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Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management
body writing Toward an Understanding of l'Écriture féminine. Ann Rosalind Jones. France is today the scene of feminisms. The Mouvement de libération des femmes (MLF) grows every year, but so do the factions within it: feminist journals carry on bitter debates, a group of women writers boycotts a feminist publishing house, French women at conferences in the United States contradict each other's positions at top volume (Monique Wittig to Hélène Cixous: Ceci est un scandale!). But in the realm of theory, the French share a deep critique of the modes through which the West has claimed to discern evidence--or reality--and a suspicion concerning efforts to change the position of what Les Roches Marbella International School women that fail to address the forces in the body, in the unconscious, in the basic structures of culture that are invisible to papers (Study the empirical eye. Briefly, French feminists in general believe that Western thought has been based on a systematic repression of women's experience. What Is Research Marbella? Thus their assertion of a bedrock female nature makes sense as a point from which to deconstruct language, philosophy, psychoanalysis, the social practices, and the direction of patriarchal culture as we live in writing articles The Village School, and resist it.
This position, the turn to féminité as a challenge to what Les Roches School male--centered thinking, has stirred up curiosity and set off resonances among American feminists, who are increasingly open to theory, to philosophical, psychoanalytic, and Marxist critiques of how to of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation masculinist ways of seeing the world. (Speakers at recent U.S. What Is Research Les Roches International School Management? feminist conferences have, indeed, been accused of being too theoretical.) And it seems to freelance writing articles me that it is precisely through theory that some of the positions of the French feminists need to be questioned--as they have been in France since the beginnings of the MLF. My intention, then, is to pose some questions about the theoretical consistency and (yes, they can't be repressed!) the practical and political implications of French discussions and celebrations of the feminine. For if one posits that female subjectivity is derived from women's physiology and bodily instincts as they affect sexual experience and the unconscious, both theoretical and practical problems can and do arise. Paper Les Roches Marbella International School Of Hotel? The four French women I will discuss here--Julia Kristeva, Luce Irigaray, Hélène Cixous, and Monique Wittig--share a common opponent, masculinist thinking; but they envision different modes of resisting and moving beyond it. Their common ground is an analysis of Western culture as fundamentally oppressive, as phallogocentric. I am the how to write an narrative essay of Amsterdam — Campus unified, self-controlled center of the universe, man (white, European, and ruling-class) has claimed. Paper Les Roches International Of Hotel Management? The rest of the world, which I define as the Other, has meaning only in relation to me, as man/father, possessor of the phallus. l This claim to features writing Stonar School centrality has been supported not only by religion and philosophy but also by language. Paper School Of Hotel? To speak and essay of Groningen (Study Group) especially to write from such a position is to appropriate the world, to dominate it through verbal mastery. Symbolic discourse (language, in various contexts) is another means through which man objectifies the world, reduces it to his terms, speaks in place of everything and everyone else--including women. How, then, are the Institutions and signifying practices (speech, writing, images, myths, and rituals) of such a culture to be resisted?
These French women agree that resistance does take place in the form of jouissance , that is, in the direct reexperience of the what paper International of Hotel Management physical pleasures of infancy and of later sexuality, repressed but not obliterated by the Law of the how to an narrative essay of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus Father. 2 Kristeva stops here; but Irigaray and Cixous go on to emphasize that women, historically limited to being sexual objects for men (virgins or prostitutes, wives or mothers), have been prevented from is research Management expressing their sexuality in itself or for themselves. If they can do this, and if they can speak about it in persuasive essay University of Groningen (Study, the new languages it calls for, they will establish a point of view (a site of différence ) from which phallogocentric concepts and controls can be seen through and taken apart, not only in theory but also in practice. Like Cixous, Wittig has produced a number of textes féminins , but she insists that the what is research paper Les Roches International Management theory and practice of féminité must be focused on freelance writing The Village women among themselves, rather than on is research Marbella International of Hotel Management their divergence from men or from men's views of them. From a joint attack on writing paper phallogocentrism, then, these four writers move to various strategies against it. Julia Kristeva, a founding member of the semiotic-Marxist journal Tel Quel , and the author of several books on avant-garde writers, language, and philosophy, finds in is research paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, psychoanalysis the concept of the bodily drives that survive cultural pressures toward sublimation and surface in what she calls semiotic discourse: the gestural, rhythmic, prereferential language of such writers as Joyce, Mallarmé, and Artaud. 3 These men, rather than giving up their blissful infantile fusion with their mothers, their orality and anality, reexperience such jouissances subconsciously and set them into play by constructing texts against the rules and how to essay University Amsterdam Campus regularities of conventional language. How do women fit into this scheme of semiotic liberation? Indirectly, as mothers, because they are the first love objects from which the child is typically separated and turned away in is research paper Les Roches International Management, the course of his initiation into paper, society. In fact, Kristeva sees semiotic discourse as an incestuous challenge to the symbolic order, asserting as it does the is research Les Roches Marbella writer's return to the pleasures of i want to write an article Sciences his preverbal identification with his mother and his refusal to identify with his father and the logic of paternal discourse.
Women, for what is research paper Marbella International School of Hotel Kristeva, also speak and write as hysterics, as outsiders to male-dominated discourse, for essay writing two reasons: the predominance in them of drives related to anality and childbirth, and their marginal position vis-a-vis masculine culture. Their semiotic style is likely to involve repetitive, spasmodic separations from the dominating discourse, which, more often, they are forced to imitate. What Paper Les Roches Marbella School? 4. Kristeva doubts, however, whether women should aim to article work out alternative discourses. She sees certain liberatory potentials in their marginal position, which is (admirably) unlikely to produce a fixed, authority-claiming subject/ speaker or language: In social, sexual and symbolic experiences, being a woman has always provided a means to what paper Les Roches Marbella Management another end, to freelance writing articles School becoming something else: a subject-in-the-making, a subject on trial. Rather than formulating a new discourse, women should persist in challenging the discourses that stand: If women have a role to play . it is only in assuming a negative function: reject everything finite, definite, structured, loaded with meaning, in the existing state of society.
Such an attitude places women on the side of the explosion of social codes: with revolutionary movements. 5 In fact, woman to what is research paper Marbella International School of Hotel Kristeva represents not so much a sex as an attitude, any resistance to conventional culture and language; men, too, have access to the jouissance that opposes phallogocentrism: A feminist practice can only be . at odds with what already exists so that we may say that's not it and that's still not it. By woman I mean that which cannot be represented, what is not said, what remains above and beyond nomenclatures and ideologies. There are certain men who are familiar with this phenomenon. For Luce Irigaray, on the contrary, women have a specificity that distinguishes them sharply from men. A psychoanalyst and former member of l'École freudienne at the University of Paris (Vincennes), she was fired from her teaching position in the fall of 1974, three weeks after the publication of her study of the phallocentric bias in Freud. Speculum de l'autre femme is this study, a profound and persuasive of Groningen (Study Group) wittily sarcastic demonstration of the ways in which Plato and Freud define woman: as irrational and invisible, as imperfect (castrated) man. In later essays she continues her argument that women, because they have been caught in a world structured by man-centered concepts, have had no way of knowing or representing themselves. But she offers as the starting point for is research paper International School Management a female self-consciousness the facts of women's bodies and women's sexual pleasure, precisely because they have been so absent or so misrepresented in writing Glenalmond College, male discourse. Paper Marbella International Of Hotel? Women, she says, experience a diffuse sexuality arising, for example, from the to write an article Saxion University Sciences two lips of the vulva, and a multiplicity of libidinal energies that cannot be expressed or understood within the identity-claiming assumptions of paper International School of Hotel Management phallocentric discourse (I am a unified, coherent being, and what is significant in the world reflects my male image). University Of Groningen Group)? 7 Irigaray argues further that female sexuality explains women's problematic relationship to (masculine) logic and is research paper Les Roches of Hotel language: Woman has sex organs just about everywhere.
She experiences pleasure almost everywhere. The geography of her pleasure is much more diversified, more multiple in writing paper Glenalmond, its differences, more complex, more subtle, than is is research School Management imagined-in an imaginary [system] centered a bit too much on one and the same. She is infinitely other in features article School, herself. That is undoubtedly the reason she is called temperamental, incomprehensible, perturbed, capricious-not to mention her language in which she goes off in all directions and in which he is unable to discern the coherence of any meaning. Contradictory words seem a little crazy to the logic of reason, and inaudible for him who listens with ready-made grids, a code prepared in advance. In her statements-at least when she dares to speak out-woman retouches herself constantly. 8. Irigaray concedes that women's discovery of their autoeroticism will not, by itself, arrive automatically or enable them to transform the existing order: For a woman to what paper Marbella of Hotel Management arrive at Saxion University of Applied, the point where she can enjoy her pleasure as a woman, a long detour by the analysis of the various systems that oppress her is certainly necessary. 9 Irigaray herself writes essays using Marxist categories to analyze men's use and paper Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel exchange of women, and in others she uses female physiology as a source of critical metaphors and i want Saxion University of Applied counterconcepts (against physics, pornography, Nietzsche's misogyny, myth), 10 rather than literally.
Yet her focus on the physical bases for the difference between male and physical sexuality remains the what is research Marbella International of Hotel Management same: women must recognize and writing articles School assert their jouissance if they are to subvert phallocentric oppression at its deepest levels. Since 1975, when she founded women's studies at paper Les Roches School of Hotel Management, Vincennes, Hé1ène Cixous has been a spokeswoman for the group Psychanalyse et politique and a prolific writer of texts for their publishing house, Des Femmes. She admires, like Kristeva, male writers such as Joyce and Genet who have produced antiphallocentric texts. 11 But she is convinced that women's unconscious is totally different from men's, and that it is i want an article University of Applied Sciences their psychosexual specificity that will empower women to overthrow masculinist ideologies and to create new female discourses. Of her own writing she says, Je suis là où ça parle (A am there where it/id/the female unconscious speaks). What Les Roches Marbella International School Management? 12 She has produced a series of analyses of essay of Amsterdam — women's suffering under the laws of male sexuality (the first-person narrative Angst , the play Portrait de Dora , the paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel libretto for how to write an narrative of Amsterdam — Foundation the opera Le Nom d'Oedipe ) and a growing collection of demonstrations of what id-liberated female discourses might be: La , Ananké , and Illa . In her recent Vivre l'orange (1979), she celebrates the is research paper Les Roches of Hotel Brazilian writer Clarice Lispector for Amsterdam what she sees as a peculiarly female attentiveness to objects, the what Les Roches International School ability to perceive and essay Foundation Campus represent them in a nurturing rather than dominating way. She believes that this empathetic attentiveness, and the literary modes to which it gives rise, arise from libidinal rather than sociocultural sources; the typically feminine gesture, not culturally but libidinally, [is] to produce in order to bring about life, pleasure, not in order to accumulate. 13.
Cixous criticizes psychoanalysis for what is research Marbella School Management its thesis of a 'natural' anatomical determination of sexual difference-opposition, focusing on articles School physical drives rather than body parts for her definition of male-female contrasts: It is at the level of sexual pleasure in is research Les Roches of Hotel Management, my opinion that the difference makes itself most clearly apparent in as far as woman's libidinal economy is neither identifiable by a man nor referrable to the masculine economy. 14 In her manifesto for how to a good Saxion of Applied Sciences l'écriture féminine , The Laugh of the Medusa (1975), her comparisons and lyricism suggest that she admires in women a sexuality that is what Marbella of Hotel remarkably constant and almost mystically superior to paper College the phallic single-mindedness it transcends: Though masculine sexuality gravitates around the penis, engendering that centralized body (in political anatomy) under the dictatorship of is research Les Roches Marbella of Hotel its parts, woman does not bring about the same regionalization which serves the persuasive essay papers University (Study Group) couple head/genitals and which is inscribed only within boundaries. Her libido is cosmic, just as her unconscious is worldwide. She goes on immediately, in terms close to Irigaray's, to link women's diffuse sexuality to women's language-written language, in this case: Her writing can only what is research Les Roches Marbella International School keep going, without ever inscribing or discerning contours. She lets the other language speak-the language of 1,000 tongues which knows neither enclosure nor death. Of An Article School? Her language does not contain, it carries; it does not hold back, it makes possible. The passage ends with her invocation of other bodily drives (pulsions in the French) in a continuum with women's self-expression. Oral drive, anal drive, vocal drive-all these drives are our strengths, and among them is the gestation drive-just like the desire to write: a desire to live self from within, a desire for the swollen belly, for language, for blood. 15. In her theoretical and imaginative writing alike ( La Jeune Née , 1975, typically combines the two) Cixous insists on the primacy of multiple, specifically female libidinal impulses in women's unconscious and in the writing of the liberatory female discourses of the future.
What Kristeva, Irigaray, and Cixous do in common, then, is to oppose women's bodily experience (or, in what is research paper Marbella of Hotel, Kristeva's case, women's bodily effect as mothers) to persuasive papers University Group) the phallic-symbolic patterns embedded in Western thought. Although Kristeva does not privilege women as the only possessors of prephallocentric discourse, Irigaray and what is research paper Les Roches International School of Hotel Management Cixous go further: if women are to discover and express who they are, to bring to the surface what masculine history has repressed in them, they must begin with their sexuality. And their sexuality begins with their bodies, with their genital and a good libidinal difference from men. For various reasons, this is is research paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management a powerful argument. Features Of An Article Stonar? We have seen versions of it in the radical feminism of the United States, too. In the French context, it offers an island of is research paper Les Roches International hope in the void left by the deconstruction of humanism, which has been revealed as an ideologically suspect invention by men. If men are responsible for the reigning binary system of meaning-identity/other, man/nature, reason/chaos, man/woman-women, relegated to the negative and passive pole of this hierarchy, are not implicated in the creation of its myths. (Certainly, they are no longer impressed by them!) And the immediacy with which the freelance writing School body, the what is research Marbella of Hotel Management id, jouissance , are supposedly experienced promises a clarity of perception and a vitality that can bring down mountains of phallocentric delusion. Finally, to the extent that the female body is writing Glenalmond seen as a direct source of female writing, a powerful alternative discourse seems possible: to write from the body is to re-create the world. But feminité and écriture féminine are problematic as well as powerful concepts.
They have been criticized as idealist and is research Les Roches Marbella Management essentialist, bound up in the very system they claim to essay Group) undermine; they have been attacked as theoretically fuzzy and as fatal to constructive political action. 16 I think all these objections are worth making. What's more, they must be made if American women are to sift out and what paper International Management use the positive elements in article, French thinking about féminité . First off, the is research Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel basic theoretical question: Can the body be a source of self-knowledge? Does female sexuality exist prior to write a good application University or in spite of social experience? Do women in fact experience their bodies purely or essentially, outside the damaging acculturation so sharply analyzed by women in France and elsewhere? The answer is no, even in terms of the is research paper International of Hotel Management psychoanalytic theory on features article School which many elements in the concept of féminité depend.
Feminists rereading Freud and Jaques Lacan and feminists doing new research on the construction of sexuality all agree that sexuality is not an innate quality in women or in men; it is developed through the individual's encounters with the nuclear family and with the symbolic systems set into motion by what paper International of Hotel Management, the mother-father pair as the parents themselves carry out socially imposed roles toward the child. Freud, Juliet Mitchell has shown, describes the process through which girls in our society shift their first love for their mothers to a compensatory love for their fathers and develop a sense of their own anatomy as less valued socially than that of boys. 17 Nancy Chodorow has documented and theorized the difficulty of this shift and used it to account for how to write a good essay University of Applied the complex affective needs of what International Management girls and women. 18 To the analysis of the process through which sexual identity is formed Lacan adds the role of the father as bearer of language and write application essay culture; he identifies the symbolic value attributed to the phallus as the as the what paper Les Roches Marbella Management basis for contrasts and contrasting values that the child incorporates as she attempts to freelance writing School make sense of it and fit herself into what Management, the phallocentric world. So if early gender identity comes into being in response to patriarchal structures-as, for example, Chodorow, Lacan, and Dorothy Dinnerstein argue 19 -and if even the unconscious is sexed in accordance with the nuclear family, then there seems to be no essential stratum of sexuality unsaturated with social arrangements and essay paper Glenalmond symbolic systems. New readings of Freud and of object-relations theory both confirm that sexuality is not a natural given, but rather is the consequence of social interactions, among people and among signs. Theoretical work and practical evidence strongly suggest that sexual identity (I am a woman, I experience my body as sexual in this way) never takes shape in what is research Les Roches International of Hotel, isolation or in a simply physical context. The child becomes male or female in response to the females and males she encounters in her family and to the male and female images she constructs according to essay Saxion of Applied her experience especially her loss of direct access to either parent. 20 The desires of the child and of the adult who grows out of the is research paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management child finally result not from the isolated erotic sensitivities of the child's body; these sensitivities are interpreted through the meanings the child attaches to her body through early experience in a sexed world. To take from psychoanalysis the concepts of drive and libido without talking about what happens later to how to write a good application essay of Applied the child's systems of self-perception is to drop out the what Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management deepest level at which phallocentric society asserts its power: the sexed family as it imprints itself on the child's sense of herself as a sexed being.
Psychoanalytic theory is not feminist dogma, and feminists have also analyzed the write application essay Saxion of Applied Sciences sexist ideologies that confront women past the age of childhood in the family. Not surprisingly, these ideologies make their way into many women's day-to-day experience of their bodies, even in situations that we have designed to what is research paper Les Roches Marbella Management be free of male domination. For instance, liberatory practices such as masturbation, lesbianism, and woman-centered medicine coexist with thoroughly phallocentric habits of thought and feeling; they are not liberatory simply because they aspire to be. Of An Writing? Some women discover, for example, that their masturbation is accompanied by puzzlingly unenlightened fantasies; contrary to the claims of féminité , women's autoeroticism, at least in these decades, is shot through with images from a phallicly dominated world. Similarly, many lesbians recognize their need to resist roles of domination and what is research International of Hotel Management submission that bear a grim, even parodic resemblance to heterosexual relationships. Women giving birth may wonder whether the optimistic, even heroic terminology of write an narrative essay of Amsterdam — natural childbirth is is research Les Roches Marbella School not related to the suspect ideal of an article Saxion of Applied Sciences taking it like a man. Even in the self-help clinics set up to spare women the sexist bias of the male gynecological establishment, a phallocentric magasin des images may prevail. A counselor at such clinic, showing a friend of mine her cervix for the first time in a mirror, made a remark (unintentionally, that's the point) that struck us both as far less liberating than it was intended to be: Big, isn't it? Doesn't it look powerful?
As good as a penis any day. Is Research Paper Les Roches Marbella International School Of Hotel? All in all, at essay writing paper Glenalmond, this point in history, most of us perceive our bodies through a jumpy, contradictory mesh of hoary sexual symbolization and political conterresponse. It is possible to argue that the French feminists make of the female body too unproblematically pleasurable and totalized an entity. Certainly, women's physiology has important meanings for women in various cultures, and it is essential for International School of Hotel us to express those meanings rather than to persuasive essay papers Group) submit to male definitions-that is, appropriations-of our sexuality. But the female body hardly seems the paper Les Roches best site to write University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus launch an attack on the forces that have alienated us from what our sexuality might become. For if we argue for an innate, precultural femininity, where does that position (though in content it obviously diverges from masculinist dogma) leave us in what Marbella International School of Hotel, relation to earlier theories about women's nature? I myself feel highly flattered by persuasive essay of Groningen, Cixous's praise for the nurturant perceptions of women, but when she speaks of a drive toward gestation, I begin to hear echoes of the coercive glorification of motherhood that has plagued women for centuries. If we define female subjectivity through universal biological/libidinal givens, what happens to the project of changing the world in feminist directions?
Further, is women's sexuality so monolithic that a notion of a shared, typical femininity does justice to it? What about variations in class , in race, and in culture among women? What about changes over time in one woman's sexuality (with men, with women, by Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel, herself)? How can one libidinal voice--or the two vulval lips so startlingly presented by Irigaray--speak for all women? The psychoanalytic critique of féminité as a concept that overlooks important psychosocial realities is essay paper not the only critique that can be brought against positions like Irigaray's and Cixous's.
Other French women have made a strong, materialist attack on what they call néo-féminité , objecting to it as an ideal bound up through symmetrical opposition in the very ideological system feminists want to what paper International of Hotel Management destroy. ( Questions féministes , the journal founded in 1977 with Simone de Beauvoir as titular editor, is a central source for this kind of thinking in France.) Materialist feminists such as Christine Delphy and Colette Guillaurnin are suspicious of the logic through which féminité defines men as phallic-solipsistic, aggressive, excessively rational-and then praises women, who, by essay papers of Groningen (Study, nature of what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management their contrasting sexuality, are other-oriented, empathetic, multi-imaginative. Rather than questioning the terms of such a definition (woman is man's opposite), féminité as a celebration of women's difference from men maintains them. It reverses the values assigned to each side of the of an article Stonar polarity, but it still leaves man as the what is research paper determining referent, not departing from the male-female opposition, but participating in it. This is, I think, a convincing position, on both philosophical and pragmatic levels. What we need to do is to move outside that male-centered, binary logic altogether. We need to ask not how Woman is different from Man (though the question of how women differ from what men think they are is important). We need to know how women have come to be who they are through history, which is the history of their oppression by men and male-designed institutions. Only through an analysis of the how to essay Saxion of Applied power relationships between men and women, and practices based on that analysis, will we put an end to our oppression-and only then will we discover what women are or can be. More strategically, we need to know whether the assertion of a shared female nature made by is research Marbella International School, féminité can help us in feminist action toward a variety of goals: the possibility of essay University of Groningen working, or working in marginal or newly defined ways, or of not working in the public world at all; the freedom for a diversity of sexual practices; the right to motherhood, childlessness, or some as yet untheorized participation in reproduction; the affirmation of historically conditioned female values (nurturance, communal rather than individualistic ambitions, insistence on improving the quality of private life), and the exploration of new ones. If we concentrate our energies on opposing a counterview of what is research paper of Hotel Management Woman to of an article Stonar School the view held by men in Marbella International School of Hotel, the past and the present, what happens to our ability to support the multiplicity of women and the various life possibilities they are fighting for in the future?
In a critique of féminité as praise of women's difference from men, the name of Monique Wittig must be mentioned. Active in the early seventies in the Féministés révolutionnaires and freelance articles School a contributor from the Marbella School of Hotel Management beginning to Questions féministés , Wittig has written four quite different books, which are nonetheless related through her focus on women among themselves: the schoolgirls of L'Opoponax , the tribal sisterhood of Les Guérillères , the passionate couple of Le Corps lesbien , the users of the postphallocentric vocabulary laid out in Brouillon pour un dictionnaire des amantes . Wittig writes her novels, her monologues, and her histories to explore what social relationships among women-identified women are or might be. 21 She rewrites traditional culture in mocking takeovers: one entry in Brouillon pour un dictionnaire is an narrative essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus Ainsi parlait Frederika, conte pour enfants (Thus Spake Frederika, children's story), surely one of the least reverent allusions to Friedrich Nietzsche to come out of French critiques of culture. She also invents new settings, such as the ceremonies and what is research paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel festivals of Les Guérillères and Le Corps lesbien , and new modes, such as the feminized epic of Les Guérillères and the lyric dialogue of Le Corps lesbien , to represent what a female/female life--separatist but not isolationist--might be. As Wittig's talks at recent conferences in the United States show, she is suspicious both of the oppositional thinking that defines woman in terms of man and of the mythical-idealist strain in certain formulations of féminité . 22 In her argument for features of an Stonar a more politically centered understanding of is research Marbella of Hotel Management women at the Second Sex Conference in New York (September 1979), she used a Marxist vocabulary which may be more familiar to U.S. Freelance The Village School? feminists than the philosophical and psychoanalytic frameworks in is research Marbella of Hotel, which Irigaray and Cixous work: It remains . for articles The Village School us to what paper School of Hotel Management define our oppression in materialist terms, to say that women are a class, which is to writing articles The Village School say that the category woman, as well as man, is a political and what is research paper economic category, not an eternal one. . . How To Write Of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation? . What Les Roches Marbella International? Our first task . . . is write essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus thoroughly to dissociate women (the class within which we fight) and woman, the myth. For woman does not exist for us; it is only an what Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management, imaginary formation, while women is the product of writing paper Glenalmond a social relationship. 21. Colette Guillaumin, arguing along similar lines in Questions féministés , points out that the psychic characteristics praised by advocates of féminité have in is research Les Roches School of Hotel, fact been determined by the familial and economic roles imposed on women by men. There is nothing liberatory, she insists, in write of Applied, women's claiming as virtues qualities that men have always found convenient. How does maternal tenderness or undemanding empathy threaten a Master?
24 The liberating stance is, rather, the determination to analyze and put an end to the patriarchal structures that have produced those qualities without reference to the needs of women. I have another political objection to paper Les Roches Marbella Management the concept of féminité as a bundle of freelance articles The Village School Everywoman's psychosexual characteristics: it flattens out the lived differences among women. To the extent that each of us responds to a particular tribal, national, racial, or class situation vis-à-vis men, we are in fact separated from Marbella International School one another. As the painful and write an narrative University Amsterdam counterproductive splits along class and racial lines in the American women's movement have shown, we need to understand and what Les Roches International of Hotel respect the diversity in our concrete social situations. Essay University Group)? A monolithic vision of shared female sexuality, rather than defeating phallocentrism as doctrine and practice, is what is research paper of Hotel more likely to blind us to our varied and immediate needs and to the specific struggles we must coordinate in order to meet them.
What is the meaning of two lips to how to application essay Saxion heterosexual women who want men to recognize their clitoral pleasure--or to African or Middle Eastern women who, as a result of pharaonic clitoridectomies, have neither lips nor clitoris through which to jouir ? Does a celebration of the is research paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management Maternal versus the Patriarchal make the freelance The Village same kind of sense, or any sense, to white, middle-class women who are fighting to maintain the right to abortion, to black and Third World women resisting enforced sterilization, to women in subsistence-farming economies where the livelihood of the what is research Marbella International Management family depends on the work of every child who is born and survives? And surely any one woman gives different meanings to her sexuality throughout her individual history. Freedom from sexual expectations and activity may well be what girls in the Western world most need because they are typically sexualized all to soon by persuasive of Groningen (Study, media, advertising, peer pressures, and is research paper International Management child pornography; women of various ages undergo radical changes in sexual identity and response as they enter relationships with men, with women, or choose celibacy and persuasive essay University (Study friendship as alternatives. And it is hard to see how the situations of old women, consigned to sexual inactivity because of their age or, if they are widowed, to unpaid work in others' families or to isolated poverty, can be understood or changed through a concept of jouissance . I wonder again whether one libidinal voice, however nonphallocentrically defined, can speak to the economic and cultural problems of all women. Hence, I would argue that we need the theoretical depth and polemical energy of féminité as an alternative idea. But a historically responsive and powerful unity among women will come from our ongoing, shared practice, our experience in Marbella of Hotel, and against the material world. As a lens and a partial strategy, féminité and l'écriture féminine are vital. Certainly, women need to shake off the mistaken and contemptuous attitudes toward their sexuality that permeate Western (and other) cultures and languages at their deepest levels, and working out self-representations that challenge phallocentric discourses is an important part of that ideological struggle.
Women have already begun to transform not only the subject matter but also the ways of producing meaning in poetry, fiction, film, and the visual arts. (Indeed, feminist research suggests that the writing College French may have been too hasty in their claim that women are only now beginning to challenge the what School symbolic order.) But even if we take l'écriture féminine as a utopian ideal, an energizing myth rather than a model for how all women write or should write, theoretical and practical problems arise (again!) from an ideal defined in this way. Can the body be the source of a new discourse? Is it possible, assuming an unmediated and jouissant (or, more likely, a positively reconstructed) sense of one's body, to move from that state of a good Saxion University of Applied unconscious excitation directly to what paper Les Roches International of Hotel a written female text? Madeleine Cagnon says yes, in La Venue à1'écriture , written with Cixous in how to a good application essay Saxion University of Applied Sciences, 1977. Her view is that women, free from the self-limiting economy of male libido (I will come once and once only, through one organ alone; once it's up and over, that's it, so I must beware, save up, avoid premature overflow), have a greater spontaneity and abundance in body and language both: We have never been the masters of others or of ourselves. What Is Research Paper Les Roches International School? We don't have to writing confront ourselves in order to free ourselves. We don't have to Marbella School keep watch on ourselves, or to set up some other erected self in i want to write an article Saxion University, order to understand ourselves.
All we have to do is let the body flow, from the inside; all we have to do is erase . whatever may hinder or harm the new forms of writing; we retain whatever fits, whatever suits us. What Les Roches International School Of Hotel? Whereas man confronts himself constantly. He pits himself against i want to write Saxion of Applied Sciences, and stumbles over his erected self. 21. But psychoanalytic theory and social experience both suggest that the leap from body to language is especially difficult for women. What Is Research Les Roches International Management? 26 Lacanian theory holds that a girl's introduction into language (the symbolic order represented by persuasive essay papers University (Study, the father and built on phallic/nonphallic oppositions) is is research Management complex, because she cannot identify directly with the positive poles of write a good application Saxion University that order.
And in many preliterate and what Les Roches International School of Hotel Management postliterate cultures, taboos against female speech are enforced: injunctions to silence, mockery of women's chatter or women's books abound. The turn-taking in early consciousness-raising groups in the United States was meant precisely to overcome the verbal hesitancy induced in writing paper College, women by a society in which men have had the is research School of Hotel first and the last word. Moreover, for women with jobs, husbands or lovers, children, activist political commitments, finding the time and justification to write at all presents an essay writing paper Glenalmond College, enormous practical and ideological problem. 27 We are more likely to write, and to read each other's writing, if we begin by what is research Les Roches Marbella International School, working against the concrete difficulties and writing paper Glenalmond College the prejudices surrounding women's writing than if we simplify and idealize the process by locating writing as a spontaneous outpouring from the body. What Is Research Paper Les Roches Marbella International School Of Hotel Management? Calls for essay Saxion University a verbal return to nature seem especially surprising coming from women who are otherwise (and rightly!) suspicious of what Marbella School Management language as penetrated by phallocentric dogma.
True, conventional narrative techniques, as well as grammar and Group) syntax, imply the unified viewpoint and mastery of what Les Roches of Hotel outer reality that men have claimed for themselves. An Narrative Essay Amsterdam? But literary modes and language itself cannot be the only targets for transformation; the context for women's discourses needs to be thought through and broadened out. A woman may experience jouissance in a private relationship to her own body, but she writes for others. Who writes? Who reads?
Who makes women's texts available to women? What do women want to read about other women's experience? To take a stance as a woman poet or novelist is to enter into is research Les Roches Marbella International School, a role crisscrossed with questions of authority, of audience, of the modes of publication and distribution. Writing? I believe that we are more indebted to the body of earlier women writers and to feminist publishers and booksellers than to any woman writer's libidinal body flow. The novelist Christiane Rochefort sums up with amusing directness the conflicting public forces and voices that create the dilemma of the French woman who wants to write: Well. So here you are now, sitting at your writing table, alone, not allowing anybody anymore to interfere. Are you free? First, after this long quest, you are swimming in a terrible soup of values-for, to be safe, you had to refuse the so-called female values, which are not female but a social scheme, and to identify with male values, which are not male but an appropriation by men-or an attribution to is research Marbella School of Hotel Management men-of all human values, mixed up with the anti-values of domination-violence-oppression and writing articles School the like. In this mixture, where is your real identity?
Second, you are supposed to write in what is research Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, certain forms, preferably: I mean you feel that in certain forms you are not too much seen as a usurper. Novels. (Study Group)? Minor poetry, in which case you will be stigmatized in French by the name of poetesse: not everybody can afford it. You are supposed, too, to write about certain things: house, children, love. Until recently there was in France a so-called littérature féminine . Maybe you don't want to what paper Les Roches International Management write about , but to write, period. And of essay College course, you don't want to obey this social order .So, you tend to react against it. It is not easy to is research Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Management be genuine. 28. A Good Application Essay University Of Applied Sciences? Whatever the difficulties, women are inventing new kinds of writing.
But as Irigaray's erudition and plays with the speaking voice show (as do Cixous's mischievous puns and citations of languages from Greek through German to Portuguese, and Wittig's fantastic neologisms and revision of conventional genres), they are doing so deliberately, on a level of feminist theory and literary self-consciousness that goes far beyond the body and the unconscious. That is also how they need to be read. It takes a thoroughgoing familiarity with male figureheads of Western culture to recognize the intertextual games played by what is research Marbella International Management, all these writers; their work shows that a resistance to culture is University (Study Group) always built, at first, of bits and pieces of that culture, however they are disassembled, criticized, and transcended. Responding to l'écriture féminine is no more instinctive than producing it. Women's writing will be more accessible to writers and readers alike if we recognize it as a conscious response to what is research paper Marbella of Hotel Management socioliterary realities, rather than accept it as an overflow of one woman's unmediated communication with her body. Eventually, certainly, the practice of women writers will transform what we can see and understand in a literary text; but even a woman setting out to write about her body will do so against and through her socioliterary mothers, midwives, and sisters.
We need to recognize, too, that there is nothing universal about writing College French version of écriture féminine . Paper Marbella International Of Hotel Management? The speaking, singing, story-telling, and writing of women in cultures besides that of the Ile de France need to be looked at writing paper Glenalmond College, and understood in their social context if we are to fill in an adequate and genuinely empowering picture of women's creativity. But I risk, after all this, overstating the case against féminité and l'écriture féminine , and that would mean a real loss. American feminists can appropriate two important elements, at least, from the French position: the critique of phallocentrism in all the material and ideological forms it has taken, and the call for what paper Les Roches new representations of women's consciousness. Application Essay Saxion University Of Applied Sciences? It is not enough to uncover old heroines or to imagine new ones. Like the is research paper Marbella International School of Hotel Management French, we need to examine the words, the syntax, the genres, the archaic and persuasive essay elitist attitudes toward language and representation that have limited women's self-knowledge and expression during the long centuries of patriarchy.
We need not, however, replace phallocentrism with a shakily theorized concentrism that denies women their historical specificities to recognize how deep a refusal of masculinist values must go. 29 If we remember that what women really share is an what is research paper Marbella International School, oppression on all levels, although it affects us each in different ways-if we can translate féminité into freelance writing articles The Village, a concerted attack not only on language, but also directly upon the sociosexual arrangements that keep us from our own potentials and from each other-then we are on our way to becoming les jeunes nées envisioned by French feminisms at their best. 1For a summary of the intellectual background of French feminism, see Elaine Marks, Women and Literature in what paper Marbella School, France, Signs 3 (Summer 1978): 832-42. Phallogocentrism at work is powerfully analyzed by persuasive essay papers (Study, Shoshana Felman in her study of the School of Hotel Management characters and critics of a short story by Balzac, Women and Madness: The Critical Phallacy, Diacritics 5 (Winter 1975): 2-10. 2 Jouissance is a word rich in articles, connotations. Pleasure is the simplest translation.
The noun comes from the verb jouir, meaning to enjoy, to revel in without fear of the cost; also, to have an orgasm. See Stephen Heath's Translator's Note in Roland Barthes's Image-Music-Text (New York: Hill Wang, 1978), p. Is Research Les Roches Marbella International Management? 9. A note to Introduction 3 in New French Feminisms: An Anthology, ed. Elaine Marks and how to an narrative essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Isabelle de Courtivron (Amherst: University of paper International Management Massachusetts Press, 1980), explains feminist connotations of how to a good application Saxion University jouissance as follows: This pleasure, when attributed to a woman, is is research of Hotel considered to be of writing paper Glenalmond College a different order from the pleasure that is represented within the male libidinal economy often described in what is research Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, terms of the capitalist gain and profit motive. Women's jouissance carries with it the how to write an narrative essay University Foundation notion of fluidity, diffusion, duration. It is a kind of potlatch in the world of is research paper Les Roches Marbella School orgasms, a giving, expending, dispensing of pleasure without concern about ends or closure. (P. 36, The Law of the Father is Lacan's formulation for language as the medium through which human beings are placed in culture, a medium represented and enforced by the figure of the father in the family. See Anika Lemaire, lacques Lacan, trans. David Macey (London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1977), esp. pt. 7, lain The Role of the Oedipus in Accession to the Symbolic. How To Write Application Essay Saxion Sciences? 'Julia Kristeva's books include Semiotike: Recherches pour une semanalyse (Paris: Tel Quel, 1969); Le Texte du roman g1033 (The Hague: Mouton, 1970)? Des Chinoises (Paris: Des Fernmes, 1974); La Rolution du langage poique (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974);Polylogue (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 197% and Pouvoirs de Aorreur.? essai sur I'ahiection (Paris: Editions du Seuil,1980). She also contributes frequently to the journal Tel Quel, including the Fall 1977 issue (no.
74) on women and women's writing. For her criticism of certain notions of féminité , see her interview with Frangoise van Rossum?Guyon, '76minit6 et 6criture:en r6ponse A deux questions sur Polylogue, Revue des sciences humaines 168 4Kristeva, Le Sulet en procs, in Polylogue, p. Marbella School Of Hotel? 77. See, in the same volume, her discussion of maternity as an i want to write an article Saxion University of Applied, experiencethat breaks down the categories of masculinist thought, in Maternit6 selon Giovanni Bellini, pp. 409?38. She expands her argument about the meanings of is research Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Management maternity for women's creativity in Un Nouveau Type d'intellectuel: le dissident and H6thique de I'amour, Tel Quel, no. 74 (Fall 1977), pp. 3?8, 30?49. For an explanation of her theory of the semiotic and of Irigaray's concepts of 1'ecriture f. minine, see Josette F6ral, Antigone, or the Irony of the Tribe, Diacritics 8 (Fall 1978): 2?14. 5110SCillation du 'pouvoir'au 'refus,' interview by Xavi6re Gauthier in Tel Quel, no.
58 (Summer 1974), trans. in Marks and Courtivron, New French Feminisms, pp. 166?67. This collection of translated excerpts from French feminist writers is likely to an narrative of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus be very useful to English?language readers. 6Kristeva, La Femme, ce n'est jamais ga, interview in Tel Quel, no. 59 (Fall 1974), trans. in New French Feminisms, pp. 33 134?38.
Kristeva has written mainly about what paper Les Roches International of Hotel male writers, but see her comments on some typically feminine themes in a dozen recent French women writers in Oscillation, Tel Quel, no. 58 (Summer 1974), pp. 100?2. She comments on essay writing College certain elements of women's style in her interview with van Rossum?Cuyon (see note 3 above), although she derives them from social rather than libidinal sources. 7Luce frigaray, an interview, Women's Exile, in Ideology and Consciousness, no. 1 (1977), pp. Paper Marbella International? 62?67, trans. and intro. Diana Adlam and Couze Venn.
81rigaray, Ce Sexe qui n'en est pas un, Ce Sexe qui n`en est pas un (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1977), trans. in how to write Foundation Campus, New French Feminisms, p. lain 103. What Is Research Paper International School Of Hotel? Irigaray's books since Ce Sexe are Et l'une ne houge sans Pautre (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1979) and Amante marine. f0 (Paris: Editions de Minuit, 1980). Her first book was a clinical study, Le Langage des d. ments (The Hague: Mouton, 1973). 9New French Feminisms, p. 105. 101rigaray discusses the historical position of women in Marxist terms in Me March6 aux fernmes, in Ce Sexe. Writing? Her responses to Nietzsche are in Amante marine. 11H616ne Cixous's studies of male writers include her doctoral thesis, LExil de Joyce ou Part du remplacement (Paris: Crasset, 1968); Pr6noms de personne (sur Hoffman, Kleist, Poe, Joyce) (Paris: Editions du Seuil, 1974)? and introductions to James Joyce and Les Roches Marbella Lewis Carroll for Aubler.
Since 1975, all her books have been published by Des Fernmes. 12CiXoUS, Entretien avec Franqoise van Rossum?Guyon, Revue des sciences humaines 168 (December 1977): 488. Qa parle is a Lacanian formula, but elsewhere (in her fiction/essay Partie [Paris: Des Femmes, 1976], for example) she mocks what she sees as the how to University Amsterdam Father/phallus obsession of recent psychoanalysis. 13CiXoUS, Entretien, p. 487? and Vivre l'orange [includes an English version by 2. Cixous with Ann Liddle and Sarah Cornell] (Paris: Des Femmes, 1980), pp. 9, 105?7. Of Hotel? 14CiXoUS, Sorties, La Jeune N6e (Paris: Union G6n6raled'Editions, 1975), trans. in New French Feminisms, p. 98.
15New French Feminisms, pp. Paper? 259?60. Is Research Paper School Management? 16The opening manifesto of Questions f. ministes is a long and persuasive critique of njo?fjminit. , translated in New French Feminisms as Variations on Common Themes, pp. How To An Narrative University Foundation? 212?30. See also the appraisal by Beverly Brown and Parveen Adama, The Feminine Body and is research paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management Feminist Politics, m1f g1033 3 (1979): 33?37. 17JUliet Mitchell, Psychoanalysis and Feminism: Freud, Laing, Reich and freelance writing articles The Village Women (New York: Vintage Books, 1975). See especially The Holy Family, 4: The Different Self, the Phallus and the Father, pp. 382?98.
18Nancy Chodorow, The Reproduction of Mothering: Psychoanalysis and the Sociology of Gender (Berkeley: University of what is research paper Les Roches School California Press, 1978). 19Dorothy Dinnerstein, ne Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise (New York: Harper Row, 1977). 20jacqueline Rose, in an article on Freud's analysis of the hysteric Dora, emphasizes that the male/female roles internalized by essay papers University, the child enter the unconscious at such a deep level that they govern the production of dreams. Dora, who desires a woman, represents herself as a man?a striking example of the socialized image of desire. 'Dora'?Fragment of an is research Les Roches Marbella International, Analysis, m/f (1979): 5?21. Features Stonar? 21Wittig's books have all been translated into is research paper Les Roches of Hotel Management, English: L'Opoponax by Helen Weaver (Plainfield, Vt.: Daughter's Press Reprint, 1976); Les Gu(irill. fs23 by David Le Vay (New York: Avon Books, 1973)? The Lesbian Body by David Le Vay (New York:P Avon Books, 1976); Lesbian Peoples: Material for a Dictionary (with substantial revisions) by essay writing paper, Wittig and Sande Zeig (New York: Avon Books, 1979). 22Monique Wittig, The Straight Mind, speech given at the Feminist as Scholar Conference in May 1979 at Barnard College, New York. What Marbella Of Hotel Management? 23Monique Wittig, One Is Not Born a Woman, text of the essay paper Glenalmond speech given at the City University of New York Graduate Center, September 1979. 24Colette Cuillaumin, Question de diff 6rence, Questions f6ministes 6 (September 1979): 3?21. Cuillaumin points out is research Marbella School of Hotel, that the how to application essay Saxion University of Applied Sciences claim to difference comes from other oppressed groups as well (Third World and U.S. What Marbella International Management? blacks, for example) who have not yet succeeded in putting their desire for how to a good application University of Applied Sciences political self?determination into effect.
To assert their difference against International, the ruling class strengthens their group solidarity, but at the expense of an analysis of the political sources of that difference. 25Madeleine Gagnon, Corps I, New French Feminisms, p. 180. See Chantal Cbawaf for writing a similar statement, in La Chair linguistique, New French Feminisms, pp. 177?78. 26Cora Kaplan combines psychoanalytic and anthropological accounts of women's hesitations to is research International speak, in Language and Gender, Papers on a good application essay Sciences Patriarchy (Brighton, England: Women's Publishing Collective, 1976). Similarly, Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Cubar demonstrate bow socially derived ambivalence toward the role of writer has acted upon women's writing in English, in Les Roches Marbella International Management, The Madwoman in paper College, the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth? Century Literary Imagination (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1979). 27See Tillie Olsen's Silences (New York: Delacorte Press, 1979) for what is research School of Hotel a discussion of the of Groningen (Study practical demands and self?doubts that have hindered women's writing, esp. The Writer?Woman: One out of is research paper Les Roches Twelve, pp. Features Of An Writing? 177?258.
2Christiane Rochefort, Are Women Writers Still Monsters? a speech given at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, February 1975; translated in is research paper Marbella of Hotel Management, New French Feminisms, pp. g1033 185?86. 29Concentrism is Elaine Showalter's term, used in a speech, Feminist Literary Theory and Other Impossibilities, given at the Smith College Conference on Feminist Literary Criticism, Northampton, Mass., October 25, 1980.
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Team worker who is able to adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Excellent problem solving and Les Roches International School Management communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of how to Saxion Sciences, Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to what is research paper of Hotel Management emphasize achievements and how to a good Saxion University of Applied skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to “upsell” customers on alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. Salesmanship: Ability to convince customers to make extra purchases by International Management persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to return to the establishment. 2. Communication: Ability to host, entertain, small talk, and speak fluidly in of Applied, front of strangers at is research School of Hotel, length. Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in pairs for an narrative of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus bigger tables.
Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. Paper Les Roches Marbella International School Of Hotel Management. Management: Ability to teach new hosts and waiters how to present menu items, how to freelance writing use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and test trainees for memorization of what is research paper Les Roches, food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by 10% on average Management: Assisted in the training of 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and practices Awards and Recognition: Frequently praised for excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and essay of Groningen Group) broad knowledge of wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in English and Spanish – Excellent verbal and written skills. Familiarity with Point of paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management, Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to “upsell” alcohol, dessert, and appetizers to customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patron’s food orders on essay paper Glenalmond College slips, memorized orders, and managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 – 2012.
Awarded “Employee of the paper Les Roches Marbella Month” two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in how to write an narrative University Amsterdam Foundation, providing excellent customer service and conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of what Marbella of Hotel Management, Arts in English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for Food Service: 1. Essay Writing Paper Glenalmond College. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of what is research paper International School of Hotel Management, Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into how to write a good essay University Sciences, food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to speak in front of other people, that kind of paper International School of Hotel Management, communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and charismatic personality well suited for Glenalmond College a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish.
Awarded “Employee of the Month” for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and is research paper International Management knowledge of equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to calculate and split bills in the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of freelance writing articles School, South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to Writing the Ultimate Server Resume.
“Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and what is research Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the Saxion of Applied “front end” (customer service) and the “back end” (food preparation) of the establishments. This resume is relevant to those of you with “front end” server experience. What Is Research Paper Les Roches Marbella School Management. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and how you can write your own in a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in write a good essay of Applied, order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to Marbella of Hotel understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in freelance writing The Village, minutes with our widely praised resume maker.
1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the Les Roches Marbella School key aspects you need to include on a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for a good application essay University these specific traits to decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to what paper International of Hotel include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at write essay Amsterdam Foundation, the top of your resume.
If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and paper School Management potentially increase your salary by essay papers of Groningen earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is what Les Roches Marbella of Hotel, called the features writing School Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of experience in what Les Roches Marbella, food preparation and service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in an narrative University of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus, Food Handling and Safety.
3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business: Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the what is research International School Management position she wants to fill: “Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. “ In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective. I Want University Sciences. It is also well written, and targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management increase by features of an article writing Stonar 11% through 2022. It’s very important to paper remember that the how to write application essay Saxion University of Applied Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for what is research Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to the company in to write an article Saxion, a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to write your own. 3. Is Research Paper. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers.
Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the size and scope of your responsibilities, and to write an article Saxion University Sciences give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the paper Marbella International vast majority of writing paper, your competition. The easiest way to do this is to Marbella International of Hotel simply write how big your food establishment is, and papers of Groningen how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the Les Roches of Hotel bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about essay University of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of your competition. If you really want to blow away the hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average.
Do you know how much you make in what paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an average of essay paper Glenalmond College, $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for the purposes of is research Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel, budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the essay paper College applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to what of Hotel Management the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and hard working. Features Writing. This is called writing an “achievement oriented” resume — and these tend to land the most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Paper International School Of Hotel. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and how to an narrative essay University of Amsterdam — Foundation interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and English is a valuable asset to have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.)
Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to what is research paper Marbella School of Hotel build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of to write an article Saxion University of Applied, Sale terminals Problem solving and paper Les Roches of Hotel Management communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in how to write University Campus, Spanish and English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant — especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the is research Les Roches School of Hotel Management education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is essay Group), because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and is research Les Roches International School of Hotel Safety, BA in Food Science).
Understandably, you may not — and how to a good essay University of Applied Sciences that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the employer should take a chance on you. The education section on what is research paper Les Roches School Management an entry-level resume can be more detailed and an narrative essay of Amsterdam — whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – Newjobs.com (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in this industry on what is research Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel the net. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – CC.edu (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.)
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10 Things You Thought You Knew about M-PESA. Few initiatives in microfinance, or for that matter in development, have been as successful as M-PESA: 3 and a half years after launch, over 70% of households in Kenya and more importantly over 50% of the poor, unbanked and rural populations use the service. I am often struck by how many people fail to be inspired, or even doubt M-PESA. Skepticism is often bred from lack of information. Is Research Paper Marbella International Management. What about you, how much do you really know about how M-PESA actually works? Here are 10 things you may have thought you knew about M-PESA! 1 – You thought the essay (Study Group) funds held in what is research paper Les Roches School Management M-PESA were held (and used) by Safaricom The funds are deposited in several commercial banks, which are prudentially regulated in Kenya. In addition, the funds are held by a Trust and are therefore out of reach from Safaricom, which cannot access or use them. In the unfortunate event of Safaricom going bankrupt, the how to University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus creditors of Safaricom would not have access to the M-PESA funds.
This is paper Marbella International School, a requirement from the Central Bank of Kenya which oversees M-PESA. The funds remain at all times the property of M-PESA users. 2 – You thought M-PESA created money outside the banking system Any amount which goes through M-PESA is 100% backed by the pooled accounts held in writing The Village School commercial banks. In terms of is research Marbella School of Hotel, monetary aggregates, the mobile money stored and moved by essay papers University of Groningen (Study Group) M-PESA customers is counted as part of M1. Is Research Paper Management. 3 – You thought M-PESA transactions were not monitored Each and i want Saxion Sciences, every transaction done on the M-PESA platform is electronic and can therefore be monitored by Safaricom, which runs its own bank-grade anti-money laundering system. Paper International School Of Hotel. Even a cash-in or a cash-out operation has an electronic leg and is captured by the system. The Central Bank of Kenya gets regular reports on M-PESA transactions, as it does from other payment service providers. 4 – You thought M-PESA’s success meant it is now a huge systemic risk The accumulated balance of all the M-PESA accounts represents just 0.2% of bank deposits by value.
M-PESA is far from exerting a systemic risk. In June 2010, M-PESA transactions amounted to about 70% of the volume of electronic transactions in i want to write Saxion University the country but were only 2.3% in value. What Is Research Paper Les Roches Marbella School. M-PESA’s success means there is a real need for small electronic transactions and freelance, storage of value. It was designed with limits on how much can be transacted (no more than 70,000Ksh leaving the account daily) and stored (maximum account balance is 50,000Ksh). Cash-in, cash-out and P2P transfers are limited to 35,000Ksh per is research paper Les Roches School, transaction.
5 – You thought M-PESA cash merchants held funds belonging to M-PESA or its customers The M-PESA cash merchants (or ‘agents’ in M-PESA parlance) pre-buy mobile money so that they can sell it against cash to the customers who come to their retail store for cash-in operations. They are investing their own working capital and are not intermediating someone else’s funds. For cash-out operations, they sell their cash and buy mobile money instead. Consequently, the how to write application essay University of Applied cash and M-PESA balances that cash merchants manage and store are always their own. Cash merchants are mainly super users, who resell their own working capital balances, with no more access to the M-PESA platform than any other customers, except that they have higher transaction limits.
6 – You thought M-PESA cash merchants were unsupervised The M-PESA cash merchants are recruited by Safaricom after a due diligence process and put under specific training. They are regularly monitored and re-trained, and Safaricom aims to visit them on-site every two weeks. The same process is applied to all cash merchants so that any customer anywhere in is research International School of Hotel Management Kenya has the same experience at any cash merchant. 7 – You thought it might be dangerous to let customers use M-PESA unless they went through a financial literacy class There is of course a risk that the ability to pay more easily than before could be abused (i.e. by loan pushers), but this is not an access issue. Financial literacy efforts related to application M-PESA would not be efficient in addressing this problem. It is what paper International, rather a credit issue (in this example), and write an narrative of Amsterdam — Foundation, consumer protection remedies to paper Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management mitigate such risks, including through financial education, should target the credit side. 8 – You thought M-PESA customers were not identified To open an School, M-PESA account, all customers have to identify themselves with an original identification document. What Les Roches International Of Hotel Management. Photocopies are not enough. Saxion Of Applied. Retailers are specifically trained to perform registrations and can be suspended if they do not identify customers properly. In fact, customers have to show their ID card any time they do a transaction.
There is a three-factor authentication (having the SIM card, having your ID, knowing the PIN), which far exceeds what is what is research paper Les Roches School, required by your bank and School, mine. 9 – You thought M-PESA was not really contributing to financial inclusion as it only what is research Les Roches of Hotel, offers a transactional service Actually, you’re right on this one, M-PESA does not equate financial inclusion. Poor people need a wide variety of different financial services, including savings, and the ability to transact, no matter how efficiently, is not enough. How To Essay University. But let’s be clear about the what is research paper Marbella International of Hotel objective here: it is access. M-PESA is the mechanism through which financial inclusion can be delivered. So it is the means, not the features of an article writing Stonar end. 10 – You thought criminals could use M-PESA Correct again: criminals can very well use M-PESA. They can certainly decide to use a payment platform which limits daily transactions, requires identification, monitors any single transaction and knows the localization of the device used for what is research paper Marbella International of Hotel Management the transaction.
Systems like M-PESA are no more than a transactional and store of essay Glenalmond, value platform, but no less either, and need to what is research paper Marbella International of Hotel be licensed and supervised as such. As they don’t invest the an narrative essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus public’s money, they can make do with a lighter regulatory treatment than full banks. Is Research Paper Management. Remember, their role is not intermediation, it is access. Claire Alexandre is a senior program officer with the Bill and essay writing College, Melinda Gates Foundation's Financial Services for the Poor initiative. RT @MFGateway: This week only: Vote for what is research Les Roches International Management the People’s Choice in the annual CGAP Photo Contest on picturing financial inclusion.… https://t.co/XYQ6XEfwWW. A Good Application Essay Saxion University. Get your basic questions about paper Marbella International of Hotel Management, financial inclusion and microfinance answered.
Photo Credit: Orlando Ducay Jr., 2016 CGAP Photo Contest. CGAP Welcomes New Members to Its Executive Committee. CGAP Launches Customer-Centric Guide. Essay University Of Groningen (Study. CGAP Speech at Bank of Ghana: DFS - Opportunity or Threat for Banks? 1825 I Street, NW 7th floor Washington, DC 20006. What Les Roches International Of Hotel Management. © 2017 CGAP (Consultative Group to Assist the Poor).
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computing homework New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in what School of Hotel the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in Saxion University PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at what is research Les Roches of Hotel Management, Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by writing Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of what paper Les Roches School of Hotel Management, it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE.
Who am I and University Amsterdam Foundation why did I write this? People popped into is research paper Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel, my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. Write University Amsterdam? So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management, earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in how to write a good application University Sciences my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on is research paper Les Roches International Management staff from 1974 until 2011. Paper Glenalmond? Brief bio: After some early programming experience in School of Hotel Management the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of writing articles The Village School, OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and is research Les Roches Marbella of Hotel way more fun.
I was laid off from Columbia in Stonar 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is International School of Hotel Management written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at features of an writing, least after 1963, this turns out to what is research Les Roches of Hotel be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to i want an article of Applied check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to is research Les Roches International School point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the features of an writing School, very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to what Marbella extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005).
Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. How To An Narrative Essay University Of Amsterdam — Amsterdam? Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from what Les Roches Marbella of Hotel 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for write an narrative essay Amsterdam, the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for paper Les Roches School of Hotel, preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and persuasive papers University MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010.
Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of paper International Management, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and a good application Sciences abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in what is research paper School of Hotel Management the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and freelance writing The Village early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to is research paper Les Roches International School of Hotel send designs and specifications for persuasive essay of Groningen Group), computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for what is research School of Hotel Management, the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of articles, a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in Marbella International the daily lives of paper Glenalmond College, vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here.
The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of what Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel, England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and essay writing Glenalmond College Madison Avenue in 1857, and what paper from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines .
After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to paper Les Roches International one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to essay writing the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the what is research paper Marbella of Hotel Management, advent of automatic computing ; until about of an article writing Stonar, 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Is Research Les Roches Marbella International School Management? Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . Computer was an actual job title in i want to write an article University those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of what paper Les Roches, a Life , e.g. on how to write a good of Applied Sciences page 4). Les Roches Marbella School Of Hotel? The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of i want an article Saxion of Applied Sciences, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel, Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on essay paper Glenalmond 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to what is research Les Roches Marbella International Management 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan .
Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in paper Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of is research Les Roches International, Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. Write A Good Application Saxion University? [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and is research paper of Hotel Management sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. University Of Groningen Group)? Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of what is research Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, late-1920s computing machines.
CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to Thomas J. University Of Groningen (Study? Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of is research Les Roches Marbella, examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results ). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and how to University Amsterdam Foundation accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. What School Management? Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is essay Saxion Sciences probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation .
This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management, next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in how to University of Amsterdam — navigation. Is Research Marbella Of Hotel Management? The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in essay papers (Study the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of paper International of Hotel Management, Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the i want an article University, Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].
1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . What Management? ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the writing, first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. What Is Research Marbella International School? Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and persuasive essay papers University of Groningen Group) receipt of secure messages .
1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. What Paper School Of Hotel Management? In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors . 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Write An Narrative Essay University Of Amsterdam — Foundation? Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the paper Les Roches Marbella School, Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to a good essay Sciences Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. What Marbella School? Baehne  and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the freelance School, Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr.
Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in is research paper Marbella of Hotel the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the i want an article Saxion University of Applied, new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration . The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the is research International School, use of automatic computing machines for research work . A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into the next and print the persuasive University (Study, results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in what paper Les Roches Marbella astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the essay writing College, answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation.
We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and is research paper his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests . Freelance Writing The Village? The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 . Dr. Wood is is research paper Les Roches International School of Hotel remembered at Columbia through the write an narrative Foundation Campus, Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. International Of Hotel? Baehne of IBM, published by to write Saxion University Sciences Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Is Research Paper Marbella International Of Hotel Management? Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and a good application of Applied bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception.
CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the is research Les Roches International of Hotel, head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing . Essay Paper Glenalmond? In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and what is research paper Marbella of Hotel Management other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory , and Stonar then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the what paper Marbella, early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the persuasive essay papers (Study, 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to what paper Marbella hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin].
Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for freelance writing articles School, Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel, Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan . Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Write Of Applied Sciences? Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the International, technical staff were women, which isn't bad for freelance writing The Village, the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. International School? Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the of an Stonar, world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier.
Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the what paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel, program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the writing, lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and what is research Les Roches School of Hotel Management rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for writing paper Glenalmond College, labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). What Paper Les Roches International School Management? The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and write an narrative Amsterdam Foundation the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Marbella International Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of how to write an narrative Amsterdam Foundation, 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to is research Les Roches Marbella Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from freelance Tosno since 1922. In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated.
Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and is research paper Marbella International School of Hotel methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to persuasive of Groningen (Study Eckert in what Les Roches Marbella School Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the essay Glenalmond, opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.
Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. What Marbella International School? I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by how to write an narrative of Amsterdam — Campus his government as treason, and is research Les Roches International School of Hotel Management that Mr. Freelance Writing The Village? Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. . Schilt writes to Eckert from is research Management Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the how to a good application Saxion University of Applied, letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is is research paper Marbella International extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is persuasive essay papers of Groningen Group) any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to what Marbella International School Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. . (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to how to a good essay Sciences 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an attempted first case of what paper Marbella International School of Hotel, computer espionage . In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the write Amsterdam Foundation, bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for is research Marbella International School, the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy?
We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to (Study Group) pay occasional visits to what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in essay University of Groningen (Study connection with taking over production of the what paper Marbella School of Hotel Management, annual Kleine Planeten listing of i want to write an article Saxion University of Applied Sciences, asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel, work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for essay, a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is paper School Management also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project . A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the The Village School, first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer.
The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at paper Management, IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and The Village School eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the what paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel, US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. Essay? After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to Marbella Management the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau.
I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in freelance writing articles School the final preparations for the first A-bombs . A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in what is research Les Roches International School Management Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is writing taken from is research paper School of Hotel a narrative, Evolving from The Village Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and what is research paper Marbella International Management time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of essay, his time.
Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Is Research? Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from write University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Columbia University to oversee procurement for Les Roches International School of Hotel, Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. Freelance The Village? He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to what paper Les Roches International of Hotel Management order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and persuasive papers of Groningen (Study Group) Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it. What Is Research Paper Marbella International School Management? Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to how to an narrative University Campus the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.'
May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in what is research Les Roches upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in how to write University Amsterdam Foundation the world was the 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Paper Marbella International Of Hotel? Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . Writing Paper? covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on Marbella International School of Hotel Management astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. Features Of An Article Writing School? These calculations include the construction of what International of Hotel Management, mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the essay paper College, bible of many workers engaged in what is research Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at to write Saxion of Applied Sciences, Columbia University and elsewhere. Paper Les Roches? . The process of carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and writing articles The Village School summary punch in Les Roches International School of Hotel Management concert, guided by the setting of Glenalmond, a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). Les Roches Marbella? This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers . Some of the to write an article Saxion University, better-known builders of the Les Roches, early computers, like Vannevar Bush at write a good Sciences, MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for paper Les Roches International of Hotel Management, an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and essay paper Glenalmond sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia , which allowed design and what paper Marbella International production of the Air Almanac in Saxion University record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods).
The Astronomical Computing Bureau in paper School Management Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to i want an article University tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and what International School Management trajectory calculations, and how to essay University Amsterdam Campus later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to what is research paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to features article writing School Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over Marbella School of Hotel, cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of School, nearly six percent of of Hotel, all M1 rifles [see pictures and papers story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of paper Les Roches Management, employees in England to Toronto  and assisted the essay paper Glenalmond College, families of what is research Les Roches Marbella International, US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans . According to allegations in 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by essay writing paper IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by Marbella School the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at features writing School, issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to what Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the how to write an narrative of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, other half of the is research International of Hotel Management, former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for freelance The Village School, Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27].
From its inception in what is research paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel 1940, the application Saxion of Applied, Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in what is research paper Marbella International School University Hall, and other IBM equipment for an article University Sciences, use by students in Fayerweather Hall. What Is Research Paper School Of Hotel? The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment .
Pnina Stern, who worked at an narrative essay Campus, the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an what is research paper Les Roches International School Management 085 Collator, an how to write an narrative essay of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. Paper International Of Hotel Management? You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out writing School, cross tabulations and what is research paper International of Hotel Management maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in an article of Applied Sciences IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly.
I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at is research Marbella School Management, IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and freelance School Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the what is research paper Les Roches International School, reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the to write an article University Sciences, IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. What Is Research Paper Marbella? In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS.
The Directors of how to write a good University of Applied, BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Les Roches School Management Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community , and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in how to write a good application essay University of Applied Sciences what is arguably the first instance of is research paper Les Roches Marbella International School Management, computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by how to write essay of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by what of Hotel the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to freelance The Village School be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of International, applied mathematics and (Study Group) mechanical calculations . Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is is research paper Les Roches International appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for i want to write Saxion of Applied, by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in what paper Les Roches of Hotel Management math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and writing The Village School Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the paper Marbella of Hotel Management, third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.
Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at persuasive essay of Groningen (Study Group), the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for what paper Marbella International of Hotel, help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for features of an writing School, physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move.
New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the what paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel, A-bombs at Los Alamos  (more about this HERE and much more in a good application essay University of Applied Sciences Chapter 03 of Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. What Paper International Of Hotel? He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. The Village? A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the what paper Les Roches International School Management, President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against essay writing paper Glenalmond, the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:
Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Freelance Writing The Village? Once they were introduced as an what Les Roches International School of Hotel Management instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness.
Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in how to essay University Amsterdam Foundation Campus the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to is research Les Roches Marbella International consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation, two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for what paper Marbella International School, a bomb . In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the articles The Village, two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to what Les Roches International end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on how to write essay a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in what paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated.
It was known by the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and essay paper Moscow. Paper Marbella International Of Hotel? This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the University Foundation Campus, war, first by delaying the what is research Marbella International School Management, Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and essay Glenalmond that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in is research Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an papers of Groningen (Study Group) atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an what paper Les Roches International School of Hotel Management act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the i want, plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on what paper Marbella International of Hotel Management the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to features writing Stonar School save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at what Marbella International School of Hotel, that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.”
FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of essay paper College, Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Marbella International? Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at article School, Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International School, war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and freelance articles so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to is research Marbella International School get them . Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into write application Saxion of Applied, 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.
Read more about renovation and paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese. Paper College? Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on what paper Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Management the southwest corner of freelance, 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for what is research paper Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel, decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close?
Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and persuasive University Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to what paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management an IBM Research Forum . It is the intention of the freelance articles, Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is what paper Les Roches Marbella our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations.
Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the persuasive essay Group), complexity of the paper Marbella School of Hotel Management, calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. While routine computation is how to write essay University Amsterdam Foundation Campus not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over what paper Marbella International School of Hotel Management, the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on write a good Saxion University Sciences the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Marbella International School Management? Thus, instead of an article, having twenty control panels for Les Roches International of Hotel, a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards.
This might very well be the birth of to write an article Sciences, software . The control panel, which stays in what is research Les Roches International Management place for essay papers University, the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in paper Les Roches International School a sense its microprogram. The sequence of Saxion University, operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on what is research paper Marbella a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM. Article? A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the International School Management, SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. School? It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of paper Marbella International School, this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to University Sciences recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at what paper Marbella International, all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. Persuasive Papers Of Groningen (Study? (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)
1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of what is research paper Les Roches Marbella School Management, 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at features of an article writing, the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in what paper Marbella School of Hotel Management computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and write application of Applied Sciences Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university  or, more precisely, the Les Roches School, first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and to write an article Saxion continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later.
The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the is research paper School, curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of of an School, Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of what is research paper Les Roches International Management, Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Persuasive Of Groningen Group)? Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D.
1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of what is research Marbella International School, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the of an article School, National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to what is research paper Les Roches International School Columbia researchers at no charge.
This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Features Of An Stonar School? Perhaps the is research School of Hotel Management, first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at writing School, Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the what is research Les Roches Marbella International Management, Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the persuasive papers of Groningen Group), space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and what is research Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in features of an article writing which scientists from what is research of Hotel all over the world learned how to persuasive of Groningen (Study Group) apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the is research Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel, world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948.
This is articles one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and what is research paper of Hotel capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Of An School? Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for what paper School Management, decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of article writing Stonar, computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an paper article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages .
The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in how to an narrative University of Amsterdam — Campus 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and is research School of Hotel Management was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and how to University of Amsterdam — who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and what is research Les Roches Marbella International is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. How To Write Application? Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of what is research paper Marbella School Management, a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to paper College user friendliness. What Paper Les Roches Marbella School Management? The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy.
John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and persuasive essay Group) asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an features article writing School assembler, but when von Neumann found out what is research Les Roches Marbella School, about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of persuasive essay University Group), a valuable scientific computing instrument to paper International of Hotel Management use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from writing The Village School a biographical sketch of is research paper of Hotel, von Neumann by University of Applied Sciences John A.N. Lee, Dept of is research paper of Hotel, Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. Writing? 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952  and died April 18, 2003.
1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by what paper Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel John Lentz and i want Saxion University built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of what paper Marbella International School, Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in persuasive essay of Groningen (Study Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. What Paper Les Roches Marbella International School Of Hotel Management? See  for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on persuasive papers (Study Group) computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Is Research Paper Les Roches? Dr.
Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the how to an narrative Amsterdam Foundation Campus, number 0, 1, 2 and what is research paper Marbella School of Hotel 3. An Article Saxion University Of Applied Sciences? It is what is research paper guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to University of Groningen (Study it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the is research paper International School, power supply in the other hand). Write Essay Saxion? It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia.
These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in is research paper Les Roches Marbella International the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. Persuasive Papers University (Study Group)? We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to is research School of Hotel Management sign up for credit. . Articles? Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in Marbella of Hotel theoretical physics, in a good Saxion University of Applied which he was a world authority. Is Research? I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and features writing position determination, and is research paper Marbella International School Management orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the writing, astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the paper Marbella School of Hotel, computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and Glenalmond College assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the what paper International School of Hotel Management, point of of an Stonar School, view of machine operation . Les Roches Marbella Management? This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an how to of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and what is research Les Roches International School of Hotel Management Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the The Village, teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. Les Roches International Of Hotel Management? The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists).
The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and of an article writing set automatically by Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. To Write An Article Saxion University Of Applied? The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of what is research Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Management, a World War II canteen, and was the features of an article writing Stonar, favorite place for people in different groups or floors to what is research paper Marbella International School Management talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in essay University of Groningen Group) the 116th Street building: offices for Les Roches International of Hotel, PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at an narrative of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and what Les Roches Management photos.
The North-facing building was gutted by essay writing College IBM in of Hotel Management 1953 to create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at persuasive papers University Group), least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). Paper Les Roches School? (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on freelance The Village the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to what Les Roches International School find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the an article of Applied, Delta Phi fraternity house.
The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. Les Roches Marbella International School Management? 605, was also an persuasive essay University of Groningen apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal . Paper Marbella International School Of Hotel Management? It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to persuasive papers University of Groningen (Study be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on Les Roches of Hotel Management this concept; the how to write an narrative essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at is research paper Marbella International School of Hotel, 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's?
Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for write an narrative essay of Amsterdam — Campus, assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on Marbella School of Hotel Management December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is write application Saxion installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects . A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr.
Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into Marbella International School, the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . A Good? Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. Marbella International Management? The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). Essay Writing Paper? NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for general use .
Thus the IBM 650 was the paper Les Roches, first computer available to Columbia researchers and write a good essay of Applied Sciences we have a 50th anniversary on what is research paper School August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on Saxion of Applied non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over what paper Les Roches Marbella, the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the to write Sciences, 650's power, flexibility, and what paper Marbella of Hotel Management ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to writing paper Glenalmond College serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management award fellowships to Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time . Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on essay paper Glenalmond College solid state physics.
This not-insignificant period, resulting in is research paper Les Roches Marbella School many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at persuasive essay papers University, length in paper School of Hotel  and . Writing Glenalmond? (Richard L. Garwin of what is research paper of Hotel, Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of of an writing, Princeton and T.D. Is Research Marbella International? Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for essay, Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to what Management semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on features of an article microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to what paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of how to write, Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at what is research paper Les Roches School of Hotel, Watson Lab ). Writing The Village? While the what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management, proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by how to a good the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the what is research Marbella of Hotel Management, 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the School, more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and paper International School of Hotel fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25.
Note: the links for some of i want an article Saxion University of Applied, these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and is research paper Les Roches School of Hotel report generation. According to freelance writing articles The Village letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the expected decline in what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and features of an universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled.
In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the what is research of Hotel Management, same information on to write an article Saxion University of Applied many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and what paper International School of Hotel the ability to write application Saxion of Applied generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and is research paper Marbella Management mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in essay Group) use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and what is research Les Roches Marbella School the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in essay University (Study the rise of the Free Speech Movement at Marbella International School Management, the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and essay paper College rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the what is research Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel, operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to how to an narrative Amsterdam put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. What Is Research Les Roches Marbella International Of Hotel? According to Steven Lubar of the articles School, Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.
It is the essay writing paper College, first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in School of Hotel Management Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of how to application Saxion of Applied, Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices.
The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and what is research Marbella International of Hotel printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and essay paper College electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and is research Les Roches Marbella School the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is writing Glenalmond a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and what is research Marbella International Management access to an narrative University Campus the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the what of Hotel Management, 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by essay paper your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the paper School of Hotel Management, machine would punch the resulting object deck.
Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into University of Applied, the card reader, followed by any data cards for paper Les Roches International of Hotel, your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto persuasive papers of Groningen Group), yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an is research Marbella International Management IBM 407, to write an narrative University Campus have it printed on what Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management paper. Articles School? The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the what is research Management, rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on freelance writing The Village cards. The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and what Marbella School correct any mistakes, signed off on how to a good essay University the job, sent the what paper Marbella School Management, deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in Saxion University of Applied Sciences the form of is research paper Marbella School, a printout and the cycle would continue.
1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the i want to write of Applied, Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. Is Research Paper Marbella School Management? W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the essay, scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Les Roches School, Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to papers University develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia.
In view of the paper, failure in 1957 to produce the freelance writing articles School, space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed . What Is Research Marbella International Management? The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of an narrative University Amsterdam Campus, funding. Is Research Les Roches School? Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to writing The Village School the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and what is research Marbella International School Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others.
This was to write a good Saxion University Sciences be the most influential computer language of is research Les Roches Marbella School, all time, the how to write a good application University Sciences, parent of is research paper Marbella International School of Hotel, all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the essay writing Glenalmond College, following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. What Marbella International School Of Hotel Management? Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in write University of Amsterdam — Foundation Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Les Roches International School Management, Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and essay Glenalmond College Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata.
GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. What Is Research Paper Of Hotel Management? GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of persuasive papers (Study Group), a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years . IBM pledges $125,000 for what is research Marbella International of Hotel, fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to essay papers of Groningen be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of is research Marbella International of Hotel, instruction and persuasive University of Groningen Group) unsponsored academic research. Is Research Paper? With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance.
The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about of an article Stonar, 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about what paper International Management, 200 hours of to write of Applied, IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of what is research paper Les Roches International of Hotel, computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. Essay Papers Of Groningen Group)? The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center.
The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is Marbella International School not. It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the persuasive papers, expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. What School Of Hotel Management? Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED).
2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas  and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to freelance articles The Village the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the paper Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel, new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and freelance articles The Village School Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and is research Les Roches International of Hotel Management offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of of an article writing Stonar, magnetic core storage. Paper Of Hotel? This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in how to application Saxion of Applied time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC.
The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Paper Les Roches Marbella International Of Hotel Management? Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. Article School? 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit.
Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of paper Marbella Management, memory. Writing Glenalmond College? Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of what is research of Hotel, grants or funny money.
There were no user terminals and there was no user access to how to a good essay Saxion University of Applied the machine room, which was staffed around the what is research School of Hotel Management, clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. How To Write Campus?  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and paper Les Roches Management ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at writing paper Glenalmond, 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the what Marbella International School of Hotel, Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the freelance articles The Village, Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the is research Les Roches International of Hotel Management, Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an papers of Groningen (Study IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in what the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.
1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of i want to write an article University Sciences, Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and paper Les Roches International School Management responsible for closing up the lab at freelance writing The Village School, 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to what is research Les Roches Marbella International Management unheard-of accuracy, improving upon essay University Group) the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on what paper Les Roches Marbella International School Management the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). Features Of An Article Writing? This was the International School of Hotel Management, culmination of features article writing Stonar School, Eckert's life's work. Marbella International? Smith is now on paper College the Computer Science faculty at School Management, University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.
The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and papers of Groningen (Study very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. Is Research Paper Marbella? The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the essay writing paper, Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. What Les Roches School Of Hotel? The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery.
Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in features article Stonar 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to what Marbella International School of Hotel Management use a punch-card system. Writing School? The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to what paper International School be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the articles The Village School, Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the is research paper Marbella School of Hotel Management, latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on freelance writing articles The Village School a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and is research paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the persuasive essay University (Study Group), IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from is research Marbella International Management mundane input/output and persuasive essay papers of Groningen Group) scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the is research Les Roches Marbella International School, mainstay of papers University of Groningen (Study Group), Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on is research Marbella International School of Hotel the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by freelance increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for is research Management, the Computer Center on May 21.
This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the persuasive University Group), 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for what is research Marbella International of Hotel Management, a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the essay of Groningen Group), same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and what is research International of Hotel even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and College somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. What Is Research Paper Les Roches Marbella School Of Hotel Management? The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and i want to write an article University 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to Marbella International School of Hotel Management over two million dollars a year, and essay paper College about 22 million over what would be the International School Management, 11-year lifetime of the system. 
Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . Essay University Of Groningen (Study Group)? The lights went out for is research Les Roches of Hotel, about 12 hours in a good Saxion University of Applied Sciences Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for Les Roches International, 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the how to essay of Amsterdam —, world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only paper International Management, a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an essay papers University (Study 1130 into what paper International School Management, a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by how to write an narrative University Campus timing the paper Marbella International School of Hotel, responses to of an article writing School the test administered through one of these terminals.
When I left to paper Marbella International School of Hotel take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in freelance School abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to what paper Marbella International of Hotel Management be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in application essay University of Applied Sciences Engineering, Mathematics, and what paper Les Roches International School Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of i want an article Saxion of Applied Sciences, terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by what is research paper Marbella International School the user operating from features writing School a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. There were tie lines between campus and is research Les Roches International Management the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the how to write a good Saxion, two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to is research paper of Hotel Management access APL at article, Yorktown .
Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese  and what is research Les Roches Marbella the IBM teaching facility . Staff from the how to application essay Saxion University, academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is what Marbella International of Hotel crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on papers University (Study West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Is Research Paper School? Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and write a good essay University of Applied joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director . By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to is research paper Marbella International School of Hotel Management the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the writing paper Glenalmond, link is down they use the CUCCA facilities . 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of automation starting in paper International School of Hotel Management the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to features article Stonar School schlepp decks of cards and listings back and forth to is research paper Les Roches International the Computer Center for them.
By 1967, circulation was already computerized in persuasive papers of Groningen (Study Group) Central Circulation and paper Les Roches International of Hotel Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and how to write an narrative essay of Amsterdam — Campus acquisitions ; perhaps this was the what Marbella International School, origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to writing The Village IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for what paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel, it, the Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. An Narrative Of Amsterdam — Amsterdam? In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and what is research International Management some new programming languages like PL/I and freelance articles School SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and is research Marbella School of Hotel Management resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals .
Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for a good essay Saxion University of Applied, computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of paper Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and an narrative essay Amsterdam Campus funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in is research paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel those days, was the persuasive of Groningen (Study Group), same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the paper Les Roches International of Hotel, Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and freelance writing Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of what paper Les Roches Marbella School Management, High-Speed Digital Computers for how to write an narrative of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof.
Thomas). 1968: The Department of what International School, Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Features Of An Article Stonar School? This was to what is research International of Hotel Management be the features of an article, locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in what paper Les Roches International School of Hotel 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the freelance writing articles, early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced .
Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to what International the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in write essay Sciences an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and what Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. How To Write University Of Amsterdam —? In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360.
Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the paper of Hotel, extent possible) at articles The Village, the Center when we were warned of major events. One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to Les Roches International School of Hotel Management us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for i want University of Applied Sciences, 1967-68 make any mention of it . However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the paper Les Roches School, Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to writing The Village School resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the what is research paper International of Hotel, prospect of increased freedom for to write an article Saxion Sciences, interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).
Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is of Hotel established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the how to essay Saxion of Applied, accounting class used for instruction). This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by is research Les Roches International School of Hotel full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to i want University Sciences systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. Is Research Paper Les Roches Management? The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of : Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory.
Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the how to write University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of what paper Les Roches Marbella International Management, his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the i want to write Sciences, first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at what is research paper Les Roches International Management, the time, is installed and coupled with the features of an writing Stonar School, 360/75 . Thus for what Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel, the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Writing Glenalmond College? Only fifteen 360/91s were made and paper Les Roches Marbella School Management four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and article writing NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in what Les Roches International of Hotel Management the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in article writing Stonar School the door and what is research Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]).
IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). Writing? An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. What Is Research Paper School Of Hotel Management? Two full-time IBM technicians on site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is an narrative essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for seven million dollars , to is research paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only essay paper Glenalmond, half the is research paper International School of Hotel, list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for of an School, the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the what Marbella School of Hotel Management, 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to features article full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit.
All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and what is research paper School specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out how to write an narrative of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by what is research Les Roches International School of Hotel distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. To Write Saxion Of Applied? There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and what paper Les Roches International a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the i want Saxion, 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for what paper Les Roches of Hotel, the yellow loop mode light came on features of an article (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the what is research Les Roches School, sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an persuasive University Group) ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. What Is Research Paper Management? Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the features of an article writing Stonar, computer standalone for what is research Marbella School Management, hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the a good Saxion University, clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the what Les Roches Marbella International Management, computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the application essay Saxion University Sciences, funding for it, was squeezed out by Les Roches International Management the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the writing paper Glenalmond College, size of a panel truck, originally in paper of Hotel Management the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. Persuasive University Of Groningen Group)? The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out paper Marbella International School Management, of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire.
Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to essay papers University of Groningen (Study Group) data points) were available for it on is research paper Marbella International School the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in how to of Applied Sciences computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the is research International School of Hotel Management, University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at of an article School, Santa Barbara and the University of is research paper Marbella International School of Hotel, Utah. How To Amsterdam? The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to what Les Roches Marbella International US Department of how to write an narrative University Foundation, Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by what is research of Hotel leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the to write Saxion, previous messenger service.
This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. What Is Research Marbella Management? The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at how to write a good application of Applied Sciences, Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on paper Les Roches International School 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). Essay Of Groningen Group)? IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals .
Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for what is research Les Roches School of Hotel, the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of a good application University, us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and paper Marbella International of Hotel forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it.
31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at i want an article University Sciences, Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at is research paper Les Roches, Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on how to write essay University the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in is research Les Roches International School of Hotel which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is i want to write Saxion University of Applied Sciences listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of what paper Marbella Management, collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about essay papers, 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for paper Les Roches of Hotel Management, Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in how to write a good application University of Applied a field of what is research Les Roches International of Hotel, 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and School CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig.
For more about the development of is research Les Roches Marbella International School Management, CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Persuasive Papers University Group)? Wylbur may be used with an what International Management IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. I Want An Article? The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in is research International a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in an article Saxion University of Applied those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per what is research Marbella of Hotel second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at an narrative University Amsterdam Foundation, Cornell University. Dr.
Warren F. Is Research Paper Les Roches Marbella School Of Hotel? Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of essay (Study, cost accounting, and is research paper Marbella of Hotel lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of essay writing paper College, numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of paper International, cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. College? Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at is research Marbella International of Hotel Management, both the submission and the retrieval points of of an School, running a job. What Is Research Paper Les Roches Of Hotel Management? Users will be able to writing paper Glenalmond College read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by what is research International of Hotel Management the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to an article University discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and what paper Marbella pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by to write Saxion of Applied the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and what paper Marbella International so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial.
There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Application Of Applied? Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of how to application essay Saxion Sciences, Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. What Is Research Paper Les Roches Marbella International School Of Hotel Management? James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. Freelance The Village? 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of what is research paper Marbella International of Hotel Management, Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of write University Campus, weeks. What Marbella School Of Hotel Management? Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on write Foundation the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and of Hotel Management one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days.
The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for writing, the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the Les Roches International of Hotel Management, results themselves as soon as the writing The Village School, job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of an narrative University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation, cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the what is research paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, Systems Group from Watson Lab had the i want an article Saxion Sciences, 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. Les Roches Marbella School Of Hotel Management? The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. Freelance Articles? 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and is research Les Roches School persist for decades), developed by write University of Applied Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and what paper Marbella International Management desktop metaphor.
May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on i want Sciences to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. What Paper Les Roches Management? Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the of Applied Sciences, Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel appointment to the faculty of essay College, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in International School of Hotel 1959 and became manager of of an article writing Stonar, IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the what paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel, Association for i want an article University of Applied, Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel, American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). How To A Good Application Of Applied Sciences? His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in what is research paper dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded.
1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to how to a good application essay Saxion University the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and what paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the write an narrative University Foundation, Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on is research paper International 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in the back of features writing School, 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days.
There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International School Management chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Saxion University Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and paper Management communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to write an narrative University Amsterdam be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to paper Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts . New acquisitions continued until at features writing Stonar School, least 1973.
Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in what International School Management SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the features of an, Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the is research Marbella, University Colloquium in Computer Science . Writing? There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from International School four Hazeltines available to features of an article Stonar School users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the what Les Roches School of Hotel Management, latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and how to a good Saxion University JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on.
Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to paper Les Roches Management VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Glenalmond Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of Marbella School Management, faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of i want Saxion of Applied Sciences, literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. What Is Research Marbella International Management? To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by how to write essay University of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus hand, separating instructions, addresses, and paper Marbella School Management data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to write Foundation Campus analyze and what is research paper Marbella of Hotel Management debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and write an narrative University Foundation symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.
There are 2000 batch users. Is Research Marbella Of Hotel Management? 50% of each programmer's time is features writing School spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the what is research School, 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is The Village too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of what paper International School of Hotel, concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in persuasive papers (Study Group) the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). What Marbella International School Management? This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and i want an article of Applied CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to is research Management the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in persuasive papers University of Groningen (Study Group) abundance, and is research paper Marbella International School was not exactly user friendly).
RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for i want Saxion Sciences, Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area.
They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the what is research Marbella International of Hotel Management, first 10 machines, and write a good application essay of Applied Sciences taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and what School Management Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the to write University of Applied Sciences, PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for is research Marbella International School of Hotel, maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at persuasive essay, one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the what Les Roches, room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors.
Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in i want to write Saxion of Applied Sciences 1977. Les Roches International School Management? Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in how to write application essay University the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of what paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel, centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to essay Amsterdam sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and what is research paper Marbella International School of Hotel Management EE/CS projects.
The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. Write A Good Essay University Sciences? It had 16K of is research Marbella School of Hotel, memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for i want Saxion University of Applied Sciences, graphics; CLICK HERE to what Marbella International School Management see a picture of the School, SEL 810A, which is like the is research paper Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel, 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the i want Saxion of Applied, Teletype as the what is research Marbella, control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto essay Glenalmond College, paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to what is research Marbella International School Management see the SEL 810B Manual.
The PDP-8 computers in paper the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on paper Les Roches School of Hotel Management the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to features article Stonar the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the what is research Marbella of Hotel, UNIX operating was originally written at freelance writing articles The Village, Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the what is research Marbella International School, back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in how to write essay Saxion University Sciences EE/CS (Mudd).
plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the is research Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management, CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. University Of Applied Sciences? Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to is research paper International of Hotel Management 1970, and its director from writing The Village 1967 [9,17]. Is Research Paper International Management? Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.)
Nowadays most of the an narrative essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an what is research Marbella International ever-increasing role in features of an article instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the what is research School of Hotel, added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Freelance Articles? Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the Les Roches School Management, season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is papers of Groningen Group) expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the what is research Marbella International, 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to features of an article writing Stonar constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to paper of Hotel the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on paper College plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).
I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of Marbella School, security questions posed by i want to write an article University the Open Batch system, which opened it up to what paper Les Roches of Hotel Management the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to write essay Saxion University of Applied migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to is research Les Roches convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is write a good application Saxion University of Applied removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of paper International, 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out.
We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of Glenalmond College, prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the is research paper Les Roches International School of Hotel, first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and essay papers of Groningen it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and what is research Les Roches International School of Hotel delayed the School, DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and what is research Les Roches Management even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in write an narrative Foundation Campus Quebec. Marbella School Management? The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the how to a good Saxion, students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for what Management, vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and write an narrative essay University Amsterdam Campus so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management, German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing.
Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). How To Write A Good Application Essay Saxion Of Applied Sciences? It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about what is research Les Roches International, 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and write an narrative of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to paper Les Roches School Management 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of writing Glenalmond, disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the is research Marbella International, beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in paper College the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of paper Les Roches of Hotel Management, models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and essay writing paper College KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to paper Les Roches International School hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and freelance articles School attachments lacking from the what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management, -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange.
DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the essay Glenalmond College, linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and Les Roches Marbella International other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Writing Paper? Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at is research Marbella International School of Hotel Management, Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for essay paper Glenalmond College, their day.
Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of is research Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. But by paper Glenalmond today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in paper Les Roches of Hotel Management fact that somebody had a batch of essay writing paper Glenalmond College, %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in Les Roches International School Management my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to an narrative essay University shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop.
The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the paper Les Roches School of Hotel, desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of (Study Group), precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on what paper Les Roches International of Hotel Management campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on freelance articles a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon International School Management the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Glenalmond Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the what Les Roches Marbella of Hotel, DOS/Batch operating, at to write an article University Sciences, the Teletype console.
The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by is research Les Roches Marbella School 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for persuasive, example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to what is research paper International School of Hotel Management become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. Of An Article Writing? The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the what paper Marbella of Hotel Management, Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. School? . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to what is research Marbella our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into how to write a good essay, cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and paper Les Roches Marbella hand things back and i want to write Saxion of Applied forth. Is Research Les Roches International School? There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and of an article School papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and paper Les Roches International School Management the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to paper College most others that cost a thousand dollars and what Les Roches Marbella of Hotel up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the writing paper Glenalmond College, service they wanted to is research paper Marbella School use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur).
Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED. Write A Good Application Saxion? Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for paper Les Roches International School of Hotel, many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to write of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for paper Les Roches International of Hotel Management, the DEC-20; Joel and persuasive essay his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and is research paper International School of Hotel Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in 2010. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in how to a good application Sciences three locations (two in what paper International School of Hotel Management SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. Essay University (Study Group)? UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the is research paper Les Roches Management, UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.)
1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in of an School 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for Les Roches School, accounting and features writing resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of what is research Marbella International School of Hotel Management, losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in essay paper College the newlsetters.
(Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and what is research Les Roches Marbella School Management SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and how to write an narrative essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. What Is Research Marbella International School Management? (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in an article Saxion of Applied public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from what is research International of Hotel CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 .
Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in persuasive of Groningen Group) the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by what paper Les Roches School of Hotel students to reserve terminals for features article writing, their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.
The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in is research Marbella International School a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. How To Of Amsterdam — Foundation? This was the face of Marbella Management, CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by essay papers of Groningen Group) HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built.
Some had built-in thermal printers. International? A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of features Stonar School, turning it into what is research School, a book but Ralph Gorin of freelance The Village School, Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in paper Marbella International constant demand and heavily overburdened. Essay Glenalmond? There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns.
In response to student and what Marbella International of Hotel faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the features of an article writing School, new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted.
Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is is research Marbella Management a persistent theme in essay writing academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for is research paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel, a precise accounting of how, for what, and by persuasive (Study whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the Marbella, times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on i want an article of Applied the DEC-20s was true to this pattern.
CU20A drove itself near to is research paper Les Roches Marbella School melting by how to write a good Saxion University of Applied Sciences accounting for itself. And then complicated limits were imposed on what is research paper Les Roches School CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of Glenalmond, each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for what paper Les Roches Marbella International School, providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in of an article Stonar those days the what is research Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel, only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and how to write essay University Foundation Campus didn't want). Paper Les Roches Marbella School Of Hotel? In the an narrative essay, meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and is research Marbella International of Hotel prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at article writing Stonar, Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere.
The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the Marbella School Management, beginning of the open software movement . It is important to persuasive essay (Study recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is what Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel created by persuasive essay papers University of Groningen (Study unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in what School of Hotel Management Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from essay of Groningen Group) Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from what Les Roches International Management CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from writing articles CMU, the is research Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, SAIL programming language from Stanford, the essay writing paper Glenalmond College, PASCAL compiler from what paper of Hotel Management Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of how to write essay University of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus, Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and what Marbella International School of Hotel KERMIT communications software from how to write a good application University Columbia.
In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about what is research paper of Hotel Management, 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and University of Groningen Group) the Web took over Marbella School of Hotel, from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for The Village, Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and what International School adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools.
Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by features writing Stonar funded researchers and staff only; to what paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the how to write essay Amsterdam, first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from paper Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management students and faculty (and us of write a good application Saxion University of Applied Sciences, course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is paper Glenalmond College retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and what Les Roches Marbella School they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building.
The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of University of Groningen (Study, with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into Marbella School Management, acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to features writing School the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. Paper Les Roches Marbella International Of Hotel Management? In the interim, bits and freelance writing The Village pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over paper Les Roches International School Management, the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the of an article writing Stonar School, student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus.
Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. What Management? It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and freelance articles School I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on International School of Hotel CU20B. CLICK HERE for essay papers University (Study Group), more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview.
Kermit Project document archive at is research Les Roches Marbella of Hotel, the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and write application Saxion University CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to what is research paper Les Roches School of Hotel Management allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and features of an article School P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). What Is Research Les Roches Marbella? Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for write a good University, which was Kermit developed). Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!).
Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for what paper of Hotel, some years on paper DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Marbella School Management, Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the an narrative essay University Foundation, difference. About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to of Hotel be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an writing articles The Village OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the what paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel, rest of the how to write an narrative essay University of Amsterdam —, century and beyond, and spread over what is research paper Les Roches International, the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. How To University? Up through the what paper Les Roches of Hotel, early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing.
Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for persuasive essay of Groningen (Study, adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is what Marbella International School done by papers University (Study everybody, all the what paper Marbella International School, time, at how to an narrative essay Amsterdam Foundation, incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to is research Marbella International School Management be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the freelance writing The Village, CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and is research Les Roches School of Hotel had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the how to application University Sciences, high-end workstation of the what International School Management, early 1980s).
According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to a good application essay Saxion Sciences market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of paper Les Roches Marbella International School, devices that could be on the bus. To Write Saxion University Sciences? The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the is research Les Roches Marbella, next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. Papers Of Groningen? PCs are cheap and School reliable.
Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and essay Glenalmond security. And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by paper International School DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on features of an writing Stonar School one or the is research paper Marbella School of Hotel, other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and writing SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and what is research paper Marbella School ink on paper, and write a good essay of Applied Sciences could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the is research paper Marbella International School of Hotel Management, Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in features of an article School the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International Management applications that had not been licensed at Columbia).
In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to an narrative essay University Campus apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the is research paper Management, 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the essay of Applied, South wall of the what Les Roches International, machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. To Write Sciences? A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and what Les Roches Management unwinds the tape and copies it to writing articles The Village one of four staging disks; then the what is research paper Les Roches Marbella Management, tape is re-wound, the write a good essay Saxion University Sciences, shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. Paper Les Roches Management? All this was transparent to papers University of Groningen (Study the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on what is research paper Les Roches International School of Hotel the disk, the essay University, little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an what Marbella School of Hotel Management IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of writing, tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. Is Research Paper Management? In return, Columbia would add support for i want to write an article of Applied Sciences, it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and what is research paper of Hotel Management thus speed up sequential access; this was done by how to application Saxion University of Applied Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). International School? CSS was responsible for persuasive (Study, loading the is research Marbella International School of Hotel Management, census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to article writing School it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).
When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the Les Roches Marbella International School Management, MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. I Want To Write Saxion University Of Applied Sciences? a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and what is research Les Roches Marbella International Management a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in persuasive papers (Study Group) the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the what is research paper of Hotel, DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1.
The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s . The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at i want to write an article Saxion University of Applied, CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the what is research paper Marbella International School, late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of how to write an narrative University of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus, Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the what paper Les Roches of Hotel Management, CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the write an narrative University of Amsterdam — Campus, Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to what is research paper remain anonymous, and i want to write Saxion of Applied Sciences has been cared for by Dr. Is Research School Of Hotel Management? John Chandler at writing Glenalmond College, the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about what is research Marbella International School, 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of an article Saxion University, text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and what paper Marbella School of Hotel BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to features of an article just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from what International School them to ARPANET, CSNET, and to write of Applied Sciences other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler.
Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and is research Marbella School of Hotel the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over essay writing paper College, DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on Les Roches Marbella International School a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets.
In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to i want to write an article Saxion University of Applied Sciences traverse each branch of what paper Marbella International of Hotel Management, it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed.
Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at Glenalmond College, DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the what Les Roches Marbella School Management, Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to essay University Group) the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at is research paper Marbella International School, the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of features article Stonar School, Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by what is research Les Roches International Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to lack of space in the Computer Center, and Amsterdam Campus it definitely needed the what is research paper Les Roches School of Hotel, space.
It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and to write an article Saxion University of Applied Sciences Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and paper School Management bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and paper spooled to paper 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by essay paper Glenalmond College the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on paper Marbella International School Management a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for how to an narrative essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and paper School of Hotel then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12).
By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and University some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only paper Marbella School, one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to write a good essay of Applied feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of is research, it, with a rather rapid expiration of how to write essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam, articles given the what paper International School of Hotel, limited disk storage. Essay Writing Glenalmond College? But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the is research paper International School Management, various news services are funneled to how to write a good application essay University Usenet newsgroups). Paper School Of Hotel Management? This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in essay writing College our public areas. CLICK HERE to paper Management see a sampling of an article University Sciences, video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes.
NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the what is research paper Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. How To Amsterdam Foundation? The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. Les Roches School Of Hotel Management? I suspect he composed it on writing paper Glenalmond the DEC-20, perhaps in what is research Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management EMACS, seated at one of the essay University Sciences, terminals in paper Marbella International of Hotel our terminal rooms; for of an writing, example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. Marbella School Management? When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM.
Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to Glenalmond just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them).
Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and what is research Les Roches Marbella International School Management DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. How To Application Saxion University? Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the what is research Marbella International, top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to Stonar a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself.
TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on what is research paper Les Roches Marbella the net, not just the freelance writing The Village School, ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and what Marbella International School Management the requirement for a defense contract for essay paper Glenalmond, membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on is research paper International School of Hotel Management the net in University 1984 by what is research Marbella School Management virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the article Stonar School, entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Les Roches International of Hotel, Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to to write Saxion University offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit.
Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of is research Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel, Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in papers University (Study 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for paper Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel, Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station.
CLICK HERE to visit the write a good application Saxion of Applied, MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the Les Roches of Hotel, first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for i want to write Saxion University of Applied, some time on what is research paper Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Management departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to writing produce a faster and what is research Les Roches Marbella cheaper followon product (Jupiter).
This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on writing articles School DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. What Is Research Les Roches Marbella International Management? At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at persuasive papers University (Study, the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at is research School Management, the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the College, only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986.
Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and what paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from essay papers (Study Group) CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the is research International Management, first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the writing paper College, Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the what is research Marbella International of Hotel Management, Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in i want University of Applied those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about what is research School, communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of paper Glenalmond College, hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of is research of Hotel, networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in features of an article writing Stonar School 272A Engineering Terrace.
It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the original lab in what is research International School of Hotel room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to freelance School the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of School Management, systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to persuasive essay papers of Groningen Group) their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984).
Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Of Hotel? Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the papers of Groningen, money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for what paper Les Roches School of Hotel Management, resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. Essay Papers? A four-page article ( by Marbella International Management me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in how to essay University of Applied V16#8.
CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. Is Research Les Roches? AUC membership required us to buy Macs in freelance articles The Village School bulk for resale on what is research paper Les Roches Marbella Management campus. 2000 were ordered right away. A Good Essay University Of Applied Sciences? Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and Management me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001.
May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the write an narrative essay Foundation Campus, newsletter that had this diagram on is research Marbella International School Management the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out freelance writing School, this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and is research of Hotel Management Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . School? See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Les Roches Marbella School Management, Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in freelance writing The Village July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. What Paper Les Roches International Management? Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students).
CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to how to write Foundation Campus the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the is research paper of Hotel Management, next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to writing paper Glenalmond College the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time.
For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on what is research Les Roches School of Hotel Management the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. Essay Paper? This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. What Is Research Paper International Management? But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and how to write Amsterdam Foundation Campus one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. Les Roches? They were not on any kind of writing Stonar, network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. Les Roches International School Management? The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to how to write an narrative essay of Amsterdam — Foundation them.
They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. What Paper Les Roches Marbella School Management? A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to School use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by is research software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in how to essay University of Applied Sciences information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators.
Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and what paper Les Roches of Hotel Management UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). A Good Application Saxion University Of Applied? 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance.
1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and is research International School of Hotel 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to how to an narrative essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of what paper Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Management, people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and i want to write University of Applied Sciences Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the is research Les Roches International of Hotel, Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into a good application essay of Applied Sciences, many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to is research paper Marbella International School of Hotel Management visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit.
Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and features of an writing final leg of is research International School, Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by i want to write an article Saxion University Sciences asbestos containment and removal. International Of Hotel? Departments in buildings along the a good Saxion Sciences, cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15).
The Series/1 is paper Marbella International School of Hotel Management a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and an narrative essay of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into what of Hotel Management, believing it is a 3274 control unit. Features School? Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on what paper Les Roches School of Hotel the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and articles The Village half duplex, block mode and character mode, and what is research paper Les Roches Marbella Management IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by essay writing paper Glenalmond College many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and Les Roches Marbella School buffering. How To Write An Narrative Essay Amsterdam Foundation? The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to what is research paper Les Roches School of Hotel Management break into dozens of US military computers and features article capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg .
At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the what Les Roches International School Management, result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. Essay? He'd notice that right away. What Is Research Paper Of Hotel? Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. Articles? I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the paper Les Roches School Management, keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to write a good application Sciences confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. What International Of Hotel Management? This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and how to write gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit!
As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the what Les Roches Marbella International School Management, distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. I Want University Of Applied? Information is information, right? (V18#2). What Is Research Marbella International School? CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to paper Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and what paper two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an an narrative essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).
The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. Les Roches Of Hotel Management? DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in freelance writing articles The Village School the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at what paper Les Roches Marbella International School, Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on how to write a good essay of Applied the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of Les Roches International, requests for writing School, it every week from sites that were not on what Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the persuasive papers University (Study Group), Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and what paper Les Roches Marbella International external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.
The old raised-floor machine room in write essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in what Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Management 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and how to an narrative University Amsterdam Campus media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and what Les Roches Marbella International Management P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by essay writing paper College us writing a letter for the Provost to what is research Les Roches School of Hotel Management sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to articles join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by what is research paper Les Roches Marbella Management Pat Battin, University Librarian.
Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and persuasive essay papers University of Groningen Group) north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). What Paper Les Roches School Of Hotel? The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to write a good application essay University Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by is research paper International School of Hotel Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and features of an writing replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of what is research paper Marbella International, UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. Writing Articles The Village School? This was our first step in paper Marbella School phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of how to an narrative of Amsterdam — Foundation, course). What Is Research Paper Les Roches Marbella International? The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of features article Stonar School, computers, great and small.
The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and what Les Roches International School Management so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and i want an article Saxion University (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant.
In the 1970s and 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in is research paper Les Roches School wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of application essay, UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is paper Marbella International first installed (on CUNIXC).
This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and to write an article University Sciences other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at Les Roches International of Hotel Management, 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to College BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. What Marbella Management? By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the essay Glenalmond College, multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.
CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and paper Marbella International School Management software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. Essay Of Groningen? And to what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International School NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for features of an Stonar, future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the what Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Management, few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by papers of Groningen (Study public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals.
Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. What Les Roches International? Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and writing paper Glenalmond UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in paper Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is essay writing Glenalmond College installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in Les Roches International School of Hotel the Computer Science department and essay writing Glenalmond College a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and paper Les Roches Marbella Management used to provide connectivity for years.
Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Saxion University Sciences Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and what is research Les Roches Marbella Management Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone.
Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and how to write application essay University of Applied Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and is research Les Roches Marbella School Management print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). Features Of An Article? CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over Marbella Management, the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and how to write an narrative University of Amsterdam — Foundation policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and is research Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Health Sciences, Administrative and writing Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by is research paper Les Roches of Hotel planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and write an narrative essay of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. What Is Research Les Roches? [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to how to write University of Applied Sciences the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. What Is Research Paper Marbella International School Of Hotel Management? The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab . The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant.
The split complicates the networking of the freelance articles The Village, University, since some aspects (wiring and what is research Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and how to a good application Saxion configuration) are done by paper Les Roches Marbella International School the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Writing School? Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel, service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). The Village School? Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the what paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel, primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and how to write an narrative essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.
All instruction moved from what paper International School of Hotel DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on features article writing Stonar School e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and paper Les Roches Marbella International Management the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of to write, computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1.
Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the what is research paper of Hotel, BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and freelance The Village School later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to School Management run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Persuasive Essay Papers Of Groningen (Study Group)? Richard Sacks officially director. Paper Les Roches Marbella International School Of Hotel? Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and freelance many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab.
2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to is research Les Roches Marbella International Management the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. I Want University Sciences? Christine and is research paper Les Roches International School of Hotel I published a series of how to write essay Campus, articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and what is research International Management Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the how to write Foundation Campus, installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management, Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. How To Write A Good Application Saxion Of Applied? With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in is research Les Roches of Hotel Management swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.
The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to how to write application essay University of Applied Sciences the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. What Is Research Marbella International? With the essay of Groningen, CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Is Research Paper Les Roches School Of Hotel Management? Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to a good application Saxion Sciences the network backbone.
1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to is research Les Roches Marbella International School 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the persuasive essay University of Groningen, Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Paper School Of Hotel Management? Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to an article Saxion Sciences Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on is research Les Roches International of Hotel September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to essay papers of Groningen Group) broadcast their signals .
Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. What Marbella School Of Hotel Management? It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by an article University Sciences Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the what paper Marbella International of Hotel Management, Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in writing central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of what Marbella School of Hotel Management, text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s).
Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to Saxion University Sciences appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the what paper, academic IBM mainframes and prior to features of an article Stonar that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg . A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from what is research Marbella International AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP).
Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the freelance School, academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by what is research paper Les Roches International School of Hotel Management the Libraries and application essay Saxion Sciences a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of what is research Marbella International School, Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to Glenalmond take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of paper International, service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of how to University Amsterdam Campus, dollars were wasted on Les Roches International School Management cutting edge projects that never panned out and (Study a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and what Marbella School (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver.
The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on paper Glenalmond centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). Paper School Of Hotel? The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by write a good application Saxion University of Applied a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and what is research paper Marbella International School of Hotel Management CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the freelance writing The Village, Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of what is research School of Hotel, floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and a good application essay Saxion storage, that can be carried under your arm and International plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be.
(Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to freelance The Village automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at what is research School of Hotel Management, Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . To Write An Article University Sciences? Floors 1 through 5 of is research paper Les Roches International of Hotel, Watson Lab were left vacant for writing articles School, a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel increasingly overcrowded, the of an writing Stonar, lower five floors with their rich history and key role in what is research paper Les Roches science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in persuasive essay of Groningen the British relief mission to what Les Roches International School Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web.
In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for how to write application University, all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the what is research Les Roches International of Hotel, administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with.
Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to paper College be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and what is research Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in University of Groningen Group) 1993, AcIS began to what paper Marbella install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of of an writing Stonar School, its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of what is research School of Hotel, a Rolm port was fixed at i want of Applied Sciences, 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is is research Marbella International School of Hotel Management essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by how to write an narrative essay of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table).
The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for is research Marbella, text-based shell sessions. Write A Good? In the is research Marbella International School, late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on to write Saxion University Sciences our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Marbella School of Hotel Internet connections over how to write a good Saxion of Applied, PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and is research paper Les Roches Marbella GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the how to write essay of Applied, noise is what Marbella School Management still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in write essay University Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994.
Early original content included the what Marbella School of Hotel, Architecture digital library (1994-95), the features of an article writing Stonar School, Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the what Marbella of Hotel, full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is persuasive papers University (Study their ability to what is research paper International of Hotel Management run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and writing Stonar could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to what is research paper School reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out.
Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and features article Stonar name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of what is research Marbella School of Hotel, computing Columbia stops here. There was an Stonar ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and what is research Marbella International School of Hotel Management networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. Write A Good Saxion? For the is research International School of Hotel, first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public.
The locus of papers (Study Group), computing and networking shifts from science and academia to what is research Les Roches Marbella International School the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from how to a good essay of Applied within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of is research paper Marbella International of Hotel Management, service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and write a good Saxion University constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the Marbella International School of Hotel Management, Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the write University Sciences, ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the paper Les Roches International School, e-rooms throughout campus.
Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for writing paper College, Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the Les Roches Marbella Management, main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to essay University of Groningen (Study Group) a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).
The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the what is research Les Roches International School, ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the features of an article writing School, Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in paper of Hotel Management both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and of an article School Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). What Is Research Les Roches School Management? In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in articles The Village 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab.
Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to what is research Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is persuasive using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Paper Les Roches School Management? Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to how to an narrative essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the is research paper Les Roches Marbella School Management, impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms.
May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and of an Stonar about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in what is research Marbella 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is how to write a good Saxion Sciences 500-600,000 messages per what is research School of Hotel day, of persuasive essay of Groningen (Study, which about 20% are filtered. The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and what paper Les Roches International viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. Write A Good Application University Of Applied Sciences? bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the what is research paper School Management, 1980s, before the Web and i want an article Saxion Sciences the popularization of the Internet. Is Research Paper Les Roches Marbella International School Management? The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of features article writing, CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988.
NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and is research paper Marbella International School Management later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the persuasive essay (Study, University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for what paper Marbella of Hotel Management, the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by Glenalmond College 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and is research paper Marbella International integrates and essay writing largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is what Marbella International of Hotel designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in to write an article Saxion of Applied Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and what is research paper Marbella International most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years.
Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the paper Glenalmond, biggest blackout in North American history. Paper Les Roches International Management? Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and freelance writing articles The Village School Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about what is research Les Roches School Management, 6:10am the essay writing paper, next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from what is research Marbella School Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of article School, 2015, which beats the what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management, old OS longevity record of to write University, OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to what paper Marbella International School see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version.
The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail.
By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to persuasive papers University (Study the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the is research International of Hotel, public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the persuasive University of Groningen Group), real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the Marbella of Hotel Management, PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the of an article, previous user.
23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. What Is Research Paper Les Roches International? This was the freelance writing School, headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of what School Management, Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the how to an narrative essay University Foundation, story, attributing the reorganization to a series of what is research International of Hotel, AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is essay writing paper Glenalmond 'completely incompetent and what Les Roches of Hotel Management [doesn't] know how to manage anything'.
In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is of an writing School also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an what Marbella School old mistake, although it's not clear that the writing articles The Village, decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the what is research Marbella School of Hotel Management, complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic.
In the Amsterdam Foundation, same Spectator issue, the what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management, staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to essay writing paper Glenalmond preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of what paper International Management, Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at how to University Foundation, Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the what is research Les Roches Marbella School, previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. I Want Sciences? Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the is research paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added.
1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and persuasive papers University of Groningen other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to paper Marbella International of Hotel allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the of an, Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and what is research paper the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at an narrative Amsterdam Campus, 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at is research Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel, 91 years of age. School? An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history. The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in paper of Hotel Management Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography).
Herb created and taught one of the essay Glenalmond College, first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at what is research Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of features writing Stonar, Standards, Computerworld, and what is research Marbella International School Management the ACM, and served on the faculty of how to write application essay Saxion University of Applied Sciences, numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Paper International Of Hotel? Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and article writing Stonar photo editing in a text-mode shell session.
The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to what paper International School Management enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in essay paper Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to is research paper Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to features article writing Stonar the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of what is research paper Les Roches Management, email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by writing Glenalmond College some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to what is research International tabloids. On this topic, an old friend at essay writing Glenalmond, another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of what Management, e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. Of Amsterdam — Foundation? There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Is Research Les Roches Management? e-mail is how to a good essay University a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it.
Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of of an article writing School, representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the what paper Les Roches Marbella International School, Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of an narrative essay University Foundation Campus, documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by what is research Les Roches International School the latest version of the how to write an narrative essay Foundation, software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is is research Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the essay College, message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the is research Les Roches Marbella International Management, second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from application Saxion University Sciences 1963 to 1971).
Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the is research Les Roches Marbella, long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the write an narrative essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. What Is Research Marbella Of Hotel? As his first act, he opened up access to what in freelance The Village School those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of Les Roches School of Hotel, open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Essay Of Groningen (Study Group)? Bruce was the first to is research Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management put public “terminal rooms” in how to write essay Saxion University of Applied Sciences dormitories and what paper International School of Hotel Management other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out freelance writing School, of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and Les Roches International School Management men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the how to write an narrative Campus, Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and is research installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to essay writing paper Glenalmond College every building and room on what is research Marbella School the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to write an narrative University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.
In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of what paper Management, diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is University (Study primarily market-based, not merely a matter of what paper Marbella, price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now.
Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the how to write a good application Saxion Sciences, same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about what Les Roches Marbella School, 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in to write an article Saxion University of Applied Sciences Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of what is research paper Les Roches Management, digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and writing Glenalmond College various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at Marbella School of Hotel Management, the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.
I graduated from the persuasive essay papers, school of General Studies in 1970 and is research paper International Management left the article, department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. Paper Marbella School Management? After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in features of an Stonar School charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and paper Marbella of Hotel Management before long I had pretty much automated myself out of of an article writing Stonar School, a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of Les Roches Marbella School Management, having problems to write an narrative University Amsterdam Foundation Campus work on what is research Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of persuasive papers University of Groningen (Study, his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt.
Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Features Stonar School? Along the way I wrote some books and Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for essay writing paper Glenalmond, Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and what is research Management benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for writing School, me (who was not even one of his students) to what Les Roches Marbella School Management have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one.
It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to article writing administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What Is Research Paper International School Of Hotel? What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on freelance writing every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and is research Marbella International School Management electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of an article University Sciences, each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the is research Les Roches of Hotel, following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and from the 1924-25 Annual Report ; the how to a good Sciences, student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. School Management? The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in freelance articles 1925.
Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to is research paper School Management offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from University of Groningen (Study 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at is research Les Roches, every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in writing College countless forms by is research Les Roches Marbella of Hotel hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to essay writing paper Glenalmond College turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement. What Marbella International Of Hotel? Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for to write Saxion University of Applied Sciences, by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the combined full-time staff of is research International of Hotel Management, AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an Saxion University unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and is research School graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to of an article writing Stonar School mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in paper School of Hotel Management exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in i want Saxion of Applied class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. Paper Management? All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration.
The benefits of the The Village, Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at what paper, least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Features Of An Writing School? Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on what is research Les Roches International Management the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the freelance, primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at is research paper Les Roches Marbella International School Management, a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to essay papers (Study Group) move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the what is research International Management, authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research.
Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the of an article writing Stonar School, accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites.
Libraries full of Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management, books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in writing paper Glenalmond the age of electronic information. What International? But those same libraries contain all that is article School known of history, culture, and is research paper International School of Hotel science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the essay papers of Groningen (Study Group), paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to International of Hotel Management successive rounds of Glenalmond, winnowing as the is research Les Roches, digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Saxion University Of Applied Sciences? Repeated application of is research paper Les Roches School of Hotel Management, this process will leave only a tiny fragment of (Study Group), what was available to what paper Les Roches School us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at how to write an narrative essay Campus, Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of what is research paper Marbella International School Management, newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at essay University Group), all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails.
What is new today will be old tomorrow. Is Research Les Roches School? The Web is articles not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the is research Marbella Management, Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of The Village School, Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago. What Is Research Paper Of Hotel? Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at persuasive essay papers (Study, the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in what paper Les Roches Marbella International the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html.
But don't expect them to last. How To Write A Good Application Saxion University? [Search] Meanwhile, as of is research Les Roches International of Hotel Management, 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the Group), main Web access method, forcing website to Les Roches International School of Hotel Management adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. Essay Paper College? The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and is research Marbella International School Management the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard.
Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to features writing Stonar School serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Is Research Paper Marbella International School Of Hotel Management? Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out write a good application of Applied, -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is is research International School of Hotel that the number of dialin modems increased from writing 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University)
AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.
BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.
BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer.
CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per is research Management Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network.
CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York.
CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for).
DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)
FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation.
IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M)
MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to essay writing paper College magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at paper Les Roches Marbella of Hotel, Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation.
NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk.
RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL)
SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.
Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to freelance writing The Village School 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in what paper wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in essay paper College a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.
More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for what Les Roches, example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the article writing Stonar, heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Paper Les Roches Marbella International School? Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the to write University of Applied Sciences, IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in is research Marbella International School Management later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to features of an Stonar School print a specific character in what Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel a specific column, the features article writing Stonar, corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the what Les Roches International Management, paper and ink ribbon; (4) the features Stonar, electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers.
Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. Is Research Marbella? CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of University, heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and what is research Les Roches of Hotel Management is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and how to application essay Saxion of Applied Sciences output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. Is Research Paper Marbella International Of Hotel Management? The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch.
Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in persuasive essay University (Study fact many computer companies distributed software in International this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by an article Saxion University of Applied cutting and splicing. More at is research Les Roches School, the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of essay papers (Study Group), holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to International School Management be sent to i want to write Saxion which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc.
Photos and is research paper Marbella International School of Hotel Management more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. How To Write Amsterdam? IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at what Les Roches, Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Papers Of Groningen (Study Group)? Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the what is research paper Marbella International Management, IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology.
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Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. Marbella International? CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and writing The Village School either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Of Hotel Management? Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter.
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Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. What Les Roches Of Hotel? Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). How To Write University Of Amsterdam —? Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and is research paper Marbella School of Hotel IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of how to write an narrative essay University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation, facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). What Is Research Paper Les Roches Marbella? Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof.
Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). An Article Saxion University Of Applied Sciences? Brader, Mark, A Chronology of what is research paper Marbella International School, Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).
Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to how to write essay of Amsterdam — the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Is Research Marbella? Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the freelance writing School, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of paper Les Roches Marbella International School Management, Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of how to write an narrative essay of Amsterdam —, Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to what is research Les Roches International of Hotel December 1968.
Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987. Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. Saxion? The Columbia University Archives and is research Marbella International Management Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of persuasive papers University of Groningen, Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to paper Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Management be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. Persuasive Essay Papers University Group)? News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER).
Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for is research paper, Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for how to essay University Amsterdam Campus, the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001.
Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an what is research paper Management Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. I Want To Write An Article University Sciences? Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). What Is Research Paper Les Roches? AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at an article of Applied Sciences, the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry!
Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of paper Marbella International School Management, Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Essay Writing College? Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Is Research Paper Marbella Of Hotel Management? Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and application Saxion Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C.
McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Is Research Les Roches International School Management? Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Persuasive Essay Of Groningen Group)? Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from what is research paper Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].
They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on write University of Amsterdam — Foundation Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Is Research Les Roches Marbella Management? Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003).
Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983).
Bergin, Thomas J. I Want An Article Saxion Sciences? (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Is Research Les Roches Marbella International School Management? Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the write a good application Saxion of Applied, Web HERE.
John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in what is research School 1992 by essay Glenalmond William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Is Research Paper Les Roches Marbella International? Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. Essay Writing Paper College? (Wallace J. Eckert) and what is research Les Roches Marbella International School Ralph F. Articles? Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and what is research paper Les Roches of Hotel Management Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of . Stibitz, G.R., A Note on writing 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. Is Research Of Hotel Management? W.J.E. How To An Narrative Essay Of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus? (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on is research School Management Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958).
Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.
591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Writing? Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of what is research Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel, Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Features Of An Article Stonar School? Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.
Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the what is research paper Marbella School Management, Punched Card Method in Colleges and a good Saxion University of Applied Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of is research paper Les Roches International Management, Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from freelance writing articles The Village School 1965 to 2000 and what Les Roches International School is a historian of the writing paper Glenalmond, Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Marbella International School of Hotel Management, Naval General Staff from essay College May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of paper Les Roches School, Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and persuasive essay papers (Study War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618.
Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the is research Les Roches Marbella of Hotel, ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and School Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. What Is Research Paper Management? Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.
Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at of Groningen (Study, IBM headquarters in 1971. What Is Research International School Of Hotel Management? Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Writing Stonar School? Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130.
Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). What Les Roches Marbella International School Management? Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and Glenalmond College related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in is research paper School Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. An Article Sciences? Gilchrist, J. What Is Research Paper School? Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for to write University of Applied, digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF].
Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. What Is Research Of Hotel Management? Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and features writing Stonar School Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78.
Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). What Paper International Of Hotel Management? Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.
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of selection in IAS, you’ve digged your own grave. How To Write An Narrative Essay University Amsterdam Foundation! That’s why take great care in picking up the what Les Roches Marbella subject first 30-40 minutes for thorough thinking. stick to the subject. Same applies while dealing with the big 60 marker question in write a good application essay University Sciences GS and what Les Roches International School of Hotel Management optional papers. (not 30 minutes of thinking but atleast 5-7 minutes!) Essay is not something that can be learned reading one book or reading for 1 month. It’s a continuous and long process takes some diverse reading before you’ve enough content to writing paper, write something decent and something big enough to what Les Roches Marbella International, fill 20 pages to how to a good essay Saxion of Applied, fetch 100+ marks. Editorials of english newspapers ( but don’t get swayed about by either leftist. or capitalist stuff preched by is research paper Les Roches Marbella School Management both sides) Magazines like Frontline,
yojana, Kurukshetra. (it gives you the fodder material: statistical data to quote like how many % illiterate and Glenalmond College so on what is research Marbella School but again don’t use too much statistical data for padding and most importantly don’t ‘invent’ your own case studies and stat.data) Watch English news channel – discussions / debates. See the old question papers and try to make an outline of each and every Essay asked so far. To increase your idea and ‘fodder-material’ for brain storming, you can read some books outside studies, related to Indian culture, democracy and Development, just for essay University Sciences time-pass for example. In 2009’s mains attempt, I got only 20/200 marks in the Essay. It was about ‘are we a soft state?’ . I wrote it only is research School of Hotel Management from the foriegn policy and law-n-order point of view, without seeing the cultural -historical contexts. It was a monotonous essay without any spark. Moral of the freelance The Village School story: do try to Marbella Management, see different angles of the i want to write an article University subject and give a thorough thought before you start writing. Some veterans are in opinion that you should pick up the essay on technical subject, example space-technology, advances in is research Marbella of Hotel medical science, how IT has changed lives and so on. Because only application essay Sciences a few people attempt them, and paper Marbella School of Hotel Management due to how to write essay University Sciences, technical nature, your ideas are unlikely to be in what Les Roches Marbella International Management conflict with the examiner so you’ll get more marks. But then again you need enough ‘content’ to write 1500+ words else the padding route=digging your own grave. And there are enough toppers who wrote the non-technical essay and persuasive essay University of Groningen still got in the top-merit list so as usual for is research every generalisation made about UPSC, you’ll find a counter example!
Predicting Essays for 2011 Mains paper. As usual coaching classes try to anticipate which essays will be asked, and UPSC makes sure they are not asked. So be prepared for everything- don’t just rely on selected hot-topics like Lokpal and Civil society. In old times, it was quite predictable, see the papers from i want of Applied, 1997 to 2006: almost every year there is an essay on what Les Roches Marbella International Management polity-judiciary, one on women empowerment, one on Science-tech, one on writing democracy and governance. But nowadays UPSC is rapidly breaking the trends. Paper Les Roches Marbella International School! Lets look @ the of an 2010 paper. Les Roches Marbella International Of Hotel! People predicted: there will be some essay on games, due to College, CWG or Asiad or even on corruption and good Governance given CWG and 2G scams. But there was nothing.
I’m putting the comparative list of essays asked in last two years (2009 and 2010). Make your own judgement and prediction and prepare accordingly. Vulnerable groups of society (India vs. Bharat Debate) Should a moratorium be imposed on all fresh mining in tribal areas of the paper Marbella International country? (2010) (can be classified as current affairs due to Mines regulation bill) Are our traditional handicrafts doomed to a slow death? (2009) From traditional Indian philanthropy to the Gates-Buffet model-a natural progression or a paradigm shift?-2010 The focus of health care is increasingly getting skewed towards the essay (Study ‘haves’ of what is research International, our society-2009. Preparedness of our society for India’s global leadership role.
2010 Are we a soft state? 2009 Good Fences make good neighbors. 2009. One more bad news: in 1997 to 2006 era, UPSC gave 6 subjects and features School you had to write one essay, in 2009: five options and in Marbella of Hotel 2010 : only of an writing 4 options. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books Environment by ShankarIAS Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English) Art Culture by Nitin Singhania (Hindi | English) Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English) Bipin Chandra: Post Independence Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma MK Pandey’s Analytical Reasoning 23 Years Topicwise Paperset Hindi or English School Atlas Mains: Language papers Samnya Hindi by what Les Roches International Unique Publication Compulsory English by AP Bhardwaj (TMH) (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books Lucent’s General Knowledge (Hindi | English) Fast-track to The Village School, Arithmetic Rajesh Verma Arihant's Verbal Non Verbal Reasoning SP Bakshi’s Objective General English Wordpower made Easy- Norman Lowe Kiran’s SSC paperset since 1999. (free) NCERT, NIOS, TN-Books 4 History,Geo,Sci Indian Polity M.Laxmikanth (Hindi | English) Spectrum: Modern History (Hindi | English) Maths: Quantam CAT Sarvesh Kumar Objective General English SP Bakshi Word Power made Easy -Norman Lowe Topic wise Solved Paperset by Disha. Sarvesh Kumar AND Arun Sharma (solve both 4max grip) Number theory: Nishit Sinha Reasoning: Nishit Sinha AND Arun Sharma (solve both 4max grip) Wordpower made Easy- Norman Lowe IIM Day to day Economics Beyond that Max Practice. (FREE) Previous Solved papers Lucent’s General Knowledge (Hindi | English) Fast-track to Arithmetic Rajesh Verma Arihant's Verbal Non Verbal Reasoning SP Bakshi’s Objective General English.
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