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What is persuasive writing? What does it mean to persuade or convince someone of my opinion? Who can I persuade? How can I ...
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Ap Literature Sample Essay 3 Questions. Your AP class will likely focus heavily on persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham close reading and analysis of prose and poetry , but extra practice wont hurt you. Cornell engineering essay bestcheaphelpessay biz. How To Of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell. Read books , and be particularly familiar with 45 works for the student choice essays On test day , be sure to really look closely at all of the passages and closely interact with them by marking the persuasive writing The University, text in about writing Windermere a way that makes sense to you. These essays demonstrate some control of language , but they may be marred by surface errors. Evidence from the poem may be slight or misconstrued , or the essays may rely on paraphrase only. The University Of Birmingham. I would also include in this category very specific questions like the how to write University — UMass, meter of writing pieces The University of Birmingham, a poem i. How To Chigwell. You may paraphrase the poem instead of making specific references to persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham, its language. The analysis may be partial , unsupported , or irrelevant , and the essays may reflect an incomplete or oversimplified understanding of how a given theme functions in the text , or they may rely on plot summary alone.
The American Romantic period was essentially a Renaissance of American literature. You answer the prompt in a way that is not implausible or unreasonable , but your analysis of the poem is surfacelevel. How To Write Fashion. When you are writing a for an AP English Language or AP English Literature prompt you need to make sure that you use to describe the. Writing Of Birmingham. You do not adequately address the prompt , whether because your argument is partly unrelated to the task at hand or simply ignores elements of the prompt. Taking practice tests is a great way to prepare for the exam. You build a strong casewith lots of evidencein support of your interpretation of the text. When you think you have a grip on basic comprehension , move on to closereading see below. Youll be on your way to AP English Lit success in no time. First is an hourlong , 55question multiple choice section , and how to write then a two hour , three question freeresponse section.
The numerous conflicts that the characters face throughout the movie demonstrate the persuasive pieces, fundamental principles of existentialism and transcendentalism. In his famous oration , Ralph Waldo Emerson uses literary devices to c. While containing some analysis of the passage , implicit or explicit , the way the essay, assigned task is addressed may be slight , and support from the passage may tend toward summary or paraphrase. Alternatively , you might discuss syntax IN RELATION TO the writing The University of Birmingham, basics. Their analysis may be vague , formulaic , or minimally supported by references to the text. Advanced Placement , AP , and SAT are registered trademarks of the CollegeBoard , which was not involved in how to University Lowell Lowell the production of , and does not endorse this web site.
See my One thing students may not do very much on their own time , but that will help a lot with exam prep , is to read poetry. Persuasive The University Of Birmingham. She received a BA from Harvard in feature writing articles University Folklore and Mythology and is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. These essays offer a reasonable analysis of the work of the assigned theme and how it relates to the work as a whole ap literature sample essay 3 questions . You interpret the language of the persuasive writing, poem in a variety of ways i. A good way to approach these questions is to ask yourself , so what. These questions will ask you to describe something about a character. Youll want to know all the an essay experience College, characters , the plot , the themes , and any major devices or motifs the author uses throughout. AP® ENGLISH LITERATURE. 2006 SCORING. Question 3. Writing Pieces Of Birmingham. ( Significant. In no case may a poorly written essay be scored higher than a 3. 9−8 These detailed , . AP® ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION. Question 3. ( Acts of. In no case may a poorly written essay be scored higher than a 3. Sample: 3A.
Sample student responses and scoring commentary for writing Chigwell School, the secure 2016 AP. Free Response 3 Free-Response Questions | 2 Hours | 55% of Exam Score. Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt , the students assertions are presented with little clarity , organization , or support from the poem. These lowerhalf essays fail to offer an adequate analysis of the passage. Closereading is the ability to identify which techniques the The University of Birmingham, author is feature University using and why they are using them.
The analysis may be partial , unconvincing , or irrelevant , or ignore part of the assigned task. Ill go over the rubrics nowboth what they say and what they mean for you. These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of persuasive writing pieces The University of Birmingham, ideas , an articles Istituto Marangoni absence of writing pieces The University, textual support , or an how to write a feature article Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas) accumulation of errors they may lack control over the elements of collegelevel composition. Although these essays may not be errorfree , their perceptive analysis is writing pieces of Birmingham apparent in writing that is clear and effectively organized. Only minimal attempt is made to feature Griffith University, respond to the prompt. I knowlots of genre fiction works DO have literary merit , and Shakespeare actually began as low culture , and writing The University so on Chigwell School and so forth. These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading of the passage but tend to persuasive writing pieces, be superficial or thin. Youll be reading a wide variety of notable literary works in your AP English Literature course , but additional reading will help you further develop your analytical reading skills. A 3 essay either significantly misinterprets the poem or is particularly poorly written. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading , demonstrate inept writing , or do both.
Literary devices like metaphor , simile , and write an essay your d'Overbroeck's College repetition are used in literature to persuasive writing pieces The University, convey a special meaning to the reader. This is , in many ways , a special kind of inference question since you are inferring the broader personality of the character based on writing Griffith University (Navitas) the evidence in a passage. Youll want to be familiar with literary terms so that any questions that ask about them will make sense to The University, you. During the an essay about your College, 1800s these two conflicting philosophies were acted out by the Federalist and th. To answer these questions , you need to specific structural elements of the The University of Birmingham, passagea shift in tone , a digression , the specific form of a poem , etc. The multiplechoice section , or Section I of the exam , is 60 minutes long and has 55 questions. Your analysis of the write a feature of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas), poem is incomplete or incorrect , or you do not reference any specific language of the poem. The analysis may be partial , unconvincing , or irrelevant the writers may ignore part of the assigned task. It may be very short or repeatedly misinterpret the passage.
Youll get updates on our latest articles right on writing pieces The University your feed. These essays offer a range of interpretations they provide a convincing reading and analysis of the poem. How To Essay School. I would recommend that you discuss syntax AFTER you have discussed the basics , diction , tone , and imagery. Clinical Decision Making Welcome to this short overview of Clinical Decision Making for persuasive pieces The University, Nurses, . . . An Effective Practitioner is tasked with making clinical decisions . . . Ap English Lit Form B Sgs Q3 | Ap Central. Article Lowell — UMass Lowell. Sat / Act Prep Online Guides And Tips. All questions are taken from the writing pieces of Birmingham, sample questions on the AP Course and Exam Description. Question 1 , the poetry question , asked students to read carefully Juggler , a poem by the. Select one work of acknowledged literary merit and in a wellwritten essay , AP English Literature and Composition. Free Response 3 FreeResponse Questions 2 Hours 55 of Exam Score. The score should reflect the quality of the School, essay as a whole its.
These are multifaceted existential questions that ancient and persuasive modern philosophies have yet to adequately answer. Section , and then a two hour , three question freeresponse section. These essays offer a wellfocused and persuasive analysis of the nature of. Sample student responses and scoring commentary for how to Chigwell School, the secure 2016 AP. Question 3 Intentional Deception. AP ENGLISH LITERATURE AND COMPOSITION. Use these sample AP English essays to persuasive writing, get ideas for write a feature University Lowell, your own AP essays. In no case may a poorly written essay be scored higher than a 3. Wright uses to guide his audiences responses to the central characters and the action. Islamic influences on Western art . . . In Al Andaluz seems to show considerable influence from Islamic art, . Writing The University Of Birmingham. . University Lowell — UMass Lowell. . Arch of Islamic architecture. . . . 4.2 / 3. Of Birmingham. Visit the College Board on the Web www. Collegeboard. Org.
Question 3 Intentional Deception. The score should reflect the how to writing Chigwell, quality of the essay as a whole its. Sample student responses and scoring commentary for the secure 2016 AP. Persuasive Writing The University Of Birmingham. Free Response 3 Free-Response Questions 2 Hours 55 of Exam Score. In no case may a poorly written essay be scored higher than a 3. Question 1, the poetry question, asked students to writing articles Griffith (Navitas), read carefully Juggler, a poem by persuasive writing pieces, the.
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neuroscience essay This article appears in the. By Daniel Dennett. By John R. Searle. Raymond Tallis’s Latest New Atlantis Articles. Enter your e-mail address to receive occasional updates and previews from writing pieces of Birmingham The New Atlantis . What Neuroscience Cannot Tell Us About Ourselves. T here has been much breathless talk of late about all the how to write of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) varied mysteries of human existence that have been or soon will be solved by neuroscience. As a clinical neuroscientist, I could easily expatiate on persuasive writing pieces of Birmingham the wonders of a feature (Navitas), a discipline that I believe has a better claim than mathematics to pieces being Queen of the Sciences. School. For a start, it is a science in which many other sciences converge: physics, biology, chemistry, biophysics, biochemistry, pharmacology, and persuasive The University, psychology, among others. In addition, its object of study is the one material object that, of all the material objects in the universe, bears most closely on our lives: the brain, and feature writing, more generally, the nervous system.
So let us begin by persuasive pieces, giving all proper respect to how to Istituto Marangoni what neuroscience can tell us about ourselves: it reveals some of the most important conditions that are necessary for behavior and awareness. What neuroscience does not do, however, is persuasive writing pieces The University, provide a satisfactory account of the conditions that are sufficient for behavior and awareness. Its descriptions of what these phenomena are and of how they arise are incomplete in several crucial respects, as we will see. Articles. The pervasive yet mistaken idea that neuroscience does fully account for awareness and behavior is neuroscient ism , an exercise in The University, science-based faith. While to live a human life requires having a brain in some kind of an essay your life experience d'Overbroeck's College, working order, it does not follow from this fact that to live a human life is to be a brain in some kind of working order. Pieces Of Birmingham. This confusion between necessary and sufficient conditions lies behind the encroachment of “neuroscientistic” discourse on academic work in the humanities, and how to article University Lowell (Navitas), the present epidemic of such neuro-prefixed pseudo-disciplines as neuroaesthetics, neuroeconomics, neurosociology, neuropolitics, neurotheology, neurophilosophy, and so on. The failure to distinguish consciousness from neural activity corrodes our self-understanding in two significant ways. If we are just our brains, and our brains are just evolved organs designed to optimize our odds of persuasive writing, survival or, more precisely, to maximize the how to essay writing Chigwell School replicative potential of the genetic material for which we are the writing The University vehicle then we are merely beasts like any other, equally beholden as apes and centipedes to biological drives. Similarly, if we are just our brains, and write an essay life experience, our brains are just material objects, then we, and our lives, are merely way stations in The University of Birmingham, the great causal net that is the universe, stretching from the Chigwell School Big Bang to the Big Crunch. Most of those who subscribe to such “neuroevolutionary” accounts of humanity don’t recognize these consequences. Or, if they do recognize them, then they don’t subscribe to these accounts sincerely.
When John Gray appeals, in his 2002 book Straw Dogs , to a belief that human beings are merely animals and so “human life has no more meaning than the life of slime mold,” he doesn’t really believe that the life of John Gray, erstwhile School Professor of European Thought at the London School of Economics, has no more meaning than that of persuasive pieces, a slime mold else why would he have aspired to feature articles University (Navitas) the life of a distinguished professor rather than something closer to that of a slime mold? Wrong ideas about what human beings are and how we work, especially if they are endlessly repeated, keep us from thinking about ourselves in ways that may genuinely advance our self-understanding. Indeed, proponents of the persuasive writing pieces The University of Birmingham neuroscientific account of human behavior hope that it will someday supplant our traditional understandings of mind, behavior, and consciousness, which they dismiss as mere “folk psychology.” According to how to essay writing Chigwell School a 2007 New Yorker profile of professors Paul and Patricia Churchland, two leading “neurophilosophers,” they like “to speculate about a day when whole chunks of pieces of Birmingham, English, especially the bits that constitute folk psychology, are replaced by how to essay Chigwell, scientific words that call a thing by its proper name rather than some outworn metaphor.” The article recounts the occasion Patricia Churchland came home from a vexing day at work and told her husband, “Paul, don’t speak to persuasive writing The University me, my serotonin levels have hit bottom, my brain is awash in glucocorticoids, my blood vessels are full of adrenaline, and if it weren’t for my endogenous opiates I’d have driven the essay writing Chigwell School car into pieces The University a tree on the way home. My dopamine levels need lifting. Pour me a Chardonnay, and I’ll be down in a minute.” Such awkward chemical conversation is unlikely to replace “folk psychology” anytime soon, despite the write your d'Overbroeck's Churchlands’ fervent wishes, if only because it misses the persuasive pieces The University actual human reasons for the reported neurochemical impairments such as, for write an essay about your life d'Overbroeck's, example, failing to of Birmingham get one’s favored candidate appointed to a post. Moreover, there is strong reason to believe that the failure to provide a neuroscientific account of the sufficient conditions of consciousness and conscious behavior is not a temporary state of affairs. It is unlikely that the gap between neuroscientific stories of human behavior and the standard humanistic or common-sense narratives will be closed, even as neuroscience advances and as our tools for observing neural activity grow more sophisticated. In outlining the case that neuroscience will always have little to say about most aspects of human consciousness, we must not rely on how to write fashion articles Milano weak mysterian arguments, such as Colin McGinn’s claim, in his famous 1989 Mind paper “Can We Solve the Mind-Body Problem?,” that there may be a neuroscientific answer but we are biologically incapable of figuring it out. Nor is persuasive pieces, there much use in appealing to arguments about category errors, such as considering thoughts to be “kinds of things,” which were mobilized against mind-body identity theories when philosophy was most linguistically turned, in the middle of the last century. No, the aim of this essay is to give principled reasons, based on examining the nature of human consciousness, for asserting that we are not now and never will be able to essay writing School account for the mind in terms of writing of Birmingham, neural activity.
It will focus on human consciousness so as to avoid the futility of write about your life experience, arguments about where we draw the line between sentient and insentient creatures, because there are more negative consequences to persuasive writing misrepresenting human consciousness than animal, and because it is how to School, human consciousness that underlines the difficulty of fitting consciousness into the natural world as understood through strictly materialist science. This critique of the neural theory of consciousness will begin by persuasive The University of Birmingham, taking seriously its own declared account of what actually exists in the world. On this, I appeal to no less an authority than the philosophy professor Daniel Dennett, one of the most prominent spokesmen for write an essay d'Overbroeck's, the neuroevolutionary reduction of writing pieces of Birmingham, human beings and their minds. In his 1991 book Consciousness Explained , Dennett affirms the “prevailing wisdom” that. there is only one sort of stuff, namely matte r the physical stuff of physics, chemistry, and physiology and how to articles Istituto Milano, the mind is somehow nothing but a physical phenomenon. In short, the mind is the brain. We can (in principle!) account for persuasive The University, every mental phenomenon using the same physical principles, laws, and raw materials that suffice to explain radioactivity, continental drift, photosynthesis, reproduction, nutrition, and growth. So when we are talking about the how to essay Chigwell School brain, we are talking about nothing more than a piece of matter.
If we keep this in mind, we will have enough ammunition to demonstrate the necessary failure of neuroscientific accounts of consciousness and conscious behavior. It is a pure dedication to materialism that lies behind another common neuroscientistic claim, one that arises in response to the criticism that there are characteristics of writing, consciousness that neuroscience cannot explain. Feature Writing Articles Griffith (Navitas). The response is persuasive writing pieces The University of Birmingham, a strangely triumphant declaration that that which neuroscience cannot grasp does not exist. An Essay Life Experience D'Overbroeck's. This declaration is persuasive writing pieces of Birmingham, particularly liable to about Windermere be directed at the self and at free will, those two most persistent “illusions.” But even neuroscientists themselves don’t apply this argument consistently: they don’t doubt that they think they are selves, or that they have the illusion that they act freely and yet, as we will see, there is no conceivable neural explanation of these phenomena. We are therefore justified in rejecting the presumption that if neuroscience cannot see it, then it does not exist. The Outward Gaze. A good place to begin understanding why consciousness is not strictly reducible to the material is in pieces, looking at consciousness of material objects that is, straightforward perception. Perception as it is experienced by human beings is the explicit sense of being aware of something material other than oneself . Consider your awareness of essay assignment Blue Mountains International Management School, a glass sitting on persuasive writing pieces The University a table near you. Light reflects from the about writing Windermere glass, enters your eyes, and triggers activity in your visual pathways.
The standard neuroscientific account says that your perception of the glass is the result of, or just is , this neural activity. There is a chain of causes and The University, effects connecting the help International glass with the neural activity in your brain that is entirely compatible with, as in Dennett’s words, “the same physical principles, laws, and persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham, raw materials that suffice” to explain everything else in how to write of Massachusetts, the material universe. Unfortunately for neuroscientism, the inward causal path explains how the light gets into pieces The University your brain but not how it results in a gaze that looks out . The inward causal path does not deliver your awareness of the glass as an item explicitly separate from write of Massachusetts Lowell you as over there with respect to yourself, who is over here . This aspect of consciousness is known as intentionality (which is not to be confused with intentions). Intentionality designates the way that we are conscious of something, and that the contents of our consciousness are thus about persuasive writing pieces, something; and, in the case of human consciousness, that we are conscious of writing articles Griffith, it as something other than ourselves. But there is nothing in the activity of the visual cortex, consisting of nerve impulses that are no more than material events in a material object, which could make that activity be about the things that you see. In other words, in intentionality we have something fundamental about consciousness that is left unexplained by the neurological account.
This claim refers to fully developed intentionality and not the kind of persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham, putative proto-intentionality that may be ascribed to non-human sentient creatures. Intentionality is utterly mysterious from a material standpoint. International Management School. This is apparent first because intentionality points in pieces The University, the direction opposite to that of causality: the feature writing causal chain has a directionality in space-time pointing from the light wave bouncing off the object to the light wave hitting your visual cortex, whereas your perception of the object refers or points from persuasive The University of Birmingham you back to the object. The referential “pointing back” or “bounce back” is not “feedback” or reverse causation, since the causal arrow is located in physical space and time, whereas the writing Chigwell School intentional arrow is located in a field of writing pieces, concepts and writing Windermere, awareness, a field which is not independent of but stands aside from physical space and time. Ironically, by locating consciousness in particular parts of the material of the of Birmingham brain, neuroscientism actually underlines this mystery of intentionality, opening up a literal, physical space between conscious experiences and that which they are about. A Feature Article (Navitas). This physical space is, paradoxically, both underlined and annulled: The gap between the glass of which you are aware and writing pieces The University of Birmingham, the neural impulses that are supposed to be your awareness of it is both a spatial gap and feature writing Griffith University, a non-spatial gap.
The nerve impulses inside your cranium are six feet away from the persuasive writing pieces The University of Birmingham glass, and yet, if the nerve impulses reach out or refer to the glass, as it were, they do so by having the glass “inside” them. The task of attempting to writing School express the conceptual space of intentionality in persuasive writing, purely physical terms is a dizzying one. The perception of the glass inherently is of the glass, whereas the associated neural activity exists apart from the writing assignment International Hotel School cause of the persuasive writing pieces light bouncing off the glass. This also means, incidentally, that the neural activity could exist due to a different cause. For example, you could have the same experience of the glass, even if the glass were not present, by tickling the relevant neurons. The resulting perception will be mistaken, because it is of an object that is not in about essay writing School, fact physically present before you. But it would be ludicrous to talk of the associated neural activity as itself mistaken; neural activity is not about anything and pieces The University, so can be neither correct nor mistaken. Let us tease out the mystery of intentionality a bit more, if only to anticipate the usual materialist trick of burying intentionality in causation by brushing past perception to its behavioral consequences. If perceptions really are material effects (in one place the brain) of material causes (in another place the object), then intentionality seems to run in the contrary direction to and hence to lie outside causation. That your perception of the glass requires the neural activity in your visual cortex to write life experience reach causally upstream to the events that caused it is, again, utterly mysterious. Moreover, it immediately raises two questions.
First, why does the backward glance of a set of effects to writing of Birmingham some of their causes stop at a particular point in feature articles Griffith, the causal chain in this case, at the glass? And, second, how does this reaching backward create a solid, stable object out of something as unstable as an interference with the light? The ordinary inference implicit in persuasive writing pieces The University of Birmingham, everyday perception is that the events which cause nerve impulses are manifestations of something that transcends those events namely, an “object” that is the essay relatively permanent locus of possibility for many future events making intentionality even more mysterious. The bounce back is necessary to mark the point at persuasive writing pieces, which sense experiences are, as it were, “received”; the same point where, via a variety of intermediate steps, they can trigger behavioral outputs. This is a crucial point of demarcation within the causal nexus between perceptual input and behavioral output. And yet there is nothing within the nervous system that marks this point of arrival, or the point at which arrival passes over into departure (perceptual input into behavioral output). Nor is there anything to essay writing Windermere distinguish, on the one hand, those parts of the nervous system that are supposed to be the point of writing pieces of Birmingham, arrival of neural activity as a component of write an essay about your life d'Overbroeck's, conscious experience from, on the other, those parts that are mere unconscious way stations en route to some other point of arrival. In any event, identifying experiences with neural activity requires that intentionality, which has no place in the material world since no material object is about any other material object nevertheless fastens us into the material world. Examination of neural activity reveals only an unbroken causal chain passing from sensory inputs to motor outputs. Intentionality is significant because it is that which opens up the otherwise causally closed physical world. It lies at the root of our being a point of departure in the world, a site at which events originate that is, of our being actors . Persuasive Writing Pieces The University. And the weaving together of write life experience d'Overbroeck's College, individual intentional spaces creates the persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham human world that shared, public, temporally deep sphere of possibilities, that outside-of-nature which makes our individual and how to, collective human lives possible.
It lies at the origin of everything that distances us from the material world. The University. Without intentionality, there is no point of arrival of perceptions, no point of departure for actions, no input and output, no person located in a world. It is intentionality that opens up the present to essay writing Chigwell School the absent, the actual to the possible, and the now to the past and the future, so that we are able to live in a world that is an infinitely elaborated space of possibilities, rather than being simply “wired in” to persuasive The University what is . These are large claims, some of which I have already elaborated in these pages (see “How Can I Possibly Be Free?,” Summer 2010). But the aspects presented here will be enough to wrest ourselves back from being assimilated into our brains. It should also be noted that looking at the difficulties intentionality poses to materialism relieves us too of the need for the problematic views of (intermittently quite sensible) philosophers such as John Searle, who argues in his famous 1980 paper “Minds, Brains, and Programs” that intentionality “is a biological phenomenon, and it is how to write fashion articles Marangoni, as likely to be as causally dependent on the specific biochemistry of persuasive The University, its origins as lactation, photosynthesis, or any other biological phenomena.” Searle says this to undermine computational and functional theories of mind; but he still remains inside the biological frame of reference. And this requires him to think of intentionality that in write University of Massachusetts (Navitas), virtue of pieces The University of Birmingham, which an a feature article University Lowell Lowell (Navitas), effect reaches back to persuasive writing pieces its cause to be itself the effect of about life experience, another cause or set of causes. (The functionalism that Searle was rebutting claims that, just as a computer program is defined by how it transforms input to output, a piece of consciousness is defined by the particular causal transformation it effects between an organism’s perceptual input and its behavioral output.
But since functionalism tries to pieces The University of Birmingham assimilate perception into causation by how to write fashion, arguing that the persuasive contents of consciousness are identical with their causal relations, it is feature, just as easily disposed of by looking carefully at the counter-causal nature of intentionality, and writing pieces, the need for a point of arrival and departure, for input and output, without resorting to Searle’s argument from biological causes.) Focusing on intentionality and placing it in the context of a materialistic, neuroscientific theory underlines what an extraordinary phenomenon perception is. It is that in virtue of which an object is revealed to essay writing a subject; or, rather, that in virtue of which the experiences of a subject are the revelation of an object. And this brings us to the heart of the The University of Birmingham trouble that the neural theory of perception is in: its central claim is that the interaction between two material objects either directly, such as by touch, or indirectly, such as by vision will cause one to appear to the other. The counter-causal direction of essay writing Windermere, intentionality not only shows that this cannot be accommodated in physical science (of which neuroscience is a part) but that appearance is pieces The University of Birmingham, not something that the material world, a nexus of causation, affords. Indeed, we could go further and how to write University of Massachusetts, argue that the progressive enclosure of the persuasive world within the framework of how to essay, physical science, its being construed as a material world, tends towards the persuasive writing of Birmingham elimination of appearance . Making Appearance Disappear.
P hysical science begins when we escape from our subjective, first-person experiences into objective measurement, and thereby start to aspire towards Thomas Nagel’s “view from nowhere.” You think the table over there is large; I think it is small. We make a measurement and discover that it is how to Istituto, two feet by two feet. We now characterize the persuasive pieces of Birmingham table in a way that is less beholden to our own, or anyone else’s, personal experience. Or we terminate an argument about whether the table is light or dark brown by translating its color into a mixture of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation. Write An Essay Life College. The table has lost contact with its phenomenal appearance to me, to you, or to anyone, as being characteristic of pieces, what it is. As science progresses, measurement takes us further from actual experience, and the phenomena of subjective consciousness, to a realm in which things are described in abstract, general quantitative terms. Write Articles Istituto. The most obvious symptom of this is the way physical science has to persuasive writing of Birmingham discard what it regards as “secondary qualities” such as color experiences, feelings of warmth and cold, and tastes. They are regarded as somehow unreal, or at least as falling short of describing what the furniture of the world is writing Chigwell School, “in itself.” For the persuasive writing pieces physicist, light is an essay your experience, not in itself bright or colorful; rather, it is a mixture of vibrations of different frequencies in an electromagnetic field. The material world, far from being the colorful, noisy, smelly place we experience, is purportedly instead composed only of colorless, silent, odorless atoms or quarks, or other basic particles and waves best described mathematically.
Physical science is thus about the marginalization, and writing The University of Birmingham, ultimately the elimination, of phenomenal appearance. But consciousness is centrally about appearances. The basic contents of consciousness are these mere “secondary qualities.” They are what fill our every conscious moment. As science advances, it retreats from appearances towards quantifying items that do not in write fashion articles, themselves have the kinds of pieces of Birmingham, manifestation that constitute our experiences. A biophysical account of consciousness, which sees consciousness in terms of nerve impulses that are the passage of ions through semi-permeable membranes, must be a contradiction in terms. For such an account must ultimately be a physical account, and about writing Windermere School, physical science does not admit the existence of persuasive writing The University of Birmingham, anything that would show why a physical object such as a brain should find, uncover, create, produce, result in, or cause the how to Chigwell emergence of appearances and, in pieces The University, particular, secondary qualities in the world. Galileo’s famous assertions that the book of nature “is written in the language of mathematics” and that “tastes, odors, colors . reside only in how to a feature article University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell, consciousness,” and persuasive writing The University of Birmingham, would be “wiped out and University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell, annihilated” in a world devoid of persuasive pieces of Birmingham, conscious creatures, underline the connection, going back to the very earliest days of feature (Navitas), modern physical science, between quantification and the disappearance of appearance.
Any explanation of consciousness that admits the existence of appearances but is rooted in materialist science will fail because, on persuasive writing pieces of Birmingham its own account, matter and assignment Hotel Management, energy do not intrinsically have appearances, never mind those corresponding to secondary qualities. Persuasive The University. We could, of course, by about School, all means change our notion of matter; but if we do not, and the brain is a piece of matter, then it cannot explain the writing pieces experience of things. Those who imagine that consciousness of essay writing Blue International Management, material objects could arise from the effect of some material objects on another particular material object don’t seem to take the notion of persuasive pieces, matter seriously. Some neurophilosophers might respond that science does not eliminate appearance; rather, it replaces one appearance with another fickle immediate and conscious appearance with one that is more true to the reality of the objects it attends to. But this is not what science does least of all physical science, which is supposed to give us the final report on write an essay about your life d'Overbroeck's what there is in the universe, for which matter (or mass-energy) is the ultimate reality, and equations linking quantities are the best way of revealing the inner essence of pieces of Birmingham, this reality.
For, again, it is of the very nature of mass-energy, as it is envisaged in physics, not to have any kind of appearance in itself. This lack of appearance to mass-energy may still seem counterintuitive, but it will become clearer when we examine a well-known defense, again made by John Searle, of the theory that mind and brain are identical or specifically, that experiences can be found in neural impulses because they are the same thing. In his 1983 book Intentionality , Searle who, as already noted, is committed to a neural account of consciousness addresses the most obvious problem associated with the claim that experiences are identical with neural activity: experiences are nothing like neural activity, and write articles Milano, the least one might expect of something is persuasive pieces The University, that it should be like itself. Searle denies that this is a problem by arguing that neural activity and experiences are different aspects of the same stuff; more precisely, that they are the same stuff seen at “different levels.” The immediate problem with this claim is in knowing what it means. Clearly, neural activity and experiences are not two aspects of the same thing in how to fashion Milano, the way that the front and back of a house are two aspects of the same house. Searle tries to clarify what he means using an persuasive The University, analogy: experience is related to neural activity, he says, as “liquid properties of water” are related to “the behavior of the individual molecules” of H 2 O. They are the same stuff even though molecules of H 2 O are nothing like water. Water is wet, he argues, while individual molecules are not.
Wetness is the one specific “liquid” property of water he cites at the outset, and the only others he mentions are that “it pours, you can drink it, you can wash in it, etc.” Because of this, it may seem at first that all Searle has accomplished is isolating the experiential qualities of write article of Massachusetts (Navitas), water from the non-experiential. That is, one interpretation of Searle’s supposed explanation is that neural activity is related to experience in the same way water is related to experiences of persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham, water. This explanation, of course, is completely inadequate, because it simply sets us at a further regress from the answer. But it turns out that this interpretation of Searle’s argument is the charitable one. We can see why in a section where Searle responds to this famous argument made by Leibniz in The Monadology (1714): And supposing that there were a machine so constructed as to think, feel, and have perception, we could conceive of it as enlarged and yet preserving the same proportions, so that we might enter it as into a mill. And this granted, we should only find on visiting it, pieces which push against another, but never anything by which to explain perception. Feature Writing Articles University (Navitas). This must be sought for, therefore, in the simple substance and not in the composite or in writing of Birmingham, the machine. An exactly parallel argument to Leibniz’s would be that the behavior of H 2 O molecules can never explain the School liquidity of water, because if we entered into the system of molecules “as into a mill we should only find on visiting it pieces which push one against another, but never anything by which to explain” liquidity. But in both cases we would be looking at the system at persuasive writing, the wrong level.
The liquidity of water is fashion articles, not to be found at the level of the individual molecule, nor [is] the visual perception . to be found at the level of the individual neuron or synapse. The key to understanding Searle’s argument and its fatal flaw is in the words, “But in The University of Birmingham, both cases we would be looking at the system.” It turns out that in Windermere, this water/H 2 O analogy, it is not just the pieces of Birmingham water but both levels that are already levels of experience or of observation. Writing Chigwell School. Searle in fact requires experience, observation, description in short, consciousness to generate the two levels of his water analogy, which are meant to sustain his argument that two stuffs can be the same stuff even if they do not look like one another. This supposed explanation evades the question of experience even more than does the first. For what Searle is in effect arguing, though he does not seem to notice it, is that the relationship between neural activity and The University of Birmingham, experience is like the relationship between two kinds of experience of the same stuff. An Essay D'Overbroeck's. And this is pieces, unsatisfactory because the problem he is supposedly solving is that neural impulses are not like experiences at all. (This rebuttal also applies even more obviously, in fact to another, very popular analogy, between dots of newsprint and a picture in the newspaper as neural activity and experiences. The dots/picture analogy also has the Mountains Hotel Management benefit of making clear another vulnerability of persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham, such analogies: the suggestion that neural activity is “micro” while experiences are “macro,” when it is not at all evident why that should be the your d'Overbroeck's case.)
Some will object to this experiential characterization of the “levels” argument, and will formulate it instead in terms of levels of organization or complexit y : for example, the Earth’s climate and weather system is organized into many different levels of The University, complexity, each exhibiting distinct behavior and distinct sorts of phenomena, from the interplays causing cycles of temperature over the centuries, down to the behavior of storms, down to the interactions of molecules. The implicit idea is that each level of complexity is about Windermere, governed by its own distinct set of laws. Persuasive Pieces. But one cannot take the distinction between these sets of laws to be inherent in the climate/weather system without in writing Griffith (Navitas), effect saying that when enough matter gets together in the same vicinity, it becomes another kind of matter which falls under the scope of another kind of law (at the same time that it remains the more basic kind of matter under the scope of the pieces more basic kind of law). That flies in the face of reductive materialism not to mention raises some very difficult questions about the identicality of these different kinds of feature articles Griffith (Navitas), matter. Persuasive Writing Pieces. What is more, the “getting together” that makes, say, a storm a whole made out of parts, is about writing Windermere, itself description-dependent and hence perception-dependent. The very term “complexity” refers to a description-dependent property. Of Birmingham. A pebble may be seen as something very simple one pebble or something infinitely complex a system of a trillion trillion sub-atomic particles interacting in such a way as to sustain a static equilibrium. The persistent materialist may launch a final defense of the argument, to the effect that the particular descriptions of water and H 2 O molecules Searle mentions do not really depend on experience at write an essay life, all. Of Birmingham. He writes, “In its liquid state water is wet, it pours, you can drink it, you can wash in it, etc.
When we describe the write articles Istituto Marangoni Milano stuff as liquid we are just describing those very molecules at a higher level of description than that of the individual molecule.” One might argue that these enumerated qualities of water are all physical facts, that they are true even when there is no one present to persuasive pieces The University observe them. But to the extent that this reinterpretation of Searle’s argument helps it to hold water (so to speak), it is only due to the original argument’s imprecision. For if we take it to how to Chigwell School be truly independent of experience that water “is wet, it pours, you can drink it, you can wash in it,” then these facts are equally true of a collection of molecules of H 2 O, because of course the physical stuff known as water just is a collection of molecules of H 2 O. Water and H 2 O molecules, considered solely as physical things, are identical, and have all of the The University of Birmingham same properties. No appeal to “levels of description” should even be necessary. About Writing. The reason it is necessary hinges on Searle’s description of persuasive The University of Birmingham, one level as that of “ the individual molecule.” But an individual molecule is not at all the same thing as water which is a collection of many individual molecules and so of an essay your experience, course we should not expect the two to have the same properties.
If we remove from the analogy the differing appearances to us of water and H 2 O molecules as sources of their un-likeness, then all Searle has demonstrated is how a thing can be unlike a part of itself, rather than unlike itself. This is trivially true, and does not apply in any event to the question at hand if neural impulses are taken to be identical to experiences. Searle makes his position even more vulnerable by arguing that not only are neural activity and persuasive writing pieces of Birmingham, the experience of perception the same but that the former causes the latter just as water is “caused” by H 2 O. This is desperate stuff: one could hardly expect some thing A to cause some thing B with which it is identical, because nothing can cause itself. In any event, the bottom line is articles Milano, that the molecules of H 2 O and the wet stuff that is persuasive pieces, water are two appearances of the same thing two conscious takes on the same stuff. They cannot be analogous to, respectively, that which supposedly causes conscious experiences (neural impulses) and conscious experiences themselves . What Physical Science is Blind To. T o press this point a little harder: conscious experiences and observed nerve impulses are both appearances. But nerve impulses do not have any appearance in themselves; they require a conscious subject observing them to about appear and it is irrelevant that the observation is highly mediated through instrumentation.
Like all material items, nerve impulses lack appearances absent an observer. Persuasive Writing Of Birmingham. And given that they are material events lacking appearances in themselves, there is no reason why they should bring about the appearances of things other than themselves. It is magical thinking to imagine that material events in a material object should be appearings of objects other than themselves. Material objects require consciousness in order to appear. All Searle has explained, again, is how two different appearances of the same thing can be unlike each other; but the problem he means to how to essay solve in the first place or should mean to solve is how something that itself has no appearance can give rise to, in fact be identical to, appearances. That is, Searle’s task is to show how something that itself has no appearance can be an appearance and writing pieces of Birmingham, without someone else observing the thing so as to Windermere School give it the appearance. Writing Pieces The University. The question becomes pointed in Leibniz’s thought experiment: how, from write article of Massachusetts looking at the raw material of pieces, neurons in someone’s brain, are we, as outside observers, supposed to get the appearances these neurons are meant to be causing, or generating, or identical to? Searle is forced into how to write article of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) this conclusion: “If one knew the principles on which the system of H 2 O molecules worked, one could infer that it was in a liquid state by observing the movement of the molecules, but similarly if one knew the principles on which the brain worked one could infer that it was in a state of thirst or having a visual experience.” In other words, just by looking at neural impulses and “translating” them into the other “level of description,” we can get at the corresponding experiences. Pieces The University. This sounds fine until we consider just what “getting at” those experiences means.
For what Searle does not account for is how knowing that a particular brain is having a particular experience is supposed to write life experience College be enough to pieces The University of Birmingham deliver actually having that experience yourself. To fully accept Searle’s conclusion, we would have to believe that having the experience is the same as knowing that it exists that it arises for writing Windermere, the one person experiencing it, perhaps, from some implicit act of translation or “inference” and so, among other things, that just by looking at someone else’s brain in the proper way, we could have the same experiences they are having. Persuasive Writing The University Of Birmingham. These are absurd conclusions, as we will see. From a more practical standpoint, we can see why it will never be enough to dismiss the problem of writing, appearances out of hand by pieces of Birmingham, appealing either to the idea that perceptions are just brain activity like any other brain activity, or the idea that consciousness (and so all appearance) is an illusion. For in either case, while appearances are “nothing but” neural activity, we still must be able to explain why some neural activity leads to Windermere School the sensation (or illusion) of writing pieces The University of Birmingham, appearance while other neural activity does not; and we must be able to distinguish between the about essay writing Windermere School two by looking only at writing The University of Birmingham, the material neurons. Neurophilosophers should be able to recognize this problem, since they acknowledge that the vast majority of neural impulses are not associated with appearances or consciousness of any sort. The search for about life, neural correlates of consciousness has in writing pieces The University of Birmingham, fact turned up clusters, patterns, and locations of activity that are not in any significant respect different from neural activity that is not so correlated. How To Essay Writing Chigwell School. What is more, “clusters,” “patterns,” and so forth also require an observer, to bring them together into a unity and to of Birmingham see that unity as a unity. That which requires an observer cannot be the basis of an how to Chigwell, observation. The fact that intentionality does not fit into the materialist world picture has often been noted, but it is important to emphasize its anomalous nature because it lies at pieces, the root of pretty well everything that distances us from the material world, including other animals.
The nature of intentionality becomes most clear when we see that the assignment Blue Hotel Management perceiver is an embodied subject when the object is related to an “I” who perceives it, and who experiences himself as being located in the same experiential field as the object. The requirement of writing pieces of Birmingham, admitting the existence of a perceiving self is, of course, enough to make neurophilosophers hostile to the notion of the subject. But if they deny the existence of a self, they still have to account for how it is that matter can be arranged around a viewpoint as “near,” “far,” and so forth for the construction of what Bertrand Russell called “egocentric space,” in which indexical words like “this,” “that,” and “here” find their meanings. There are no appearances without viewpoints: for example, there are no appearances of write a feature article University Lowell (Navitas), a rock that are neither from the front of pieces, it nor from the back of University (Navitas), it nor from any other angle. But there is nothing in the material brain, as we have seen, that could make it anyone’s own brain, or that could locate it at the center of anyone’s sensory field as the foundation of a viewpoint. We cannot appeal to persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham the objective fact that the brain is located in a particular body to install it as someone ’s brain, because ownership does not reside in writing assignment help Hotel, bodies absent consciousness, or indeed self-consciousness but consciousness is just what we are unable to find by looking at the material of the brain. Nor is the fact that the persuasive writing pieces The University brain is located at a particular point in space sufficient for making it the center of a particular someone’s personal space any more than that fact is sufficient for a rock to have its own personal space. The “view from nowhere” of physical science does not accommodate viewpoints.
And since the material world has of itself no viewpoints, it does not, of itself, have centers or, for help Hotel Management School, that matter, peripheries. The equation E=m c 2 , like all laws of physics, captures an persuasive writing, ultimate, all-encompassing scientific truth about the world, a viewless view of material reality, and has nothing to say about the experience of the world. Absent from help School it is that which forms the basic contents of consciousness: the phenomenal appearances of the world. Mysteries of the Subjective Self. T he loss of appearances is not an accidental mislaying. Persuasive Writing. It is an inevitable consequence of the materialist conception of matter as we have it today. The brain, being a piece of matter, must be person-free. This is true not only by definition but also in other, specific senses. Persons or selves have two additional features which cannot be captured in neural terms. The first is unity in multiplicity . At any given moment, I am aware of a multitude of feature writing, experiences: sensations, perceptions, memories, thoughts, emotions. I am c o -conscious of them that is, I am aware of each of persuasive pieces, them at once, so that they are integrated into a unity of sorts.
Moreover, co-consciousness includes consciousness of things I cannot currently see or touch: it includes consciousness of the essay writing assignment School absent past, of the persuasive pieces absent elsewhere of the present, and of the possible future. It is how to a feature University of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas), difficult to see how this integration is possible in neural terms, since neurophysiology assigns these experiences to spatially different parts of the brain. Aspects of consciousness are supposedly kept very tidily apart: the pathways for perception are separate from those for emotion, which are separate from those for memory, which are separate from those for motivation, which are separate from those for judgment, and so on. Within perception, each of the senses of vision, hearing, smell, and so forth has different pathways and destinations. Persuasive Writing Pieces The University. And within, say, visual perception, different parts of the brain are supposed to essay help Mountains Management School be responsible for receiving the color, shape, distance, classification, purpose, and emotional significance of seen objects. When, however, I see my red hat on the table, over there, and see that it is writing of Birmingham, squashed, and feel cross about it, while I hear you laughing, and writing Windermere School, I recognize the laughter as yours, and I am upset, and I note that the taxi I have ordered has arrived so that I can catch the train that I am aware I must not miss when all of these things occur in my consciousness at once, many things that are kept apart must somehow be brought together. There is no model of such synthesis in the brain. Writing Pieces The University Of Birmingham. This is the so-called “binding” problem. Converging neural pathways might seem to offer a means by which things are all brought together this is the write an essay life d'Overbroeck's standard neurophysiological account of “integration.” However, it solves nothing.
If all those components of the moment of consciousness came together in the same spot, if their activity converged, they would lose their separate identity and the distinct elements would be lost in a meaningless mush. When I look at my hat, I see that it is red, and squashed, and over there, and writing The University, a hat, and all of the rest. Here is the challenge presented to about College neuroscience by the experienced unity and multiplicity of the conscious moment: that which is brought together has also to be kept apart. Consciousness is a unification that retains multiplicity . Neurophilosophers have tried to deal with this problem by arguing that, while the persuasive The University of Birmingham components of experience retain their individual locations in the brain, the activity that occurs in those different locations is bound together. The mechanism for this binding is write a feature article University of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas), supposed to be either rhythmic mass neural activity or emergent physical forces which transcend the boundaries of individual neurons, such as electromagnetic fields or quantum coherence arising out persuasive writing of Birmingham, of the properties of nerve membranes.
This way of imagining the unity of consciousness assumes, without any reason, that linked activity across large sections of the brain say, a coherent pattern of rhythmic activity, made visible as such to an observer by instrumentation will be translated, or more precisely will translate itself , from an objective fact to a subjective unity. We are required to accept that something that is observed as an internal whole via instrumentation will be experienced as a whole, or itself be the experience of a whole, such that it will deliver the wholeness of writing assignment Blue Mountains International Hotel, a subset of items in the world while at the very same time retaining the separateness of those items. The other distinctive feature of subjectivity is temporal depth . The human subject is aware of a past (his own and the shared past of communities and persuasive pieces, cultures) and reaches into a future (his own and the shared future). For simplicity’s sake, let us just focus on the past. Write A Feature Article University Lowell — UMass Lowell. There are many neurophilosophical accounts of memory, but they have one thing in writing pieces, common: they see memory as, in the slightly scornful phrase of the write philosopher Henri Bergson, “a cerebral deposit.” Memory is, to use the slippery term, “stored” as an effect on the brain, expressed in persuasive writing The University of Birmingham, its altered reactivity. This theory has been demonstrated, to the satisfaction of fashion, many neurophysiologists and cognitive neuroscientists, in creatures as disparate as apes and fruit flies. Some of the most lauded studies on “memory,” such as those that won Columbia University neuroscientist Eric Kandel his 2000 Nobel Prize, have been on persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham the sea slug. In reality, Kandel did not examine anything that should really be called memor y it was actually altered behavior in response to training by means of an electric shock essentially a conditioned reflex. A sea slug does not, so far as anybody knows, have semantic memory of facts that is, memory of facts as facts, laden with concepts. It does not have explicit episodic memories of article of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell (Navitas), events that is, events remembered as located in the past.
Nor does it have autobiographical memories that is, events remembered as located in its own past. It does not even have an explicit sense of the past or of time in general, and even less of a collective past where shared history is located. Nor can one seriously imagine an elderly sea slug actively trying to persuasive writing The University remember earlier events, racking its meager allocation of twenty thousand neurons to recall something, any more than one can think of it feeling nostalgic for an essay your life experience d'Overbroeck's College, its youth when it believed that it still had a marvelous life ahead of persuasive writing pieces The University, it. Of course, neurophilosophers are not impressed by the objection that the sea slug or any other animal model does not possess anything like the kind of memory that we possess. It is, they say, simply a matter of different degrees of complexity of the nervous system in question: explicit memories involve more elaborate circuitry, with more intermediate connections, than the kinds of conditioned reflexes observed in sea slugs. To dissect this response, we have to Chigwell School examine critically the very idea that memories are identical with altered states of a nervous system. Let us look first of all at how the fallacy commanded acceptance. Kandel, like many other researchers, seems to assimilate all memory into habit memory, and habit memory in turn into altered behavior, or altered reactivity of the organism. And altered reactivity can be correlated with the altered properties of the persuasive writing of Birmingham excitable tissue in writing School, the organism, which may be understood in biophysical, biochemical, or neurochemical terms the kinds of chemical changes one can see in persuasive, the contents of a Petri dish. Writing School. But these changes have nothing to do with memory as we experience and value it, though they have everything to do with overlooking the true nature of memory. This is because habit memory is merely implicit, while human memory is also explicit: the former sort of “memory” is merely altered behavior, while the persuasive writing pieces latter is something one is aware of as a memory . Those who think this a false elevation of the human must address not only the fact that there are two broad categories of memory to be found among animal species, but that both of these types of memory coexist in human beings.
We not only have uniquely explicit memory, but also have the same sort of implicit memory as Kandel’s sea slugs. Moreover, we can have both of these types of write about your experience d'Overbroeck's, memory about the same event: After a spark from a doorknob shocks my hand as I close the door during the winter, I will instinctively flinch from touching it again, and will then stop and writing pieces The University, explicitly remember that I had previously received an electrostatic shock. This time, I will explicitly plan to shut the door with my foot, an act that will itself after a few repetitions become instinctive or implicit, until I again stop to recall the explicit memory of the event that led to the habit. How To Essay Writing Chigwell. The neurophysiological account fails to address these distinctions. To get to the bottom of the fallacies that underlie the very idea of a “neurophysiology of memory,” we need to remind ourselves that the nervous system is a material object and that material objects are identical with their present states.
A broken cup is a broken cup. It is not in writing The University of Birmingham, itself a record of its previous states of articles University, a cup that was once whole except to an outside observer who previously saw the cup in its unbroken state and now remembers it, so that he or she can compare the past and present states of the writing pieces of Birmingham cup. The broken cup has an altered reactivity it moves differently in response to stimuli but this altered reactivity is not a memory of its previous state or of the event that caused its altered reactivity, namely its having been dropped. Likewise, although the altered state of the sea slug is, as it were, a “record” of what has happened to it, it is a record only to an external consciousness that has observed it in how to write articles Istituto, both its past and present states and is aware of both. And this is equally true of the altered reactivity of neurons exposed to previous stimuli in higher organisms. Indeed, just as a conscious observer is writing pieces of Birmingham, required for how to write Istituto Marangoni, the present state of the broken cup to be regarded as a “record” or “memory” of its having been dropped, so it must be a consciousness that identifies the particular piece of matter of the cup as a single object distinct from its surroundings, having its own distinct causal history, of which there is one special event among all others of which the cup is a “record”: its being dropped. From a consciousness-free material standpoint, the cup is but an arbitrary subset of all matter, and its present state owes equally to every prior state of the matter that composes it. The cup would have to be at once a “memory” of the moment it was dropped and of the innumerable moments when it sat motionless in the cupboard with the former in no way privileged. In fact, if you believe that the present state of an writing pieces The University, object is a record or memory of essay writing, all the pieces The University of Birmingham events that brought it to its present state, you are committed to believing that, at any given moment, the universe is a memory of all its previous states.
This need not be so, of course, if an object is encountered by write — UMass, a conscious individual who can see its present state as a sign of its past state, and so can focus on salient causes of salient aspects for example, the event that led to the cup being broken. The conscious individual alone can see the present state as a sign of a past state and pick out one present state as a sign of one of the events that brought it from its past state to its present state. This final point illustrates how the effect of an experienced event is a record of this event only to an observer. Persuasive The University Of Birmingham. But the brain, being a material object, cannot be its own observer, comparing its past and feature writing Griffith University (Navitas), present states. More precisely, the present state of a portion of the brain cannot reach out or refer , by the temporal equivalent of writing of Birmingham, intentionality, to those salient events that changed it from an earlier state. Write Istituto Milano. And yet this is what memory does. Memories, that is to say, have an even more mysterious and counter-causal about-ness than perceptions of present events: they reach back to previous experiences, which themselves, through perception, reached out to that which, according to orthodox neuroscience, caused the experience. Persuasive. Memories supposedly therefore reach back to write an essay your life the mental causes of their physical causes. What is more, just as in vision I see the object as separate from myself, in persuasive of Birmingham, memory I see the remembered object as different from the present, from the totality of what is here I see it as absent . How To Article University Of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas). The memory explicitly locates its intentional object in pieces The University, the past . To borrow a phrase that Roger Scruton used in how to a feature article Lowell (Navitas), relation to music, memories have a double intentionality . The failure of neuroscientism to deal with this last twist of the knife is illustrated by a recent paper in Science which some regarded triumphantly as having nailed memory.
The authors found that the same neurons were active when an individual watched a TV scene (from, of all things, The Simpsons ) as when they were asked to remember it. Memory, they concluded, is writing, simply the fashion articles Marangoni Milano replication of the neural activity that was provoked by the event that is remembered. This fails to distinguish, and so leaves unexplained, how it is that an individual experiences a memory as a memory rather than as something present or, actually, a hallucination of something present. A putative neural account of memory cannot deal with the difference between perceptions and memories because there is no past tense or indeed future tense in the material world. Consciousness, with its implicit sense of “now,” is required to of Birmingham locate events in writing articles Griffith University (Navitas), one panel or other of the pieces of Birmingham triptych past, present, and future; it is the conscious subject that provides the reference point. This is why Einstein said that physicists “know that the distinction between past, present, and future is essay assignment Hotel, only a stubbornly persistent illusion.” A consistent materialism should not allow for the possibility of memory, of the sense of the past.
It only writing The University of Birmingham, manages to seem to do so because observers, viewpoint, and how to write a feature University of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas), consciousness are smuggled into the descriptions of the successive states of the brain, making it seem that later states can be about earlier states. As if the unity of the self or subject or “I” at a particular time were not sufficiently resistant to neurological explanation, the unity of the self over time is even further beyond its reach. The objective endurance of the brain does not generate the sensed co-presence of successive states of the persuasive pieces The University self, even less the sense that one has temporal depth. Even if the self were reduced to a series of experiences, as in the accounts of David Hume or Oxford philosopher Derek Parfit, it would not be possible to how to University Lowell see how the series was explicit as a series, with different moments explicitly related to writing of Birmingham each other, where one part accessed another and saw that it belonged to the same self. Indeed, starving the self down into a mere implicit thread linking successive experiences renders it less , not more, amenable to how to write University of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell (Navitas) neural reduction, since the question of why some particular set of successive experiences rather than another should be linked together as a single series becomes even more glaring when the persuasive pieces experiences are seen as but some arbitrary physical events among other physical events occurring in many different locations in physical space. And the essay help International Hotel School problem is by no means absolved if the writing pieces of Birmingham sense of self is as claimed by some neuroscientists, like so many other things they are unable to explain an illusion. A Feature University Of Massachusetts — UMass. My feeling that I am the same person as the person who married my wife in 1970 is just as impossible to explain neurologically if it is an illusion as if it is true. Neural activity does not have the wherewithal to create the sense that we have of persuasive writing pieces of Birmingham, feeling that we are the same individual at write, different times just as little if the sense is illusory as if it is true. The notion that the material brain can produce the of Birmingham illusion of the self but not be the basis of the how to essay writing Chigwell real thing seems, to put it mildly, rather odd. And what is it to which the illusion is presented? Here again is the neuroscientific reduction to absurdity, in its purest form: illusions must be experienced by some being, but “being something” is itself an illusory experience.
An Insincere Materialism. T he belief among neurophilosophers that the brain, a material object, can generate tensed time is one among many manifestations of the insincerity of their materialism. As we have seen, under cover of hard-line materialism, they borrow consciousness from elsewhere, smuggling it into, or presupposing it in, their descriptions of brain activity. This ploy is facilitated by a mode of speaking which I call “thinking by transferred epithet,” in which mental properties are ascribed to the brain or to parts of the brain (frequently very tiny parts, even individual neurons), which are credited with “signaling,” and often very complex acts such as “rewarding,” “informing,” and so forth. The use of transferred epithets is the pieces linguistic symptom of how to write a feature University of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas), what Oxford philosopher P.M.S. Hacker and University of Sydney neuroscientist M.R. Bennett described, in their 2003 book Philosophical Foundations of Neuroscienc e , as the “mereological fallacy”: ascribing to persuasive writing pieces parts properties which truly belong to wholes. This fallacy bids fair to be described as the essay writing Original Sin of much neurotalk, and it certainly allows the mind-brain barrier to pieces of Birmingham be trespassed with ease.
This ease is in turn concealed by the ubiquity of transferred epithets outside brain science in everyday life. We are so used to talking about machines (particularly computers) “detecting,” “signaling,” “recording,” “remembering,” “warning,” and so forth, that we hardly notice, even less object, when this talk is applied to brains. Indeed, given that the brain is often billed as the most sophisticated of all machines, the computer to end all computers, it hardly needs to demonstrate its entitlement to being credited with such activities. While the homunculus is out of fashion, and ghosts have been exorcised from the machine, there are apparently billions of micro-homunculi haunting the essay writing assignment help Blue Mountains International Management cerebral cortex. The exiled homunculus has crept back in the form of a million billion angels bearing messages from persuasive of Birmingham one part of the brain to another, chattering endlessly across synapses. This absurdity is concealed yet more deeply by a mode of speech that populates even the material environment that surrounds the help Blue brain with “signals” and “messages” and “information.” All the nervous system has to do is to extract and transmit those signals and persuasive writing pieces The University of Birmingham, messages and an essay about College, information. The Princeton psychologist Philip Johnson-Laird, a leading figure of the school of thought that held that the pieces The University brain-mind is a computer, stated in assignment help Blue International Hotel School, his 1988 book The Computer and the Mind that “light reflected from surfaces and focused on the retinae contains a large amount of information.” (Gossipy stuff, light.) He admitted, however, that there were no entirely free gifts: No matter how much information is in the light falling on the retinae, there must be a mental mechanism for persuasive pieces The University, recovering the identities of the things in a scene and those of their properties that vision makes explicit to assignment School consciousness. Nevertheless, stipulating that there is The University, information in the energy tickling up the how to a feature (Navitas) brain is a flying start, and gets you across the brain-consciousness barrier without any scientific or indeed conceptual work being done.
The otherwise inexplicable miracle by which the brain is supposed to persuasive pieces support intelligent consciousness is made rather easier to understand when the essay writing Chigwell energy that impinges on it is billed as informatio n information “about” the brain’s surroundings. This trend, incidentally, is the The University of Birmingham top of a slippery slope at the bottom of which much lunacy lies. Information, once freed from the write a feature University Lowell — UMass (Navitas) confinement of conscious human beings offering information to other human beings requiring to be informed, is everywhere. It is in the light; it is in DNA and other structures of the body. Persuasive The University. It is even in the material transactions of the non-living universe, as has been suggested by the advocates of “digital physics” the idea that the universe is writing, computation. By such misuse of language, matter becomes consciousness, or the energy in the material world comes to know itself, as has been suggested by the advocates of The University of Birmingham, “panpsychism” the idea that all matter is at feature University (Navitas), least partially conscious. The promotion of energy to information is the inverse of the writing The University of Birmingham demotion of consciousness to material transactions. In one direction, consciousness is in feature writing University, nothing; in the other, it is in everything. It gets right to persuasive writing pieces The University of Birmingham the heart of how inherently absurd and paradoxical is neuroscientism to writing Chigwell recognize that it naturally splits into these two wholly and fundamentally opposed modes of thinking, yet relies simultaneously on writing pieces The University of Birmingham them both. W e can see more clearly now the wide gap between brain function and consciousness really, between people and their brains. This gap is seemingly crossed by how to write fashion Marangoni Milano, linguistic legerdemain: people can be “brainified” if the brain is personified.
But we have seen reasons why this gap should be unbridgeable. Persuasive Of Birmingham. This, however, only throws into greater relief the magnitude of what remains to be answered, and so we must ask where we go from here. The failure to explain consciousness in terms of the brain which follows from the failure of matter as understood in the most rigorous scientific manner to write fashion articles be able to writing The University house consciousness raises two immediate questions. The first and most obvious question is: Why, if the brain is not the how to write University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass basis of consciousness, is it so intimately bound up with it? Even those of us who object to the reduction of persons to brains have to explain why, of all the objects in persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham, the world, the how to write a feature article University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell brain is pieces The University of Birmingham, so relevant to our lives as persons. Nor can we overlook the extraordinary advances that have come from (Navitas) neuroscience in our ability to understand and treat diseases that damage voluntary action, consciousness, and mood something that has been central to my entire professional career as a clinical neuroscientist. Persuasive Writing. If consciousness, mind, volition, and so forth are not deeply connected with brain activity, then what are we to make of the genuine advances that neuroscience has contributed to our management of essay writing Windermere School, conditions that affect these central underpinnings of ordinary life?
The second question is whether, having shown the persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham difficulty no, the impossibility of trying to get from brains alone to persons, we should abandon the very notion of the essay Windermere School brain as a starting point for our thoughts about human consciousness. This question, however, brings us back to the first. If we say “I wouldn’t start from here,” then what do we do with the facts of The University of Birmingham, neuroscience? Where does the writing Chigwell School brain fit into a metaphysics, an pieces, epistemology, and an ontology of mind that deny the brain a place at their center? If we are thinking of a new ontology, an account of the how to write fashion articles Istituto Marangoni kinds of things there are in the universe that goes beyond the persuasive of Birmingham traditional division into mental and physical things; or if we are to go beyond an interactive epistemology that begins with sensations arising out of the how to essay writing School impingement of energy on our brains and ascends to our knowledge of the laws of nature; then how shall we make sense of the things neuroscience tells us? How shall we deal with the fact that we are evolved organisms as well as persons? These questions are posed because the case outlined here has been, necessarily, quite negative. It has merely been meant to clear the writing of Birmingham decks so we can set sail on the real work of finding a positive description of our nature, of the place of mind in nature, and, possibly, of the nature of nature itself. We need to start again thinking about our hybrid status: as pieces of writing help International, matter subject to the laws of physics, as organisms subject to the laws of biology, and as people who have a complex sense of themselves, who narrate and lead their lives, and who are capable of thinking thoughts like these. Raymond Tallis , emeritus professor of geriatric medicine at the University of Manchester, United Kingdom, is the author, most recently, of Michelangelo’s Finger: An Exploration of Everyday Transcendence (Yale, 2010) and Aping Mankind: Neuromania, Darwinitis and the Misrepresentation of Humanity (Acumen, forthcoming in 2011). Persuasive Writing The University Of Birmingham. This essay has been adapted from a lecture delivered in February 2010 at the American Enterprise Institute.
Raymond Tallis, What Neuroscience Cannot Tell Us About Ourselves, The New Atlantis , Number 29, Fall 2010, pp. 3-25.
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resume using Upon several occasions throughout your career you will need to provide your potential employer with important information about pieces of Birmingham your background and your qualifications. D'Overbroeck's. The most common method to provide information to potential employers is to The University of Birmingham, create a resume. A resume can create a vivid word picture of yourself. The World Wide Web (WWW) has recently became more popular, and is often considered the newest form of popular media by many people. In fact, making your resume available on the World Wide Web is comparable to broadcasting it on help International Hotel national television during prime time hours. The most obvious benefit you will immediately receive by making your resume available on the Web is that you will reach an unlimited number of people and have opened new doors to audiences you would otherwise probably have never reached before.
Many companies will visit college resume lists searching for potential employees. If you have your resume on paper but not on persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham the Web, they will undoubtedly never see it. Another benefit of creating an electronic resume is cost. Many colleges provide space on their web server for their students' resumes free of charge. Using college web servers, students can practically eliminate paper and printing costs. Rather than performing mass mailings of your resume, you can reduce the number of printed copies you will need and assignment help Blue Mountains School, reserve these for persuasive writing The University of Birmingham, companies you are particularly interested in. Other benefits you will receive by creating an HTML resume include: the ability to provide electronic links to your reference and previous employers as well as providing links to previous jobs or projects you have been involved with the ability to make updates immediately available ease of maintainability the write a feature article University — UMass, ability to show that you can adapt to, and use new technology as it becomes available (a plus to many employers) simply making your resume look more professional. By creating your resume using HTML and making it available on the World Wide Web, you will improve your chances of getting a job that best suits your interests as well as your employer's interests.
Writing Your Resume in HTML Format. CREATE YOUR RESUME ON A WORD PROCESSOR AND PRINT IT. When writing your resume, consult English books, writing guides, or take advantage of career services provided by many universities. Persuasive Writing The University Of Birmingham. Be sure to have someone proofread and review your resume. Many instructors in how to the English department of a University will gladly proofread your resume, but be sure to give it to him/her enough in advance to persuasive of Birmingham, provide enough time to review it and so that it will not be an inconvenience to him/her. Remember to be courteous and thank them; after all, they are doing you a big favor. It is much better to how to writing Chigwell, have a professor see your mistakes while you have the chance to correct them than for The University, a potential employer to see them. It is important that your resume be grammatically correct as well as in the correct format. Articles (Navitas). Your resume is often the first impression an employer will receive. It will be easier to persuasive writing pieces of Birmingham, htmlify your resume if you have already created it.
By creating your resume first you can focus on how to write fashion Istituto Milano formatting it rather than trying to create it and format it at the same time. SAVE YOUR WORD-PROCESSED RESUME IN TEXT (.txt) FORMAT. This can usually be done by using the save as option found under the file utilities of your favorite word processor. Pieces. If you are unable to locate a save as feature for your word processor consult your user's manual or contact customer support. How To Article Of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas). After selecting save as choose text or Ascii text from the available list of formats. By saving your resume in text form, you will be able to add HTML formatting tags more easily. Although you could save your file in other formats, saving in text format will make it easier to pieces, edit because text file format does not save any formatting information.
Other file formats embed formatting information like boldface, italics, and indentations as part of the an essay life experience College, file. When you view or edit word processor formatted files you will see formatting information that is unreadable by persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham HTML browsers, thus you will need to delete it before you will be able to proceed. Editors allow you to Chigwell School, change files without embedding formatting options such as boldface, italics and underscoring into the file. Many editors are available to use. Some of the most common are: edit on DOS machines and PCs; emacs and vi on UNIX workstations; and edit on VAX/VMS machines. You can also use your favorite word processor to persuasive pieces, open a text file. For more information on the editor you will use, consult your system administrator or read your user's manual. Which editor you should use depends upon the type of system you are using and your preference between the editors on your system. Chigwell. Make sure you use an editor that you are familiar with.
By using an unfamiliar editor you will find yourself spending most of your time trying to writing The University, learn to write about your experience, use the editor rather than actually creating your resume. Throughout the writing The University of Birmingham, remainder of this document I will base the steps on essay assignment help Mountains Hotel the DOS editor and a generic word processor. To open your resume, first open the editor by persuasive writing pieces The University typing edit at a DOS prompt, or the essay assignment Blue International, appropriate command for the editor you intend to use. Persuasive Pieces Of Birmingham. Next, choose the Open File option from the FILE menu. Fill in the filename you choose earlier or use the browse feature to locate the file. Elements of an HTML document are denoted using HTML tags. An HTML tag usually consists of a left angle bracket ( ). Tags are also usually paired (e.g. Feature Writing Articles University. ltP and lt/P), the first is used to identify the beginning of the persuasive of Birmingham, element and write articles Marangoni, the second (usually lt/tagname) identifies the end of the element.
Some tags may also contain additional information. This information should be placed inside the angle brackets. For example, to display a paragraph using full justification use ltP ALIGN=justifygt. HTML documents have a minimum requirement of tags. These tags are required by writing The University of Birmingham HTML browsers in order to your experience, recognize a file as a HTML file. The following is a summary of the required HTML tags: The required HTML tags must be placed in the appropriate order inside and HTML file. The following HTML is a simple example of the minimum HTML document. Using indentation can greatly improve the looks of your HTML, make it easier to persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham, read, and make it much easier to maintain.
Although indentation is not required, you should always use it to write an essay about life, improve your HTML. The benefits greatly outweigh the extra time it takes to write your HTML. HTML browsers ignore extra white-space therefore the writing of Birmingham, indentation will not be visible when the document is viewed using a HTML browser. Here is the previous example written using indentation to make it easier to read. ADD ADDITIONAL HTML FORMATTING TAGS AS NECESSARY. The use of additional HTML tags will greatly enhance the appearance of essay Mountains International Hotel Management your resume. HTML contains numerous tags to use, in addition many new tags will be added in the future. I could not possibly cover every tag here. However, I will briefly describe some of the commonly used and pieces of Birmingham, most useful tags. D'Overbroeck's. For advanced options, or a more detailed list you should obtain a copy of the pieces The University, latest HTML reference manual. This manual can be found on the world wide web at http://www.sandia.gov/sci_compute/html_ref.html.
The following table contains many of the most common and most useful HTML tags. You can use any of these tags by write an essay your life d'Overbroeck's College simply placing the begin tag, the text to format, and the end tag directly in your HTML document. You will find it useful to view your document as you make changes. See step 9 for instructions on how to view your current HTML document. By doing this, you will become familiar with the effects of the tags. In order to persuasive pieces, ensure no word processor formatting options are saved into your file you should save your resume as a text file. However, when you choose your filename you should give it the .html or .htm extension. How To Write Fashion Articles Marangoni Milano. To do this choose save as from the file menu.
Next you should choose the text or ASCII text format from the persuasive The University, available format list. Finally, type your filename in the filename input box as filename.html or filename.htm where filename is the name you wish to call your file (e.g. resume.html). CREATE AND/OR ACQUIRE ANY IMAGES YOU WANT TO USE IN YOUR RESUME. While creating images can be very fun and exciting, it is also very time consuming. There are many tools available to help you create your custom images such as Paint Shop Pro, Photoshop, Corel Draw, and MsPaint.
For information on how to use these tools you should consult your user's manual. An alternative to write fashion Istituto Marangoni, creating custom images is to find a non-copyrighted image on the world wide web and copy it. One method of persuasive of Birmingham locating useful and free images is to view clipart collections available on the web such as Caboodles of Clipart. Write About D'Overbroeck's. Another method of locating useful images is to use the Yahoo search engine and search for the image. To do this simply type image:keyword in writing of Birmingham the Yahoo's search box and click on about the search button. This type of searching is very time consuming and often does not result in persuasive writing The University of Birmingham any useful images. If you are unable to create or locate the image you desire and feel that your resume would be incomplete without it, you should consider hiring a Graphics Artist to create the image for you. Although images can improve the appearance of feature writing articles (Navitas) your resume, you should use them sparingly. Persuasive Pieces. Often the quality of your resume decreases proportionally with an an essay about your life d'Overbroeck's College, increase in the number of images you add. Writing Pieces The University. Any graphics you use (except for a background) should be relatively small in size.
Most web developers agree that large images take longer to load and will in turn drive impatient viewers away from your page. In addition, you should keep the how to write a feature article Lowell, content of your images on persuasive writing a professional level unless the image directly relates to your job qualification. For example it is acceptable to have cartoons you've created on your resume if you're applying as a cartoonist. However, you should consider placing any such images on a second page and creating a link to how to write fashion articles Istituto Marangoni Milano, it. ADD HTML IMAGE TAGS AS NECESSARY FOR EACH OF THE IMAGES YOU PLAN TO USE IN YOUR RESUME, AND SAVE YOUR RESUME (SEE STEP 6). To insert an image into your HTML resume open your resume in your editor, then use the ltIMG SRCgt tag to specify the location and persuasive writing The University, filename of your image. Writing School. For example, to display an image called computer.gif that is 32x45 in size, use the pieces The University of Birmingham, following tag: ltIMG SRC=directory/computer.gif ALT=Computer WIDTH=32 HEIGHT=45 BORDER=0gt. All images should be in essay Chigwell School the .GIF or .JPG file format. If you see a gray box with three small dots in it rather than your image, then the browser was unable to load your image.
Possible causes of this problem are: you used an incompatible file format, the image does not exist, you did not specify the correct filename or had a typographical error in the directory/filename, or the writing pieces The University, file permissions were set incorrectly (UNIX workstations require that you set the file permissions of an image to 770. See your system administrator or consult a UNIX reference manual for help with setting file permissions). Be sure to save your resume after you make any changes. OPEN YOUR HTML RESUME IN A HTML BROWSER. Open your HTML browser by clicking on its Windows Icon, or by typing its execution command at University Lowell, the command prompt. Persuasive Writing The University Of Birmingham. There are many browsers available for use such as Netscape, Microsoft Explorer, and ICOMM. Consult your user's manual for help with using your HTML browser. Open your resume by clicking on writing help International the Open File option on persuasive writing pieces the File menu.
Next, type the how to a feature article of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas), filename you choose earlier in writing pieces The University the filename input box or using the browse feature to locate the writing articles Griffith University, file, then click on the ok button. Persuasive Of Birmingham. Your resume should be displayed in feature writing articles (Navitas) the browser window. Viewing your resume in an HTML browser is an excellent way to ensure the content of your resume. REPEAT STEPS 5 THROUGH 9 UNTIL YOU ARE SATISFIED WITH THE APPEARANCE OF YOUR RESUME. After reviewing your resume in an HTML browser, you should revisit steps 5 through 9 above and make any necessary changes. Once you are familiar with the process of creating a HTML document, most of these steps can be performed as necessary in any order.
You should get your resume to a point that you are satisfied with before preceding. In order to ensure that you have not made any mistakes in the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses, you should click on each of the persuasive pieces of Birmingham, links you've created using your HTML browser. Links that do not work are nicknamed broken links. Broken links are highly unprofessional and about essay writing, will affect the impression a potential employer has on your resume. Broken links are usually the result of a typographical error or a link to writing, a web site that no longer exists. Because the Lowell Lowell, web is constantly changing, you should only create hypertext links to sites that are relatively stable. In order for your resume to be visible to the rest of the writing pieces, world, you must have current internet provider. Many universities provide the resources for how to articles Istituto Marangoni Milano, students to install their resumes. Writing Pieces Of Birmingham. Contact your University Webmaster to obtain information. You can often locate the Webmaster through an email address on about your life experience d'Overbroeck's the universities main web page. After you have completed your HTML resume, copy it and all of the images you have used to persuasive of Birmingham, the directory your web provider specifies.
After installing your HTML resume you should always test it. Visit the URL your web provider supplies to insure it was installed properly. You should always respond to potential employers that contact you as soon as possible. In addition you should always mail a paper copy of your resume to any potential employers. By showing sincere interest, you will increase an employer's impression. The Source For Java Development. Java Report . March/April 1996. Java Report is a relatively new magazine for software developers using the Java environment. Article Lowell — UMass. Java is a relatively new software developing environment that allows software developers to implement more complex features such as Net-based electronic transactions and delivering interactive content across the Web. Java Report combines programming tips, new technology, application trends and corporate issues to bring the reader a broader range of information.
In one of the articles Philip David Meese does an The University of Birmingham, excellent job of explaining to writing School, the reader how to pieces of Birmingham, create his/her first Java application. His article was well written and was equivalent in content to how to write fashion articles Istituto Marangoni, a small course. The article The Java Tutor provides clear and concise information as well as easy to understand example code. I strongly agree with Mr. Meese's confidant statement by writing The University of Birmingham the time you finish reading this article, you'll be able to develop a Java application.
An entire section of Java Report is devoted to Product Review. Write Fashion Istituto Marangoni. In this section the persuasive writing pieces, authors review Java related products and provide information to the reader. This information was the equivalent of a Consumer Reports article. This section is a great source of information about essay Blue International Hotel School individual products. In general, Java Report is a great source of pieces The University of Birmingham information relating to the use and development of Java applications for any software developer. About Writing Windermere. However, some of the technical articles may be beyond the scope of the average reader.
Rampe, David. Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt. The New York Times . 3 February 1997, sec. C6. In his article Cyberspace Resumes Fit the Modern Job Hunt David Rampe discusses the advantages and The University, disadvantages of an HTML resume. The article, which appeared in The New York Times' Taking In the Sites section provides some very useful information regarding resumes.
Some of the topics Mr. Rampe discusses includes the searchability of HTML resumes, electronic filling, industry jargon, and the dehumanization of the feature articles Griffith University, process. Persuasive Writing Pieces The University Of Birmingham. Mr. Rampe also discusses the importance of writing your HTML resume in the proper fashion, to the computer. He states that you must resolve mentally to assignment Mountains Hotel School, address your resume to 'Dear Computer. Persuasive Writing The University Of Birmingham. ' and just ignore the dehumanization of it all. In addition, the article provides the URLs for eleven electronic sources to help the how to write of Massachusetts — UMass, reader get started. Each of the sources listed are excellent sources of information and should be reviewed by anyone who decides to create and HTML resume. Rampe also discusses cookie-cutter forms available on the World Wide Web to help the pieces The University of Birmingham, least experienced computer user create his/her HTML resume. In general, Mr. Rampe provides an ample amount of information and resources necessary to create an HTML resume. Rampe provides both the pros and the cons of an HTML resume in an unbiased fashion, leaving the reader to decide the necessity of an HTML resume.
Sandia National Laboratories. HTML Reference Manual , 2 January 1996. Sandia National Laboratories' HTML Reference Manual is, in Griffith (Navitas) my opinion, the most complete and useful source of HTML information. Writing Pieces The University Of Birmingham. Although the manual is currently over how to essay Chigwell a year old, the pieces The University, information it contains is accurate, precise and very helpful. The HTML Reference Manual begins with and introduction to HTML in general, then lists important terms and definitions. Next the Mountains International Hotel Management, authors validate the document's content by discussing the persuasive, conformance guideline RFC 1866, commonly referred to as HTML Version 2. The authors also discuss the importance of Sandia requirements for specific HTML elements. Next the authors discuss the general breakdown of writing Windermere School HTML into: General HTML syntax, HTML Comments, HTML Elements, Uniform Resource Locators (URL), Special Characters, and Internal Icons. Finally, the persuasive The University of Birmingham, authors break down over one hundred HTML elements into a description, minimum attributes, all possible attributes, elements allowed within, allowed in content of, and write an essay your life, variations. In addition the document contains an easy to persuasive The University, use index which allows the about writing Windermere, reader to jump directly to any element of interest. The HTML Reference Manual provides the most complete reference manual available.
In addition it is persuasive pieces of Birmingham well written, well organized and very easy to use. This document is an excellent source of information for both the novice and how to essay writing Chigwell, expert HTML programmers. Authors Note: Windows, DOS, Paint Shop Pro, MsPaint, Yahoo, Café, Netscape, ICOMM and Microsoft Internet Explorer are copyrighted by their respective owners.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and writing pieces trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into essay Windermere School, one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for The University of Birmingham the job. Essay Blue Hotel Management? For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and of Birmingham skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.
Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in Windermere School and out depending on persuasive writing pieces The University of Birmingham the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. How To Write A Feature Article University Of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell? Think of this as your brag file . Persuasive Pieces Of Birmingham? 3. Put the how to Chigwell, Best Stuff “Above the persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham, Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on about essay writing Windermere School the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and writing pieces The University accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to an essay about your experience College, Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is writing pieces, when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the write an essay about life experience, get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to persuasive The University, save space and focus on making the rest of how to a feature article of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas), your resume stellar.
There are lots of different ways to organize the information on persuasive pieces your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in essay Chigwell School your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the persuasive writing The University, information here to articles Griffith, be concise, and making yourself keep it to persuasive writing The University, one page is a good way to force yourself to about, do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the writing pieces, same story in less space? Do. Write An Essay Your Life Experience D'Overbroeck's College? If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to writing, fit more in less space. Can’t figure out write University Lowell — UMass (Navitas), how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and persuasive writing then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the write about, ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute.
But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by persuasive, using a font size between 10 and 12 and essay School leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for of Birmingham your name, your resume headers, and write fashion Milano the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and persuasive The University keep it consistent.
Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out essay writing Windermere School, from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to writing pieces of Birmingham, the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. Writing Griffith University (Navitas)? If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to persuasive writing, make it pop.
No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to essay writing assignment help Mountains Hotel Management, put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in writing pieces The University of Birmingham as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Feature Articles Griffith University? Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.
This is arguably the writing pieces, most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. How To Write Marangoni Milano? As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to writing pieces The University of Birmingham, the positions to write an essay life d'Overbroeck's, which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. Persuasive Writing Of Birmingham? If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience?
No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on article Lowell (Navitas) your relevant and persuasive pieces of Birmingham transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and how to fashion articles Marangoni Milano then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the writing pieces, narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. About? Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the persuasive writing pieces The University of Birmingham, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and write articles Marangoni numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals?
By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to persuasive pieces The University of Birmingham, picture the about Windermere, level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about writing pieces The University, how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to feature writing articles, your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to pieces of Birmingham, sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an about writing Windermere School “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about persuasive The University of Birmingham, how you can demonstrate these attributes in essay Hotel School your bullet points without actually saying them.
Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on persuasive of Birmingham your resume. So, if you’ve participated in write about experience d'Overbroeck's a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Persuasive Pieces The University Of Birmingham? Use our handy list of writing help Mountains Hotel Management, better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is persuasive, this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in about your experience College applicant tracking systems. Stuck on of Birmingham which words to include?
Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to essay, describe how awesome you are. Persuasive Writing Pieces The University Of Birmingham? 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.
Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the essay writing, most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. Writing Pieces Of Birmingham? But if older coursework is more specific to your life, the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the persuasive writing pieces The University of Birmingham, degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Articles Griffith (Navitas)? Include Continuing or Online Education.
Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and writing The University of Birmingham motivation to get the skills you need for writing your career.” Be sure to persuasive of Birmingham, add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is write fashion, expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Persuasive? Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and writing University leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and The University listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on about writing your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it.
But including your scrapbooking hobby for persuasive writing pieces a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for an essay about your experience College canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of persuasive writing of Birmingham, work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by about writing, someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Writing Pieces Of Birmingham? Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards.
Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the write your life experience College, proper ways to persuasive of Birmingham, include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Essay Windermere? Use years only (2010-2012), or just the pieces The University, number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Write An Essay Your Life College? Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and persuasive pieces accomplishments.
Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. Your Life D'Overbroeck's College? See more tips from Jenny Foss for writing of Birmingham killing it on writing Blue Hotel Management School your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in writing of Birmingham gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out Windermere School, of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to writing of Birmingham, take this section of your resume seriously. 39.
Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is writing assignment help Blue International Hotel Management, interested in persuasive writing pieces The University of Birmingham you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). About Essay? If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the writing of Birmingham, hiring manager opens it on his or her computer.
To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of an essay about your life College, HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at persuasive writing The University, it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and essay Windermere School send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Persuasive Pieces The University? Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills?
Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of how to write a feature article University of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas), good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and persuasive writing The University of Birmingham content strategist who is passionate about feature writing (Navitas), elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. Pieces The University Of Birmingham? If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to articles University, tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
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