form. and is covered in the front by the pulmonary artery and the. aorta. Internally, it is separated from the right atrium by.
the septum auricularum. Behind the sinus on each side, it. receives the pulmonary veins. The appendix auriculae in the. left atrium is narrower and more curved than the same. structure in the right atrium. Its margins are more deeply. indented, presenting a kind of foliated appearance. Its. direction is forwards towards the right side, overlapping. the root of the pulmonary artery.
There are two main openings in the left atrium; the. openings of the four pulmonary veins and the. atrial-ventricular opening. Two of the articles four pulmonary veins. open into the right side of the atrium and two open into the. left side. The two veins on how to teach essay writing School, the left exit into the atrium. through a common opening. Business Issues Articles Academy! None of the pulmonary veins have. valves.
The atrial-ventricular opening is the large oval. opening of blood flow between the atrium and the ventricle. It is how to write a convincing International School smaller than the same opening between the right atrium. The left ventricle is longer and more conical shaped than. the right ventricle.
It forms a small part of the left side. of the anterior surface of the heart and a large portion of. the posterior surface. It also forms the apex of the heart. because it extends beyond the right ventricle. Its walls.
are nearly twice as thick as those of the right ventricle. They are thickest in the broadest part of the ventricle, becoming gradually thinner towards the base and also towards. the apex, which is the thinnest part of the left ventricle. There are two main openings in the left ventricle; the. atrial-ventricular opening and the aortic opening. The. atrial-ventricular opening is located behind and to the left. side of the aortic opening. The opening is articles a little smaller. than the same opening between the write Bromsgrove International School Thailand right atrium and. ventricle.
Its position corresponds to the center of the. sternum. It is surrounded by a dense fibrous ring and is. covered by the lining membrane of the heart and is protected. by the mitral valve. The circular aortic opening is located. in front of and to business issues articles Academy the right side of the atrial-ventricular.
opening from writing Istituto Marangoni which it is separated by issues articles Academy one of the segments of. the mitral valve. Essay Writing! The opening is protected by the semilunar. There are two valves located within the left ventricle; the. mitral valve and articles the semilunar valve. The mitral valve is. attached to the circumference of the atrial-ventricular. opening in writing d'Overbroeck's the same way that the tricuspid valve is attached. on the opposite side of the heart. Business Issues St. Johnsbury! The valve contains a few. muscular fibers, is how to writing Pomfret strengthened by fibrous tissue, and is.
formed by the lining of the heart (endocardium). It is. larger, thicker, and issues articles St. Johnsbury Academy stronger than the tricuspid, and. consists of two segments of unequal size. The mitral valves. are connected to many chordae tendonae.
Their attachment is. the same as on the right side except they are thicker, stronger, and less numerous. The semilunar valves surround. the aortic opening. They are similar in structure and mode. of attachment to those of the pulmonary artery. How To Write Bromsgrove! However, they are larger, thicker, and stronger than those of the. right side. Business Issues St. Johnsbury Academy! Between each valve and the cylinder of the. aorta is a deep depression called the sinuses of Valsalva. The depressions are larger than those at the root of the.
Figure 1: a. Cross sectional view of the heart. b. Persuasive Tips D'Overbroeck's! Top. view of the heart showing the four valves. Histology of the Layers of the Heart: The heart and its vessels are surrounded by a conical. membranous sac called the business articles St. Johnsbury pericardium. The pericardial sac. is composed of two layers; the parietal pericardium and the.
visceral pericardium with the space in-between the two being. called the pericardial cavity. The parietal pericardium is. composed primarily of compact fibrocollagenous tissue along. with elastic tissue. It is a fibrous membrane of loose. irregular connective tissue that is lined internally by a. mesothelium which is essentially simple squamous epithelium. The visceral pericardium forms the internal lining of the. pericardium and reflects over the outer surface of the. heart. This reflection forms the outer layer of the.
epicardium. The visceral pericardium is also composed of. compact fibrocollagenous tissue with elastic tissue but, is. smooth mesothelium. The pericardial cavity is located. between the parietal and visceral pericardium and a creative essay School contains. small amounts of serous fluid. The heart tissue itself can be subdivided into three. layers; (from the outside in) epicardium, myocardium, and. endocardium. The epicardium is the outermost layer of the.
heart and Academy consists of a loose connective tissue of. fibroblasts, collagen fibers, and adipose tissue. It. contains a stroma which houses coronary arteries and veins. that are surrounded by a layer of fat. These coronary. branches penetrate the teach essay myocardium. The myocardium contains the main muscle mass of the heart.
and is composed primarily of business articles St. Johnsbury Academy striated muscle cells. Each of. the cardiac muscle cells contain one central elongated. nucleus with some central euchromatin and some peripheral. heterochromatin.
The two atria have a very thin myocardial. layer which increases greatly in thickness as you go from. the atria to the right ventricle and into the left. ventricle. The outer surface of the myocardium, next to the. epicardium, is not composed of smooth muscle but is very. smooth in texture. The inner surface of the article writing Schools myocardium is. rough and is raised into trabeculations. The ventricular. papillary muscles, which are for the attachment of the.
chordae tendinae, are extensions of the myocardium even. though they are covered by endocardium. The outer layer of. the myocardium is superficial bulbospiral and swirls around. the ventricle in a clockwise fashion. The middle layer is. circular muscles that are the ventricular constrictors. Business Articles! The.
inner layer, which is deep bulbospiral, swirls around the. ventricle in a counterclockwise fashion. The layer underneath the myocardium is known as the. enodcardium. It contains a continuous smooth endothelial.
layer that covers all the inner surfaces of the heart, including the valves. Essay Writing! The outer layer of the endocardium, underneath the myocardium, is business issues articles St. Johnsbury Academy irregularly arranged. collagenous fibers that may contain Purkinje fibers/cells. The inner part of the endocardium contains more regularly. arranged collagen and elastic fibers than the outer layer. Some myofibroblasts are present in the endocardium which is. thicker in the atria than in a creative essay Sidcot the ventricles. There is a. subendothelial component of the endocardium underneath the.
endothelium. Business Issues Articles Academy! The component contains fibroblasts, scattered. smooth muscle cells, elastic fibers, collagen fibers, and an. amorphous ground substance that contains glycoproteins and. The valves of the heart are attached to the cardiac. skeleton and consist of chondroid (a material resembling. cartilage). The base of each valve is supported by a. fibrocollagenous ring. Why Is Essay Important Istituto Marangoni Firenze! Each valve also has a dense. fibrocollagenous central plate that is covered by simple. squamous epithelium.
Chordae tendonae connect with the. valves at the edge of each cusp as well as underneath each. cusp at one end and they attach to papillary muscles in the. ventricles at the other end. Endocardial endothelium. completely covers the papillary muscles, valves, and the. chordae tendonae. Business Issues! The junctions between the cusps of each. valve are known as commissures. The conducting system of the heart consists of four main. components; the sinuatrial node (SA), the atrioventricular.
node (AV), the bundle of his, and writing the Purkinje fibers/cells. All the parts of issues St. Johnsbury this conducting system are composed of. modified cardiac muscle cells. The SA node is located in. the right atrium, at the point where the superior vena cava. enters. The small muscle fibers of the SA node contain a. central nodal artery and desmosomes.
The muscle fibers do. not contain intercalated discs. The AV node is located in. the medial wall, in front of the opening of the a creative essay coronary. sinus and issues articles St. Johnsbury above the tricuspid ring. Its small muscle fibers.
are more regularly arranged than those of the SA node. The. AV node contains a rich nerve and essay writing tips blood supply. The bundle. of his has a right (single bundle) and a left (branched. bundle) bundle branch located underneath the endocardium.
It is histologically similar to the other components of the. conducting system. The Purkinje fibers/cells can be found. in clusters of business about six cells which are located under the. endocardium in the ventricles. Essay Sidcot! The cytoplasm of Purkinje. fibers appears pale under the microscope and contains many.
Physiology of the Heart: The principle function of the heart and circulatory system. is to issues provide oxygen and nutrients and to remove metabolic. waste products from tissues and organs of the body. Persuasive Writing! The. heart is the pump that provides the energy necessary for. transporting the business blood through the circulatory system in. order to facilitate the exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other metabolites through the thin-walled capillaries. The contraction of the heart produces changes in pressures. and flows in article Fairmont the heart chambers and Academy blood vessels. The.
mechanical events of the cardiac cycle can be divided into. four periods; late diastole, atrial systole, ventricular. systole, and essay early diastole.6. In late diastole, the St. Johnsbury mitral and tricuspid valves are open. and the essay important Istituto Firenze pulmonary and business articles aortic valves are closed. Blood flows. into the heart throughout diastole thus filling the philosophy Academy atria. and ventricles. The rate of filling declines as the. ventricles become distended, and the cusps of the. atrioventricular valves start to close.
The pressure in the. ventricles remains low throughout late diastole.8. In atrial systole, contraction of the atria forces. additional blood into the ventricles, but approximately 70. percent of the business issues ventricular filling occurs passively during. diastole. Contraction of the atrial muscle that surrounds. the openings of the superior and philosophy Academy inferior vena cava and.
pulmonary veins, narrows their orifices and the inertia of. the blood moving towards the heart tends to keep blood in. the heart. However, there is business St. Johnsbury some regurgitation of writing a creative Sidcot School blood. into the veins during atrial systole.25. At the start of ventricular systole, the AV valves close. The muscles of the ventricles initially contract relatively. little, but intraventricular pressure rises sharply as the. muscles squeezes the blood in the ventricle. This period of.
isovolumetric ventricular contraction lasts about 0.05. seconds until the pressures in the ventricles exceed the. pressure in the aorta and in the pulmonary artery, and the. aortic and pulmonary valves (semilunar valves) open. During.
this isovolumetric contraction, the business St. Johnsbury AV valves bulge into the. atria, causing a small but sharp rise in atrial pressure. When the semilunar valves open, the phase of ventricular. ejection begins. Ejection is initially rapid, but slows. down as systole progresses.
The intraventricular pressure. rises to a maximum and then declines somewhat before. ventricular systole ends. Late in systole, the how to teach writing Pomfret School aortic. pressure is actually higher than the ventricular pressure, but for a short period, momentum keeps the business articles blood moving. forward. The AV valves are pulled down by the contractions. of the ventricular muscle, and the atrial pressure drops.5. In early diastole, after the ventricular muscle if fully. contracted, the already falling ventricular pressure drops.
even more rapidly. Why Is Istituto! This is the period known as. protodiastole and it lasts about 0.04 seconds. It ends when. the momentum of the ejected blood is overcome and the. semilunar valves close.
After the valves are closed, pressure continues to drop rapidly during the period of. isovolumetric relaxation. Isovolumetric relaxation ends. when the ventricular pressure falls below the atrial. pressure and the AV valves open, thus allowing the. ventricles to fill. Again, filling is rapid at first, then. slows as the next cardiac contraction approaches. Atrial. pressure continues to articles Academy rise after the end of ventricular. systole until the AV valves open, upon which time it drops.
and slowly rises again until the next atrial systole.6,2,4. The heart is arguably the most vital organ the human body. possesses. Without the heart, none of the tissues in the. body would receive the vital oxygen necessary for them to. maintain survival.
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