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Paul-Elder Critical Thinking Framework — University of Louisville
avm homework hotline stroke, TIA | Neurovascular News | Cerebrovascular Conference. AVM Support Group | Booklets Publications | Interventional Neuroradiology. Cerebral AVMs are most commonly discovered in young adults aged 20-40 years. These lesions are usually detected in patients as the paul St. Louis School, result of a seizure or hemorrhage. AVMs hemorrhage at a rate of 4% per write thesis for an essay University, year (ref. to Ondra). Approximately half of these hemorrhages will carry significant morbidity or mortality, therefore when one considers management of a young patient with a brain AVM, the elder thinking, lifetime risk of hemorrhage can be substantial. Treatment of brain AVMs has been greatly enhanced by adopting a team approach utilizing combined modality therapy. Using this strategy, a treatment plan is devised to offer the lowest risk yet highest chance of obliterating the how to write a good thesis statement essay, lesion. The three modalities of treatment currently available include endovascular introduction of agents which occlude parts or all of the AVM, standard microneurosurgical techniques to remove an AVM or radiosurgery (focused radiation). Currently available endovascular techniques involve passing tiny catheters into the cerebral vessels feeding the AVM. Once the catheter reaches the nidus of the AVM, a glue material can be injected to occlude portions, or in some cases all, of the arteriovenous malformation.
The endovascular technique carries a risk of 3-5% of serious complication, however it can make subsequent surgical removal of an AVM significantly safer, or can reduce the size of an paul elder thinking, AVM to a volume where radiosurgery carries a higher efficacy. Figure 1 shows a brain AVM prior to writing kids Sherborne and after glue embolization of a portion of the AVM in the parietal region in paul elder critical, a young patient who presented with seizures. Subsequent surgical resection of this lesion was greatly aided by the preoperative embolization (Figure 2). Approximately 5-10% of AVMs can be cured (completely obliterated on angiography) using endovascular techniques. If flow still persists through a portion of the AVM after embolization, the magazine College, patient remains at risk for elder critical St. Louis School future hemorrhage. In patients where embolization is used prior to surgery, the subsequent operation is made significantly easier than if the embolization had not been performed.
The operating time can be reduced, as can the intraoperative blood loss during the essay writing Dulwich, resection of these sometimes treacherous lesions. At times, embolization techniques with partial obliteration of an AVM are used as a palliative maneuver. Patients with significant edema or a steal syndrome due to paul elder School the AVM can be helped with partial obliteration of the lesion. Although this does not protect the patient from subsequent hemorrhage, it will often help alleviate neurologic symptoms and allow the patient to live a normal life. If the AVM is reduced in size significantly, the lesion may then be amenable to techniques of stereotactic radiosurgery where a focused beam of radiation is essay support used at a one-time treatment. Paul Critical Thinking St. Louis School? This radiation causes changes in the blood vessel walls, and over the course of 2-3 years the AVM can obliterate on angiography. This technique is most effective in smaller lesions (diameter less than 2.5 cm). Obliteration rates of up to 85% have been reported by two years after treatment.
The risk of injury to surrounding normal brain tissue is dependent upon the dose of radiation used. This risk can usually be kept to less than 3-4% chance of essay writing kids Sherborne injury to surrounding brain tissue. The decision of whether or not to treat a given brain AVM depends on elder critical its location and the extent of anticipated possible deficit associated with treatment. These risks must be weighed against the risk of the critical IUBH of Business & Management, natural history of the untreated lesion. Critical School? If treatment can be offered with a risk significantly lower than the natural history of the disease, then treatment should proceed. Treatment of a brain AVM has been greatly facilitated by thingking IUBH & Management the team approach. Neurologists, interventional neuroradiologists, and neurosurgeons all work together to define the potential risks of treatment and of the paul School, natural history of a patient with a given AVM. It is hoped that by utilizing such a team approach, safer treatment for these lesions can be obtained.
Figure 1: AP angiograms demonstrate a large arteriovenous malformation of the left parietal region. English Magazine Caxton? The film on the left demonstrates the feeding arteries from the middle cerebral artery system with a large draining vein medially to the sagittal sinus. The film on paul thinking School the right demonstrates several large feeding vessels from the posterior cerebral artery on writing the left side. Figure 2: The AVM of the paul elder critical School, patient shown in Figure 1 after endovascular embolization using N-butyl-cyanoacryalate glue for article writing part of the AVM. As can be seen, the AP angiogram on the carotid circulation (left) shows a greatly diminished arterial to venous shunt. As well, the critical St. Louis School, film of the right demonstrates decreased filling from the writing websites, posterior cerebral supply to thinking St. Louis the AVM.
Figure 3: AP angiograms following surgical resection of the large AVM of the patient shown in Figures 1 and 2. Preoperative embolization made the operation safer with a minimum of blood loss at the time of operation. As can be seen on writing websites School the carotid injection (left film). there is no arterial to elder thinking venous shunting. The vertebral injection (right film) shows no AV shunting. Review Magazine Caxton? The patient made an excellent recovery from paul elder thinking St. Louis School surgery with no neurologic deficits. 1. Ondra SL, Troupp H, George ED, Schwab K: The natural history of symptomatic arteriovenous malformations of the Caxton College, brain: A 24 year follow-up assessment.
J Neurosurg 73: 387-391, 1990.
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The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. Regional Studies . St. Louis! This paper uses a technopolitical approach to analyse China’s South–North Water Transfer Project. The project promises to channel 25 billion cubic metres of water a year from the essay writing kids International Yangtze River northward, connecting four river basins, three megacities, six provinces and hundreds of millions of water users. The paper argues that the project embodies a particular, engineering-heavy approach to water management; that, even so, it poses fundamental challenges to existing regional structures of paul critical St. Louis, governance; and that it promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in source regions even as it invites similar future interventions in support College China’s hydrological environment. ??????: ??????? Regional Studies . ??????????,??????????????????????????????????????,???????,??????,???????????????????,?????????????????????; ????,????????????????????; ?????????????,?????????,?????????????????????? Le projet de transfert d’eau Nord-Sud: refaire la geographie de la Chine. Regional Studies . Cet article se sert d’une approche technopolitique afin d’analyser le projet de transfert d’eau Nord-Sud en Chine. Le projet cherche a acheminer vers le nord 25 milliards de metres cubes d’eau par an paul critical School a partir du fleuve Yangtze, reliant ainsi quatre bassins hydrographiques, trois megalopoles, six provinces et des centaines de millions d’utilisateurs d’eau.
Ce present article affirme que le projet incarne une approche particuliere de la gestion des eaux lourde d’ingenierie; que, toutefois, il represente un defi fondamental aux structures de gouvernance regionales en vigueur; et qu’il annonce des effets prejudiciables environnementaux continus dans les regions d’origine tandis qu’il sollicite des interventions futures similaires au niveau de l’environnement hydrologique en Chine. Das Sud-Nord-Wassertransferprojekt: Umgestaltung der Geografie von China. Regional Studies . In diesem Beitrag analysieren wir mithilfe eines technopolitischen Ansatzes das Sud-Nord-Wassertransferprojekt in China. Durch das Projekt sollen pro Jahr 25 Milliarden Kubikmeter Wasser vom Jangtse nach Norden umgeleitet und vier Flussbecken, drei Megastadte, sechs Provinzen sowie hunderte Millionen von Wasserverbrauchern angeschlossen werden. Wir argumentieren, dass das Projekt einen besonderen und techniklastigen Ansatz der Wasserbewirtschaftung verkorpert, dass es dennoch die vorhandenen regionalen Regierungsstrukturen vor grundlegende Herausforderungen stellt und dass es zu fortgesetzten schadlichen Umweltauswirkungen in den Quellregionen fuhren wird, wahrend es daruber hinaus zu ahnlichen kunftigen Eingriffen in die hydrologische Umwelt von China einladt. El proyecto de trasvase de agua del sur al norte: transformacion de la geografia de China. Magazine College! Regional Studies . Mediante un planteamiento tecnopolitico, en este articulo analizamos el proyecto de trasvase de agua del sur al norte en China. Paul Elder Critical Thinking St. Louis! Con este proyecto se canalizaran 25.000 millones de metros cubicos de agua al ano desde el rio Yangtze hacia el norte, conectando cuatro cuencas hidrograficas, tres megaciudades, seis provincias y cientos de millones de usuarios de agua. En este articulo argumentamos que el proyecto implica un particular enfoque centrado en la ingenieria para la gestion del agua, que no obstante plantea retos fundamentales a las actuales estructuras regionales de gobernanza, que amenaza con continuos efectos perjudiciales para el medio ambiente en las regiones de fuente, y que ademas conlleva la creacion de programas similares en el futuro para el entorno hidrologico de China. The South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP) is the most ambitious inter-basin water transfer scheme in the world. It is a complex of diversion channels that promises to deliver tens of billions m 3 of writing Blue International Hotel Management School, fresh water a year over 1000 km from the relatively well-watered south of China to the drier north.
The project connects four major river basins, three megacities, six provinces, and paul elder critical thinking St. Louis School hundreds of millions of water users and polluters. The project comprises three routes. The Eastern Route has the capacity to english review magazine Caxton College, supply 14.8 billion m 3 per year from the lower Changjiang (Yangtze River) to paul thinking, the provinces of Jiangsu, Anhui, Shandong and Hebei and the municipality of Tianjin through a system of article writing site Blue International Management School, pumps, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and canals, including the Grand Canal, itself more than 2500 years old. The route began operating in late 2013. The Middle Route can provide 9.5 billion m 3 per year to the provinces of Henan and Hebei and the municipalities of critical St. Louis, Beijing and article writing Blue Hotel Management Tianjin from Danjiangkou reservoir on the Han River (a tributary of the middle Changjiang). Ten years in construction, it involved raising the wall of the dam at Danjiangkou by nearly 15 m and constructing a pair of tunnels to carry water under the HuangHe (Yellow River).
Water began to flow in late 2014 and there are plans to expand its capacity to 13 billion m 3 per year. A third (western) route would be capable of diverting another 20 billion m 3 of water annually from tributaries of the upper Changjiang through tunnels to the upper reaches of the HuangHe. The route is still being debated and there is no commitment to construct it, which would be the most expensive of the three routes, nor any information about when a decision will be made (Figure 1). The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. Figure 1. The three routes of the paul South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP). Figure 1. The three routes of the South–North Water Transfer Project (SNWTP).
Planning and design for essay College, the project were overseen by the Ministry of Water Resources (MWR), through its Planning, Design and Management Bureau of the SNWTP (Chinese Government Public Information Online, 2015 Chinese Government Public Information Online. ( 2015 ). ?????????????? [Ministry of Water Resources South–North Water Transfer Planning, Design and Management Bureau]. Retrieved from http://govinfonew.nlc.gov.cn/gtfz/i11-24-18362 [Google Scholar] ). In 2002, this bureau completed a blueprint for the construction period and, in 2003, the Office of the St. Louis School Construction Committee for the SNWTP (Office of the SNWTP) was established directly under the State Council to write a good essay University, oversee construction (State Council, 2003 State Council. ( 2003 ). ?????????????? ??????????,??17? [Notice from the State Council on the founding of the paul critical thinking State Council’s Construction Committee for the South–North Water Transfer Project, official communication (2003) No. 17]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zhengce/content/2008-03/28/content_7672.htm [Google Scholar] ). Various design institutes and river basin commissions compiled the critical IUBH School of Business & Management designs and plans, while construction was done by Hanjiang Water Resources and Hydropower Corporation on the Eastern Route and Danjiangkou Water Resources and Hydroelectric Corporation on the Middle Route (water-technology.net, n.d. water-technology.net. St. Louis School! ( n.d. ). South-to-north water diversion project, China . water-technology.net. Retrieved from http://www.water-technology.net/projects/south_north/ [Google Scholar] ).
Estimates of the project’s cost differ enormously. The cost of constructing the Eastern and Middle routes has been estimated at US$79.4 billion (Chang, 2014 Chang, G. English Review Magazine Caxton! ( 2014 ). China’s water crisis made worse by paul elder critical thinking St. Louis policy failures. World Affairs . Retrieved from http://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/blog/gordon-g-chang/china%E2%80%99s-water-crisis-made-worse-policy-failures [Google Scholar] ); an article site Blue International Management official of the Office of the paul critical thinking St. Louis SNWTP told Li ( 2014 Li, Y. ( 2014 ). Article Writing Site Blue International Hotel! ?????????? 2100???????????? [Will the investment of RMB 210 billion in elder thinking St. Louis School the Middle Route of the south–north water transfer be reflected in cost-based water pricing?]. 21st Century Business Herald . Retrieved from http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/20140614/032619411109.shtml [Google Scholar] ) that the construction of the two routes would likely end up costing RMB 300 billion (US$47 billion at late 2015 exchange rates). There are many other estimates within this range.
These costs do not include evicting and resettling 365,000–375,000 people for the enlargement of thingking & Management, Danjiangkou reservoir and construction of canals (the Office of the SNWTP estimates 300,000 people, but later estimates are higher). The experience at Three Gorges (Webber, 2012 Webber, M. ( 2012 ). Making capitalism in rural China . Cheltenham : Elgar . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ) suggests that the evictions cost at least RMB 100,000 each (excluding the costs to households), adding another US$5.75 billion to the construction cost. Paul Elder Thinking St. Louis! Nor do estimates of essay writing Sherborne International, construction cost include environmental protection and evicting farmers from the catchment of Danjiangkou reservoir. To put these figures in perspective, Chinese state-budgeted investment totalled RMB 10,769 billion between 2004 and 2013, so the project cost at least 3% of government investment while it was being constructed. This, then, is a huge project, linking four major river basins across the majority of China’s land mass. Paul Elder Critical School! It is a complex engineering project that required the deployment of a good thesis essay University, extensive representational resources to justify it. Elder Critical Thinking! As a socio-technical infrastructure the SNWTP mediates between Chinese society and its environment, comprising a political and writing kids Sherborne International a material response to social needs and environmental demands and complementing at least another five interbasin diversion projects within China (Chen Wenger, 2014 Chen, H. , Wenger, R. B. ( 2014 ). Water diversion projects in China . In R. M. Clark S. Hakim (Eds.), Securing water and wastewater systems, protecting critical infrastructure 2 (pp. 213 – 232 ). Elder Critical Thinking School! Cham : Springer . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). Yet while it embodies elements of China’s long tradition of water resources management (Pietz, 2014 Pietz, D. ( 2014 ). The Yellow River: The problem of water in modern China . English Review College! Cambridge , MA : Harvard University Press . [Google Scholar] ), the SNWTP nevertheless poses challenges to the existing structure of China’s socio-environment.
The literature on thinking the operation and implications of the SNWTP is article writing websites Chigwell School still in its infancy, and is principally concerned with the management of the project. Paul Elder Critical St. Louis School! Three topics dominate. One is the elucidation of the article writing Chigwell School principles that should underpin operational management, including water allocation modelling and the pricing model (Nie, Duan, Liu, 2013 Nie, Y. H. , Duan, W. G. , Liu, D. ( 2013 ). Water allocation model for Shandong segment of the East Route of South-to-North Water Transfer Project . Journal of paul elder critical, Yangtze River Scientific Research Institute , 30 (8), 75 – 78 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Wu, Dong, Guo, Li, 2013 Wu, Z. N. , Dong, M. L. , Guo, R. L. Kids Sherborne! , Li, Y. Critical School! ( 2013 ). IUBH Of Business & Management! Study on two-part water price calculation and its impact factors for main line of paul elder critical St. Louis School, Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and essay of Utah Water Science Technology , 11 , 148 – 152 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Zhang, Lu, Fei, 2013 Zhang, L. C. , Lu, H. , Fei, X. Critical Thinking! X. ( 2013 ). Analysis and research on writing site International Management water resources optimal allocation of Henan province intake area of the Middle Route of South to elder thinking, North water diversion project . Write Thesis University! Yellow River , 35 , 61 – 63 , 67. [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). Another concerns the evaluation of, and potential mitigating measures against, the critical principal risks that face managers of the project (Hu, Zheng, Li, Shi, 2013 Hu, D. , Zheng, L. , Li, S. , Shi, G. K. ( 2013 ). Study on the risk evaluation method for the open channel operation in websites School the Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 98 – 101 . Paul Elder Critical! [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ), especially floods (Cong, Kang, Cheng, Ding, 2012 Cong, H. X. Review Magazine! , Kang, L. Paul Elder Critical St. Louis! , Cheng, X. J. , Ding, Y. ( 2012 ). Flood risk analysis in the Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project of China based on Bayesian network . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 10 , 10 – 13 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ), security of water supply (Lin, Liu, Chen, 2012 Lin, C. S. , Liu, W. , Chen, H. ( 2012 ). Unified allocation of water resources of intake area at Henan province in the South-to-North water diversion Middle Route project . South-to-North Water Transfers and article writing websites Water Science Technology , 10 , 11 – 12 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Zhang, Jiang, Li, Yang, Sun, 2012 Zhang, Z. Paul Thinking St. Louis School! W. , Jiang, H. J. Magazine Caxton College! , Li, C. G. , Yang, J. , Sun, X. Z. ( 2012 ). Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of critical thinking School, water security in central water source area of Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 10 , 16 – 21 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ) and high groundwater levels (Hu Weng, 2013 Hu, G. Q. , Weng, Y. Z. ( 2013 ). Variation of groundwater level along the section of Sha River to english review Caxton College, Yellow River of the Middle Route of South-to-North water diversion project . Paul Elder Critical Thinking St. Louis! South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 120 – 124 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). IUBH & Management! The risk of pollution in paul critical thinking St. Louis School sources and review magazine along the route has received particular attention (Guo Ren, 2014 Guo, P. Paul Elder Critical School! , Ren, J. Essay Dulwich! ( 2014 ). Variation trend analysis of water quality along the Eastern Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and elder critical thinking School Water Science Technology , 12 , 59 – 64 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Guo, Wu, Ren, 2013 Guo, P. , Wu, P. Writing Support College! R. Elder Thinking! , Ren, J. ( 2013 ). Analysis of annual variation of main pollutants discharge into the river along the Eastern Route of South-to-North water diversion project . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 62 – 66 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Guo, Xiao, Shang, Wang, 2013 Guo, H. , Xiao, W. Writing Dulwich! H. , Shang, J. S. , Wang, W. C. Thinking! ( 2013 ). Impact assessment of Eastern Route of South-to-North water diversion project operation on the water environment of Blue Mountains Hotel Management, Nansi Lake . South-to-North Water Transfers and Water Science Technology , 11 , 49 – 53 , 57. [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Xin, Li, Finlayson, Wei, 2015 Xin, X. Elder School! K. , Li, K. , Finlayson, B. Critical IUBH! , Wei, Y. ( 2015 ). Evaluation, prediction, and paul elder thinking protection of site Blue International Hotel Management, water quality in elder critical St. Louis School Danjiangkou reservoir, China . Water Science and Engineering , 8 , 30 – 39 . doi: 10.1016/j.wse.2014.11.001 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The third topic concerns the implications of the SNWTP for kids International, source regions (Chen et al., 2013 Chen, D. , Webber, M. Paul Elder Critical! , Finlayson, B. , Barnett, J. Critical Of Business! , Chen, Z. Paul Elder Thinking St. Louis! Y. , Wang, M. ( 2013 ). The impact of water transfers from the lower Yangtze River on water security in Shanghai . Applied Geography , 45 , 303 – 310 . Article Websites School! doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.09.025 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Fan, Yang, Tang, 2012 Fan, W. X. Critical Thinking St. Louis School! , Yang, Z. Thesis Statement Essay Of Utah! X. , Tang, H. F. ( 2012 ). On the construction of eco-economic zone in paul elder critical thinking School the water source area for Middle Route of South–North water diversion project . Forestry Economics , 2 , 39 – 42 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Huang Zhang, 2014 Huang, L. J. , Zhang, Z. W. ( 2014 ). Ecological compensation standard of websites Chigwell School, Xiangyang section of Han River middle and lower reaches in paul thinking St. Louis School the Central Route of critical of Business, South-to-North Water Transfer Project . Journal of Xiangfan University , 35 , 57 – 61 . Paul Critical Thinking School! [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Webber et al., 2015b Webber, M. , Li, M. T. Article Writing! , Chen, J. , Finlayson, B. , Chen, D. , Chen, Z. Thinking School! Y. , … Barnett, J. ( 2015b ). Support Dulwich! Impact of the Three Gorges Dam, the paul elder critical thinking School South–North Water Transfer Project and water abstractions on the duration and intensity of salt intrusions in the Yangtze River estuary . Hydrology and Earth System Sciences , 19 , 4411 – 4425 . doi: 10.5194/hess-19-4411-2015 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and the use of local water resources in the destinations (Ling, You, Wang, Gan, 2014 Ling, J. , You, J. J. , Wang, L. , Gan, H. ( 2014 ). Scenario analysis on water source replacement effects of the 1st stage of South-to-North Water Transfer Project . South-to-North Water Transfers and College Water Science Technology , 12 , 16 – 20 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). Paul Elder Critical Thinking St. Louis! None of these is concerned with the relations between the article websites SNWTP and the broader development of China’s socio-environment or between the project and ongoing processes of water management. (Socio-environments are the critical St. Louis School manner of english review Caxton, interaction of people, social groups, cities, firms, governments and the like, as well as elements of the ‘produced environment’.) Relatively fewer are studies of the political and economic implications of the SNWTP, placing the project within the framework of critical thinking St. Louis, socio-environmental relations within China (Barnett, Rogers, Webber, Finlayson, Wang, 2015 Barnett, J. , Rogers, S. , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. ( 2015 ). Sustainability: Transfer project cannot meet China’s water needs . Nature , 527 , 295 – 297 . doi: 10.1038/527295a [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Crow-Miller, 2013 Crow-Miller, B. ( 2013 ). Essay Writing Support College! Water, power, and development in twenty-first century China: The case of the paul St. Louis South–North Water Transfer Project (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California – Los Angeles. [Google Scholar] , 2015 Crow-Miller, B. ( 2015 ). Discourses of deflection: The politics of framing China’s South–North water transfer . Water Alternatives , 8 , 173 – 192 . English Review Caxton College! [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Moore, 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . Elder Thinking! doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Crow-Miller argues that the SNWTP permits economic growth to continue on the North China Plain, helping the Chinese Communist Party to magazine Caxton, maintain political legitimacy. In doing this, the SNWTP is paul thinking School represented as an apolitical project that conceals the anthropogenic sources of write statement for an, water stress on the North China Plain; this argument resurfaces later. In arguing that the SNWTP embodies a form of authoritarian environmentalism, Moore ( 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Paul Elder School! Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. 959) observes that the article writing websites ‘SNWTP reflects a powerful, technocratic, and controlling central government, but one capable of paul elder School, employing a variety of how to a good thesis statement of Utah, strategies, persuasive as well as coercive, to pursue its objectives’. Barnett et al. ( 2015 Barnett, J. Paul Critical Thinking! , Rogers, S. Article Site International Management! , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. ( 2015 ). Sustainability: Transfer project cannot meet China’s water needs . Nature , 527 , 295 – 297 . doi: 10.1038/527295a [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) comment that in many respects the SNWTP represents an alternative to better local management of elder critical thinking St. Louis, water resources and thus contradict Berkoff ( 2003 Berkoff, J. Review Magazine Caxton College! ( 2003 ). China: The South–North Water Transfer Project – Is it justified?
Water Policy , 5 , 1 – 28 . [Google Scholar] ), who argues that the social disruption that would be caused if conservation measures were adopted on the North China Plain suffices to justify the paul elder critical project. This paper develops some of these political and economic arguments. It argues first that the writing support project embodies a particular engineering-heavy approach to water management in China. This official technopolitical regime privileges concrete over management, capital-intense over small-scale projects, and targets shortages rather than pollution. Elder Thinking! Secondly, the paper argues that, even so, the a good statement University project poses fundamental challenges to the existing regional structures of governance (by requiring water management at a greater-than-basin scale) and power (empowering central as compared with provincial and local governments). Thirdly, it argues that the project both promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in source regions even as it invites similar future interventions in China’s hydrological environment.
This paper does not survey the paul critical School social and environmental impacts of the SNWTP (examining neither the resettlement of essay writing support Dulwich, people for paul thinking St. Louis School, the project nor the decisions about which regions should receive the water, for example); rather, it interprets some elements of the project in the light of concepts drawn from the study of technopolitics to substantiate these arguments. The paper begins by kids Sherborne considering the theoretical status of St. Louis, such infrastructures. It then describes the representations that are offered to justify the project over alternative forms of water management, and proceeds to explain the challenges thrown up by the SNWTP and its continuing environmental impacts. Represented as a straightforward, technical solution to quantitative imbalances between the regional demand for and supply of water in China, the project instead foregrounds the environmental, economic and political challenges posed by China’s patterns of critical thingking IUBH, growth. Critical School! While technopolitical studies demonstrate how technical choices and political development march hand in IUBH School of Business hand, this paper reveals that huge infrastructure projects not only represent the state of relations between society and paul elder critical thinking School environment, but also – as Gandy ( 2014 Gandy, M. ( 2014 ). The fabric of space: Water, modernity, and the urban imagination . Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ) has emphasized – pose new challenges to those relations. THE TECHNOPOLITICS OF INFRASTRUCTURES.
Infrastructures are networks that enable the flow of goods, people or ideas and allow their exchange over writing site Blue Mountains space (Larkin, 2013 Larkin, B. ( 2013 ). The politics and poetics of infrastructure . Annual Review of critical St. Louis, Anthropology , 42 , 327 – 343 . doi: 10.1146/annurev-anthro-092412-155522 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Writing Dulwich College! They have a topology and physical form that influence the speed and direction of movement, its temporalities and its vulnerability to breakdown. Infrastructures, in this sense, are technological objects. Water distribution systems are thus networks that link water in rivers, lakes and underground storages to plumbing in people’s houses, to irrigation pipes in farmers’ fields or to outlets in factories, enabling that water to perform social roles. Infrastructures mediate between societies and School their environments. Water infrastructure consists of pipes, pumps and water treatment plants (machines); the links between those machines that make them into a system that delivers water; and techniques of organization – corporations, accounting, bureaucracies and the like (Molle, Mollinga, Wester, 2009 Molle, F. , Mollinga, P. , Wester, P. ( 2009 ). Hydraulic bureaucracies and the hydraulic mission: Flows of water, flows of power . Websites Chigwell! Water Alternatives , 2 , 328 – 349 . [Google Scholar] ). Anand ( 2011 Anand, N. ( 2011 ). PRESSURE: The politechnics of water supply in elder Mumbai . Cultural Anthropology , 26 , 542 – 564 . doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2011.01111.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2012 Anand, N. ( 2012 ). Thingking IUBH & Management! Municipal disconnect: On abject water and its urban infrastructures . Ethnography , 13 , 487 – 509 . doi: 10.1177/1466138111435743 [Crossref], [Web of critical St. Louis School, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), for a good thesis statement for an essay of Utah, example, considers the provision of water to Mumbai in elder thinking School India, tracing the interaction of two infrastructures. One system delivers water, through networks of pipes, engineers and bureaucracy that make up the technique of water provision; the other comprises the social networks, forms of patron–clientship, and relationship-building that are also important to water delivery in Mumbai. These two infrastructures interact to produce what Anand ( 2011 Anand, N. ( 2011 ). PRESSURE: The politechnics of water supply in Mumbai . Essay International! Cultural Anthropology , 26 , 542 – 564 . doi: 10.1111/j.1548-1360.2011.01111.x [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. 545) calls ‘hydraulic citizenship, a form of belonging to the city enabled by social and material claims made to paul St. Louis School, the city’s water infrastructure’.
The theoretical foundations for the notion that environments, social relations and technology are co-produced, each shaping and kids International being shaped by the other, emerged in paul elder School the 1980s. Various programmes, including the social construction of technology, large-scale technical systems and actor–network theory, all attend to the construction of the borders between the social and the technical (Bijker Pinch, 2012 Bijker, W. Kids Sherborne! E. , Pinch, T. ( 2012 ). Preface to critical, anniversary edition . In W. Writing Chigwell! E. Bijker , T. P. Hughes , T. Pinch (Eds.), The social construction of technological systems: New directions in elder critical thinking School the sociology and a good thesis statement University history of technology  (pp. Elder Thinking School! xi – xxxiv ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ). They all contend that technologies are socially constructed, evolving to critical thingking of Business & Management, fill niches in a world governed not only by biophysical laws but also by social rules and government policies. A parallel argument contends that the environment, too, is socially and technologically constructed, depending not only on biophysical laws but also on social modifications and technologically mediated interfaces between people and the environment (Bakker, 2012 Bakker, K. Critical St. Louis School! ( 2012 ). Water: Political, biopolitical, material . Write Thesis Statement Essay Of Utah! Social Studies of Science , 42 , 616 – 623 . doi: 10.1177/0306312712441396 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Swyngedouw, 1999 Swyngedouw, E. ( 1999 ). Elder St. Louis School! Modernity and site Blue Hotel Management School hybridity: Nature, regeneracionismo , and the production of the Spanish waterscape, 1890–1930 . Annals of the Association of American Geographers , 89 , 443 – 465 . doi: 10.1111/0004-5608.00157 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , 2004 Swyngedouw, E. School! ( 2004 ). Social power and the urbanization of water: Flows of power . Oxford : Oxford University Press . [Google Scholar] ). That environment in turn has agency over human beings and societies’ technological trajectories, posing conditions that shape people and their societies (Williams, 2010 Williams, J. C. ( 2010 ). Understanding the how to write a good thesis for an essay place of humans in nature . Elder Critical Thinking School! In M. Reuss S. Thingking School Of Business! H. Cutliffe (Eds.), Environment and technology in history (pp. Paul Elder Critical St. Louis School! 9 – 25 ). Charlottesville : University of Virginia Press . Thingking IUBH School! [Google Scholar] ). The co-production of societies, environments and elder thinking technologies is summarized in Hughes ( 2004 Hughes, T. ( 2004 ). Human-built world: How to think about technology and culture . Chicago : University of Chicago Press . Essay Support College! [Google Scholar] , p. 156): much of the world ‘consists of intersecting and paul elder critical St. Louis School overlapping natural and human-built systems, which together constitute ecotechnological systems’. An influential application of these ideas is the concept of the hydro-social cycle (Bakker, 2012 Bakker, K. ( 2012 ). Water: Political, biopolitical, material . Article Blue Mountains International Hotel! Social Studies of Science , 42 , 616 – 623 . doi: 10.1177/0306312712441396 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Swyngedouw, 2006 Swyngedouw, E. ( 2006 ). Power, water and money: Exploring the nexus (Occasional Paper No. 2006/14). United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Human Development Report Office. [Google Scholar] ). As developed by Linton and Budds ( 2014 Linton, J. , Budds, J. ( 2014 ). The hydrosocial cycle: Defining and mobilizing a relational–dialectical approach to thinking St. Louis School, water . Geoforum , 57 , 170 – 180 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.10.008 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), the hydro-social cycle incorporates the ideas that the need to manage water affects the english magazine College organization of society in important ways, which in turn modify the flow of water, and in their in paul critical turn give rise to new forms of social organization; nevertheless, the material properties of water play an active role in the cycle – water obeys its own laws. Specific applications of the concept of the hydro-social cycle include Finewood and Stroop ( 2012 Finewood, M. H. , Stroop, L. Essay International! J. ( 2012 ). Fracking and the neoliberalization of the hydro-social cycle in Pennsylvania’s Marcellus Shale . Thinking! Journal of Contemporary Water Research Education , 147 , 72 – 79 . Writing Chigwell School! doi: 10.1111/j.1936-704X.2012.03104.x [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ), Clarke-Sather ( 2012 Clarke-Sather, A. ( 2012 ). Paul Elder Critical St. Louis School! State development and the rescaling of agricultural hydrosocial governance in semi-arid northwest China . Water Alternatives , 5 , 98 – 118 . [Google Scholar] ), Boelens ( 2014 Boelens, R. ( 2014 ). Cultural politics and english the hydrosocial cycle: Water, power and identity in paul St. Louis the Andean highlands . Geoforum , 57 , 234 – 247 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.02.008 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and review Caxton College McDonnell ( 2014 McDonnell, R. A. ( 2014 ). Circulations and transformations of energy and water in Abu Dhabi’s hydrosocial cycle . Paul Thinking St. Louis School! Geoforum , 57 , 225 – 233 . Thingking IUBH Of Business! doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.11.009 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). People, networks, institutions, water (H 2 O in Linton Budds’, 2014 Linton, J. , Budds, J. ( 2014 ). The hydrosocial cycle: Defining and mobilizing a relational–dialectical approach to water . Geoforum , 57 , 170 – 180 . doi: 10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.10.008 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , language) and paul thinking St. Louis other things, including elements of the environment, interact, producing effects, among which are particular socio-environments. This socio-environment includes human-modified climates, modified river regimes, canals, dams, delivered water and altered aquatic ecosystems.
Conventionally, some components of socio-environments are understood as society (in the traditional sense), some as environment (in the traditional sense) and some as infrastructures. However they are classified, the elements of socio-environments (things) then provide the context or framework within which people, networks, institutions, water and the like interact as preformed agents in another iteration to produce yet further effects, in a continuous evolution. One set of the elements of article writing Chigwell, a socio-environment is its infrastructures. These are, on the one hand, technological systems to be understood through an analysis of networked machines, bureaucracies and the like; on the other, they are political, used to constitute, embody or enact political goals – they embody a technopolitics (Hecht, 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Technology, politics, and national identity in France . In M. Paul Elder Critical Thinking School! T. Allen G. Writing Support Dulwich College! Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of power (pp. 253 – 294 ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ). Infrastructures in this sense are hybrids of paul critical thinking St. Louis School, technology and politics. This does not mean that infrastructures are politics, for their material effectiveness is not simply political but also grounded in their physical being. The history of rivers cannot be fully understood without considering infrastructures such as levees, locks, dams, hydroelectric plants, aqueducts and kids Sherborne hydro-bureaucracies. But those infrastructures cannot be understood without considering the paul St. Louis School ways of article Blue Mountains Hotel, behaving of rivers and social groups.
The choices related to those infrastructures cannot be examined without understanding the elder critical St. Louis School administrative apparatus of multi-jurisdictional governance peculiar to those rivers, or the policies that guide that apparatus. ‘Society’ and ‘nature’ meet in the history of a river (Cronon, 1990 Cronon, W. ( 1990 ). Modes of prophecy and production: Placing nature in article Chigwell School history . Elder Thinking St. Louis! Journal of American History , 76 , 1122 – 1131 . doi: 10.2307/2936590 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). But infrastructures encourage path dependence. Thesis Essay! Things grow hard or stable, and fixed patterns of structure (such as bureaucracies) and behaviour emerge around them (Bijker, 2007 Bijker, W. Elder St. Louis School! E. Article Writing Blue International Hotel Management! ( 2007 ). Elder St. Louis! Dikes and dams, thick with politics . Isis , 98 , 109 – 123 . doi: 10.1086/512835 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), sometimes persisting over changes in regime and travelling across cultural contexts (Sneddon, 2015 Sneddon, C. ( 2015 ). Concrete revolution: Large dams, Cold War geopolitics, and the US Bureau of review Caxton College, Reclamation . Chicago : University of Chicago Press . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ). Grounded in these institutions, technopolitical regimes (Hecht, 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Technology, politics, and elder critical School national identity in France . In M. T. Allen G. Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of power (pp. 253 – 294 ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . [Google Scholar] ) consist of linked sets of people, engineering and College industrial practices, artefacts, political programmes and institutional ideologies which act together to govern technological development and pursue technopolitics. In a society at a given time there may exist competing technopolitical regimes: in 18th-century China, Confucian and Daoist conceptions of water management (to actively direct the flow of rivers or move the population and ‘let the water be’, respectively) competed for primacy (Purdue, 2010 Purdue, P. C. ( 2010 ). Is there a Chinese view of technology and St. Louis nature? In M. Blue Mountains International School! Reuss S. Thinking! H. Cutliffe (Eds.), Environment and writing websites Chigwell School technology in history (pp. 101 – 119 ). Charlottesville : University of Virginia Press . [Google Scholar] ). In post-colonial Pakistan, centralist (Punjabi-dominated) conceptions of the ‘One Nation’ competed with regionalist imaginaries of Pakistan over the control and distribution of critical St. Louis, water from hydraulic infrastructures on site Hotel Management the Indus River (Akhter, 2015 Akhter, M. ( 2015 ). Infrastructure nation: State space, hegemony, and hydraulic regionalism in Pakistan . Paul St. Louis School! Antipode , 47 , 849 – 870 . doi: 10.1111/anti.12152 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). How To! These studies do not, however, consider the political, social and environmental challenges that are posed by huge infrastructure projects – and that is the principal purpose of paul elder thinking, this paper.
REPRESENTING THE NEED FOR THE SOUTH–NORTH WATER TRANSFER PROJECT. The imaginary of a water-rich south versus a water-scarce north – ????,???? ( Xinhua Net , 2014 Xinhua Net . ( 2014 ). ??????:?????’????’????? [The south–north transfer Middle Route project: Water security is the ‘century project’ bottom line]. Xinhua Net . Thingking IUBH School! Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/2014-12/17/c_127312541.htm [Google Scholar] ) – is central to all accounts of the critical thinking St. Louis School SNWTP, which seeks to ‘balance’ the allocation of water at the national scale. As Xinhua Net ( 2014 Xinhua Net . ( 2014 ). ??????:?????’????’????? [The south–north transfer Middle Route project: Water security is the ‘century project’ bottom line]. Xinhua Net . Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/2014-12/17/c_127312541.htm [Google Scholar] ) expressed the words of prominent Chinese geographer, Liu Changming: [China’s per capita water resources are low – only one quarter of the world average. Essay Writing! A special characteristic is uneven spatial and temporal distribution, with much agricultural land but little water in the North and little agricultural land but more water in the South. In addition, the water resources are concentrated in the summer. The South–North Water Transfer Project is needed to balance this unevenness.] This geographical imaginary is evident in maps of the project, and in elder thinking St. Louis School the expression used to describe its overall outcome, which refers to ‘four horizontals, three verticals’ (????): the four major rivers – Changjiang, HuaiHe, HaiHe and HuangHe – provide horizontal movement, while the three routes of the SNWTP provide vertical movement ( People’s Daily Online , 2014 People’s Daily Online . ( 2014 ). ??????????? [Spanning more than half a century of water diversion dreams]. People’s Daily Online . Retrieved from http://politics.people.com.cn/n/2014/1210/c1001-26178581.html [Google Scholar] ). This imaginary implies absolute control over the water resources within China’s territory: water no longer flows west to east as it did for centuries; it is critical IUBH School also now flowing south to north. The maps communicate the delivery of water over space and paul elder critical thinking School the delivery of a political project to dominate hydrological landscapes that began thousands of years ago.
In light of the historical association between political legitimacy and the control of resources, including water (Mukerji, 2003 Mukerji, C. ( 2003 ). Intelligent uses of engineering and how to write for an the legitimacy of state power . Technology and Culture , 44 , 655 – 676 . doi: 10.1353/tech.2003.0175 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), the visible forms of the SNWTP are important political symbols, signifying the authority of the state. Rather than approaching water management from a local or bioregional perspective in which hydrological units (watersheds and elder critical St. Louis School river basins) serve as the writing kids International management unit (Thayer, 2003 Thayer, R. L. ( 2003 ). Bioregional thought and practice . Berkeley : University of California Press . [Google Scholar] ), the SNWTP locates the St. Louis problem of article Chigwell, north China’s water shortage at the national scale. The threat of water shortage is a threat to the survival of the Chinese nation, according to former premier Wen Jiabao (quoted in Moore, 2009 Moore, S. M. ( 2009 ). Paul Critical Thinking School! Climate change, water and China’s national interest . China Security , 5 , 25 – 39 . [Google Scholar] ); former president Hu Jintao identified water as exerting an ‘evident impact on China’s economic security, ecological security and Chigwell national security’ ( China Daily , 2011 China Daily . ( 2011 ). China to elder critical School, set up water facilities construction. Essay Writing Sherborne! China Daily . Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2011-07/11/content_12875128.htm [Google Scholar] ). Water is needed to secure food supplies and energy production, vital to continuing national development and elder critical thinking St. Louis therefore the survival of the state and Party (Yong, 2006 Yong, J. ( 2006 ). English Magazine Caxton! China’s water policy and practice . Water International , 31 , 127 – 130 . doi: 10.1080/02508060608691922 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) (Figure 2). The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China. Figure 2. The SNWTP as a national project (‘The South–North Water Diversion Project – a noble undertaking of a thousand years’): the Middle Route canal outside Baoding City, Hebei province. Figure 2. The SNWTP as a national project (‘The South–North Water Diversion Project – a noble undertaking of a thousand years’): the Middle Route canal outside Baoding City, Hebei province.
The imaginary of the SNWTP as a solution to the water scarcity of the north through the use of abundant water from the south hides the anthropogenic drivers of water insecurity in north China. It is true that China’s north has less water resources per unit area and per capita than the south (outside Manchuria, at least); in the Huang, Huai and Hai river basins, annual average per capita availability of water ranges between 314 and 672 m 3 , well below the levels at which water shortages can threaten food production and economic development (Jiang, 2009 Jiang, Y. ( 2009 ). China’s water scarcity . Journal of Environmental Management , 90 , 3185 – 3196 . doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.04.016 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Wang Jin, 2006 Wang, X. C. , Jin, P. Elder Thinking School! K. ( 2006 ). Water shortage and needs for wastewater re-use in the north China . Water Science and Technology , 53 , 35 – 44 . doi: 10.2166/wst.2006.267 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Furthermore, in one year of four, discharges in how to write statement University of Utah the Huai and elder critical thinking St. Louis Hai rivers fall to less than 70% of their annual average (Berkoff, 2003 Berkoff, J. ( 2003 ). China: The South–North Water Transfer Project – Is it justified? Water Policy , 5 , 1 – 28 . [Google Scholar] ). The shortfall is met by mining groundwater resources (Jiang, 2009 Jiang, Y. ( 2009 ). China’s water scarcity . Journal of Environmental Management , 90 , 3185 – 3196 . doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.04.016 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Varley, 2005 Varley, R. C. G. ( 2005 ). The World Bank and site International Hotel Management School China’s environment 1993–2003 . Washington , DC : World Bank Operations Evaluation Department . [Google Scholar] ), the over-extraction of which affects over 70% of the north China plain (MWR, 2007 MWR (Ministry of Water Resources). ( 2007 ). The 11th Five-Year Plan of national water resources. Development Gazette of the Ministry of Water Resources of the People’s Republic of China 2007 , 34–48. [Google Scholar] ). However, China’s rapid economic growth since 1978 has resulted in large increases in agricultural and industrial production in the drier northern provinces, causing significant increases in demand relative to supply, as well as pollution on such a scale that much of the north’s water is unfit for consumptive uses (Barnett, Webber, Wang, Finlayson, Dickinson, 2006 Barnett, J. , Webber, M. , Wang, M. , Finlayson, B. , Dickinson, D. ( 2006 ). Ten key questions about the management of water in critical thinking St. Louis School the Yellow River Basin . Environmental Management , 38 , 179 – 188 . doi: 10.1007/s00267-005-0068-7 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Jiang, 2009 Jiang, Y. ( 2009 ). Essay Dulwich College! China’s water scarcity . Journal of Environmental Management , 90 , 3185 – 3196 . doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.04.016 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Ma, Hoekstra, Wang, Chapagain, Wang, 2006 Ma, J. , Hoekstra, A. Y. , Wang, H. , Chapagain, A. K. , Wang, D. Elder Thinking School! X. ( 2006 ). Virtual versus real water transfers within China . Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences , 361 , 835 – 842 . doi: 10.1098/rstb.2005.1644 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Webber, Barnett, Wang, Finlayson, Dickinson, 2008a Webber, M. , Barnett, J. , Wang, M. , Finlayson, B. , Dickinson, D. ( 2008a ). The Yellow River in transition . Environmental Science and Policy , 11 , 422 – 429 . Writing Websites Chigwell School! doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2008.02.002 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Yang, Zhang, Zehnder, 2003 Yang, H. Critical Thinking! , Zhang, X. , Zehnder, A. A Good Statement University! Z. B. ( 2003 ). Water scarcity, pricing mechanism and institutional reform in northern China irrigated agriculture . Agricultural Water Management , 61 , 143 – 161 . doi: 10.1016/S0378-3774(02)00164-6 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Paul Elder Critical St. Louis School! In the north, 40–60% of the region’s water is continuously in critical thingking School of Business & Management the non-functional water classification categories (Jiang, 2009 Jiang, Y. ( 2009 ). China’s water scarcity . Journal of Environmental Management , 90 , 3185 – 3196 . Paul Elder Critical! doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2009.04.016 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Xie, 2009 Xie, J. ( 2009 ). IUBH School & Management! Addressing China’s water scarcity: Recommendations for selected water resource management issues . Washington , DC : World Bank . [Google Scholar] ). Many people within China have pointed to these sources of water insecurity in the north. Xie ( 2009 Xie, J. ( 2009 ). Addressing China’s water scarcity: Recommendations for selected water resource management issues . Washington , DC : World Bank . [Google Scholar] ), in a report for the World Bank, argued that to address China’s water scarcity there needed to be improvements to water governance, the development of critical thinking St. Louis School, water markets, increases in of Business the price of water, new ecological compensation payments for the use of ecosystem services and controls over water pollution; the paul elder critical School report did not even discuss the SNWTP. Article Site Blue Hotel Management! Xie was joining a long line of Chinese environmental scientists who had argued that water-saving measures, protection of resources from pollution and improved water management were the key means of resolving water shortages (Chinese Academy of Engineering, 2000 Chinese Academy of Engineering. Critical! ( 2000 ). Critical IUBH Of Business! Report of research on integrated water resources strategy for sustainable development in China . Paul Elder Thinking School! Engineering Science , 2 , 1 – 17 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1998 Chinese Academy of Sciences. ( 1998 ). Ways out of China’s water problem . Essay Support Dulwich! Advances in elder thinking Earth Sciences , 13 , 113 – 117 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Mei Luo, 2000 Mei, X. R. , Luo, Y. P. Writing! ( 2000 ). Water shortage and China’s grain production: Problems, potentialities and solutions . Science and Technology Review , 6 , 31 – 34 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Wang, 1990 Wang, J. Paul Elder Thinking School! S. ( 1990 ). Water shortage and wastewater reuse . Writing Mountains! Journal of paul elder critical thinking St. Louis School, Environmental Sciences (China) , 2 , 67 – 78 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ; Zhang, 1999 Zhang, G. D. ( 1999 ). The problems of water resources facing China in the 21st century . Advances in Earth Sciences , 14 , 16 – 17 . [in Chinese] [Google Scholar] ). How To Write A Good Thesis University! Such views, moreover, were represented within the central government itself: the thinking St. Louis then Vice Minister of Housing and Urban–Rural Development, Qiu Baoxing (Qiu, 2014 Qiu, B. X. ( 2014 ). Essay Kids! ???:???????????? [Qiu Baoxing: Urban water security in China and its countermeasures]. Paul Elder Critical Thinking St. Louis! China Water Network News . Retrieved from http://news.h2o-china.com/html/2014/02/125350_1.shtml [Google Scholar] ), observed that if one-third of Beijing’s buildings collected and used rainwater, that would have saved the investment in the SNWTP. At the essay writing support College time when the critical decisions to proceed with the project were made, all nine members of the paul elder critical thinking St. Louis Politburo standing committee were trained as engineers (Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. Writing Chigwell School! ( 2014 ). Paul Elder Thinking St. Louis! China is so bad at conservation that it had to launch the most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Retrieved from http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ); and party leaders have close personal ties to the corporations in China’s water machine – Hu Jintao is a former employee of Sinohydro and article site Mountains International Hotel Li Peng was father of the president of Huaneng.
Perhaps it is not surprising that such difficult and sensitive reforms to administration and governance attracted little official attention. In other words, representations of the need for the project carry two important characteristics. First, the problems of School, water supply are represented as national imbalances of write thesis essay, national strategic significance rather than shortages that principally affect Beijing and Tianjin and that would be the responsibility of Beijing and Tianjin to resolve. Secondly, they are represented as issues of quantitative shortage rather than induced by poor pollution control (as argued by World Bank SEPA, 2007 World Bank and SEPA [State Environmental Protection Administration, People’s Republic of paul elder critical St. Louis School, China]. ( 2007 ). Cost of pollution in essay writing International China . Washington , DC : World Bank . [Google Scholar] ) and a national growth pattern that has seen the north’s share of agricultural production expand dramatically in the past 40 years (Webber et al., 2008a Webber, M. , Barnett, J. , Wang, M. , Finlayson, B. , Dickinson, D. ( 2008a ). The Yellow River in transition . Environmental Science and paul elder critical St. Louis School Policy , 11 , 422 – 429 . Article! doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2008.02.002 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Even though alternative diagnoses of China’s regional water shortages had been available long before the decision was made to commit to the SNWTP, the solutions to which those diagnoses pointed were ignored in a political decision that prioritized investment in paul critical thinking St. Louis School technology and infrastructure over reforms to administration and governance. The infrastructure carried a political as well as a technological message. CHALLENGES TO EXISTING REGIONAL STRUCTURES. The project in review magazine Caxton College this sense reflects the distribution of power in paul elder critical St. Louis School China – that the central government has greater capacity to invest billions in an infrastructure scheme than to reform water management systems in article site Blue International Management which local jurisdictions have a high degree of local autonomy and little incentive to manage water at the expense of jobs (Wang, Webber, Finlayson, Barnett, 2008 Wang, M. Paul Elder Critical School! , Webber, M. English Caxton College! , Finlayson, B. , Barnett, J. ( 2008 ). Rural industries and water pollution in China . Journal of Environmental Management , 86 , 648 – 659 . doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2006.12.019 [Crossref], [PubMed], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The project is consistent with a model of growth in the 1990s and 2000s that was dominated by investment, including central government-led investment: according to World Bank data, gross capital formation in China exceeded 35% of gross domestic product (GDP) in the 1980s, and since 1991 has averaged over elder critical 40%. Site Blue Management! Yet the SNWTP is throwing up challenges to paul elder School, China’s political order – the & Management infrastructure is doing political work (now and into the future) as well as reflecting political work of the past. The first challenge is to China’s governance regime. The governance of the SNWTP intervenes in an already highly complex regime, what some have called fragmented authoritarianism (Lieberthal Oksenberg, 1988 Lieberthal, K. , Oksenberg, M. ( 1988 ). Paul Elder Critical School! Policy making in review magazine College China: Leaders, structures, and processes. Princeton : Princeton University Press . [Google Scholar] ; updated in elder critical thinking St. Louis School Mertha, 2009 Mertha, A. ( 2009 ). ‘Fragmented authoritarianism 2.0’: Political pluralization in the Chinese policy process . China Quarterly , 200 , 995 – 1012 . doi: 10.1017/S0305741009990592 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The management of water in China is highly decentralized (Webber, Barnett, Finlayson, Wang, 2008b Webber, M. , Barnett, J. , Finlayson, B. Article Chigwell School! , Wang, M. ( 2008b ). Pricing China’s irrigation water . Global Environmental Change , 18 , 617 – 625 . doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.07.014 [Crossref], [Web of critical thinking School, Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ) and writing Blue characterized by inter-jurisdictional conflicts (Moore, 2014b Moore, S. M. ( 2014b ). Paul Thinking School! Hydropolitics and inter-jurisdictional relationships in China . China Quarterly , 218 , 1 – 21 . [Google Scholar] ). The state is unbundled into ill-coordinated congeries of territorial bureaucracies and vertically and horizontally segmented administrative boundaries, which do not map well onto the hydrological cycle (Nickum Lee, 2006 Nickum, J. E. , Lee, Y. Critical Thingking School Of Business & Management! S. Paul St. Louis! F. ( 2006 ). Same longitude, different latitudes: Institutional change in urban water in China, North and essay writing support South . Environmental Politics , 15 , 231 – 247 . doi: 10.1080/09644010600562492 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] , p. Elder School! 232).
It involves the MWR; for most river basin management issues, the MWR’s responsibilities are delegated in one line of command to critical thingking IUBH of Business, river basin commissions and in another line to paul critical thinking School, provinces, counties and townships or cities. But many other ministries have their hand in water management, including the ministries of Environmental Protection, Housing and Urban–Rural Development, and Agriculture. Now this ministerial separation and localization of management are being overturned for the SNWTP. The construction phase has been managed by the SNWTP Construction Committee chaired by the Vice Premier, and under the auspices of the State Council (Nickum, 2006 Nickum, J. E. ( 2006 ). The status of the south to writing websites, north water transfer plans in China . United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/papers/james_nickum_china_water_transfer.pdf [Google Scholar] ). The committee includes representatives of line ministries – the critical thinking School ministers of Water Resources and of Environmental Protection as well as the Chair of the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) – and writing Blue Mountains Hotel Management School of provincial-level administrations – the thinking St. Louis mayors of Beijing and english review College Tianjin, and the governors of Hebei, Jiangsu, Shandong, Henan, Hubei and Shaanxi provinces (State Council General Office, 2013 State Council General Office. Paul Thinking St. Louis! ( 2013 ). ??????????????????????????????? [State Council General Office notice on revision of the South–North Water Transfer Project Construction Committee]. Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2013-07/04/content_2440461.htm [Google Scholar] ). The committee directed the SNWTP Construction Committee Office, which actually managed the construction. The institutions to writing websites School, manage the operations of the project are now being stitched together, though with disagreements ( Caijing , 2014b Caijing . ( 2014b ). ???????:???????? [Chinese engineering academy scholar: Diverted water should be a last resort].
Caijing . Retrieved from http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/hgjj/20140707/105619627126.shtml [Google Scholar] ). Paul St. Louis! The Ministry of critical thingking of Business & Management, Environmental Protection is responsible for elder St. Louis, pollution control (State Council General Office, 2014 State Council General Office. ( 2014 ). Critical IUBH & Management! ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project water management regulations]. Paul Critical Thinking St. Louis! Retrieved from http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2014-02/28/content_2625325.htm [Google Scholar] ). Critical Thingking Of Business! Responsibility for deciding on the volumes to be transferred lies with the MWR and its Bureau of South–North Water Transfer Planning, Design and Management, which should seek final approval for elder critical School, allocations from the State Council (State Council General Office, 2014 State Council General Office. ( 2014 ). ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project water management regulations]. Retrieved from essay writing http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2014-02/28/content_2625325.htm [Google Scholar] ). These decisions are intended to reflect abstractions proposed by the river basin commissions and water-use plans prepared by provincial and municipal governments. However, the 2014 regulations did not conclusively establish a specific management unit responsible for paul elder critical thinking St. Louis, the operation of the project, with the result that the statement University MWR and the SNWTP Construction Committee Office are disputing their roles in this decision-making (MWR General Office, 2012b MWR (Ministry of Water Resources) General Office. ( 2012b ). ???????????????????????????? [Notification concerning the issuance of the south–north water transfer Eastern and Middle Route first phase water volume dispatch plan]. Retrieved from http://max.book118.com/html/2014/0205/5779368.shtm [Google Scholar] ; Caijing , 2014a Caijing . Paul Elder! ( 2014a ). ??:???????????????????? [Media: Ministry of Water Resources and SNWT office disagree on who will run the management].
Caijing . Retrieved from http://news.ifeng.com/a/20140707/41050790_0.shtml [Google Scholar] ). The SNWTP Construction Committee Office proposal seems to be ( Caijing , 2014a Caijing . ( 2014a ). ??:???????????????????? [Media: Ministry of Water Resources and essay kids International SNWT office disagree on critical St. Louis who will run the management]. Caijing . Retrieved from http://news.ifeng.com/a/20140707/41050790_0.shtml [Google Scholar] ) that in accord with the requirements of a modern enterprise system each route should be managed by a limited liability company, with boards of Dulwich College, directors composed of elder School, representatives of investors, as the project legal person responsible for thingking IUBH School of Business & Management, ongoing work on the project, its operational management, loans and the value of assets, and it should operate independently in accordance with the law. Such a management company would remove the administration of some water from the critical thinking St. Louis School MWR. The second challenge is to the hierarchical distribution of thingking School & Management, power in China, which is elder critical thinking School also being reorganized through the project, as the School centre takes over control over land use in some regions and determines the prices of water in specific cities. The NDRC has developed an economic and social development plan for critical, Danjiangkou reservoir and upper reaches of the Han River (NDRC, 2012 National Development and Reform Commission. Writing Site Blue Hotel Management School! ( 2012 ). ?????????????????? [Danjiangkou reservoir area and upper reaches economic and social development plan]. Retrieved from thinking St. Louis School http://fyzx.ankang.gov.cn/Article/Class5/201304/1353.html [Google Scholar] ). The plan encompasses 43 counties, cities and forestry areas in Shaanxi, Hubei and Henan provinces, mostly within the catchment area for Danjiangkou reservoir. Critical IUBH & Management! The plan attempts to manage water quality for the SNWTP by dividing the catchment into water-source-conservation areas where new construction is prohibited and the population resettled; ecological agricultural areas where economic restructuring will take place and fertilizer and pesticide use reduced; and cluster development areas where cleaner production will be promoted (NDRC, 2012 National Development and Reform Commission. ( 2012 ). ?????????????????? [Danjiangkou reservoir area and elder thinking upper reaches economic and social development plan]. English Review Caxton! Retrieved from http://fyzx.ankang.gov.cn/Article/Class5/201304/1353.html [Google Scholar] ). In other words, economic and social planning for these water-source areas is paul critical thinking now being dictated by essay the central government in the interests of protecting water quality. Critical School! The source areas are said to writing kids Sherborne, be sacrificing their own interests and development for the project ( Southern Weekend , 2013 Southern Weekend . ( 2013 ). ???:????? ???????,????? ? [Is Danjiangkou ready? Dam inflow below Grade 5, resurgence of shipping].
Southern Weekend . Retrieved from http://www.infzm.com/content/95343 [Google Scholar] ; Caijing , 2014b Caijing . ( 2014b ). ???????:???????? [Chinese engineering academy scholar: Diverted water should be a last resort]. Caijing . Retrieved from http://finance.sina.com.cn/china/hgjj/20140707/105619627126.shtml [Google Scholar] ). In addition, the State Council has approved a water pollution and soil conservation plan for Danjiangkou reservoir and elder St. Louis School its upstream areas which includes targets for water quality, chemical oxygen demand and soil conservation (MWR General Office, 2012a MWR (Ministry of Water Resources) General Office. ( 2012a ). ????????????????????????‘???’??? [State council approves ‘Danjiangkou reservoir area and upstream water pollution control and soil conservation twelfth five year plan’]. IUBH School Of Business! Retrieved from http://www.mwr.gov.cn/slzx/slyw/201206/t20120625_325019.html [Google Scholar] ). Around Danjiangkou reservoir new rules regulate sewage control, shipping-related pollution and fish farming ( China News , 2014 China News . ( 2014 ). ???????????????????(??) [Question and answer with head of south–north water transfer water management regulations (full text)]. China News . Retrieved from http://www.chinanews.com/gn/2014/02-28/5896749.shtml [Google Scholar] ). Water quality protection at Danjiangkou has become the ‘core work’ for critical St. Louis School, local officials involved in the SNWTP ( Southern Weekend , 2013 Southern Weekend . ( 2013 ). ???:????? ???????,????? ? [Is Danjiangkou ready? Dam inflow below Grade 5, resurgence of shipping]. Southern Weekend . Retrieved from http://www.infzm.com/content/95343 [Google Scholar] ). Review Magazine College! In effect, the control of paul critical thinking School, land use in a small, distant region is now a prerogative of kids Sherborne International, one of the most important central government agencies, the NDRC. Paul Elder St. Louis! Power over land use around the SNWTP is moving up. The pricing of water in China is also highly contentious. On one side are the World Bank, Asian Development Bank (ADB) and a good proportion of the magazine Caxton nation’s economists arguing that water should be priced at market rates to achieve allocative efficiency.
On another side are the local water-resource bureaus, ultimately responsible to paul elder critical, the MWR, that supply water to farmers for irrigation; they recognize, at least implicitly, that farmers are already the poorest group in society and have limited capacity to pay prices that urban users could pay. And finally there are the municipal water authorities, again ultimately responsible to the MWR, that are caught between the needs to restrain demand and to pay for improvements to water supply infrastructure, on english review the one side, and vocal urban consumers who protest proposals to raise prices, on the other. In rural and urban water supply systems, prices are in the end determined by local governments, though with pressure from above. The price of water supplied by thinking St. Louis School the SNWTP, however, is going to be centrally determined. The NDRC stipulated in 2003 that water projects should involve a two-part pricing system (Jiangsu Province Water Conservancy Office, 2008 Jiangsu Province Water Conservancy Office. Writing Support Dulwich! ( 2008 ). What is the two-part water price system?
Retrieved from http://www.jswater.gov.cn/art/2008/11/5/art_870_25711.html [Google Scholar] ). A basic price is to be paid by local water authorities, in this case provinces. This basic price covers the capital and overhead costs of the paul critical thinking project – paying off construction loans, operational management, maintenance – and is payable no matter what volume of water is used by that province. A calculated or metered price is to be paid to writing site, cover running costs and elder critical thinking St. Louis School allow for profit; it is Chigwell School charged volumetrically. The theoretical basis for this system was laid out in 2006. Figure 3 illustrates the corresponding calculated prices for the Middle Route. The NDRC’s initial determination of actual prices to be charged for Middle Route water (Office of the SNWTP, 2014 Office of the SNWTP. ( 2014 ). ?????????????????????????????????? [PRC National Development and Reform Commission notice of Middle Route water supply price policy]. Retrieved from http://www.nsbd.gov.cn/zx/zxdt/201501/t20150107_365955.html [Google Scholar] ) is slightly lower than the basic plus calculated prices; Beijing is to pay 2.33 and Tianjin 2.16 RMB/m 3 rather than the paul elder critical thinking basic plus calculated prices of write for an essay University of Utah, 2.96 and 3.03 RMB/m 3 , respectively (allowing for a 1% profit on the capital costs). Water supply corporations in elder critical St. Louis those municipalities then process the water, for which they add a charge, and make additional charges for sewage (equal to about one-quarter of the delivered water price in Beijing). Thus, the delivered price to most Beijing consumers was raised to 5 RMB/m 3 in 2014 ( China Daily , 2014 China Daily . ( 2014 ). Price full cost of water. Writing Support Dulwich College! China Daily . Retrieved from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2014-04/04/content_17405783.htm [Google Scholar] ). If provinces, municipalities or cities do not charge consumers the prices set by paul critical St. Louis School NDRC, then they must themselves pay the writing College difference. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the geography of China.
Figure 3. Geographical distribution of paul critical St. Louis School, water prices along the Middle Route of the SNWTP. Figure 3. Article Site Mountains Management School! Geographical distribution of water prices along the Middle Route of the SNWTP. In fact, local jurisdictions face not only relatively high prices for the SNWTP’s water, but also they have to construct the thinking School infrastructure of pipes, pumping stations and treatment plants needed to deliver water to consumers. Article Writing Websites Chigwell School! These two charges, for elder critical School, water and its infrastructure, have apparently led some jurisdictions to decline to use the water supplied by article Blue Mountains Hotel the SNWTP (Chen, 2015 Chen, T. P. Thinking! ( 2015 ). Cities in China’s north resist tapping water piped from south . Kids Sherborne! Wall Street Journal . Retrieved from http://www.wsj.com/articles/cities-in-chinas-north-resist-tapping-water-piped-from-south-1429781402 [Google Scholar] ), for it is cheaper to continue to deplete local groundwater resources. Centralized pricing does have its oppositions. The SNWTP, in other words, is creating both the need for elder critical St. Louis, and a space within which the horizontal and hierarchical distribution of power in China can be remade. Some institutions of water governance are being brought under the control of a body that reports directly to writing kids Sherborne, the State Council and some traditionally local policy arenas (water pricing and land use) are being determined centrally. These are only a few elements of the complex of bodies and environmental objects that constitute the elder thinking St. Louis School management of water in China, but they do illustrate how an infrastructure – admittedly a big one – can require changes in the very structure of governance.
Paradoxically, the fragmentation of political authority – both vertically and horizontally – that has contributed so much to failures of earlier programmes of english College, water conservancy and paul critical thinking pollution control (Economy, 2004 Economy, E. Essay Writing Sherborne! C. Paul Elder Critical Thinking! ( 2004 ). Thesis Statement For An Essay Of Utah! The river runs black: The environmental challenge to China’s future . Paul Critical Thinking! Ithaca : Cornell University Press . [Google Scholar] ) is write thesis statement for an essay of Utah now being threatened by the very infrastructure that seemed designed to bypass that fragmentation. The work of the technopolitical system that is the SNWTP does not stop at elder critical, such macro-political issues. It is also challenging the day-to-day political work of writing Sherborne, water management in China. The discharge regimes and water quality characteristics of paul elder critical thinking, all manner of rivers will be profoundly affected by the movement of this water. These effects draw further interventions into China’s socio-environmental system. For example, the write thesis for an essay of Utah discharge of the Hanjiang downstream of Danjiangkou reservoir will be reduced by 30% (Wong, 2011 Wong, E. ( 2011 ). Elder Critical School! Plan for China’s water crisis spurs concern. New York Times . A Good Statement Essay! Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ), leading to threats of higher pollution intensity in a river that was considered one of the cleanest in China (Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. ( 2014 ). China is so bad at conservation that it had to launch the paul critical St. Louis School most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Essay Writing Kids Sherborne International! Retrieved from http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ) and to problems of navigation. The response to this problem is to construct another water diversion, a 67 km canal from the Changjiang (Three Gorges Reservoir) to Danjiangkou (Hornby, 2014 Hornby, L. ( 2014 ). Paul Elder! Concern mounts in China over Yangtze diversion project. ft.com . Retrieved from http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/a39d9c7c-4fa2-11e4-a0a4-00144feab7de.html#axzz41BBN1rqA [Google Scholar] ). Meanwhile, Shaanxi is building a project to how to a good thesis statement for an University, divert water from the Hanjiang, in the Yangtze basin, to the Wei He, in elder St. Louis the Yellow river basin (Pohlner, 2016 Pohlner, H. ( 2016 ). Institutional change and the political economy of water megaprojects: China’s South-North water transfer . How To A Good Statement University! Global Environmental Change , 38 , 205 – 216 . doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2016.03.015 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), permission for paul critical thinking School, which seems to have been compensation for SNWTP’s use of Shaanxi’s water (Moore, 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ): in other words, the exclusion of Shaanxi from use of the essay writing support Dulwich College SNWTP water is leading to the construction of yet another diversion. The cartographic and diagrammatic accounts of the SNWTP obscure the degree to St. Louis, which the scheme takes water from the Changjiang and may have critical effects on critical thingking IUBH School of Business & Management its flow (Chen et al., 2013 Chen, D. Paul Elder Thinking St. Louis School! , Webber, M. , Finlayson, B. , Barnett, J. , Chen, Z. Y. , Wang, M. ( 2013 ). The impact of water transfers from the lower Yangtze River on water security in University Shanghai . Applied Geography , 45 , 303 – 310 . doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2013.09.025 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ; Li et al., 2015 Li, M. , Chen, Z. , Finlayson, B. , Wei, T. , Chen, J. , Wu, X. , … Wang, M. ( 2015 ). Water diversion and sea-level rise: Potential threats to freshwater supplies in the Changjiang River estuary . Paul Elder School! Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science , 156 , 52 – 60 . doi: 10.1016/j.ecss.2014.07.007 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). The visual representation of the Middle Route (Xinhua, 2008 Xinhua . ( 2008 ). ????????????? [South–North Water Transfer Project Middle Route water diversion route map].
Xinhua . Retrieved from http://news.xinhuanet.com/photo/2008-05/06/content_8112198.htm [Google Scholar] ) shows the water originating from Danjiangkou reservoir, and not from the article Hanjiang, which is a tributary of the Changjiang (Crow-Miller, 2013 Crow-Miller, B. ( 2013 ). Water, power, and development in twenty-first century China: The case of the South–North Water Transfer Project (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of California – Los Angeles. Thinking St. Louis School! [Google Scholar] ). A flow chart of the writing Sherborne water diversions for the Eastern Route (Geng, Jiang, Fu, Mao, 2012 Geng, L. H. , Jiang, B. L. , Fu, K. W. , Mao, Y. J. Paul St. Louis School! ( 2012 ). ?????????????????? [Risk analysis and assessment of the water conveyance system operation for the South–North Water Transfer Project’s Eastern Route] . Yellow River , 34 , 92 – 95 . [Google Scholar] ) similarly shows the Sherborne diversion beginning at canals in Jiangsu and flowing along the Grand Canal, whereas the source is in fact the Changjiang. The Changjiang does appear in some descriptions of the Eastern Route, though it is said that even in extremely dry years there is ‘enough water’ in the lower reaches to be pumped north (see http://www.nsbd.gov.cn/). Such representations preclude discussion of negative impacts of the diversions on the lower Changjiang, thus helping avoid claims that people and provinces may make for compensation, or for input into the management regime. The official line is thinking School that the project will divert only writing International 5% of Changjiang’s annual discharge: the negative impacts will so small as to almost not exist (according to head engineer Shen Feng Sheng, as reported by Kuo, 2014 Kuo, L. ( 2014 ). China is so bad at conservation that it had to launch the most impressive water-pipeline project ever . Retrieved from paul St. Louis http://journal.probeinternational.org/ [Google Scholar] ). However, the Changjiang has a highly seasonal discharge regime, with discharges in winter only one-quarter those in summer (Finlayson et al., 2013 Finlayson, B. L. , Barnett, J. , Wei, T. Y. , Webber, M. , Li, M. Writing Websites School! T. Elder Thinking! , Wang, M. Y. , … Chen, Z. Y. ( 2013 ). The drivers of risk to water security in Shanghai . Regional Environmental Change , 13 , 329 – 340 . doi: 10.1007/s10113-012-0334-1 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). That difference is Dulwich critical. Shanghai, for paul elder St. Louis School, a variety of reasons associated with pollution in alternative sources and the political difficulties of negotiating access to water intakes in neighbouring provinces (Webber et al., 2015a Webber, M. , Barnett, J. , Chen, Z. Y. , Finlayson, B. , Wang, M. Article Websites Chigwell! , Chen, D. , … Xu, H. ( 2015a ). Constructing water shortages on a huge river: The case of Shanghai . Elder Critical Thinking St. Louis School! Geographical Research , 53 , 406 – 418 . doi: 10.1111/1745-5871.12132 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ), takes an increasing proportion of its water supply from the Changjiang estuary.
That estuary is subject to intrusions of salt water that threaten this supply: the SNWTP together with other abstractions on the river raise the likelihood of intrusions that threaten Shanghai’s water supply. In 1950–2014, the number of english Caxton College, consecutive days with chlorinity ?250 mg l ?1 averaged 21.34 per year; if the diversion projects had operated then according to paul elder, their normal rules, that average would have been 41.20 per year. For a randomly selected year of discharge history from essay writing kids Sherborne 1950–2014, under normal operating rules the probability of an paul School intrusion rises from 0.25 (for 30-day intrusions) or 0.05 (for 60-day intrusions) to 0.57 or 0.28, respectively (Webber et al., 2015b Webber, M. , Li, M. T. , Chen, J. , Finlayson, B. , Chen, D. , Chen, Z. Y. , … Barnett, J. Essay Writing Kids Sherborne International! ( 2015b ). Impact of the paul Three Gorges Dam, the South–North Water Transfer Project and water abstractions on the duration and intensity of salt intrusions in College the Yangtze River estuary . Elder Thinking St. Louis School! Hydrology and Earth System Sciences , 19 , 4411 – 4425 . Writing Websites School! doi: 10.5194/hess-19-4411-2015 [Crossref], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Shanghai’s water storages can hold just over 60 days’ supply and cannot treat water with chlorinity ?250 mg l ?1 to a potable standard. In other words, because of the abstractions of water by the SNWTP, the paul elder critical St. Louis School likelihood is high that Shanghai is article Mountains International Hotel Management going to thinking School, have to thingking of Business & Management, reduce its dependence on the Changjiang – by storing and paul critical thinking St. Louis using rainfall or recycling – or it is going to websites Chigwell, have to build new infrastructure to reduce the threat that saline intrusions pose to its water supply (such as barrages to prevent tidal intrusions into the estuary or desalinization plants). But not all of the newly emerging needs are for infrastructure.
The quality of water in source regions has to be protected (as at Danjiangkou) and pollution of the canals along the routes has to be prevented, otherwise ‘[w]hen water comes to Beijing, there’s the danger of the water not being safe to elder critical thinking St. Louis School, drink’ (Dai Qing, quoted in Wong, 2011 Wong, E. IUBH Of Business! ( 2011 ). Plan for elder, China’s water crisis spurs concern. Site Mountains Hotel! New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ). This is an especial problem for the Eastern Route, which passes through highly industrialized coastal provinces and uses existing canals and lakes that are highly polluted (Moore, 2014a Moore, S. M. ( 2014a ). Modernisation, authoritarianism, and paul critical thinking the environment: The politics of China’s South–North Water Transfer Project . Environmental Politics , 23 , 947 – 964 . doi: 10.1080/09644016.2014.943544 [Taylor Francis Online], [Web of Science #0174;] [Google Scholar] ). Review Magazine College! The central government invested about critical thinking US$3 billion on controlling pollution along the Eastern Route (Jiang, 2012 Jiang, Y. ( 2012 ). ????????:??????? [East Route project of the south–north water transfer: Environmental impacts and counter-measures]. Hefei, Anhui: Anhui Kexue Jishu Chubanshe [Anhui Science and writing Dulwich College Technology Press]. [Google Scholar] ), including over 400 sewage-treatment plants (Wong, 2011 Wong, E. ( 2011 ). Paul! Plan for essay writing International, China’s water crisis spurs concern. New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/02/world/asia/02water.html?_r=0 [Google Scholar] ), between 2003 and 2013. Accompanying this investment has been the paul critical School rhetoric of ‘three firsts, three laters’: ‘first conserve then transfer water; first control pollution then let the water flow; first protect the environment and then use water’ that former premier Zhu Rongji enunciated in 2000 (Nickum, 2006 Nickum, J. E. Critical Thingking & Management! ( 2006 ). Thinking! The status of the essay writing support Dulwich College south to north water transfer plans in China . United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2006/papers/james_nickum_china_water_transfer.pdf [Google Scholar] ). Figure 4 is another expression of this rhetoric. The South–North Water Transfer Project: remaking the paul elder critical School geography of how to a good for an essay University of Utah, China. Figure 4. Poster advertising the SNWTP (‘Success or failure depends on water quality; the critical thinking School key is resettlement; the priority is completion’). Figure 4. Poster advertising the SNWTP (‘Success or failure depends on water quality; the key is resettlement; the priority is completion’). The SNWTP is a large and complex infrastructure.
It affects the operation of all manner of existing water management systems and in so doing it requires changes in those systems. Often in China those changes comprise the creation of additional infrastructural schemes – barrages, desalinization plants, new diversions. But sometimes they require changes in review Caxton the ongoing management regime; since the project particularly depends on an acceptable quality of water, those changes have focused on pollution management. The political work being done by the project continues. This paper has developed a technopolitical interpretation of the SNWTP. It argued that the paul thinking St. Louis project embodies an official technopolitical regime that privileges concrete over management, capital-intense over small-scale projects and resolves shortages rather than pollution. The SNWTP reflects a particular political regime and enacts political goals that are quite distinct from those identified for such cities as London (Gandy, 2014 Gandy, M. ( 2014 ). The fabric of thingking, space: Water, modernity, and the urban imagination . Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . Paul Elder Thinking! [Google Scholar] ). Nevertheless, the project poses fundamental challenges to existing regional structures of governance (requiring water management at a greater-than-basin scale) and power (empowering central as compared with provincial and local governments). In this sense, the SNWTP requires political change, too. The project also interacts with existing hydrological conditions – the material characteristics of rivers, lakes and groundwater storages – to do environmental work: it promises continuing detrimental environmental impacts in source regions.
These impacts invite similar future interventions into China’s hydrological environment. In other words, the SNWTP embodies a technopolitics in the sense of Hecht ( 2001 Hecht, G. ( 2001 ). Technology, politics, and national identity in critical IUBH School & Management France . In M. Thinking! T. Allen G. Hecht (Eds.), Technologies of power (pp. 253 – 294 ). Cambridge , MA : MIT Press . Writing Websites Chigwell! [Google Scholar] ): it constitutes, embodies or enacts political goals. It is a hybrid of technology and elder St. Louis School politics. However, the project has political and english Caxton College environmental consequences that appear to have been incidental to the original planning: like the Three Gorges Dam before it (Webber, 2012 Webber, M. ( 2012 ). Making capitalism in paul elder thinking St. Louis rural China . Cheltenham : Elgar . [Crossref] [Google Scholar] ), the article websites SNWTP does political and hydrological work, remaking the geography of water, pollution, authority, production and people into elder critical School the future rather than simply reflecting the present. Huge infrastructure projects not only represent the state of essay writing Dulwich, relations between society and environment, but also they require and set in motion changes in those relations. Elder Thinking St. Louis School! This is not a Chinese way of being technopolitical; rather it is a technopolitics within the particular political and environmental contexts of China. The authors are grateful to Jon Barnett, George Lin and Sophie Webber for comments made on earlier versions of the paper. No potential conflict of interest was reported by critical IUBH & Management the authors.
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Critical Thinking Dispositions Among Undergraduate Students - Eric
System Security And Administration. An important service provided by elder thinking St. Louis, any system is the essay kids Sherborne International, ability to run a process on a predetermined schedule without human intertention. The “automation” of elder St. Louis, tasks can reduce the workload of the system administrator significantly. Unfortunately Linux currently offers not one service but potentially three—cron, anacron, and systemd timer units. In about thesis statement essay of Utah, a page compare and thinking St. Louis contrast all three systems. Writing Site Blue Management School. Illustrate your discussion by critical thinking St. Louis School, using the system files /etc/anacron and /etc/crontab and by constructing equivalent systemd service and timer files.
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Clinical and elder critical thinking St. Louis Experimental Dermatology. British Association of Dermatologists. Editor: Dr George W. M. Writing! Millington, Norwich, UK. Impact Factor: 1.589. ISI Journal Citation Reports Ranking: 2016: 36/63 (Dermatology) Online ISSN: 1365-2230. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology ( CED ) is a unique provider of relevant and accessible material of educational value to practising clinicians and dermatological researchers. In supporting the continuing professional development (CPD) of paul critical St. Louis School dermatology specialists, the journal aims to advance understanding, management and critical School treatment of skin disease and improve patient outcomes. In addition to a dedicated CPD section, CED publishes review articles, original papers, concise reports and items of correspondence. CED is an official organ of the elder critical School British Association of essay writing Dulwich College Dermatologists but attracts contributions from all countries in which sound clinical practice is paul thinking conducted, and its circulation is equally international. Journal content and article writing School further informationincluding author guidelines and submission detailscan be found online at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.
2. Paul Elder Critical School! MANUSCRIPT CATEGORIES. Clinical and writing site Blue Hotel Management Experimental Dermatology invites the following types of critical thinking submission: The Journal aims to publish concise, high-quality review articles on subjects of interest covering both clinical and experimental aspects of dermatology. Review articles may be solicited by the Editor or may be submitted by authors for publication subject to peer review. Review articles must include an abstract (maximum 250 words), should not exceed 1200 words of how to write a good thesis for an University body text, and are limited to 30 references. A bulleted list of up to 6 'learning points' must also be included; learning points should synthesise the key take home messages and thinking St. Louis convey how the review article will improve patient health outcomes. How To A Good Thesis For An Essay! Use of illustrations and figures in paul critical thinking, review articles is encouraged. Occasionally, submission of review articles of thesis statement for an essay longer length, with more references, may be permitted, if the article concerned is a systematic review, national clinical guideline or meta-analysis. All such submissions must be discussed with the editor prior to submission.
Review articles must also include 5 multiple choice questions (MCQs) which test the knowledge of the paul elder critical St. Louis reader. Detailed guidelines for authors in writing MCQs are provided here . Original articles must include a structured abstract (maximum 250 words), should not exceed 2000 words of writing body text, and paul St. Louis are limited to 25 references. Figures should not normally exceed four in number. Original articles must include bulleted statements (maximum 70 words) in write a good of Utah, answer to the following questions: what's already known about this topic?; what does this study add? Concise reports must include an paul elder thinking School, abstract (maximum 150 words, no subtitles), followed by the body text formatted into english, an introduction, report and discussion, and should not exceed 1000 words (excluding references). No more than 10 references should be cited. A bulleted list of up to paul elder critical School 6 'Learning Points' must also be included; Learning Points should synthesise the websites School key take home messages and convey how the Concise Report will improve patient health outcomes. Elder St. Louis School! A maximum of three figures are permitted. Correspondence (Letters to the Editor) may be in response to issues arising from recently published articles, or short, free-standing pieces expressing an opinion.
The correspondence section aims to reflect a wide number of issues relevant to critical of Business & Management clinical and paul thinking St. Louis School experimental studies in dermatology, as well as encompassing personal views on clinical practice or dermatological research. Essay Writing Dulwich! Letters should be formatted in paul critical thinking, one continuous section, should not exceed 500 words, and are limited to 5 references, two tables and two figures. Continuing Professional Development (CPD) The Journal aims to publish regular, peer-reviewed educational features relevant to the practice of clinical dermatology. The main types of article are currently: • Clinicopathological cases These should provide a test of the reader's diagnostic skills. For each, the clinical history, pathology and how to a good thesis for an essay University illustration(s) should be presented first (on one printed page of the Journal). This should be followed by the diagnosis, discussion and learning points. Elder Thinking! The entire text and all illustrative material will be limited to two printed pages of the essay writing kids Sherborne Journal. Paul Critical School! As a guide, clinicopathological cases should not exceed 600 words and are limited to 6 references.
All clinicopathological cases must also include 2 multiple choice questions (MCQs) which test the knowledge of the reader. Detailed guidelines for authors in writing MCQs are provided here . • A paper that changed clinical practice Such articles should encompass discussion of magazine College a published paper that has made an impact on the author's management of patients. The text should not exceed 800 words and no more than 6 references should be cited. All paper that changed clinical practice submissions must also include 2 multiple choice questions (MCQs) which test the knowledge of the reader. Detailed guidelines for authors in writing MCQs are provided here . • A memorable patient These should report a case that made an paul St. Louis, impact on the author. The text should not exceed 600 words and critical IUBH School should include no more than two figures and 6 references. All memorable patient articles must also include 2 multiple choice questions (MCQs) which test the knowledge of the reader.
Detailed guidelines for authors in writing MCQs are provided here . • Genetic report These should report a case involving genetics or a genodermatosis that made an critical thinking St. Louis, impact on the author. Writing Site Mountains International Hotel Management School! The text should not exceed 600 words and should include no more than two clinical figures, plus a histological figure, an electrophoretogram, up to 2 tables and 6 references. All genetic report articles must also include 2 multiple choice questions (MCQs) which test the knowledge of the reader. Paul Elder St. Louis School! Detailed guidelines for authors in writing MCQs are provided here . • Therapeutic vignette These should describe, and preferably illustrate, a therapeutic technique regularly used and considered especially useful by magazine the author. This may be surgical, medical, or may relate to paul other therapeutic and cosmetic modalities such as cryotherapy, lasers etc. Illustrations should not exceed 2 in number.
The text should not exceed 800 words and up to writing 6 references may be cited. All therapeutic vignette articles must also include 2 multiple choice questions (MCQs) which test the knowledge of the reader. Detailed guidelines for authors in writing MCQs are provided here . • Patient view point These should be a joint article, predominantly written by the patient ( up to 800 words body text), but with up to 250 words additionally provided by the clinician(s), which would be kept separately in a text-box. Up to paul critical thinking 5 references may cited. Unlike other CPD articles, multiple choice questions are not required for patient viewpoint manuscripts. 3. SUBMISSION OF MANUSCRIPTS. Submissions should be made online at the Clinical and Experimental Dermatology ScholarOne Manuscripts site (formerly known as Manuscript Central).
New users should first create an account. Once a user is logged onto the site, submissions should be made via the Author Centre. Completed consent forms must be uploaded to ScholarOne Manuscripts at the same time as manuscript submission using file designation 'Supplementary files not for review'. Revised manuscripts must be submitted as revisions as directed by the Manuscript Central website. Do not resubmit a revision as a new manuscript as this may result in re-review and considerable delay. The revision should be complete and contain all the tables and figures. Do not resubmit the article writing Blue Hotel original manuscript with your revision . 4. PREPARATION OF MANUSCRIPTS. Manuscripts must be written in English and paul critical St. Louis must comply with these instructions in writing kids Sherborne, every detail. Text should be supplied in a word processed format such as Microsoft Word for Windows. Charts and tables are considered textual and should be supplied in paul critical St. Louis, the same format.
Figures (illustrations, diagrams, photographs) should be supplied in gif, jpeg, tif or eps format. All manuscripts must be typed in 12 pt font with lines double spaced and margins of at write a good statement for an least 2.5 cm. Abbreviations must be defined when first used, both in the abstract and in the main text. Manuscripts must be as succinct as possible. Text must comply with the word and figure limits defined in paul elder thinking St. Louis School, Section 2. If authors consider that a manuscript should not conform to the limits specified, exceptionally good reasons must be clearly provided in a letter to article writing Chigwell School the Editor accompanying the submission.
Repetition of information or data in different sections of the manuscript must be carefully avoided. Manuscripts should, where appropriate, include: The first page of all manuscripts (including correspondence) should contain the following information: 1) the title of the elder critical St. Louis paper. 2) Surnames (family names) and initials of each author. 3) name of the institution at which the research was conducted. 4) name, address, telephone and fax number, and email address of corresponding author. 5) 26 article keywords. 6) manuscript word count (excluding abstract and site Blue Mountains School references), table and figure count. 7) any conflict of critical St. Louis School interest disclosures (see Section 5). 8) a running head not exceeding 50 characters.
Authors submitting Original Articles should note that structured abstracts (maximum 250 words) are required. The structured abstract should adopt the format: Background, Aim, Methods, Results, Conclusions. Review articles require abstracts (maximum 250 words), as do concise reports (maximum 150 words) but they need not be structured. Abstracts should contain no reference citations. Correspondence and CPD articles do not require abstracts. This should in general, but not necessarily, be divided into sections with the headings: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, Tables, Legends and Figures. Figures should be submitted as separate files. The acknowledgements should include a statement of all funding sources that supported the work.
Please submit the full text of the manuscript, including the abstract, tables, legends, references and bulleted statements as a single document. A separate abstract will be requested on submission and write thesis essay will be used for inviting reviewers. This should match the abstract in the main manuscript. Tables and Figures. Tables and figures should not be inserted in paul critical thinking St. Louis, the appropriate place in the text but should be included at critical IUBH School the end of the manuscript, each on a separate page. Tables and figures should be referred to in text as follows: Fig. 1, Figs 24; Table 1, Table 2. The place at which a table or figure is to elder critical St. Louis School be inserted in the printed text should be indicated clearly on a manuscript. Each table and/or figure must have a legend that explains its purpose without reference to critical IUBH of Business the text. Where a figure has more than one panel, each panel should be labelled in the top left-hand corner using lower case letters in elder thinking, parentheses i.e. ‘(a)’, ‘(b)’ etc., and a brief description of each panel given in essay writing Dulwich College, the figure legend.
Only figures of excellent quality will be considered for publication. The Journal will publish colour photographs free of charge subject to editorial approval. Authors are themselves responsible for obtaining permission to paul elder School reproduce previously published figures or tables. When an individual is critical thingking IUBH School of Business & Management identifiable in a photograph written permission must be obtained (see under ‘ethics’ below). References should be in Vancouver format and appear as consecutive, unbracketed superscript numbers in the text, e.g. School! ‘in our previous reports1,2 and article writing School those of Smith et al. Critical Thinking St. Louis School! 35’ and should be listed numerically in the reference list at the end of the article.
Format references as below, using standard (Medline) abbreviations for journal titles. When there are more than four authors, include the first three authors followed by et al. 1 de Berker DAR, Baran R, Dawber RPR. Sherborne! The Nail in Dermatological Diseases. In: Baran and paul elder critical thinking St. Louis School Dawber's Diseases of the Nails and their Management (Baran R, Dawber RPR, de Berker DAR, Haneke E, Tosti, A, eds), 3rd edn. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd, 2001: 17292. 2 Murray ML, Cohen JB.
Mycophenolate mofetil therapy for article Blue International moderate to severe atopic dermatitis. Clin Exp Dermatol 2007; 32: 237. 3 Graham-Brown R, Burns T. Lecture Notes : Dermatology . Paul Thinking St. Louis School! Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2006. 4 Smith A. (1999) Select committee report into write thesis for an, social care in thinking, the community [WWW document]. URL http://www.dhss.gov.uk/reports/report015285.html [accessed on 7 November 2003]. We recommend the use of a tool such as EndNote for how to thesis statement University of Utah reference management and formatting.
EndNote reference styles can be searched for paul critical here: http://www.endnote.com/support/enstyles.asp . Submission of a manuscript will be held to imply that it contains original unpublished work and is not being submitted for publication elsewhere at the same time. Websites School! The author must supply a full statement to the Editor about critical thinking St. Louis, all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as redundant or duplicate publication of the same or very similar work. Critical Thingking IUBH School & Management! CED employs a plagiarism detection system. By submitting your manuscript, you accept that your manuscript may be screened for elder School plagiarism against previously published works. Conflicts of Interest.
Authors are responsible for disclosing all financial and personal relationships between themselves and others that might be perceived by others as biasing their work. To prevent ambiguity, authors must state explicitly whether potential conflicts do or do not exist. When reporting experiments on kids Sherborne human subjects, indicate whether the critical thinking procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983. Do not use patients' names, initials or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. Review Magazine College! When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the paul critical thinking School institution's or a national research council's guide for, or any national law on, the care and review magazine Caxton use of laboratory animals was followed. A statement describing explicitly the ethical background to the studies being reported should be included in all manuscripts in the Materials and Methods section. Ethics committee or institutional review board approval should be stated. Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential but patient data should never be altered or falsified in an attempt to attain anonymity.
Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is paul elder thinking St. Louis inadequate protection of anonymity. All persons designated as authors should qualify for article authorship and paul elder critical thinking School all those who qualify should be listed. Each author should have participated sufficiently in essay kids Sherborne, the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. One or more authors should take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, from inception to published article. Authorship credit should be based only on 1) substantial contributions to elder thinking St. Louis School conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; 3) final approval of the version to be published. International! Conditions 1, 2 and 3 must all be met. Paul St. Louis! Acquisition of funding, the collection of Sherborne data or general supervision of the research group, by themselves, do not justify authorship. All others who contributed to the work who are not authors should be named in the Acknowledgements section. Committee on elder thinking School Publication Ethics (COPE)
As a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), adherence to these submission criteria is IUBH considered essential for publication in Clinical and Experimental Dermatology; mandatory fields are included in the online submission process to ensure this. Paul Elder Critical Thinking! If, at a later stage in the submission process or even after publication, a manuscript or authors are found to have disregarded these criteria, it is the duty of the Editor to report this to COPE. COPE may recommend that action be taken, including but not exclusive to, informing the authors' professional regulatory body and/or institution of such a dereliction. Copyright Transfer Agreement. If your paper is accepted, the author identified as the formal corresponding author for the paper will receive an email prompting them to login into Author Services; where via the Wiley Author Licensing Service (WALS) they will be able to complete the license agreement on behalf of all authors on the paper. Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License OAA. Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial -NoDerivs License OAA.
6. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON ACCEPTANCE. OnlineOpen is available to authors of primary research articles who wish to make their article available to non-subscribers on publication, or whose funding agency requires grantees to article Blue Mountains School archive the St. Louis final version of their article. English Review Magazine Caxton! With OnlineOpen the author, the author's funding agency, or the elder thinking St. Louis author's institution pays a fee to writing site Hotel Management School ensure that the article is made available to non-subscribers upon publication vis Wiley Online Library, as well as deposited in elder School, the funding agency's preferred archive. For the full list of terms and conditions, see http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms. Prior to acceptance, there is no requirement to inform the Editorial Office that you intend to publish your paper OnlineOpen if you do not wish to.
All OnlineOpen articles are treated in the same way as any other article. They go through the Journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit. Any authors wishing to send their paper OnlineOpen will be required to complete the Chigwell School payment form available from our website at: https://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor/onlineopen_order.asp. The corresponding author will receive an elder critical, email alert containing a link to a web site. The proof can be downloaded as a PDF file from this site. Further instructions will be sent with the proof. Site Blue Mountains International School! Excessive changes made by the author in thinking St. Louis School, the proofs, excluding typesetting errors, will be charged separately. Author proof corrections should be emailed to the Production Editor at review Caxton email@example.com. Author Services enables authors to track their articleonce it has been acceptedthrough the production process to publication online and in print. Authors can check the status of their articles online and choose to paul elder thinking School receive automated e-mails at key stages of production. The author will receive an e-mail with a unique link that enables them to register and have their article automatically added to the system.
Please ensure that a complete e-mail address is provided when submitting the manuscript. IUBH School Of Business & Management! Visit http://authorservices.wiley.com/bauthor for more details on online production tracking and for a wealth of resources including FAQs and tips on article preparation, submission and more. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology is covered by the Publisher's Early View service. Early View articles are complete full-text articles published online in paul critical thinking, advance of thingking IUBH School of Business their publication in a printed issue. Articles are therefore available as soon as they are ready, rather than having to wait for the next scheduled print issue. Early View articles are complete and final. Critical Thinking St. Louis School! They have been fully reviewed, revised and english magazine edited for publication, and thinking St. Louis School the authors’ final corrections have been incorporated. Because they are in essay Dulwich College, final form, no changes can be made after online publication. The nature of Early View articles means that they do not yet have volume, issue or page numbers, so Early View articles cannot be cited in critical thinking School, the traditional way. They are therefore given a Digital Object Identifier (DOI), which allows the article to be cited and writing Sherborne International tracked before it is allocated to an issue.
After print publication, the paul thinking St. Louis DOI remains valid and can continue to be used to Caxton cite and paul St. Louis School access the article. More information about critical & Management, DOIs can be found online at http://www.doi.org/faq.html . Articles to be published in the Continuing Professional Development section of the journal will not be published Early View. Free access to the final PDF offprint of your article will be available via Author Services only. Please therefore sign up for Author Services if you would like to access your article PDF offprint and St. Louis enjoy the article writing websites Chigwell many other benefits the service offers. Note to NIH Grantees. Pursuant to NIH mandate, Wiley-Blackwell will post the accepted version of contributions authored by NIH grant-holders to PubMed Central upon acceptance. This accepted version will be made publicly available 12 months after publication. Critical Thinking St. Louis School! For further information, see www.wiley.com/go/nihmandate . Guidelines for Cover Submissions. If you would like to send suggestions for artwork related to your manuscript to be considered to appear on the cover of the journal, please follow these general guidelines.
An Official Journal of the British Association of Dermatologists.
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Custom Integrity and Ethics essay paper writing service. This is an essay on elder School integrity and ethics. Integrity is the consistent adherence to moral values, principles and ethics. Ethics in this context refers to a set of rules or standards governing the writing Sherborne International, conduct of a person or the members of a given profession. This essay will include a detailed report which critically analyzes ethical behavior in the UK financial services industry in general. It will also explain how an increased focus on integrity and ethics could make a positive contribution in restoring public confidence in the organization.
The essay will also link the question with the following topics: International business, integrity and ethics, strategic risk management and continuity planning, marketing financial services, contemporary themes in critical human resource management, the organization and structure of banking and article Chigwell, the financial services industry, and strategic decision making and the future in a global market place. The essay will cover the question in a coherent and logical manner. The offering of financial services is an important part of industry that affects the lives of most people. Hence, the industry needs to provide the necessary expertise under the realms of elder critical thinking integrity. IUBH School Of Business? But the public has always maintained the perception that most financial firms are interested in making money at the expense of all other considerations. Paul? We therefore aim at article writing site Hotel School, considering how the elder thinking, public perception might change, so that the sector continues to provide the necessary expertise with an integrity that fully responds to essay International, modern society's expectations and engenders mutual trust.
Though our principles are of high standards and are based on ethical values, it has been proved that these ethical values are not fully understood or applied consistently by all in the financial industry. To this effect we have to establish a clear and explicit shared understanding about the meaning of practical integrity. There are various theories in the literature which include; ethical egoism, act utilitarianism, and rule utilitarianism. In the case of ethical egoism, individuals (employees or management) regard an act to be moral or immoral depending on critical its likelihood to writing support, achieve personal objectives. In this context, an paul elder critical School, act is ethical for Dulwich College planners only if the thinking St. Louis, results of the article writing Chigwell, act or behavior are more beneficial to them than those of the clients. For the ethical egoist, they aim at satisfying self interests to the expense of client's interests and ethical standards/behavior. In the case of paul elder critical thinking St. Louis School utilitarianism, Individuals regard an act as ethical or not by the consequences of that act or by endeavoring to english review College, create the greatest overall good for those in critical School question. They equally maintain that inherently pleasure is good and pain is bad. They focus on 'the principle of greatest happiness' for those involved in a decision or act. This theory can result in leadership decisions that will violate employee's rights in order top produce this outcome, thus justifying unethical behaviors in organizations (Avolio, Bruce 2004, Pg 1).Regardless of the legal or moral standard requirements, one of the biggest ethical dilemmas planners face is choosing a method of compensation for its clients.
The methods of compensation are often interchangeable, since each can charge either fees or commissions they deem fit for their services as long as they have a license to do so. Write Thesis Statement Essay University Of Utah? However, this flexibility may be morally challenging for planners who must choose one method of compensation over the other. Some fail in paul elder critical thinking ethics and integrity while discharging this duty (Mark, Cussen, and CMFC 2010, Pg 1). Cases of corporate scandal have underscored the importance of understanding ethical behaviors. The pressure of short-term gain encourages undesirable behavior and hence the values and review magazine College, actions of thinking St. Louis School senior management influence employee ethical levels. A faulty reward system can propagate unethical behavior in that a self-interested agent would choose a course of action that contains the highest returns to the disadvantage of ethics and integrity (Federwisch 2010, pg 1). On the other hand, some individuals behave unethically because they think it is Blue worth the risk. They deliberately do it to eliminate a short-term problem. Others might do something which is deemed unethical, but which seems acceptable from their case. There is a general perception in relation to those firms that behave unacceptably always make things difficult for those who have displayed higher ethical standards. The collapse of Enron and paul elder critical St. Louis School, World com further brought ethical behavior into public scrutiny.
Their fall caused thousands of Enron and World com employees to lose all of their retirement savings. This was thought to have been caused by the failure to educate those employees about the importance of diversification of essay writing support College ethical standards. As earlier reported, it has not been easy to consistently follow the set ethical standards. For example honest financial planners are facing real dilemmas when trying to do the right thing for their financial clients. They have to consider the traditional approach or buy the diverse modern products available for the clients. They are also bent to pleasing the client to the disadvantage of the ethical standards. To counter this, the certified financial planner of Standards has issued a substantial revision and upgrade of the ethical requirements that its certificants must adhere to. According to the revised standards, all financial planning services must be accorded the paul critical thinking St. Louis, care of a true fiduciary, as opposed to just acting in the client's best interest. This means that the interests of the certified financial planner are put ahead of article writing School clients best interest at all times and critical School, under all situations. This will help in the compliance to the ethical standards with out bias.
This culminates to getting the client to do the right thing for the right reason while at the same time helping in keeping to the industry ethical standards. It has been proved that the correct application of english magazine Caxton College ethics in modern financial planning is having the client understand exactly what they are doing and why. This should be done with full knowledge of the costs and risks involved. An ethical transaction occurs when a client fully understands the ramifications of the advisor's recommendations and is willing to paul elder School, forge ahead with the deal following all pertinent laws and regulations. The boundaries between sales and advice in Mountains Hotel the financial industry are also becoming increasingly wide. This is so because many clients will base their financial decisions on emotions and wants rather than what their planner advises.
Worth noting is the fact that there is no central ethical resource available for the diverse financial planners. The consistent association to a financial industry with behaviors perceived to be unethical can be very damaging for other parties and the bad impact can not be diluted easily. The increasing pressure from the government and the consumers to put something back in terms of policies and St. Louis School, financial stand points put financial ethical standards at write essay University, risk. It is St. Louis School further clarified that individuals carrying leadership roles should demonstrate a good standard of ethical behavior. The bottom line is that they will be expected to writing websites School, act in the interests of their client, avoid consumer detriment and take responsibility for their own level of competence and ethical behavior and profound competence. The proposals seek to increase standards of professionalism across the industry, complementing the rules that are already in place for elder critical thinking School investment advice. Consumers have come to understand and enjoy the ethical stance without much effort. This has strengthened public confidence to the industry with increasing trust from the consumers. Good ethical standards and ethical behavior can generate loyalty internally. The promulgation of essay support College ethical stance throughout the business will significantly raise the staff awareness of ethical issues which in turn will help in early identification of paul thinking problems.
This will save the company's reputation and costs. However it is notably seen that a positive ethical stance is instigated by a genuine desire by the employer to promote higher ethical standards. Again, personal ethical behavior comes way ahead of the english magazine College, company's ethical standards and lack of the earlier justifies eminent absence of the latter. Poor ethical standards have adverse effects. They pose risks to consumer protection, lower market confidence, increase the paul thinking, scope for financial crime and negative public awareness. Alternatively, benefits derived from adherence are like: Market confidence from the english review magazine Caxton, consumer protection; from the improved ethical standards, a better relationship between firms and consumers will be reflected ; Financial Crime will be reduced by developing individual responsibility and involvement by elder critical, all- it will not be easy to launder money in the UK; Public Awareness and Confidence will also be improved through the higher ethical business and individual standards that promote the integrity of a company.
Specifically, it will enhance public perceptions; trust in the firms and individuals concerned (Financial Services Authority 2002, Pg 8) Despite the a good statement for an essay University of Utah, above analysis, it is factual that increased focus on integrity and ethics could make a positive contribution in restoring public confidence in the organization. This is first through ethical leadership. The consistency between leaders' true ethical intention and paul critical, behavior link the leaders' ethical behaviors and employee outcomes. In an addition, leaders are obliged to set moral examples for article writing Blue Mountains International organizational members and to determine those organizational activities which may be disadvantaging to the values of society in general. Leaders are deemed to exhibit ethical behaviors when they are doing what is morally just, right, and good, and when they follow it up with help to improve employee's moral awareness and moral self-actualization. This will affirm the consistent adherence to ethics and integrity and hence restore public confidence in the organization (Avolio, Bruce 2004, Pg 1).
The organization can achieve this by hiring leaders with strong ethical values. This is possible through carrying out of pre-employment selection practices which foster the employment of ethical leaders by assessing integrity, moral standards, and concern for others by paul elder St. Louis School, using integrity tests, or structured ethical interviews. The organization should also offer training to current management, supervisors, and employees on matters relating to how to thesis statement for an essay University of Utah, ethics and integrity. By training management on communicating the importance of ethics, reinforcing ethical behavior, and modeling ethical behavior, ethical leadership may be passed from the management to the employees. The organization should at same time reward helpful behaviors and/ punish unethical behaviors. When leaders establish that positive behaviors are valued and unethical behaviors are not, there is a possibility that subordinates will exhibit, or withhold, such behaviors. This will restore public confidence in the organization.
The organization should create a propensity for the exchange of good behaviors (DeGarmo Group 2009, Pg 1). Individuals who portray beneficial behaviors for paul elder critical thinking St. Louis others pave the way for positive exchanges and improved ethical standards in the organization. Focus on article writing site International Hotel School integrity and elder thinking St. Louis, ethics will improve the article writing Mountains International School, goodwill of the paul critical thinking School, organization at the local level and international level where applicable. This will attract international partners and customers and hence fostering international business. Write Thesis Of Utah? However it has been hindered by unethical behaviors (Witiger 2010, pg1). St. Louis School? It also aids in strategic risk management and planning in that the essay Dulwich, employees and management are linked by the ethics and integrity to become fully involved in the affairs of the organization. Marketing and financial services are intertwined with focus to ethics and integrity in that the marketers must posses' ethical behaviors to attract and maintain customers in the competitive financial world. Paul Elder Critical Thinking? Marketing is equally a moral activity (Willey 2008, Pg 1) that demands ethics.
Focus on ethics and integrity is essay support one of the paul St. Louis School, principles of human resource management. The managers inform the employees on the ethical and integrity requirements of the organization through the code of ethics (National association of writing Dulwich social workers 2010, Pg 1) .Unethical behavior is punished by the human resource managers while integrity and critical School, ethical behaviors are rewarded relatively. At the websites School, same time, human resource managers consider ethics and integrity in hiring and firing of employees. The organization and paul School, structure of an organization highly depends on ethics and integrity. Essay Writing Dulwich College? With the leaders assuming ethical leadership, the structure must be in a way to pass on these ethical standards from the leaders to the employees and to the customers for critical St. Louis School the sake of maintaining the organizations ethical standards. Decision making in an organization lies with the management and where ethics and integrity are exercised, all are consulted via the relationship in writing site Mountains International School place and conscious decisions are made (Markkkula 2010, Pg1). The future of an elder thinking St. Louis School, organization in the global marker is highly dependant on its goodwill which includes public confidence and trust. These principles come as a result of the presence of ethics and integrity. Lack of them affirms the organizations inexistence in the future.
Integrity and ethics form a very significant part of an organization's success. Although regulatory bodies have set the ethical standards to be adhered by financial service industries, planners and clients have been proved to consistently violate these standards for their own good. There are many benefits derived from the critical thingking & Management, adherence of ethical standards and elder thinking St. Louis, integrity. Alternatively, there are equally many unethical behaviors in review magazine College the financial industry that have yielded adverse effects to these organizations. However there are equally many methods that can be adapted by St. Louis, the financial industries to correct and prevent relapse of these negative effects. Buy Integrity and Ethics essay paper online. My coursework was completed ahead of its given due date, which impressed me a lot. The originality of the essay Sherborne, topic impressed the committee, and its structure and paul critical thinking St. Louis, organization impressed me. The committee approved the dissertation, but after having read it myself, I was not surprised. It was detailed, precise and perfect!
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