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blues music essay I WOKE UP THIS MORNING. Downside School. (Introduction to Blues for the Newcomer) By ‘Mississippi’ Max Haymes and Alan White. The Blues have never been so popular and widespread as they are here in 2009. There are currently more blues festivals worldwide, both electric and help writing Caxton College acoustic, than you can shake a stick at. Everybody it seems, can quote the writing Downside School, above main title of this piece in connection with the Blues. Even if they know nothing or very little about the need help writing a essay Caxton College, genre. It is the latter section of the community this brief survey is being aimed at.
The Blues evolved from slavery times at the tail- end of the an essay Downside School, 19 th . C. in the southern states of the USA. The earliest candidates for its place of ‘birth’ are the Mississippi Delta (in the northwestern part of the state!) and the East Texas piney woods. It was sung and played BY working-class blacks FOR working-class blacks. The Blues, most importantly , is primarily a vocal music. More than just another genre, the Blues became a way of life for many of the singers – and indeed their audiences. The latter would be a live audience before the advent of recordings. Originating in the logging camps, cotton fields, railroad and article St. Louis (INTO) levee camps; the Blues soon gravitated to urban centres in the South. This process was speeded up considerably in 1920 when the first genuine blues (i.e. black) singer entered a recording studio.
After a promising debut in Downside, January backed by thinking critically Rotterdam Business School a white orchestra, Mamie Smith was brought back by the Okeh record company in August. This time she was accompanied by a black band which included such jazz luminaries as Willie ‘The Lion’ Smith. An Essay Writing School. They cut a blues number: Crazy Blues. A surprising and writing St. Louis University (INTO) immediate success, financially for the record company and Ms. Smith, this opened the flood gates for other black singers. Initially these were all female singers who did not play on their records. These included Edith Wilson, Lucille Hegamin and writing School Alberta Hunter. By 1923 some of the writing essay Tilton School, heaviest (aka the an essay, finest) of these made their disc debut. The ‘big four’ are Bessie Smith, Clara Smith (no relation), Ma Rainey and Ida Cox. Often backed by some of the top jazz musicians of the day; Louis Armstrong, King Oliver, James P. Johnson and thinking critically Rotterdam School Buster Bailey among them.
Other singers of only slightly less talent also made records around this time: Rosa Henderson, Sippie Wallace and an essay Viola McCoy, for example. Therein lies the need a essay Caxton, irony. This was an early urban form of blues in various grades of authenticity. Many singers included traditional/rural blues verses in their recordings. The rural singers themselves only Downside School, came into their own when the record companies were seeing a decline in sales and started looking further afield- often literally!
By the end of 1925 and article University (INTO) the start of 1926 the rural/country/downhome blues entered centre stage. Some of the giants were captured on disc from this period on an essay Downside School, to the early 1930s. Names like Blind Lemon Jefferson, Charley Patton, Blind Willie McTell, Son House, Bukka White and Barbecue Bob hit the black record-buying public; with titles such as Lemon’s Matchbox Blues in 1927. Nearly 30 years later rock-a-billy star Carl Perkins would re-record it as Matchbox for Sun Records in Memphis, Tennessee. Critically Rotterdam. A decade or so further on the Beatles would also cut a version. These earlier blues artists, and many more, usually played solo featuring vocals and a myriad of guitar sounds and styles. With few exceptions they did not read music and drew on writing Downside School, a strictly oral tradition. There were also some pioneering harmonica (‘harp’) players who recorded solo: Jaybird Coleman, Noah Lewis, DeFord Bailey and need writing a essay Caxton College Alfred Lewis. The first two played in Downside, jug bands such as the Birmingham Jug Band and Cannon’s Jug Stompers. Another essential strand of the Blues.
These groups were part of a strong black string band tradition in writing article St. Louis, the South. An Essay Writing. Mississippi’s Big Joe Williams although a solo performer with a 9-string guitar would sometimes play with a small group (the Washboard Blues Singers). School. At his debut on record in 1935 he was accompanied by a one-string fiddle and a washboard: Dad Tracy and Chasey Collins respectively. Their first track was the first version of Baby Please Don’t Go on an essay writing Downside School, record. Many years later British blues and r ‘n b groups would perform this and sometimes record it. The Animals from northeastern England and even later still Van Morrison's band Them cut a very creditable performance – the fastest I’ve ever heard. Thinking Critically Business. Other bands to cut versions were AC/DC, Aerosmith and even Bob Dylan. A myriad of writing other examples of the essay College (UCL), Blues’ awesome influence on music today, including jazz, could be cited. But limitation of space rules, OK. The Blues has always been a genre of music with a FEELING.
Lacking this essential ingredient cannot be compensated for by technical prowess alone. The earlier singers would relate subjects and situations well-known to their original audiences and an essay Downside School an unassailable rapport and with argumentative essay University College (UCL) feeling of solidarity was forged; one that had beginnings back in slavery days in the early 19 th . C. and beyond. One verse I recall from memory was put down by Buddy Moss from an essay School Georgia in 1933: Some people talk about money, but I haven’t got none. (x 2) But I’m so glad that I ain’t the only one. One of many universal themes in the Blues. In the 1930s Blues was becoming more urbanized, yet again. In Chicago artists, who had migrated from the South, such as Big Bill Broonzy, Washboard Sam, Memphis Minnie, Tampa Red, and Sonny Boy Williamson (No.1.) were increasingly using more instrumentalisation. As well as piano, upright and imitation bass, 2 nd . and 3 rd . guitars, harmonicas, drums and some jazzhorns like trumpet and saxes featured on pre-war Chicago blues. A Dbq Essay School. Most of these of course had featured in earlier rural blues. The piano in particular by an essay writing Downside 1929/1930 was often the only accompaniment to write Lyceum such legends of boogie woogie/barrelhouse recordings by writing Downside the like of Roosevelt Sykes, Little Brother Montgomery, Will Ezell, et al. But the rural blues were still ‘speaking’.
In 1936-37 Robert Johnson made a phenomenal set of 29 titles. The most famous being Crossroad Blues with urgent slide guitar. Opposing Argument SDA Bocconi School Of Management. Eric Clapton and an essay writing School Cream would re-make (in virtually every sense of the word!) this in the UK some thirty years later. (INTO). Blues had been labeled ‘race music’ in the early 20 th . C. but was re-named Rhythm and Blues (R n’ B) by the1940s. With the introduction of the electric guitar into the Blues in an essay Downside School, early 1938 and added saxes, rocking bands led by Roy Milton, Tiny Bradshaw, Amos Milburn, Louis Jordan, and Joe Liggins were just a few that carried the Blues onwards. Professor Longhair, Smiley Lewis and School Fats Domino carried it on into the 1950s. Along with doowop groups inspired by early black quartets/quintettes featuring mostly gospel music. Many whites would sneak around the an essay School, outside of places they were playing at (segregation was still in force) and heard sounds they really dug. Rock-a-Billy artists such as Charlie Feathers, Ray Smith, and Carl Perkins put their own stamp on the Blues mixed in with old-timey/country roots. Around 1952 a man called Bill Haley changed his band’s name and they became Bill Haley’s Comets.
Soon Elvis Presley, Gene Vincent, ;Little Richard, et al. would follow. Rock ‘n Roll, ‘a child of the Blues’, as Muddy Waters famously once said – had been born. Help Writing A Essay Caxton. Long may the Blues wake up this morning and Downside every morning. ‘Mississippi’ Max Haymes and writing a essay Caxton College Alan White. 31 st . July, 2009. A reader emailed a query regarding reference made to Mamie Smith as the first blues recording …. “ by the time Mamie Smith recorded Crazy Blues in writing School, 1920, at least half-a-dozen other blues recordings had been made starting in 1914 with the help, Victor Military Band's recording of Memphis Blues”. This was the response from the essay’s author, Max Haymes, which we thought would be of interest as an addendum to an essay School the essay: Mamie Smith is still the article Zuoz, first African American to record a vocal blues. Earlier recordings such as the example quoted were instrumentals of a very jazzy-type brass band nature and a version of the W.C. Handy composition in 1914, 'Memphis Blues'. Although I have not heard this it will bear as little to the Blues per se as a Victor Sylvester recording! US author, Tim Brooks, noted that this number was given a similarly intense treatment [as Handy's previous 'Hesitation Blues'] dominated by writing Downside School cornets and trombones, with interjected flutes, clarinet squeals, and even a little military bugle flourish. (p.282. 'Lost Sounds-Blacks And The Birth of The Recording Industry 1890-1919'.
Tim Brooks. [University of technical writing article University (INTO) Illinois Press. An Essay Writing Downside. Urbana Chicago.] 2004.) There were attempts to cover blues songs before 1920 but all were white vaudeville singers such as May Irvin, Annette Hanshaw and of course Sophie Tucker. Good as some of thinking critically Business these singers were, they pale (no pun intended) in comparison to Mamie's historic 'Crazy Blues'. So said David Evans at one point (cannot remember source). Having heard snippets of the fore mentioned white singers I have to agree. If you listen to writing a song made in 1919 by Rotterdam black baritone singer Edward H. Boatner on an essay Downside School, 'Sometimes I Feel Like A Motherless Child' which contains no sacred lyric he will hear the influence of Euro-centric classical/operatic music. Hardly surprising as this was issued on the Broome label and pre-dates the short-lived Black Swan co. by 2 years, as the article, first black-owned independent record co. An Essay Writing School. Produced by writing a essay Caxton George Wellington Broome who dedicated the label to black concert music. (Ibid. p.464.).
Despite this, the song is much closer to the Blues, with repeated phrase 'a long ways from an essay writing home', delivered in a somewhat lesser Paul Robeson style, than the instrumental Handy pieces such as 'Memphis Blues'. The Brooks tome is with argumentative essay (UCL), a weighty one but well-worth the consideration of the serious blues historian. And the white vaudeville singers referred to Downside School above have CDs on the Archeophone label, a record company based in Illinois, that also produced reissues of earliest black music. 22nd January 2016. Essay (this page) © Copyright 2009 Max Haymes and Alan White . Need Help Writing A Essay. All rights reserved.
Website, Photos and an essay writing Downside Text © Copyright 2000 -2016 Alan White. All Rights Reserved. Essay (this page) © Copyright 2009 Max Haymes and help with argumentative University Alan White . All rights reserved.
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How to Downside School Write a Resume Skills Section. The resume skills section allows you to list, re-iterate, and expand upon your skills and abilities that are relevant to the job you are applying for. A well-crafted resume skills section will also help your resume beat Applicant Tracking System (ATS) “resume reading robots”, which is the first step to getting your application into a hiring manager’s hands. Don’t miss the opportunity to make a powerful skills section that can tip the odds in your favor — read on to learn how. Sometimes referenced as “ Additional Skills ” the Skills Section is argument SDA Bocconi School of Management where you can list all of your useful abilities that are not overtly mentioned in the bullet points of the writing School, Work History sections. Here are some samples showing what they look like: Customer Service Resume Skills Section. Laborer Resume Skills Section. As you can see, these all tend to be brief and to the point.
Yet, there is help with argumentative College (UCL) a right way and writing a wrong way to writing them. Don’t forget your cover letter. Writing St. Louis (INTO)? Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is interested in what relevant skills you have. They do not care about whether or not you came in first place in the hot dog eating contest at the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in World of Warcraft for 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years.
One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the Downside, other does not. That’s something that might catch a hiring manager’s eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for. Even if you have a knack for something that is not directly related to the position, as long as it’s relevant it’s worth mentioning . For example, if you are applying for an assistant manager position at a small music shop, it’s perfectly acceptable to mention that you can play guitar. It isn’t directly related to management, but it shows you have knowledge of the help with argumentative College, industry. Just like discussed in all of the an essay writing Downside, Resume Genius resume samples, replace nonspecific adjectives with hard numbers.
The same goes for how specific you are in regards to software, hardware, and other tools you are skilled with. Don’t Say: Excellent with foreign languages. Do Say: Fluent in English and Spanish , and proficient in a essay French. Don’t Say: Skilled typist. Do Say: 70WPM typist. You don’t need to get overzealous with the specifics, but a couple of details go a long way. When listing large software suites like Microsoft Office, try to name the individual applications you’re proficient with, such as PowerPoint or Excel when page space is adequate. If you’re only listing 2 or 3 bullet points, this isn’t that big of an essay School a deal, but once you start listing more, you want to keep things sensible. For example, keep your computer skills with your computer skills and your speaking and language skills with your speaking and language skills. Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and technical writing University (INTO) Adobe Illustrator Bilingual – Fluent in English and French Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker.
Experienced graphic artist well versed with Adobe Photoshop and an essay Downside School Adobe Illustrator Proficient with MS Word, Excel, and thinking critically School PowerPoint Charismatic and confident public speaker Bilingual – Fluent in English and French. Also, when possible list the group of skills that are more important to the position that you’re applying for first. You shouldn’t spend too much time debating on Downside, the ordering though as per a dbq School the first tip, they all should be relevant anyway. Formatting: Additional Skills vs. Technical / Computer Skills. Most job seekers end up choosing a resume template that places their relevant skills closer to the bottom, but for an essay some specific industries listing them at writing the top is very effective . An Essay? Take a look at writing Caxton the sample resume for an applicant searching for an essay writing School an IT job: Because an IT job requires an employee to have a base set of skills, the applicant starts off by listing his Technical Skills instead of adding them as Additional Skills towards the end.
He also breaks them down by theme, such as what computer networking skills he has and what operating systems he is proficient with, bolding each main general category and then listing each specific skill in its respective category. Some jobs where using a Technical Skills section instead of an Additional Skills section could be beneficial are: Information Technology Graphic Design Manufacturing Technical Writing Engineering. Regardless of help writing Caxton College which style of Skills Section you use on your resume, as long as you use relevant, clear, well organized bullet points , you’re sure to impress. Industry-Specific Skills for your Resume. The Best List of Skills For a Resume. Below are the writing Downside School, most sought after skills and abilities that employers look for on a resume. If you can include these abilities on your resume, you will be sure to attract their attention. However, it is not enough to simply list your skills. The bottom line is that HR managers want proof.
That’s why it is more effective to include examples of how you use your skills rather than merely stating, “Possess great communication skills.” The bottom line is that HR managers want proof. Here is a list of good skills and example bullet points to add to your resume: Approach all work activities with deliberate focus to ensure that each task is completed correctly, efficiently, and effectively. Seek and actively learn new information to keep up to need writing College date with new skill requirements and technological innovations. Achieve high levels of multi-tasking ability by remaining focused and goal oriented, completing several tasks simultaneously to reach desired targets. Commended by peers for displaying a good attitude, working hard, and setting and an essay Downside achieving personal goals. Listen to and integrate criticism and advice from peers, teachers, and bosses, strengthening personal deficits and how to write Alpinum weaknesses wherever possible. Perform requested duties beyond the expected requirements to writing Downside maintain high personal standards and ensure absolute satisfaction with produced work. Adapt to help College all arising situations, and able to develop solutions to problems as they appear to the satisfaction of any client. Work towards solutions with a flexible approach to all challenges that helps solve problems in the most direct and time efficient way possible.
Respond and an essay writing Downside School adapt to developing challenges and obstacles when under pressure calmly and logically to develop working solutions in a timely manner. Manage time constraints and unpredictable schedules with adaptable methodology that can re-prioritize and delegate tasks to how to write an english Alpinum Zuoz achieve maximum efficiency. Writing School? Develop and article Alpinum Zuoz utilize a large personal knowledge base, creating a broad understanding of a wide range of issues and the ability to develop flexible solutions. Writing Downside School? Create working relationships with co-workers and clients with varying personality types and coming from different backgrounds, maintaining a professional and egalitarian attitude at all times. Critically Rotterdam Business? Adapted to Downside School new industry standards to guarantee that our business was compliant with all guidelines Revised my sales strategy to a dbq align with new customer trends. Evaluate and dilute complex work processes into series of manageable tasks to writing Downside increase efficiency and reduce waste. Analyze large volumes of data and identify trends, and present results in writing School a clear and understandable manner. Produce comprehensive solutions to complex problems through extensive analysis and an essay School accurate assessment of a dbq Tilton relevant data sets. An Essay Writing? Identify efficiency savings within given tasks and successfully implement them, aiding in efficient problem solving.
Determine the relevance of suggested arguments and ideas, and analyze the relative importance of each before accepting or rejecting them as courses of action. Manage complex problems and time-constrained tasks with rapid but error-free analyses to writing Caxton ensure projects are completed without disruption. Prevented workplace accidents by encouraging safe working practices and School preserving company equipment. Responsible for resolving client issues, identifying customer trends, monitoring competitor activities. Plan strategically and maintain awareness of attention to details to overcome challenges, meet deadlines and writing a essay College achieve objectives without sacrificing quality. Create and detail step-by-step processes to Downside create intermediate and endpoint deadlines for all projects, making it easy to identify major obstacles and brainstorm solutions. Organize and communicate highly detailed planning and time management objectives to ensure all team members understand their roles and responsibilities.
Identify errors and an english Zuoz inconsistencies within any argument or reasoning used to form actionable conclusions, and writing present necessary counter-arguments. Restructure and an english Zuoz reorganize underdeveloped projects that require complete revision to achieve detailed quality standards. An Essay Downside? Tasked by peers to oversee highly detailed projects, having a trusted ability to discover holes and issues where others may not. Foster strong relationships with customers and strategic partners to strengthen our brand awareness Facilitate monthly meetings with employees to ensure there is a mutual understanding of a project’s directives High levels of argument SDA Bocconi School confidence when speaking either to groups or individuals that allows the conveyance of ideas or instructions in a clear, easily understood manner. An Essay Writing School? The ability to disseminate detailed concepts into understandable ideas in both written and verbal communication. Understanding of the meaning and implementation of writing a dbq body language to writing Downside both gauge other’s intent and views and project a desired stance to others through non-verbal communication. Highly developed communication skills both verbal and non-verbal that help build a relationship more conducive to an agreeable outcome of any negotiation. Outstanding Typing Skills (WPM: 90). Sound knowledge of troubleshooting techniques for Microsoft Office Suite High levels of analytical ability means that problems can be understood and overcome quickly and efficiently. Methodical approach to challenges means that problems can be overcome with solutions identified and implemented in the most efficient manner.
Always seeking new information and technical writing article keeping up to date with current requirements and innovations within the field of an essay expertise. Exercise empathy with others to assist in critically Business all aspects of communication, creating higher chances of successful outcomes and compromises. Practice well-honed listening skills to give full attention to those in writing Downside need, accurately assess every individual’s situation, and build necessary rapport. Project calm and genuine interest in others through verbal and non-verbal means, building confidence with other parties to help with argumentative University College ensure successful conclusions to all interpersonal interactions. Remain dispassionate and fair-minded during disagreements to highlight that ideas and opinions are always respected. Assist and teach others patiently when working towards a common goal, ensuring higher levels of cooperation when faced with challenges. Help and suggest to an essay writing Downside co-workers and peers to find institutions or people to thinking seek help for problems that are affecting them professionally. Integrate into all team situations easily and comfortably, possessing a personable nature that is School open to teamwork and cooperation.
Negotiate team and co-worker conflict or pressure effectively and efficiently through strong interpersonal and communication skills. Work towards the success of the group, de-emphasizing smaller perceived personal successes and how to Lyceum Alpinum focusing on the bigger picture. Listen actively and engage genuinely with others to ensure that all perspectives and ideas are equally respected. Focus on overcoming challenges rather than seeking to blame the cause of any challenges and an essay writing Downside problems encountered, maintaining a positive attitude that is a benefit to any team situation. Write An English Article Lyceum Alpinum? Adhere to an essay writing Downside all institutional standards for ethical, interpersonal, and professional behavior at all times. Finish all tasks and projects on time with a reliably high level of how to an english article Zuoz quality. Accept all requests to fill necessary shifts, schedules, or complete tasks when others are unavailable. An Essay School? Maintain a professional and egalitarian attitude at the workplace at all times, ensuring minimal interpersonal conflicts and acting as an ambassador for the brand. Writing Essay Tilton School? Trusted to handle sensitive items and situations, regarded as having a responsible and dependable personality by peers. Open a strong line of writing communication and make thorough preparations for taking time off.
Assist others with tasks and projects during free time, even when it is unrelated or unrewarded. Seek answers to technical writing article University questions personally without needing excessive guidance, asking only when it is obvious the information cannot be found. An Essay Writing Downside? Create personal tasks and article University projects without supervision, while seeking advice and permission to increase workplace efficiency. Learn new skills actively to avoid over-reliance on co-workers and team members Operate independently of team members and management, submit comprehensive reports and feedback to keep projects on track. Argue against conventional wisdom when it is based on illogic or poorly conceived notions, even when it is unpopular to do so. Writing School? Utilize a wealth of skills, abilities, and personal networks to argument SDA Bocconi School of Management solve intractable problems and remove obstacles to completing projects. Display a thirst for knowledge, becoming an expert on any product or subject required quickly, and able to convey that knowledge clearly to others.
Assume responsibility for completing all important tasks at hand and filling in labor gaps wherever it is necessary. Brainstorm and develop approaches to an essay writing Downside problems in help with argumentative essay University downtime and present them to peers without being personally tasked by management. Approach challenges as opportunities to improve skills and abilities, seeking advice and criticism to constantly improve. Volunteer for new projects and to complete tasks that are otherwise ignored or avoided. Speak frankly about weaknesses and issues that are causing problems and holdups, and offer well-developed solutions. Received award for outstanding work ethic 2 years in a row. Set challenging benchmarks of success and School plan by which to achieve them each month. Suggest and promote ideas for analysis and judgement without ego or personal issues should they be rejected by others. Assess and critically analyze personally developed ideas in the same way that others’ ideas are assessed. Compare, contrast, and write Zuoz combine creative ideas, using critical and writing creative thinking skills to writing article University develop insights and an essay writing School alternative possibilities.
Project an write article Lyceum Alpinum, innovative outlook that encourages free thinking to challenge conventional barriers in problem solving and generate interesting ideas. Apply rational analysis and promote an evidence-based approach to take creative ideas and mold them into workable solutions. Appraise any given situation and approach its unique problems with a consistent and systematic methodology. Implemented efficiency and cost-saving initiatives that improved the an essay Downside School, customer service process Evaluate the how to write Lyceum Zuoz, various risks and rewards related to implementing new projects or programs. Maintain an “honesty is the best policy” philosophy in an essay School the workplace, while being tactful about giving constructive criticism.
Review project successes and failures dispassionately, accepting blame when mistakes are made and need help writing a essay Caxton College seek methods to prevent future issues. Conduct all business and personal affairs according to highest codes of ethics and responsibility. Establish trustworthy relationships with clients and co-workers, avoiding improper and unethical behavior. Follow institutional rules, processes, and practices at all times to support company’s quality management procedures. An Essay Downside? Report issues and with argumentative essay University College London problems through proper channels as set forth by company guidelines. Maintain a visionary outlook and the ability to see each challenge in the context of the broader scope of the project, while acting towards that desired end goal at all times. Project confidence and flexibility, able to accept differing views without viewing them as challenges to authority, and utilize good ideas from others. Utilize interpersonal skills to motivate and encourage co-workers, understanding that major goals are achieved through teamwork. Demonstrate critical thinking under stressful situations where problems are faced, and an essay writing Downside a willingness to make the help (UCL), right decisions even if they are unpopular. Display integrity and honesty at all times, honoring promises and defending values when challenged. Set an example for others, taking responsibility for successes and failures alike.
Assumed a leadership role in the absence of the supervisor and ensured that the office operated normally. Assisted in the training of 3 new employees to quickly integrate them into the department’s workflow. Schedule meetings, appointments, and School travel arrangements for managers. Compiled, prioritized, and processed all new purchasing orders Keep organized at how to an english Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz all times, understanding that efficiency is achieved by being mindful of future and often unanticipated needs Accurately estimate the work involved in any task to an essay provide both a timetable and the effort required for successful completion. Excellent organizational skills to critically attribute time to carry out responsibilities personally and for each member of the project team.
Highly developed communication skills for an essay writing Downside School discussing a project at all levels, with the ability to clearly articulate the work, issues and challenges as they arise in a manner other stakeholders will understand quickly. Overcome obstacles to project completion by being forward thinking and technical article St. Louis University positive, rather than adhering to an essay writing Downside the accepted limits. Apply a logical mindset to bring well researched ideas to the table and, and how to write an english Lyceum Alpinum able to dissect counter arguments methodically and without prejudice. Project a positive persona that focuses on the positive outcome of any proposal or counter-proposal rather than the negative, ensuring all parties remain disposed to an essay concessions. Listen actively to all arguments and ideas presented, and how to write an english Lyceum fairly weigh and analyze them before responding with counter-arguments and counter-proposals. Defend positions forcefully when necessary to achieve the an essay School, best outcome possible for all stakeholders. Seek out alternative solutions to stubborn problems, and methodically test, reject, and note progress and setbacks.
Demonstrates the ability to analyze large volumes of data to find the required information within, efficiently and accurately. A Dbq Essay Tilton? Shows comprehensive problem solving ability, producing creative solutions to complex problems. Can identify important concepts within a project to provide effective, targeted research. Can break down complex concepts and ideas into more manageable tasks for research purposes. Excellent communication skills that allow clear dissemination of researched data and ideas for writing School further use.
An analytical approach that ensures the identification and streamlining of need help writing research opportunities with any given project for more efficient results. Maintain high levels of self-awareness that enables analysis of one’s own assumptions and values about any given subject. Approach mistakes with a dispassionate demeanor, focusing on finding solutions rather than attributing blame. Project a “customer is always right” attitude at an essay writing School all times, even when clients are being rude and irrational. Keep a professional manner with peers, co-workers, and clients at critically Rotterdam Business all times, no matter the circumstances. An Essay Writing? Avoid emotional confrontation and arguments with peers and clients, seeking de-escalate issues and article (INTO) find ways to resolve issues rationally. Adhere to company work schedules and give notice before taking time off. Remain calm under pressure, delivering workable problems during crisis scenarios in a timely manner. Perform and oversee multiple individual tasks simultaneously during work projects, ensuring quality and efficiency while remaining within deadlines. Manage chaotic task loads and an essay writing School keep teammates focused and under control during high stress and time-sensitive crisis periods.
Approach complex and opposing argument SDA Bocconi School tangled problems with a dispassionate disposition that allows an efficient and an essay Downside School analytical approach to any problem. Make and defend critical and high risk decisions based on careful research, analysis, and experience, accepting responsibility for the outcomes whatever they may be. Technical Article St. Louis? Resolve interpersonal conflicts between other parties or personally by remaining objective and actively empathizing with the emotional parties. View every situation in the context of the broader picture to predict how the team may benefit overall from any given action. An Essay Downside School? Utilize a diverse skillset to complement any team makeup, whether giving or receiving instruction. Convey authority, competence, and a socially oriented attitude by keeping a strictly professional manner at all times. Build friendly relations and easily communicate with teammates, co-workers, and customers through a confident and outgoing demeanor. Seek out new relationships and form large networks of individuals, developing a pool of resources and opposing SDA Bocconi talent that can be tapped to achieve goals and targets. Project warmth and sincerity to an essay writing Downside School peers and clients, and a willingness to need writing a essay Caxton College work together to achieve mutual goals. Team worker who is able to adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Collaborated in four-person team to complete projects in a timely manner and under budget.
Tech savvy, with the ability to quickly learn and apply new software applications to the position. Desire to Downside School expand my current skillset and increase my value as an asset to the company. Broad knowledge base that aids in writing from a position of authority on how to write an english Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, a wide range of subjects. Highly developed research skills aid in creating accurate, informative and in depth writing on School, any subject matter. Expert literary skills ensures error free writing, with perfect grammar and style at a dbq essay all times. Adaptable approach allows a writing style that fits with the subject at hand and an essay writing School its intended use. Empathic nature that allows the use of suitable language for writing a dbq School the intended audience so that the writing is always on the correct level for its intended readership.
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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and Downside, term papers in many fields. Write An English Article Lyceum Alpinum! MLA essay format is most widely used in an essay writing Downside, the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the thinking critically School new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the writing School requirement of argument SDA Bocconi indicating the medium of Downside School publication for every cited source.
It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to opposing argument SDA Bocconi School, use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the more popular choice. By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at the end of the essay. An Essay Downside School! However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to article University, MLA format requirements . You can use the MLA template for making your work look like a professional one.
The text in MLA style essay format is typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is Downside School used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. Remember that the headings in SDA Bocconi School of Management, the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to an essay writing Downside School, be italicized or typed in thinking critically School, bold. An Essay Writing School! The first line of Business School each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side. An Essay! You should put page numbers at the top, and help Caxton College, justify it to the right. It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is School recommended that you type your last name before the page number, if the paper is several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text.
Here you may find an thinking Business School example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay writing, an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. Caxton College! The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style.
Short citations If a citation used in the text of a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks. At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the writing MLA citations are from in the text. Opposing School! This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to quote from a book Greenmantle of John Buchan from 1916. It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the page number in reference.
Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is an essay writing called a long citation and has to argumentative essay University (UCL), be placed separately from a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case. Writing Downside School! However, the author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in Rotterdam Business, round brackets. Example: One of the characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the Downside Mutiny in the following way: A madness ate into argument SDA Bocconi of Management, all the Army, and they turned against their officers. That was the an essay writing School first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. But they chose to kill the Sahibs’ wives and children.
Then came the writing Sahibs from over the sea and called them to most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words. The omitting of words in MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the an essay author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . . . who had stepped out with University College London, from the an essay writing pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . Help Writing A Essay College! In the MLA essay , it is allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the School Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation.
This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of (INTO) Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the an essay writing Downside School British empire, to technical writing University, whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the Downside hot sun of the desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in opposing argument SDA Bocconi School of Management, italics and the page number in the parenthesis. Example: As stated by an essay writing Downside, the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in how to an english Alpinum, the Works Cited list at the end of essay. To get detailed information about the writing Downside formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to technical article St. Louis University, MLA Works Cited List Format at writing Downside School P rof E ssays.com.
The formatting of your research or term paper may become rather difficult. In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. An English Alpinum Zuoz! If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting. Improper formatting of writing citations may spoil the results of your hard work. Order you paper at P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the Works Cited List and footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the writing a dbq essay School best place to buy MLA format essays of the highest quality. The title page in School, the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is how to no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in an essay writing, MLA essay.
Learn how to writing article St. Louis (INTO), format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of your instructor, the title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the an essay Downside School rules of formatting the cover page in writing a essay, a MLA style. MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to an essay, Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay. Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on technical article University a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and an essay writing Downside, conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to reflect your sub-points in MLA outline , remember that the section of outline can’t have only one sub-section.
So, logic requires that at need help writing Caxton each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to Enlarge) The detailed information about the an essay Downside School author, the title, the with essay College London (UCL) year of publication, the publishing house and the overall number of pages in a book, periodical, etc. is provided at the end of your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list. Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in writing School, alphabetical order by the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by help argumentative University College, their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. An Essay Writing Downside School! The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and SDA Bocconi School, then the writing School place of publication, the publishing house and the year of publication.
Do not forget to italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle. London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to the update in 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the argument of Management first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to an essay writing Downside, be placed in the direct order. So be attentive to how you place the need help writing Caxton first name and Downside, then only the last name of the second author.
In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and of Management, Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors. Writing! When there is no single author distinguished on help the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place.
Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of an essay Downside Art. A Guide to the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of technical writing article St. Louis Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in an essay writing School, a MLA essay differs a lot from the formatting of cited books. The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the Business day, month and year of publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the publication has to be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. The Times. An Essay Downside School! London, 2008, Sept 12.
6. Writing A Dbq Essay! Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in your MLA essay, you have to italicize the writing School title of School a book, and in the case of School a periodical, italicize the title of the periodical and not the title of the article. The month of writing a dbq essay Tilton School publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). An Essay Writing Downside School! Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. Help Caxton College! The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to formatting books and periodicals.
The former requirement of representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the Downside School MLA format rules. However, if your instructor still wants to see the URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. Writing! The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and writing Downside School, year of thinking edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the an essay writing School above-mentioned information. In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the opposing argument SDA Bocconi of Management on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc.
URL is indicated in angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules. Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and an essay, Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at need writing College the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the School titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of thinking Rotterdam headings, just some general norms: The headings of the an essay Downside MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold. The title of the MLA paper should be centered.
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americaism+essays Disrupting the an essay writing Downside School Discourse of Conquest: The Suppression of opposing argument School of Management, Sepúlveda. First Impressions: Title Pages and First Contacts. (1) Theodor DeBry's late 16th century Columbus Landing in Indias depicts a propagandist vision of American Indians receiving their conquerors, one that is desperately in need of a deconstructive reading. Foregrounded are shy but welcoming renditions of the noble savage, bearing sophisticated specimens of gifts attesting to an essay writing, an astounding degree of aboriginal metallurgy. Columbus swaggers forward to plant the staff of how to write an english Zuoz, conquest, the snide expression on his face approaching lewdness as he appraises the an essay scantily clad natives. But an even more telling narrative occurs on write Alpinum the margins, where one glimpses several diminutive native bodies in the throes of what looks like panic. Overwhelmed by this invasion of loud and obtrusive machinery, they run in circles, imploring the heavens for deliverance. Is this marginalized representation a nod to the discourse of the Indian as a superstitious, unlettered barbarian, the pole that normally opposes the noble savage myth among the warring factions of conquest justification? Through the hindsight of the twenty-first century eye, the antics of these wild natives would appear to be a most appropriate reaction of truly forward-thinking, rational minds. Truth be told, the real barbarians were at the gates . Writing Downside School? . . . The Debate: Submissive Sheep or Fierce Barbarians (Not Much of a Choice)
(2) The 1550 debate on Native American capacity and rights that took place at Valladolid, Spain, involved two principal participants: Bartolomé de las Casas and Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda. Need Writing A Essay Caxton College? A well-known figure in Spanish colonial discourse whose prolific body of an essay Downside, work has been circulated and analyzed for the last five hundred years, Las Casas has been touted as The Apostle of the Indians, a lone voice crying out for Indian rights in help a essay a wilderness of Spanish brutality. The second participant, Sepúlveda, is lesser known, perhaps justly so, when one considers his Aristotelian-derived argument on the natural slavery of the American Indian. Banned by the Spanish crown, seldom translated and underrepresented among historical and literary criticism of the discourse of the period, Sepúlveda's works have gathered dust in writing School the crypt reserved for SDA Bocconi the outmoded, the heretical, and the threatening. (3) Ostensibly an argument over Downside, the justification of war in the conquest of the New World, the Valladolid debate hinges upon conflicting interpretations of Rotterdam, New World inhabitants. Las Casas, following in the tradition of the noble savage school founded by Columbus, whose journal Las Casas abstracted, draws a portrait of the Native American as non-threatening and ripe for Christian plucking: God created these simple people without evil and without guile. They are most obedient and faithful to their natural lords and to the Christians whom they serve. An Essay Writing School? They are most submissive, patient, peaceful and virtuous.
Nor are they quarrelsome, rancorous, querulous, or vengeful. Moreover they are more delicate than princes and die easily from work or illness. They neither possess nor desire to possess worldly wealth. Surely these people would be the most blessed in article Lyceum Zuoz the world if only they worshipped the true God. Writing Downside? (qtd. in Hanke, First Social Experiments 20) Sepúlveda, rather, follows the write an english article Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz barbarian school of thought in Downside assessing Native intelligence and capacity. Although concerned about reputed barbarity and crimes against nature, Sepúlveda, too, diminishes the native threat by diminishing the native people but in a more blatantly offensive way: In prudence, talent, virtue, and humanity they are as inferior to the Spaniards as children to write an english Zuoz, adults, women to men, as the an essay writing Downside wild and cruel to the most meek, as the prodigiously intemperate to the continent and temperate, that I have almost said, as monkeys to men. (Sepúlveda, qtd. in write article Lyceum Alpinum Hanke, All Mankind 84) Sepúlveda's qualification here reflects the prudence that causes him to leave this comment from Demócrates Segundo out of the an essay School summary that will become his Apología ( Defense ), the text considered at Valladolid. A Dbq Tilton School? Tellingly, the lack of parallelism that links natives, women, children, and animals with wildness and cruelty while positing adult men as meek and temperate conflates might, meekness, and virtue, providing an essential and essentializing piece of the faulty logic that underpins conquest justification. While neither of the an essay Downside texts quoted above contributed specifically to the Valladolid debate, they are instructive in terms of essay, establishing a conquest climate profoundly influenced by notions of Eurocentric superiority. An Essay Writing Downside? In this sense, Sepúlveda's comments reflect dominant ideology more accurately and thinking, obviously and are therefore more threatening to the politics of justification.
Forging Empire through Literature: Framing Texts of the Debate. (6) Beginning with the papal bull Romanus Pontifex , which established a benign European paternalism as the motivation for imperialist conquest, and Inter caetera , itself inspired by writing Columbus's noble savage school (Muldoon 40), the discourse of conquest has built its structure upon the rock of Christian superiority. Such was the basis for the founding of the Spanish colonial encomienda system, an embodi[ment of] the ironic thesis that in administering the pope's Petrine responsibility to save the Indians, the Spanish Crown had to enslave them (Williams 84). By placing Indians under the charge of Spanish masters in help a essay Caxton forced labor situations, the Spanish Crown hoped to quell both resistance and indifference to conversion tactics through a sort of writing Downside, mandatory quasi-assimilation. Native resistance and indifference, the sort of how to write an english Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, obstacles considered by Sepúlveda as a hindrance to conquest, become cogs on which to turn the wheel of justification discourse, as this excerpt from the an essay Downside School Laws of Burgos attests: Should the natives attempt to oppose the settlement [of a colony], they shall be given to understand that the intention in writing article University forming it, is to teach them to know God and his holy law, by which they are to an essay writing School, be saved; to preserve friendship with them, and teach them to live in a civilized state. . . . They shall be convinced of this by need writing a essay mild means, through the an essay Downside School interference of religion and need Caxton, priests, . . . and if, notwithstanding, they do withhold their consent, the settlers . . . shall proceed to make their settlement . . . without doing them any greater damage than shall be necessary. (qtd. in Williams 87-88) Shortly after the enactment of the Burgos code, a charter of conquest known as the Requerimiento emerges as the most ironic example of the discursive clash between Old World theory and New World practice. Writing? Drafted in 1513 by Juan López de Palacios Rubios, this document embodies Eurocentrism writ large, in that it exhorts its uncomprehending auditors to surrender or die but does so through the guise of Christian missionary zeal: [W]e ask and require that you [ . . . ] acknowledge the Church as the writing article (INTO) ruler and superior of the whole world and the high priest called Pope and in his name the king and queen [ . . Writing? . ] our lords, in his place, as superiors and lords and kings of these islands and Lyceum Alpinum, this mainland [ . An Essay? . . ], and that you consent and permit that these religious fathers declare and technical writing, preach to you. [. . . ] [I]f you do not do this or if you maliciously delay in doing it, I certify to you that with the help of God we shall forcefully enter into your country and shall make war against you in all ways and manners that we can, and writing, shall submit you to the yoke and obedience of the Church and of their highnesses [ . . . ], and we shall take away your goods and shall do to you all the opposing SDA Bocconi harm and an essay Downside, damage that we can, [ . . . Rotterdam Business School? ] and we protest that the deaths and losses that shall accrue from this are your fault . . . . (Parry 288) The practice of an essay writing Downside, reading this warning aloud exemplifies the travesty of attempting to writing article St. Louis University (INTO), justify conquest. As Lewis Hanke imagines in his evocative recreation of this practice, Captains muttered its theological phrases into writing Downside their beard on the edge of sleeping Indian settlements, or even a league away before starting the formal attack, and at times some leather-lunged Spanish notary hurled its sonorous phrases after the a dbq Indians as they fled into the mountains. (qtd. in Williams 92) James Muldoon notes the perversion of Inter caetera in an essay Downside the Requerimiento's fusion of conversion and conquest: In effect, the Requerimiento enabled the Spanish to occupy the Americas by employing a legal ritual that allowed them to adhere to the letter of Innocent IV's opinion on infidel dominium while missing its spirit (27).
Ironically, the opposing argument School of Management suppressed discourse of Sepúlveda recognizes the futility of such practices, dismissing them as useless and inexpedient: to introduce this warning as necessary were nothing else than to basicly [sic] hinder the pious expedition, bringing salvation to the barbarians, and consequently to writing, impede their conversion, which is the purpose of the writing Tilton war ( Defense 30-31). In this way, a justifier who has never been to the New World forms a kinship with his colonizing brethren in an essay Downside School terms of a practical dismissal of the niceties of writing essay School, justification. (7) As conquest discourse heats up in the years immediately preceding the Valladolid debate on Amerindian capacity, the yawning gulf between theory and practice gapes even wider. Francisco de Vitoria interprets the Law of Nations to mean that neither mortal sin in general or [. . . ] the an essay writing School particular sin of unbelief justifies seizing dominium from the Native Americans (246). How To Write Article Alpinum Zuoz? Additionally, Vitoria's arguments against princely and papal authority with regard to the subjection of infidels threaten to sever the thread of logic spun by that most strident champion of Spanish imperialism, Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda (Pagden 18). While the language of both the papal bull Sublimus Deus and the New Laws of 1542 paid lip service to a chimeric ideal of Indian dominium , such dominium was inherently rejected the moment the first colonizers set foot on what would become American soil. (8) The 16th century Spanish theologian and writing Downside School, royal historian Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda was educated at the University of Alcalá and established himself as a learned translator and commentator on Aristotle at the College of San Clemente in Bologna, later serving the papal court in need help a essay Caxton Rome. Returning to Spain in 1536, Sepúlveda was appointed as an historian to the Spanish Crown. (9) The two most widely discussed pieces of Sepúlveda's written corpus in Spanish conquest scholarship are the books Demócrates Primus o De la conformidad de la milicia con la Religión Cristiana [ First Demócrates or On Militant Conformity with Christian Religion ] and Demócrates Segundo (also known as Demócrates Alter ) o De las Justas Causas de la Guerra contra los Indios [ Second Demócrates or On the Just Causes of War Against the Indians ]. Written as dialogues in which a character named Demócrates argues with a character named Leopoldo, the first of an essay writing School, these attempts to justify Charles V's religious wars against with argumentative the Turks and the second aims to do the same with regard to the Spanish conquest of the writing Downside New World. The text representing Sepúlveda's side in the Valladolid debate, Defense of the Book on the Just Causes of War, is how to article Sepúlveda's summary of the ideas contained in an essay writing Downside School Demócrates Segundo . (10) While Demócrates Segundo is available in Spanish, thanks to help with (UCL), the scholarly efforts of 20th century translator and Sepúlveda specialist Angel Losada, the dearth of English translations of any of writing Downside, Sepúlveda's works attests to not only his marginalization as an unpopular thinker in contemporary terms but also to active suppression of his works in the 16th and 17th centuries. In preliminary documents framing his Defense , Sepúlveda laments the condemnation of his book Demócrates Segundo by the Universities of Salamanca and technical writing article St. Louis University (INTO), Alcalá, pronouncing such disapproval not really a judgment from the University, but an artificial tampering by a few corrupters [ No se trató realmente de un juicio de la Universidad, sino de un artificio amañado por unos cuantos corruptores ] (Sepúlveda, Apología 58).
Noting that there were discussions about suppressing Sepúlveda's book prior to the Valladolid debate (179), Bernice Hamilton surmises that the University ban on an essay writing Downside School Sepúlveda probably resulted from the widespread influence of write article Lyceum Zuoz, Vitoria, two of whose students held the chairs of St. An Essay Downside? Thomas at Alcalá in 1548 (175). (11) According to University College London, Hamilton, The only well-known work in our field which seems to Downside, have been totally suppressed in the period [the 16th century] was Sepúlveda's Democrates Alter [ Secundus ], which argued that the Indians of the New World were natural slaves, and was suppressed on grounds of a moral disapprobation which we might well share today (10). But rather than credit the moral sensibilities of 16th century Spanish thinkers, it makes more sense to thinking critically Rotterdam Business, surmise that they viewed this work as too potentially inflammatory, perhaps for its truthfulness in terms of conquest practice. (12) The suppression of Sepúlveda continues into the 17th century. In his discussion of the 17th century Spanish justifier Juan de Solórzano y Pereira, James Muldoon adds the following: (13) Solórzano said that he himself did not possess a copy of Sepúlveda's book, because Philip II had banned its circulation. The stated reason for this censorship, curious in that the an essay School author provided a strong defense of the conquest, was that the book had not been printed at the royal press. The real reason, according to Solórzano, was that Sepúlveda's work contained material that was not suitable for the general public to hear. (27) (14) What was deemed unsuitable for general consumption is the revelation of the contradiction at the heart of justification literature: the twisting of authoritative precedent through a Eurocentric, imperialist mentality, compounded in article St. Louis University (INTO) Sepúlveda's works by an appeal to an expedient pragmatism that threatens to expose the hypocrisy of the theoretical discourse and thus blow down the entire house of writing Downside School, cards. (15) In his journey from Spanish encomendero to Apostle of the Indians, Bartolomé de las Casas experienced a conversion inspired by the bearing of horrific witness to Spanish atrocities upon Native Americans. Unlike Sepúlveda, Las Casas lived and worked among Indians in the New World, first as their subjugator and later as their would-be liberator.
Deified in some scholarly circles and vilified in others for his promulgation of the argument School of Management Black Legend of the barbarous Spanish conquistador, Las Casas's prolific body of work has been widely translated and discussed, due largely to its humanistic appeal, which is, indeed, more than considerable given its era and circumstances. However, seldom critiqued is the Eurocentric, Christian-centered superiority that manifests itself in Las Casas's main praise of Native Americans as docile and submissive, ripe for conversion. (16) Among the Las Casas works on Native Americans available in English translation are his History of the Indies and his Brief Account of the Devastation of the Indies , also known as The Spanish Cruelties. His response to an essay School, Sepúlveda, entitled In Defense of the Indians , was translated to English by Stafford Poole in 1974. (17) As stated above, the Sepúlveda text of the critically Business Valladolid debate is Sepúlveda's own summary of ideas contained in his book Demócrates Segundo . An Essay Downside School? Sepúlveda's summary is entitled Defense of the Book on the Just Causes of War [ Apología del Libro de las Justas Causas de la Guerra ]. Las Casas's response to Sepúlveda's relatively short summary is a book-length treatise entitled In Defense of the help writing a essay Caxton College Indians . To confuse matters slightly, both texts are referred to in Spanish as Apología , which translates as Defense . Not a debate in the traditional sense of the word, the proceedings at Valladolid consisted not of the two men arguing face-to-face but in the council's analyses of Sepúlveda's Apología [ Defense ] vs. Las Casas's Apología [ Defense ]. The Justifying Text: No Apology. (18) The structure of Sepúlveda's Defense is an essay somewhat problematic in Business School terms of the linear flow of an essay School, its organization. Sepúlveda begins with the seven arguments of his opponents, follows that with his own general argument, made in four main points, then returns to the seven opposing arguments to address them sequentially. The result is that the technical article University point-by-point response seems somewhat tacked on, less a developed argument than an Downside School, exercise in semantics. But the overall tone that emerges from a dbq essay School, Sepúlveda's discourse is one of an essay Downside, pragmatic expediency, a motivation that allows him to dismiss appeals to morality and ethics in much the same ways that the actual practice of conquest does. Writing A Dbq Essay Tilton School? Seven Objections of the Unjustifiers. (19) The seven objections to which Sepúlveda responds may be paraphrased as follows: 1) Wars are only justified if they avenge injuries, and in an essay School this case the writing essay Tilton barbarians had afflicted the School Christians with no injury (6). 2) War as a means of spreading Christianity is unjust. 3) This war is contrary to the example of Christ (7).
4) Conversion is better accomplished through proselytizing than by war. 5) No prior warning was issued. Writing St. Louis University? 6) One cannot do evil to achieve good. Downside School? 7) The Church and the Pope have no jurisdiction over infidels. (20) Sepúlveda's first argument appeals to the doctrines of St. Thomas Aquinas and to Aristotle's theory of natural slavery to suggest that Native Americans are barbarians and therefore must submit to Spanish governance: “For those are frankly called barbarians,” as Thomas maintains, “who are lacking in rational power either on account of an environment from help with argumentative College London (UCL), which dullness for the most part is found or due to some evil habit by which men become like brutes,” and furthermore races of this sort by right of nature ought to obey those who are more civilized, prudent, and outstanding so that they may be governed by better customs and usages. (9) Referring to the precedence of Roman rule, Sepúlveda suggests an inevitability to the process of conquest as a sort of ongoing natural law. (21) Sepúlveda's second point justifying war is the charge that these barbarians commit crimes against the law of nature, namely, idolatry and School, human sacrifice. Writing Essay School? Attempting to find some traction on the slippery slope of the argument that all mortal sins are contrary to the law of nature (15), since obviously members of the writing Downside conquering race could not claim sinlessness, Sepúlveda here makes an interesting move: that nation is to be understood as not keeping the law of technical article St. Louis (INTO), nature in which any mortal sin is not considered a shameful act, but rather publicly approved, such as the murder of innocent people who were sacrificed in many localities and prevalent idolatry, which is the most serious of sins, is approved among these barbarians. (15) Thus Sepúlveda acknowledges a degree of an essay Downside School, autonomy of native customs and technical article, cultures which he uses against an essay Downside School itself by suggesting that a society that sanctions a certain behavior can be held liable for infractions against natural law, while a society that outlaws such practices complies with natural law, regardless of the infractions of that society's individuals (i.e., the Spaniards). Similarly, with regard to with essay, conquest discourse as a whole, the an essay writing School implication seems to be that a society can cover itself by adopting an Rotterdam, official practice that qualifies conquest while allowing individuals to operate in Downside School an unchecked fashion. Argument SDA Bocconi Of Management? Additionally, this second argument contradicts the first by acknowledging that these barbarians are subjected to their own institutional forms of culture. (22) In making his third point, that Spanish intervention will save thousands of potential victims of writing School, human sacrifice, Sepúlveda stresses a monstrosity so abhorrent that it leads upright men to help essay University College, doubt whether the natives can be converted (17).
Yet throughout he maintains conversion as the single goal of conquest, a perfect illustration of the an essay Downside way in which conquest discourse pays lip service to high ideals, while conquest practice is driven by less lofty motivations and assumptions. (23) Sepúlveda develops his fourth point at great length, the help argumentative essay University College London (UCL) controversial argument that the driving need to save Native souls even against their will justifies the use of force. It is an essay writing Downside here that Sepúlveda makes an appeal to expediency that aligns his argument more closely with conquest practice as opposed to conquest theory. Repeated references to the removal of argument School, obstacles to the propagation of the faith take on Downside ominous significance when one considers how often the obstacles removed were the individuals themselves. Help Writing A Essay? In this section Sepúlveda counters charges of his methods as being antithetical to Christ's example by appealing to a might-makes-right philosophy and the increased power of the Church and Christian princes. According to Sepúlveda, as practice has taught and continues to an essay writing School, teach, force is the most expedient means to subdue people. (24) Although he does not refer to the Requerimiento specifically, Sepúlveda dismisses the requirement of providing prior warning as a useless hindrance to conquest. Correctly recognizing the travesty inherent in shouting legalities in Spanish at uncomprehending natives, and even acknowledging that no one is likely to submit under such circumstances, Sepúlveda proposes eliminating the practice of technical (INTO), prior warning, anticipating and reflecting actual conquest practice. Writing? Sepúlveda's Response to help with essay University College, the Seven Objections. (25) In responding specifically to the seven arguments of his opponents, Sepúlveda recycles several of his previous assertions and adds some creatively flawed new ones.
To the first charge that no injury has been committed, Sepúlveda responds that God has been injured by an essay native idolatrous practices, and that the thinking Spanish have been injured by native resistance. In countering the second, third, fourth, and fifth objections he simply reiterates his previous points about the removal of obstacles, might makes right, and expediency. His reasoning is most strikingly circular in his response to the sixth objection, that it is Downside impossible to wage war without committing sin. Thinking Critically Rotterdam Business? Dismissing this as simply an anti-war statement that is therefore implicitly preposterous, Sepúlveda goes on to argue that since the benefits of conquest to an essay Downside, the Natives outweigh its evils, it is argument SDA Bocconi School of Management those who argue against colonization who mistreat the Indians: those who attempt to obstruct this expedition so the barbarians would not come to the Christians' terms do not humanely favor the barbarians as they themselves wish to seem but cruelly begrudge them most of the greatest goods (40). Sepúlveda sidesteps altogether the Downside seventh objection questioning papal and princely authority over infidels, citing the lives and deaths of the Apostles to maintain that it is properly of the apostolic duty to give assistance to convert them to belief in Christ, preach the gospel to them, and to try according to one's ability everything that is conducive to most suitably rendering this service (41). Ambiguous language like according to one's ability and most suitably provide practitioners of conquest with tons of leeway. Las Casas's Response: A Brief Account. (26) Las Casas's response to Sepúlveda is lengthy and intricate, but a brief discussion of a few of his points will suffice here to establish the tenor of the opposing argument.
In countering Sepúlveda's first charge of Indian barbarism, Las Casas identifies four distinct types of barbarians, the first of which he defines by barbaric behavior: First, barbarian in help College the loose and broad sense of the word means any cruel, inhuman, wild, and merciless man acting against an essay writing Downside School human reason out of anger or native disposition, so that, putting aside decency, meekness, and humane moderation, he becomes hard, severe, quarrelsome, unbearable, cruel, and plunges blindly into crimes that only the wildest beasts of the need help a essay Caxton College forest would commit ( In Defense 28-29). In an astute move, Las Casas turns the tables of discourse on the barbarian: Indeed, our Spaniards are not unacquainted with a number of these practices. On the contrary, in the absolutely inhuman things they have done to those nations they have surpassed all other barbarians (29). (27) In countering Sepúlveda's second charge regarding Indian crimes against natural law, Las Casas goes so far as to suggest that even cannibalism is writing Downside not intrinsically evil in cases of Alpinum Zuoz, necessity and extreme hunger. Elsewhere, in his Brief Account of the Downside School Devastation of the Indies , Las Casas tells the lurid tale of a human abattoir sanctioned by Spanish conquerors in which natives are forced to perform cannibalism. While as unverifiable as other charges of need a essay College, Native cannibalism, this account may serve as a metaphor for the way in an essay which the Native is figuratively made a cannibal by propagandist accounts of help essay University College, barbarianism. (28) Las Casas troubles the logic of Sepúlveda's third argument on conquest as the salvation of the innocent by considering its practical execution, noting that in an actual war it is impossible to Downside School, separate the oppressed from the oppressors. Finally, the overarching premise of Las Casas's position is his opposition to Sepúlveda's most controversial position: that conversion can and should be effected by force.
Arguing throughout his many treatises for Rotterdam Business School a kinder, gentler conversion, Las Casas never once questions the Christianizing mission itself, thus paradoxically maintaining the very Eurocentrism that promotes forcible conquest. (29) I have posited Sepúlveda as the loser in the Valladolid debate due to the subsequent suppression of his work cited above. However, neither side can be said to have conceded. As Lewis Hanke relates, The judges at Valladolid, probably exhausted and an essay School, confused by the sights and sounds of this mighty conflict, fell into argument with one another and reached no collective decision. Las Casas later stated that the decision had been favorable to his viewpoint, although unfortunately for the Indians the essay School measures decreed by the Council were not well executed, and writing School, Sepúlveda wrote to a friend that the thinking judges thought it right and lawful that the barbarians of the New World should be brought under the dominion of the Christians, only Downside School one theologian dissenting ( All Mankind Is One 113). Although he does not concede, Las Casas here perhaps recognizes that Sepúlveda's views will win the day in opposing argument School the New World. Bolstering his argument by attacking Sepúlveda's attempts to legitimize his views through publication, Las Casas mentions that Sepúlveda offers as a confirmation of his contagious opinion, that is, a work on Indian affairs which its author, a certain Oviedo, calls A General History ( In Defense 343). Las Casas here properly recognizes the contagious nature of an essay writing School, Sepúlveda's theory as epitomizing the tenets of actual conquest practice. Conclusion: Sepúlveda's Theory as Conquest Practice. (30) The reluctance on the part of the Spanish Crown and universities to help with University College London (UCL), legitimate Sepúlveda's work by approval or publication suggests the theorists' need to dissociate themselves from the dirty practice of conquest, about which Sepúlveda's work is not only surprisingly accurate but strikingly non-apologetic. A brief quotation from the an essay Downside Oviedo work mentioned above will suffice to establish a link between Sepúlveda's derogatory opinion of Amerindians and write an english article Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, that of writing Downside, a conquistador in the field. Eerily echoing Sepúlveda's offensive comparison of Natives, women, children, and monkeys, Oviedo's prejudice bleeds through his words: [The Indians are] naturally lazy and Tilton School, vicious, melancholic, cowardly, and in general a lying, shiftless people. Their marriages are not a sacrament but a sacrilege.
They are idolatrous, libidinous and commit sodomy. Their chief desire is to eat, drink, worship heathen idols, and commit bestial obscenities. What could one expect from a people whose skulls are so thick and hard that the Spaniards had to an essay, take care in fighting not to how to article Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, strike on the head lest their swords be blunted? (qtd. in Hanke, The Spanish Struggle 11) Here Indian hard-headedness is literalized as an obstacle to conquest, echoing the rhetoric that appropriates resistance as justification. (31) A final account from the field of conquest provided by an essay Lewis Hanke illustrates another facet of the rhetorical bind that ensnares the critically Business School Native American. Hanke writes, It was difficult to inculcate habits of Downside School, honesty and sobriety, stated Juan de Ampies, because when Spaniards beat them [Indians] or cut off their ears as punishment, the guilty ones were not held in less repute by their fellows ( First Social Experiments 30). In its refusal to comprehend a culture unwilling to adopt Christian notions of shame and a dbq essay, communal ostracism, the Eurocentric discourse perverts the solidarity of the Native Americans into a lack of reason and virtue.
Thus the real loser of the an essay Downside School Valladolid debate on the justification of New World conquest was the Native American, forced to how to, be identified as either noble (submissive) savage or fierce (resistant) barbarian, either a tabula rasa awaiting conversion or an obstacle to the propagation of the faith. Either choice meant annihilation, the one of writing Downside School, culture, the other of existence. Hamilton, Bernice. Political Thought in Sixteenth-Century Spain: A Study of the Political Ideas of Vitoria, DeSoto, Suárez, and Molina . Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963. Hanke, Lewis. Help Writing College? All Mankind Is One: A Study of the Disputation Between Bartolomé de Las Casas and Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda in 1550 on the Intellectual and Religious Capacity of the American Indians . An Essay School? DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP, 1974. ---. Aristotle and the American Indians: A Study in Race Prejudice in the Modern World . Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, 1959. ---. The First Social Experiments in America: A Study in the Development of Spanish Indian Policy in article (INTO) the Sixteenth Century . Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1935. An Essay Downside? ---. The Spanish Struggle for Justice in the Conquest of America . Philadelphia: U of thinking critically Rotterdam School, Pennsylvania P, 1949.
Las Casas, Bartolomé de. In Defense of the Indians . An Essay Downside? Ed. Trans. Stafford Poole. DeKalb: Northern Illinois UP, 1974. ---. A Short Account of the Destruction of the thinking critically Rotterdam Business Indies . Ed. and trans. Nigel Griffin. New York: Penguin Books, 1992. Losada, Angel. Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda a través de su Epistolario y Nuevos Documentos . Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1949.
Muldoon, James. The Americas in the Spanish World Order: The Justification for Conquest in the Seventeenth Century . Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1994. Nader, Helen. Rights of Discovery: Christopher Columbus's Final Appeal to King Fernando: Facsimile, Transcription, Translation Critical Edition of the John Carter Brown Library's Spanish Codex I . An Essay Writing Downside? Providence: John Carter Brown Library, 1992. Pagden, Anthony. Spanish Imperialism and the Political Imagination: Studies in European and Spanish-American Social and Political Theory 1513-1830 . New Haven: Yale UP, 1990. Parry, John H., and Robert G. Keith, eds. New Iberian World: A Documentary History of the Discovery and Settlement of Latin America to the Early 17th Century . New York: Times Books, 1984.
Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de. Apology for the Book On the Just Causes of War . Trans. and Ed. Lewis D. Writing School? Epstein. An Essay Downside School? Bowdoin College, 1973. ---. Demócrates Segundo o De Las Justas Causas de La Guerra Contra los Indios . Trans. Angel Losada.
Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Instituto Francisco de Vitoria, 1951. Sepúlveda, Juan Ginés de, and Bartolomé de Las Casas. Apología . [ Defense .] Trans. Angel Losada. With Essay University London? Madrid: Editora Nacional, 1975. Vitoria, Francisco de. Political Writings . Ed. Anthony Pagden and Jeremy Lawrance.
Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1991. Williams, Robert A., Jr. The American Indian in Western Legal Thought: The Discourses of an essay writing School, Conquest . New York: Oxford UP, 1990.
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essay art nouveau Art Nouveau, as a style, is an essay writing Downside School, customarily thought of as having been consigned to one of history’s tightly locked boxes. In the case of Art Nouveau, it will undoubtedly be a beautiful, finely crafted, gilded box—but a box nevertheless. Art Nouveau architecture is not short of admirers, and thinking Rotterdam School people trek from far and wide to see its masterpieces. But they stare at Downside School, the works, feeling them to be detached in time and history.
We expect never to see their like fashioned again. Write An English! However, the assessment of Art Nouveau, like that of any movement, is never static. We may have finally moved on from Nikolaus Pevsner’s judgment in Downside School 1936 that it was “a short but very significant fashion in with College London (UCL) decoration,” 1 but still the feeling lingers that the demise of Art Nouveau was attributable to some fundamental internal flaw. Art Nouveau was an international style. It had regional variations but contained a unity of purpose that is unmistakable from country to country. In architecture, it blossomed first in Brussels and then Paris, and an essay its achievements in those cities probably established its most definitive form. From there, it appeared in argumentative essay (UCL) Spain, Scotland, Italy, Hungary and School other countries in the heart of Europe; it also reached the periphery: Finland, Latvia, Russia. Art Nouveau eventually came to the United States in the decorative work of Louis Comfort Tiffany and the architecture of Louis Sullivan. To truly understand any architectural style (and I am going to confine this essay to architecture), you have to opposing SDA Bocconi School of Management see it in its context and, if you do this thoroughly with Art Nouveau, it shakes off the accusation of lack of robustness. It was born into the febrile atmosphere of the late nineteenth century, when the an essay writing Downside new confidence in science and rationalism fought with doubt and pessimism about the direction of how to Alpinum Zuoz, civilization.
Interjected into that was a powerful movement in much painting, poetry, literature and philosophy toward anti-rationalism of one sort or another. Writing Downside! At the same time, a particularly dangerous jingoism was on the rise, with accompanying demands for austerity and conformity. A radical new style—especially a flamboyant one with a clearly subversive stance—had to have solid underpinnings to emerge at all. Within its contemporary milieu, Art Nouveau sided with the anti-rationalists and did so to the extent that Pevsner, in a fuller assessment in 1973, titled a book he edited on the subject The Anti-Rationalists and the Rationalists . 2 Identification with anti-rationalism left Art Nouveau open to attack from both the supporters of the new, determinist scientific outlook and the prophets of degenerate doom. The great intellectual event of the St. Louis University last half of the nineteenth century was undoubtedly the arrival of Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution. This taught that life was propelled by accidental “mutations” that are then sifted for survival through competition. Writing! This big idea resulted in, for writing a dbq Tilton School, one thing, a division between those who embraced the mechanistic view of life it proposed and others who saw in it an an essay insecurity of direction whereby things could go badly as easily as they could go well.
On the one side, T.H. Huxley said confidently in 1867 that “zoological physiology … regards animal bodies as machines impelled by … forces …which can be expressed in terms of the how to write an english article Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz ordinary [i.e., analyzable] forces of nature.” 3 On the an essay writing Downside other, the prevalent fears of degeneracy were vividly expressed in Max Nordau’s book Degeneration (1892). Unsettled by Darwin’s view of opposing School of Management, undirected evolution, he recognized “a morbid deviation from original type.” 4 Among such deviants he singled out the an essay “fin de siecle art movements” and notes that “the diagnosis ‘degeneration’ is applicable to the originators of the new aesthetic tendencies.” He sees that a “mental stigma of [such] degenerates” is Rotterdam School, their emotionalism. “They feel the School bliss of the Beautiful possessing them to the tips of their fingers. …” 5 Nordau’s views were widely read and no doubt contributed to the popularity of the strident nationalism, found almost everywhere in thinking critically Rotterdam School Europe then, that promised certainty of direction. Against these currents, a number of artistic movements and theories in the 1880s developed in a more optimistic direction, all of an essay writing Downside School, which consciously sought the creation of a modern world. All these movements fed into how to write an english article Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, the emergence of Art Nouveau in the 1890s and formed most of its formal sources, helping to generate the style or the an essay “look” of Art Nouveau. Against these I will put what can be termed the intellectual or theoretical sources. The appreciation of both formal and intellectual sources is how to an english article Zuoz, crucial to the understanding of the real meaning of Art Nouveau. Practically all the literature on Art Nouveau concentrates on writing Downside what I term the formal sources. 6 The effect of this limitation is to encourage the view of Art Nouveau as purely a style or even, to use Pevsner’s word, a “fashion.” It thereby becomes a mere collection of motifs, but it never was to its progenitors. By dwelling only on opposing argument SDA Bocconi School of Management its superficial form, we ensure that Art Nouveau remains trapped in its historical box.
As a consequence, we deny it the possibility of having any bearing on architecture and an essay School design today. However, by essay Tilton releasing the profound ideas that lay behind Art Nouveau, we can return it to today’s debate about how we might build. I will briefly describe the an essay School formal sources of Art Nouveau—the Aesthetic Movement, the Arts and Crafts Movement, Symbolist art, the structural theories of Eugene Viollet-le-Duc and contemporary neo-Baroque architecture—before considering the intellectual sources. Although England never developed an Art Nouveau movement, it was universally recognized by the early exponents of Art Nouveau on the continent as a primary place of influence. The Aesthetic Movement was primarily responsible. That movement can be located roughly in the decade preceding that of Art Nouveau, that is, the write article Alpinum 1880s. Aestheticism was above all a consciously modern movement in three ways. First, it built upon the ideas of John Ruskin and William Morris on how to create a style that was free from the numerous historical styles encompassed by contemporary eclecticism. Second, it favored a simplicity of an essay writing School, design, and in that took much from Rotterdam Business, Japanese prints.
It was the latter’s asymmetry, striking pattern-making and School balance between detailed figuration and blank areas that impressed the makers of the Aesthetic Movement. Third, Aestheticism rejected the with University College London (UCL) standard messages, such as patriotism, glory or piety, that conventional art and architecture were expected to an essay Downside School convey. Its slogan of arts for art’s sake proclaimed a dismissal of such values and said that the work of art contained its own message. Only beauty itself mattered. Art for art’s sake immediately got the movement into a dbq essay, trouble, for an essay Downside School, if beauty were the Business School only thing that mattered, where were God and morality? Oscar Wilde was one of its foremost advocates on either side of the Atlantic. He may not have served the movement well, as his bald statements failed to account in advance for the inevitable reaction. An Essay School! In one of his lectures he said “… nor in its primary aspect has painting any more spiritual message for us than a blue tile. … It is a beautifully colored surface, nothing more, and write an english article Lyceum affects us by no suggestion stolen from philosophy, no pathos pilfered from literature, no feeling filched from a poet, but by its own incommunicable artistic essence.” 7 Art Nouveau inherited the an essay writing Downside fresh, radical vision of the Aesthetic Movement, but with that came its sense of amorality and decadence. One of the movement’s best architects, E.W. Alpinum Zuoz! Godwin, built a series of houses in Chelsea, London, that were very close to an essay writing School being Art Nouveau.
The second formal influence on Art Nouveau was the Arts and Crafts movement, which again sprang from England. Art Nouveau took from it the ideas of truth to materials and a dbq essay the abandonment of historically-based designs. Downside School! Arts and Crafts was, of course, related to Rotterdam School the Aesthetic Movement but substituted the latter’s somewhat foppish style for an essay School, a seriousness of purpose associated with a genuine desire for social improvement and reform along the lines that Ruskin laid down. Morris was the immediate inspiration for Arts and Crafts, and certain visual elements had a direct influence on Art Nouveau. In particular, his wallpaper and fabric patterns fed into its way of representing nature, as his designs suggested a freedom from stylization together with the strong feeling of the live, growing organisms that Art Nouveau would seek. We have to cross the Channel for the remaining formal influences on Art Nouveau. Technical University (INTO)! Symbolism, like Art Nouveau after it, started in the Paris/Brussels axis. It stands out as a direct reaction to Huxley’s kind of an essay writing School, philosophy of mechanism, for it seeks to investigate a reality behind that of appearance and scientific analysis.
In this, it is surely otherworldly, but it rarely aligned with any of the many religious and mystical cults generating adherents then. It preferred to express this reality wholly within the artistic realm. Michelle Facos writes: “For a work to be considered Symbolist, its purpose must be to suggest something other than what is actually represented. With Essay College (UCL)! … A Symbolist work of art may not … include conventional illustration or allegory.” 8 As with Aestheticism, the an essay Downside Symbolists exposed themselves to accusations of amorality, sickness and decadence, prompting a contemporary writer to observe that “… their vision has always been somewhat feverish, with the diseased sharpness of over-excited nerves. …” 9. Formally, Symbolism contributed to Art Nouveau its swirling motifs, eroticism and lack of conventional representation, as we see in Jan Toorop’s O Grave, Where is Thy Victory? (1892). Perhaps more important, the intellectual concepts of Symbolism laid the foundation for an anti-mechanistic approach that let architects imagine buildings as more than utilitarian vessels for human activity or embodiments of received morality. Architecture could become charged with anti-rationalism and moral freedom, and argument SDA Bocconi School hold up a broader conception of human values than the writing School prevailing materialism could offer. Fourth, the influence of the ideas of Viollet-le-Duc should not be underestimated, for opposing SDA Bocconi School, it is writing Downside, their integration into the realization of Art Nouveau buildings that allowed the style to move beyond mere artifice and decoration. Viollet-le-Duc advanced the highly original idea that nature could provide a model for manmade structures. In this sense, he claimed to be a functionalist. His published designs show how plant forms can lend themselves to buildings.
10 Crucial to this narrative was the use of argumentative College London, iron, because it could achieve the tensile strength and rigidity of fibrous plant tissue. Victor Horta, a pioneer of Art Nouveau architecture, demonstrated that structural iron could be fashioned into plant forms with no sense of forcing the writing Downside argument, and in the process created a fluidity and harmony between vegetative forms and buildings. The last formal source of Art Nouveau was the style in which its architects were primarily trained and writing Caxton that was practiced extensively in the new boulevards of the an essay School major cities of Europe, the neo-Baroque. The style had come a long way since its invention by Bernini in Rome in the 1620s. I would define Baroque architecture as the exaggeration and manipulation of the a dbq essay Tilton elements of classical architecture for the sake of total theatrical effect. The original purpose may have been religious, but the style was readily adaptable for any building requiring ostentation. It is relevant to Art Nouveau because it achieved its drama by merging classical forms with natural and an essay Downside School human forms. For instance, voluptuous human figures were placed in putative structural roles as atlantes, terms and masks, while rampant foliage and flowers invaded the details.
This compromising of form with organic elements became an essential component of Art Nouveau. These formal sources were all in place before the first Art Nouveau building, Victor Horta’s Tassel House, in Brussels (1893). Others followed so quickly and spontaneously over such a large geographical area that there must have been a like-minded artistic and intellectual environment already in place. To appreciate how and why this happened, we need to add to the formal sources the intellectual sources of the technical writing article time. The anti-rationalism of the late nineteenth century was partly a reaction against Downside School, the austere positivist philosophy, exemplified by Huxley, who regarded “animal bodies [and plants] as machines.” So the means by which, for help, instance, an acorn becomes an oak tree, would someday no longer be an unfathomable miracle of an essay, nature but a series of mechanical, analyzable processes. One aspect of this reaction was artistic, poetic expression, such as in writing article St. Louis University Symbolism, but philosophers and scientists also confronted mechanism on writing Downside its own terms. An English Alpinum! Notable among these was Hans Driesch, a genetic biologist, who, having made important discoveries in an essay cell research, turned to philosophy, where he became a strong anti-mechanist.
The creation of new cells by technical writing division was already known, and Driesch asked: “How could a machine be divided innumerable times and yet remain what it was?” Refuting Huxley, he objected that “ … because a few things were really understood on account of the delicate structures having been recognized, it was thought that everything must be comprehensible on the same grounds.” 11. Driesch accepted that he had nothing definitive with which to replace mechanism but could only identify a lacuna in our comprehension—but not in our observation—of nature. We can see that organisms grow from within, and so we may put a name to the cause driving this process: “vital force,” hence, the doctrine of “vitalism.” Driesch explained that “by vitalism we mean the possibility, merely negative at first, that there may be processes in writing the organism which are not of the machine-like or ‘mechanistic’ type.” 12. Let us put the sources of Art Nouveau, formal and intellectual, to one side and try to define what we mean by Art Nouveau as a style. Let us do this on writing a essay the basis of observation, looking at an essay writing School, an Art Nouveau building and attempting to say what marks it as different from a building in any other style. What strikes us about the Casa Battlo, in technical writing article St. Louis University Barcelona, by Antonio Gaudi y Cosset is that the Downside whole building seems to be taken over and subsumed by writing a dbq essay Tilton plant forms, suggesting a transformation of inert into organic material. Writing Downside! What is depicted is essay Tilton School, metaphormosis—of building elements becoming plant-like, of human-made geometric form becoming natural form. We see the vital impulse in nature taking command. I would define the resulting style this way: Art Nouveau invents a new modern architectural style, the elements of which suggest a metaphormosis of inert, architectural form into living, growing plant form. This definition is a statement of what Art Nouveau does, but not why or how it achieves its deeper meaning. Until that time, building styles had invariably exploited the relationship between the manmade and the natural to achieve rhetorical power.
For instance, many have pointed out that the array of columns and School vaulting in a Gothic cathedral suggests a stylized forest. But the forest is one thing, the building another. We read the forest into the building as metaphor, and so the relation between the two exists only via the mental bridge that the metaphor creates. SDA Bocconi Of Management! With metaphormosis, the building becomes nature before our eyes. We look to the details before us; we do not need to access our own imaginations. Art Nouveau’s originality was to shift the an essay writing relationship between the thinking Business natural and the human from metaphor to metaphormosis. An essential characteristic of any metaphormosis is that the force that impels it comes from within.
Things do not metaphormose because of external forces. Growth is one type of metaphormosis, and so metaphormosis is an essay writing School, allied with the vitalist principle. Art Nouveau famously employs the “whiplash” curve, which graphically conveys growth and life. To preserve the purity and critically force of this idea, Art Nouveau plants are never species-specific. They are never so literal. An Essay Writing School! Metaphormosis implies a surrender to nature, an abandonment of cultural norms, which is why it could seem so dangerous. Not only write Alpinum, that, but its vitalism could easily slide into other contemporary ideas like paganism and eroticism. Art Nouveau allowed humans to bathe in their sense of beauty, and it still does this.
For all the style’s sidelining, Art Nouveau buildings are surely some of the most beautiful ever designed. An Essay Downside! Not necessarily the best, but the most beautiful. Architecture and art are currently dominated by a mechanistic ethos, and a denial of human sensitivities to opposing SDA Bocconi beauty is often part of that. Contemporary philosopher Roger Scruton refers to this as an act of “desecration,” and points out that “… our contemporary culture … is … in an essay writing Downside School flight from School, beauty. There is a desire to spoil beauty. …” 13 It is an irony that Nordau’s prognosis of degeneration may have been proved right after all. Appreciating the Downside School underlying meaning of opposing argument SDA Bocconi of Management, Art Nouveau, we can create an alternative source of architectural rhetoric by an essay writing Downside appealing to the vitalist principle, with its innate recognition of the genius in nature. The appearance of the resulting buildings will no doubt be different from the thinking Business School original Art Nouveau, but then we are drawing on the deeper meaning of the style, not its superficial “look.” Art Nouveau will at last be taken out of its gilded box and an essay writing School allowed to again inform our imaginations. 1. Nikolaus Pevsner, Pioneers of Modern Design: From William Morris to Walter Gropius (Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin), 1966, p. 96. 2. Help A Essay! Sir James Maude Richards, Nikolaus Pevsner, eds., The Anti-Rationalists and writing Downside the Rationalists (London: Architectural Press, 1973). 3. T.H. Huxley, Science Gossip (London, 1867), p. 74.
4. Max Nordau (1895), in Sally Ledger and Roger Luckhurst, eds., The Fin de Siecle (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 15. 6. See Paul Greenhalgh, ed., Art Nouveau: 1890–1914 (London: V A Publications, 2000); Stephan Tschudi-Madsen, Sources of technical article (INTO), Art Nouveau (Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press Inc., 1956); Sir James Maude Richards, Nikolaus Pevsner, eds., The Anti-Rationalists and the Rationalists (London: Architectural Press, 1973). 7. Elizabeth Aslin, The Aesthetic Movement (London: Ferndale, 1969), p. 111. 8. Michelle Facos, Symbolist Art in Context (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2009), p. 4. 9. Arthur Symons (1893), in Sally Ledger and Roger Luckhurst, eds., The Fin de Siecle (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 107. 10. E.E. An Essay Writing! Viollet le Duc, Entretiens sur l’Architecture , Vol. Opposing Argument SDA Bocconi School! II (Paris, 1872), p. 130.
11. Hans Driesch, The History and an essay writing Downside Theory of Vitalism (London: MacMillan, 1913, reprinted by article Lyceum Forgotten Books), p. 210. 12. Hans Driesch, The Problem of Individuality (London: MacMillan, 1914, reprinted by Bibliolife), p. 5. 13.
Roger Scruton, Beauty (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 172. Copyright 2006-2017 Newington-Cropsey Cultural Studies Center.