Article about writing Geneva School of Diplomacy
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Short Term Certificate Course (STCC) student of Geneva School of Diplomacy & International Relations (GSD) shares why he ...
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Gut-Level Legislation, or, Redistribution. Publication date Spring 2006. “New American fiction” is, to my mind, immediately and unhappily equivalent to article about Geneva, new American short fiction. And yet I think the American short story is a dead form, unnaturally perpetuated, as Lukacs once wrote of the chivalric romance, “by purely formal means, after the transcendental conditions for its existence have already been condemned by write d'Overbroeck's, the historico-philosophical dialectic.” Having exhausted the conditions for its existence, the short story continues to article writing Geneva School, be propagated in fast Hall School America by a purely formal apparatus: by the big magazines, which, if they print fiction at all, sandwich one short story per article about writing of Diplomacy, issue between features and reviews; and by workshop-based creative writing programs and their attendant literary journals. Today’s short stories all seem to bear an invisible check mark, the writing College ghastly imprimatur of the fiction factory; the very sentences are animated by some kind of vegetable consciousness: “I worked for Kristin,” they seem to say, or “Jeff thought I was fucking hilarious.” Meanwhile, the ghosts of deleted paragraphs rattle their chains from the writing margins. In the name of science, I recently read from cover to cover the how to a psychology Best American Short Stories anthologies of 2004 and 2005. Many of these stories seemed to have been pared down to a nearly unreadable core of brisk verbs and article Geneva vivid nouns. An indiscriminate premium has been placed on the particular, the tactile, the writing Fanshawe “crisp,” and the “tart”—as if literary worth should be calibrated by article writing Geneva School of Diplomacy, resemblance to an apple (or, in the lingo of write articles, hyperspecificity, a McIntosh). Writers appear to article writing Geneva School of Diplomacy, be trying to identify as many concrete entities as possible, in the fewest possible words. The result is celebrated as “lean,” “tight,” “well-honed” prose. One of the by-products of hyperspecificity is a preponderance of essay on Robert Gordon, proper names.
For maximum specificity and minimum word count, names can’t be beat. Julia, Juliet, Viola, Violet, Rusty, Lefty, Carl, Carla, Carleton, Mamie, Sharee, Sharon, Rose of Sharon (a Native American). In acknowledgment of the times, the 2004 and 2005 volumes each contain exactly one Middle East story, each featuring a character called Hassan. Writing! I found these names annoying, universally so. I was no less annoyed by John Briggs or John Hillman than by Sybil Mildred Clemm Legrand Pascal, who invites the write fast Moreton reader to call her Miss Sibby. I was no more delighted by the cat called King Spanky than by the cat called Cat. The authors had clearly weighed plausibility against precision; whichever way they inclined, there was the same aura of cheapness. Alarmed by article about writing Geneva of Diplomacy, my own negativity, I began to wonder whether I might be doing the Best Americans some injustice. For a point of how to contrast essay Pickering College, comparison, I reread a few stories by about writing Geneva, Chekhov, who is still the ostensible role model for articles online, American “short-fiction practitioners.” (Search for “the American Chekhov” on Google, and you will get hits for Carver, Cheever, Tobias Wolff, Peter Taylor, Andre Dubus, and Lorrie Moore, as well as several playwrights.) By comparison with the article of Diplomacy Best Americans, I found, Chekhov is quite sparing with names. In “Lady with Lapdog,” Gurov’s wife gets a few lines of dialogue, but no name.
Anna’s husband, Gurov’s crony at the club, the lapdog—all remain mercifully nameless. Granted, Chekhov was writing from how to write essays fast a different point in the historico-philosophical dialectic: a character could be called “Gurov’s wife,” “the bureaucrat,” or “the lackey,” and nobody would take it as a political statement. The Best Americans are more democratic. Every last clerk, child, and goat has a name. Nowhere is the Geneva School best American barrage of names so relentless as in the first sentences, which are specific to the point of arbitrariness; one expects to creative Fanshawe, discover that they are all acrostics, or don’t contain a single letter e. They all begin in medias res. For Slavists, the precedent for “in medias res” is set by Pushkin’s fragment “The guests were arriving at the dacha.” According to Tolstoy’s wife, this sentence inspired the opening of Anna Karenina . Would Pushkin have managed to Geneva, inspire anybody at all had he written: “The night before Countess Maria Ivanovna left for Baden Baden, a drunken coachman crashed the Mirskys’ troika into the Pronskys’ dacha”? He would not. Pushkin knew that it is neither necessary nor desirable for the first sentence of a literary work to answer the “five w’s and online lessons Hudson College one h.” Many of the article writing of Diplomacy Best Americans assume this perverse burden. The result is write articles for money d'Overbroeck's not just in medias res, but in-your-face in article writing School medias res, a maze of names, subordinate clauses, and minor collisions: “The morning after her granddaughter’s frantic phone call, Lorraine skipped her usual coffee session at the Limestone Diner and drove out to the accident scene instead”; “Graves had been sick for three days when, on the long, straight highway between Mazar and Kunduz, a dark blue truck coming toward them shed its rear wheel in a spray of orange-yellow sparks.” I had to stare at these sentences (from Trudy Lewis’s “Limestone Diner” and Tom Bissell’s “Death Defier”) for how to write a comparison contrast essay College, several minutes each. A first line like “Lorraine skipped her usual coffee session at the Limestone Diner” is supposed to create the illusion that the reader already knows Lorraine, knows about her usual coffee, and, thus, cares why Lorraine has violated her routine. It’s like a confidence man who rushes up and writing School claps you on the shoulder, trying to make you think you already know him.
Today’s writers are hustling their readers, as if reading were some arduous weight-loss regime, or a form of community service; the public goes along, joking about a comparison Pickering College how they really should read more. Oprah uses identical rhetoric to advocate reading and about writing fitness; Martha Nussbaum touts literature as an exercise regime for compassion. Reading has become a Protestant good work: if you “buy into” Lorraine’s fate, it proves that you are a good person, capable of self-sacrifice and empathy. Another popular technique for persuasive essay University, waylaying the reader is the article about writing Geneva of Diplomacy use of write for money online d'Overbroeck's College, specificity as a shortcut to about writing Geneva, nostalgia—as if all a writer has to do is mention Little League or someone called Bucky McGee, and our shared American past will do the rest of the work. Each of the Best American anthologies, for example, has a Little League story. I believe, with the Formalists, that literature has no inherently unsuitable subject—but, if it did, this subject would surely be Little League. Both Best Americans include some variation on the Western historical romance, e.g., “Hart and Boot”: “The man’s head and torso emerged from essays Hall School a hole in the ground, just a few feet from the rock where Pearl Hart sat smoking her last cigarette.” There is a terrible threat in article writing Geneva of Diplomacy this sentence: is the write online reader really expected to about writing School of Diplomacy, think: “Good old Pearl Hart”? The best of the Best Americans are still the old masters—Joyce Carol Oates, Alice Munro, John Updike—writers who comply with the purpose of the short-story form: namely, telling a short story. This sounds trivial, but isn’t. The short-story form can only accommodate a very specific content: basically, absence. Missing persons, missed opportunities, very brief encounters, occuring in the margins of “Life Itself”: when the content is minimalist, then it makes sense to follow the writing short-fiction dictates: condense, delete, omit.
Novels, like short stories, are often about absences; but they are based on article about writing, information overload. A short story says, “I looked for essays fast School, x, and didn’t find it,” or, “I was not looking anymore, and then I found x.” A novel says, “I looked for x, and found a, b, c, g, q, r, and w.” The novel consists of all the irrelevant garbage, the effort to about Geneva School of Diplomacy, redeem that garbage, to integrate it into fast Hall School Life Itself, to writing Geneva of Diplomacy, redraw the boundaries of Life Itself. The novel is online lessons Hudson a fundamentally ironic form; hence its power of self-regeneration. The short story is writing Geneva School a fundamentally unironic form, and for this reason I think it is doomed. When the persuasive essay (NAVITAS) available literary forms no longer match the available real-life content, the novel can reabsorb the mismatch and use it as material. The canonical example is Don Quixote , a work which, according to his prologue, Cervantes conceived in a prison cell in Seville.
Cervantes wanted to write a chivalric romance, but the gap between this form and his experience was too great. Then he broke through the formal “prison”: he made the article writing School gap the subject of on Robert Gordon (NAVITAS), a book. Many of the about Geneva Best American stories are set in persuasive essay prisons and School of Diplomacy psychiatric hospitals. Essay University! They are trying to article writing Geneva of Diplomacy, break out, but I don’t think they will. One of the most interesting contributions, Kelly Link’s “Stone Animals,” is about a family who moves into a new house that, very gradually, turns out to be “haunted.” First a toothbrush becomes haunted, then the coffee machine, the downstairs bathroom. The haunted rooms can no longer be used; the house becomes equivalent to Cervantes’s cell: all the narrative possibilities have been sealed off.
The family has less and less space in which to write contrast College, live. The last sentence is creepy and vaguely polemical: “In a little while, the dinner party will be over and the war will begin.” Indeed, let the war begin. Today’s literary situation is such that virtually all writers must, at article writing Geneva School least initially, write short stories. Several of the creative articles Best American stories, “Stone Animals” among them, are really novelistic plots crammed into twenty pages. The short story is trying to expand into a catchall genre. In fact, the novel is, at present, the only catchall genre we have; and it is article about School of Diplomacy shrinking. Novels have gotten so short lately, with the exception of those that have gotten very long. Most of the long novels fit under James Wood’s designation of “hysterical realism”—which, while ostensibly opposed to Puritan minimalism, actually shares its basic assumption: writing as a form of self-indulgence and vanity.
The difference is that, instead of persuasive on Robert Gordon, eschewing what they consider to be wicked, the article of Diplomacy hysterical realists are forever confessing it. The recursions of David Foster Wallace and write a comparison contrast Pickering Dave Eggers—“I confess that I, reprehensibly, want to be loved; this very confession is another reprehensible ploy to make you love me”—are a dreary Catholic riposte to article about writing School of Diplomacy, a dreary Protestant attack. It would be equally productive for every writer to start every book with an apology for cutting down trees which could have been put to better use building houses for the homeless; followed by a second apology for the paper consumed by the first apology. Here is the crux of the problem, the how to fast Moreton Hall single greatest obstacle to American literature today: guilt. Guilt leads to the idea that all writing is self-indulgence. Writers, feeling guilty for about Geneva, not doing real work, that mysterious activity—where is it? On Wall Street, at online lessons Hudson Sloane-Kettering, in Sudan?—turn in shame to the notion of writing as “craft.” (If art is aristocratic, decadent, egotistical, self-indulgent, then craft is article writing Geneva School of Diplomacy useful, humble, ascetic, anorexic—a form of whittling.) “Craft” solicits from essay on Robert Gordon them constipated “vignettes”—as if to say: “Well, yes, it’s bad, but at least there isn’t too much of it.” As if writing well consisted of overcoming human weakness and bad habits. As if writers became writers by omitting needless words. American novelists are ashamed to find their own lives interesting; all the rooms in the house have become haunted, the available subjects have been blocked off.
What remains to article about writing Geneva School of Diplomacy, be written about? (A) nostalgic and historical subjects; (B) external, researched subjects, also sometimes historical; (C) their own self-loathing; and/or (D) terrible human suffering. For years, Lorrie Moore has only written about how to write a comparison contrast essay Pickering cancer. About Writing Geneva School Of Diplomacy! In A Heartbreaking Work of creative writing College, Staggering Genius , Dave Eggers implies that anyone who does not find his story compelling is unsympathetic to cancer victims; he describes in article writing School of Diplomacy gory detail how he plans to eviscerate such people, how he plans to online Hudson, be eviscerated by them in turn. For writers who aren’t into cancer, there is the Holocaust, and of course the article about Geneva School of Diplomacy items can be recombined: cancer and the Holocaust, cancer and American nostalgia, the Holocaust and American nostalgia. For the last combination, you can’t do better than Michael Chabon’s The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier Clay , with its memorable opening sentence: In later years, holding forth to an interviewer or to an audience of aging fans at a comic book convention, Sam Clay liked to declare, apropos of writing articles, his and Joe Kavalier’s greatest creation, that back when he was a boy, sealed and hog-tied inside the airtight vessel known as Brooklyn New York, he had been haunted by dreams of Harry Houdini. All the elements are there: the article writing of Diplomacy nicknames, the lessons Hudson College clauses, the five w’s, the physical imprisonment, the nostalgia. (As if a fictional character could have a “greatest creation” by the first sentence—as if he were already entitled to be “holding forth” to article School of Diplomacy, “fans.”) Throughout the novel, Chabon does actually generate a fair amount of nostalgia—but then he goes and dumps the entire burden of character development on the Holocaust. Joe Kavalier is a master magician, an escape artist, a writer of fabulous comic books, a charismatic and fundamentally mysterious person—until, that is, Chabon explains to us that the reason Kavalier became an how to a comparison contrast Pickering College, escape artist was to about writing School, escape from write a psychology essay Heritage Hitler.
The reason he could produce a blockbuster cartoon superhero was that he had a psychological need to create a hero who could knock Hitler’s lights out on a weekly basis. W. G. Sebald’s Austerlitz has a nearly identical premise, minus the American nostalgia. It, too, features an authorial stand-in, a la Sam Clay, who finds in some other person a source of narrative. Writing Geneva Of Diplomacy! Austerlitz is, like Kavalier, a human enigma who disappears for years on end, leaving trails of online lessons Hudson College, clues; in the end, the “solution” is nothing other than the article writing Geneva School Final Solution. Austerlitz’s and Kavalier’s parents both perished, peculiarly enough, in the same Czech ghetto, Terezin. Austerlitz and Kavalier are both obsessed with moths; they both have Holocaust-induced problems with women. (Austerlitz’s one love affair, with a woman called Marie, fizzles out during a trip to Marienbad, where he is oppressed by an inexplicable terror; later we understand that it’s because he is actually Jewish, and his parents were killed in the Holocaust, and write essay Heritage once they went on about writing of Diplomacy, vacation to Marienbad.) It’s not that the big pathologies can’t be written about, or can’t be written about well; Oates’s “The Cousins” ( Best American 2005), for how to a psychology, example, is about both the Holocaust and cancer, and is still a good story. It consists of the article about Geneva letters between two cousins, aging women: one survived the Holocaust and how to a psychology essay American Heritage School became a famous writer, the other grew up in America and became a retiree in Florida. They were supposed to meet as children, but never did. The twist is that both cousins are interesting and mysterious; both have suffered; and about writing Geneva of Diplomacy they are bound by some hereditary, unarticulated, Zolaesque link. Among the persuasive Gordon University (NAVITAS) novelists who write about the Second World War, I confess that my favorite is Haruki Murakami.
Murakami’s The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle opens with a small, personal mystery—the disappearance of the narrator’s cat—which turns out to be related to how the narrator never really understood his wife, who also disappears. The two disappearances are subsequently linked to Geneva School of Diplomacy, the occupation of Manchuria, the torture killing of a Japanese soldier, and various other personal and global events. The narrator is moved by all the how to write fast Hall School big historical themes that pass through the novel, but he suffers more immediately from the loss of his cat—as in Brueghel’s picture of the farmer ploughing his field while Icarus drowns. We never learn exactly what the article writing School Manchurian occupation has to how to write essays fast Moreton, do with the missing cat. The big historical mysteries are related to, but do not seamlessly explain, the small everyday mysteries. By contrast, I feel sure that if Sebald or Chabon had written Wind-Up Bird , the narrator would have discovered that his own father had been killed in the Manchurian campaign, and that’s why his wife left him and his cat ran away. Murakami isn’t the world’s greatest novelist; you could say that his novels are all “botched” on some basic level. The turns in the plot are often achieved unsatisfyingly, by dreams, or by a character deciding to sit in article about the bottom of fast School, a well; the narrators receive an inordinate amount of oral sex from bizarrely dressed middle-aged women. Article About Geneva! But botchedness also gives Murakami’s novels a quixotic dynamism.
Murakami’s latest work, Kafka on the Shore , contains a prescient discussion on the subject of minor novels—in fact, on a minor novel called The Miner . The Miner is essay about a young man who has an unhappy love affair, runs away from home, ends up working in a mine alongside “the dregs of society,” and article about School then returns to his ordinary life. “Nothing in the novel shows he learned anything from these experiences, that his life changed, that he thought deeply now about the meaning of life or started questioning society,” Murakami’s narrator explains: it is completely unclear why the author decided to creative writing, write The Miner —which makes it particularly valuable to the narrator, by virtue of its very openness. Literature needs novels like The Miner , where you go into the mine and nothing happens; novels unlike Germinal , where you go into the mine and come out a socialist. Perhaps modern American literature has kept the worst parts of Zola. We lost the writing Geneva genetic mysticism and the graphomania—all of us, perhaps, except Joyce Carol Oates—and we kept the write articles College guilty social conscience. Dear American writers, break out of the jail! Sell the haunted house, convert it to tourist villas.
Puncture “the airtight vessel known as Brooklyn New York.” Write long novels, pointless novels. Do not be ashamed to grieve about personal things. Dear young writers, write with dignity, not in writing Geneva School of Diplomacy guilt. How you write is how you will be read. My Life and Times in persuasive Gordon University American Journalism. Like Oedipus, we flout the warning, and we’ll act surprised, even outraged, when we find out what we’ve done.
Every now and then he looked up to ask what Evo was saying, since at his seventy-two years of age, Hugo Blanco is nearly deaf. The problem with autonomy and end-of-life decisions is largely a problem of information. It is not possible to be a German. About Geneva! If it were, hardly anyone would like to be one. If anyone would stop doing his job should his income drop to $100,000 a year, he should not be doing that job.
Issue 4 Gut-Level Legislation, or, Redistribution Mark Greif. Issue 4 My Life and School Times in American Journalism Philip Connors. All useful poetry criticism since the ’60s has come either from academics or from people committed to about Geneva, little magazines. Literature is only an art. If it improves you, it does so the way health, riches, and elegant clothes do.
There are plenty of clones, yes, but like Dolly the sheep, they age quickly and lessons College soon die. In the article writing Geneva age of BookScan, only an online Hudson College, unpublished writer is allowed to about Geneva of Diplomacy, keep his dignity. It is in an aroused consciousness that the solace and write a comparison Pickering College excitement of literature are to be found. As vague a categorical designation as “literary fiction” is, it bestowed on about Geneva School, non-genre novels the gift of a brand. In paying homage to sincerity, “post-ironic” fiction more often confirms its exile from the Fanshawe College truth. Our generation seems far too aware that reading is safe and article about writing Geneva School fun, that literature is spectacle. Issue 4 Why Repeat These Sad Things?
Meline Toumani. Issue 4 The Mystery Guest Gregoire Bouillier. Issue 4 Afternoon of the Sex Children Mark Greif. Issue 4 Two Stories John Haskell. Issue 4 Melodramatic Installations Ilya Kliger. Issue 4 Three Stories Rebecca Schiff. Issue 4 The Joy of Edge Tools Misha Hoekstra. You, dear reader, are also supposed to be a clone among clones.
And really, who’d be the how to write fast Hall wiser? Never trust a man who insists that he is sincere. How does Vollmann intend to be helpful, to save a life, to benefit someone? Go to Uzbekistan now . . . or you will never get departmental funding ever again? Issue 9 Summer in Samarkand, Part II Elif Batuman. A specter is article of Diplomacy haunting the academy—the specter of close reading.
Issue 2 Babel in California Elif Batuman. n+1 is a print and digital magazine of literature, culture, and creative Fanshawe politics published three times a year. About Writing Of Diplomacy! We also post new online-only work several times each week and publish books expanding on the interests of the articles d'Overbroeck's magazine.
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Think Simple Now — a moment of clarity. 25 Things to Avoid for Better Relationships. When Cat introduced me to Leah earlier this year, she said Leah is one of the most mindful people I've ever spoken with. After experiencing her work—both written and drawn—I agreed. Take the time to read the story below. It's worth it.
One of the most conscious piece of writing I've read. Enjoy! “At the end of your life” a friend once asked, “What do you hope to have happened?” I thought it was a great question and decided to give him a thoughtful answer, so I pocketed it for about writing later and a comparison essay, bought myself a month for article writing School of Diplomacy the assignment. For a while my mind flooded with questions of plot. Will I fall in love? Will I have kids ? Will I know passion in persuasive essay University my work? Will I touch lives? Will I change the world for article about writing Geneva of Diplomacy the better?
What will my regrets be? Where will I have traveled? Where will I have lived? Will I have really traveled? Will I have really lived? When I was a kid watching movies, I used to write essays Hall School shout during tense scenes, “Ah!
What’s gonna happen?” My dad would laugh, “How should I know? I’m watching the same movie you are!” I wasn’t really asking him. But the uncertainty is unnerving. It’s so tempting to ask questions about how things will turn out, grasping at some kind of assurance in a constantly changing world. But the answers are not here, not now. They’re waiting patiently at the end of the story, relaxing in the shade. Article About School Of Diplomacy. Probably sipping lemonade.
They’re not going anywhere. So perhaps it’s better to write articles for money online College let the questions go and just give in to the possibilities . “Will I this? Might I that?” I let all those questions go, and soon a new question began peaking around the corner of my consciousness. Rather than asking what life I hoped to article about of Diplomacy live, I began wondering how to live life . The assignment had changed for me, from how to fast Moreton School one of about Geneva, story telling to an inquiry into my own personal values. For most of my life, I believe I inherited my personal values from my context. How To A Comparison Essay Pickering. Looking back, I can see that in the years before getting into a good college, the most important thing to me was just that–getting into a good college. Once at Brown , it was the grades. Article. After graduating, I spent two years working and living, proving my independence to…myself?
I think? And then I came to work at creative writing articles Fanshawe College Facebook , a company with deeply embedded and article about writing School, well-articulated values. I believed in the vision and my coworkers, which was enough for me to adopt the values of the company as my own. Efficiency and leverage became important to me, along with openness, connectedness, and impact. Hudson. These were the things that kept me up at Geneva of Diplomacy night. What should’ve kept me up was my dad’s cancer. He’d been diagnosed sometime while I was in college, but I mostly pretended he hadn’t, because that was easier. I assumed he’d just get better. But then one day, during my Facebook years, he got worse.
X-years-to-live type of thing. I was tempted to push the news aside again and go back to helping democratize the world’s information (also known as processing my email) when something inside me flipped, snapped, woke up, and sang out. I saw in an instant that I was living a life on how to write essay Heritage School, autopilot. About Geneva School Of Diplomacy. I was asleep at the wheel and I had been for… could it be? Forever? So, what do I do now? That day I put in a request for a six month leave-of-absence, needing space from my own life in order to see it. And to spend time with my parents. In the two years that followed, I began, super slowly, to persuasive on Robert University (NAVITAS) start following my own heart.
As unpracticed as I was, it often spoke in low tones, gave me mixed messages, or long bouts of article about writing Geneva of Diplomacy, silence. This is persuasive essay on Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) still true, but the article writing School, more I listen, the persuasive Gordon, more I hear. And now that I’ve spent some time living in accordance with my own intuition, I can look back and see a new cohesion take shape, my very own personal values are becoming clear. And just before I share them, I’d like to add that one result of following my heart is article School of Diplomacy ending up in articles online d'Overbroeck's College the presence of amazing teachers and role models. Article Writing Geneva School Of Diplomacy. Much of what follows comes directly from what I have learned from write essays fast Moreton Hall School them. Big hug. Deep bow. I can’t presume to about writing Geneva School of Diplomacy know all the manifestations of living a truthful life, but I hope to Moreton always live into that question.
One aspect of truth I’ve come to value is the ability to see clearly . A practical way I’ve learned to article about Geneva see True versus False is through “Is” versus “Isn’t.” I value learning to see what IS. As I move down my path, I no longer care what I am not, what this world isn’t, what my partners or family or friends aren’t, you know? Rather, who am I? Who are they? What is happening? Recently a friend stopped emailing me when he got a new girlfriend. My first thoughts were “He isn’t responding”, I’m not as important to him”, “I not being supported” and “I don’t have my close friend anymore.” It took me a few weeks to let go of what wasn’t happening and write articles for money online College, see what was . He was falling in love. About School. My hurt and anger had kept me from being happy for him. And as I began writing for myself each day instead, I was developing my internal support.
My sense of loss and indignation had kept me from seeing the how to a comparison, growth in myself. Along with the isnt’s I am also learning to let go of the shoulds and shouldn’ts, the can’ts, didn’ts, weren’ts, and the needs and has-tos. I’ve also taken on the practice of speaking as truthfully as I can, which has come to include saying not simply whatever is true, but also what is kind, helpful and article School of Diplomacy, timely. Communicating truth is creative writing not just to lie or not to lie. Rather, it’s an art. I can send you a text to tell you I love you.
Or I can open my door to you whenever you knock; answer whenever you call; or listen whenever you need. Which is writing Geneva School most true? Recently I heard someone say that speaking truthfully is only half the game, “How truthfully can we listen?” Listen without judgment, without expectation, without interruption, and Pickering College, without planning a response? Until two years ago, I liked myself. If you’d asked me to swap with anyone I wouldn’t have done it, and I often felt proud of who I was and School of Diplomacy, what I’d done. But I didn’t LOVE myself.
I didn’t LOVE myself as if I was absolutely perfectly wonderfully unconditionally irresistibly lovable. Like truth-seeking, it may be a journey that lasts my whole lifetime, but these days I’m aggressively committed to honoring myself, my needs, my desires, my tastes, my emotions, my choices, my past, my intentions, my body, my art, my mistakes, my everything. I hope to honor it all as if there is online lessons Hudson nothing more important in this world to article about of Diplomacy honor. I (am working to) love myself as if I’m my own child; as if me and myself were the last two people on earth. I believe in myself as my very own religion. Not in College a way that ranks me above anyone else; but allows for everyone to be their own personal God. I don’t know who said this, but I like this quote, “If everyone healed them selves, the world would be healed.” My body, my self, this physical being is the way in which I interact in the world. Article About Of Diplomacy. What my body does, how it acts, what it says, what my fingers type, that is the only contact I have with this Universe. This is my vehicle. This is my tool.
This is it. So I need to keep it healthy and happy , and essay Gordon, energized. I need to article about School of Diplomacy know everything about it. I need to online lessons Hudson College learn to use it as wisely as possible. This self, it’s the about writing Geneva, only thing I have, really, so I will love it, worship it, and learn to make it shine as brightly as I know how. While I’m learning to honor and love myself, I try to remain aware of the writing, effect that my actions have on others. I’m healing myself with the desire of healing the about Geneva of Diplomacy, world . So after asking “Is this right for me?” The next question is “What example does this set?” They are deeply related. College. The answers can’t be separate because nothing is right for me unless it is also right for about Geneva School others to witness. Sometimes it might feel good to complain or gossip, but what example does that set?
We speak a thousand times a day, and each time is an opportunity to say something helpful or harmful. Sometimes I rush to be first in Fanshawe College line, get the best seat, get the best piece, etc., without regard for about writing how that might be affecting others around me. Quite often I find excuses for living out of line with my personal values. Write A Psychology Essay American. Asking what kind of example I’m setting so often sheds light on the gray areas and helps me pay attention to the broader impact of my actions. The world is. It is what it is. What good is, “I wish my parents would…” or “the world was…” or “my boss would…” or “my friends this” or “traffic that” or “the weather this” or “anything that?” The world is what it is. People are how they are. I don’t sit around getting annoyed that gravity doesn’t work differently (well, sometimes) because it just IS. So, the world is what it is and I want to about Geneva School of Diplomacy live a happy peaceful life.
Really, the write essay College, only question left: how do I do this? What do I change? Who do I become? I love this quote: “Feeling resentment is like drinking poison and hoping someone else will die.” Even if I don’t change the world at all, I am empowered to about Geneva School change the feelings and online lessons Hudson, responses I have to it. Recently, an almost-landlord of mine pulled some weird stuff. Article About Geneva School. I spent a few days feeling angry , and then annoyed, and now I’m almost up to compassion. I may never meet the guy again, so it’s not for his sake, it’s for mine.
Anger feels crappy, like I’m caging an animal inside me. Annoyance is the same, but maybe like a fly instead. Compassion, however, is like drinking a warm cup of Chai: cozy, sweet, and energizing. It feels great to my insides. My experience of this life will be the sum of College, my actions and my reactions, so if I want to live a good life (which I do! I do!) I will cultivate healthy responses. I want to take full accountability for article School everything that happens to me. I’m not a victim of creative articles, anything.
I am free. The idea is this: If I find myself craving something, I’m learning to give it away. If I’m lonely , I look for ways to make someone else feel less lonely. If I wish someone loved me, I find someone to love. Article About Writing Geneva School. If I think I’m being wronged, I find a way to lessons apologize. About Of Diplomacy. If I want more community in my life, which I do, I will create it. I believe the clearest sign of what I am meant to cultivate in the world is creative writing articles identifying that which I crave the most.
It’s harder than it sounds. When I walk into the kitchen and see dirty dishes everywhere, you can bet my gut instinct is not to joyfully clean up after everyone. But, that’s how it works. I have two paths to article about writing peace in that moment: let go of the irritation, or do the dishes myself. Understanding that which I crave is actually that which I am best suited to write essays Moreton foster.
That’s pretty damn empowering. While sometimes humor can seem like a frivolity, that which comes at about Geneva of Diplomacy the end of a knock knock joke, or after the chicken crosses the online lessons, road, it must be more. Humor melts ice. It cuts tension, and lightens the heaviest loads. Humor has the capacity to transform suffering to writing Geneva of Diplomacy joy. Sometimes humor is all that can break down the walls of one perspective, opening up new ways of University, seeing, which offers us new choices. Article Writing Geneva School Of Diplomacy. It can communicate truths that can be easily tuned out in online lessons every other way.
I had a teacher who once said that humor puts the writing Geneva School, “light” in “ enlightenment .” I think the reason humor has made it into my set of a psychology American Heritage, core values is because I need it to article about School of Diplomacy keep the rest in perspective. We are each, after all, infinitesimal in write contrast essay Pickering the span of time . So humor reminds us that while everything is important, nothing is so serious. I will spend the rest of my life learning to writing Geneva see every person on this planet as lovable as a small child or a cute puppy, and also, as wise as the wisest teacher–as worthy of worship–as my highest value. Like the rest, this is going to take a while, probably my whole life. But for now, my days are laced with small openings. I’m proactively choosing to spend time with people who confuse me. I’m spending more time chatting with strangers. I’m spending time with the creative writing articles College, same homeless people I used to pretend I didn’t see.
I’m watching children more. And animals. I’m asking more questions. About. I’m cultivating patience. I want to love everyone not for his or her sake, but for my own. Loving feels SO good. The beauty here is that the path to online lessons College loving more, is loving more; the journey and article writing Geneva, the goal are the same. And so, I practice. I’ll never forget a conversation I once heard between two friends. “Why do you do what you do?”
“To maximize the good. And you?” I spent years trying to understand this answer. At first, it made no sense whatsoever. I’d spent my life trying to perform, improve, excel, achieve, each moment fueling the next like my body was on fire and a lake just ahead. Like the first friend who answered, I lived in a world of on Robert University (NAVITAS), right and article Geneva, wrong, where right led to happiness and writing articles College, wrong to article about Geneva suffering . But “aesthetics”? To me that word had only to do with art, and only to do with a single moment in time.
How does that look? How does it make me feel now ? Through this friend’s answer I began to how to write a psychology Heritage see the whole world as a single work of art to be viewed and re-viewed in one discrete moment after the next. In this framework, our actions are decided not by what we expect to produce the best future outcome, but by what yields more beauty now . About Writing Geneva. And that’s “beauty” in every dimension, not just beauty according to the senses, but as the heart can appreciate it. In this framework, nothing is about right and wrong, happiness vs. suffering. Actions just result in more or less beauty along an infinite scale. Last night I was offered a ride and chose to walk home in the rain. Why? Aesthetics.
Yesterday, aesthetics guided me to Pickering read a book cover-to-cover. Sometimes we feel called to act in about Geneva of Diplomacy a way that doesn’t make the a psychology American Heritage, most logical sense. About Geneva School. Later we might see a broader purpose it served, but it’s in following these instincts that we break free from the how to write a psychology essay American, limits of about writing School, what we know, and open ourselves up to new possibilities. I’ve come to see aesthetics as the value I’m honoring when there’s no good reason for doing what I do, but it just feels right. It’s the same force that guides a painter to creative writing Fanshawe College choose how and where to stroke his brush, and article about writing School, what turns a life from online d'Overbroeck's a series of patterns and habits, into a work of art. I sent all of the above to the friend who asked the initial question, “how do you hope your life to turn out?” And in article about writing a letter to him, I ended with this: “ I guess this isn’t quite the essay on Robert Gordon University, story of a life you’d want to read, with a climax and denouement.
It’s not told from the end as we discussed. Article Of Diplomacy. There aren’t a lot of specifics or characters. But even without any specifics in place, perhaps this all tells a story anyway. “ At the end, this life will have been a journey of perseverance; a century, I hope, of opening to truth and love. I will have cultivated a generous heart, I will have never lost the spirit of fun, I will have loved well, and set an example of love, truth, generosity, beauty, laughter and kindness. I will live and die at peace, confident that I did my very best .”
Related Stories on lessons, Personal Values. Leah Pearlman is the Geneva of Diplomacy, Co-Creator of essay, The Happiness Institute (HI!) located in San Francisco. HI provides people the space, structure, and support to explore, experience, and expand personal and team happiness in a collaborative environment. She is also the author of about School, Dharma Comics , a comic blog in which she draws on life to explore personal and articles, universal truth. She has a background in article about technology, most recently having graduated from a 4-year gig at Facebook working both as product manager and in internal communications. Think Simple Now delivers weekly self-reflective, inspiring stories from real people. Join our empowering community by entering your email address below. 19 thoughts on Discover Your Personal Values.
Such a good Article . Thanks for sharing ! Thank you for taking the time to creative articles share your thoughts and about writing School of Diplomacy, insights with us. Your emails and your Dharma Comics are the two places I go to now for inspiration and for that quiet reflective moment of the day. Great article. Thanks for sharing. Yes, it is important that we know our personal values.
Many of write essays School, us live life without reflecting nor knowing what are our personal values and what we stand for, and as a result lose ourselves and our identity, shaped by about of Diplomacy the societal, corporate norms and values imposed on us. 99% of my email is trash then this comes along and I find simple and pure joy in reading it. How To A Comparison Essay Pickering College. An excellent piece of writing. Touching ideas. Much appreciated. Thank you. Wow.
Deep gratitude for such wisdom and simplicity. So many points here are soul stirring. Article Writing Geneva School Of Diplomacy. Thank you Tina for write articles for money online d'Overbroeck's College introducing Leah to about School of Diplomacy us. God bless. Have a question : there comes a point where we begin to realize our values, but often cannot practice, or the old self’s hold on articles online, us is still there. Article Geneva Of Diplomacy. How does one stay mindful and practice ? eg I know I am being judgmental but in some situations I cannot stop. How to move into a place of compassion ? Great post and good reminder (from one Leah to another, right?) :) I have a friend that just turned 40. He said that he’s ready to how to contrast essay Pickering College live life as if he were retired. I immediately thought of my own life.
Yes, I’m busy (working full time, traveling for work, doing volunteer work, managing a rental property). However, I always take time to do things outside (yes, even during a New England winter). It makes a big difference. I’ve noticed co-workers that eat their lunch at their desks daily are not as happy. That’s a simple revelation: never leave your desk = suffering. Leah, this is such an amazing, important post that I’m speechless. All I can say, with heart, is . Article Writing Geneva School. . . this article really answers a lot of the questions i ask myself. or even when i dont know what to ask . thank you :) This might just be the write for money d'Overbroeck's, best blog post I’ve ever read.
No joke: ever! It almost seems like too much, way too much, to consume in one sitting. Can I steal some of these? It’s all about the stories we tell ourselves. And these are some good rules for writing them. This is article writing of Diplomacy exactly what my heart needed to read. Thank you. nice articale.I love it.thanks for sharing.
“At the write, end, this life will have been a journey of perseverance; a century, I hope, of opening to about Geneva truth and love. Write. I will have cultivated a generous heart, I will have never lost the spirit of article Geneva School of Diplomacy, fun, I will have loved well, and set an example of write articles for money online d'Overbroeck's College, love, truth, generosity, beauty, laughter and article about writing Geneva School of Diplomacy, kindness. I will live and die at peace, confident that I did my very best.” I like to spice up reading by reading out loud… louder for emphasis, quieter for how to essays fast Moreton Hall School gravity, and struggling at emotional points… but with this quote at writing the end, my voice utterly crumbled and disappeared. I might be wrong, but I think this is a moment that has changed my life. Hall School. I am truly starting to understand the beauty of the journey, and how life can bloom and article about Geneva School, prosper through that lens. Thank you— Leah, Tina, and persuasive University (NAVITAS), Cat— from the bottom of writing Geneva, my heart for sharing this gem with the world (and me)! It’s funny, because the thing that touched me the how to a comparison contrast essay Pickering, most here was that when you try to listen to your heart, you learn to hear it, but when you first try, it’s sometime not clear what it’s trying to tell you, but you just keep listening attentively until you tune in, kind of about writing School, like finding the frequency of a radio station where you can listen really clearly :-) Your post reminded me of what is important in life. Your words inspire.
They are full of wisdom. How To Fast Moreton Hall School. Thanks for taking me along in your journey by sharing this. Writing Geneva School Of Diplomacy. Your kindness is much appreciated. We all belong together here. A Comparison Contrast Essay Pickering College. Thanks for extending out your helping hand. Great article!
Most people that end up really hurting in life are only there because they lost their values somewhere along the road. Thanks again. Thank you for such a great article. Its brilliant. I read it 3 times already and article about writing Geneva School, i felt moved each time.
This is contrast great, these are all really well thought out values to aspire towards. I like the bit about article about writing Geneva School of Diplomacy, “Understanding that which I crave is actually that which I am best suited to foster. That’s pretty damn empowering.” I completely agree 100% :) Who cares what will have happened at the end of your life? It’ll be in how to write essays Moreton Hall School the past – move on.
Knowing our personal values definitely help us to live life in a more improved manner.
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Advances in domestication of indigenous fruit trees in the West African Sahel. Fruit trees play an article writing of Diplomacy important nutritional role for livelihoods of rural people in the West African Sahel through provision of energy and nutrients such as vitamins, minerals, and proteins. Research on the domestication of write articles online d'Overbroeck's local fruit trees has started recently through projects concentrating on some of the most important indigenous species of dry West Africa, i.e. Adansonia digitata , Parkia biglobosa , Tamarindus indica , Vitellaria paradoxa and Ziziphus mauritiana . We present a status of article about Geneva finalised and how to write a comparison contrast Pickering College, ongoing domestication research with the aim of defining research gaps that would need to be covered by future research activities to about writing Geneva, obtain higher yields and better quality fruits. Germplasm collection in central West Africa has been intense compared to elsewhere in the species’ distribution areas, but conservation status of the material is write essays Hall poor since it is only planted in few trials. Knowledge of genetic parameters, especially for fruit traits, is almost absent, but characterisation of genotypes is underway for some of the species.
Mating systems and article about School, patterns are still unknown for how to contrast Pickering many species. Efficient vegetative propagation based on simple techniques was shown to be possible for all species except P. biglobosa . In order to secure immediate as well as long term gains, we recommend combining clonal propagation of selected plus individuals with recombination and breeding of article about of Diplomacy selected genotypes. We discuss whether local institutions in how to write a comparison contrast essay the Sahel have the financial capacity to carry out long term breeding programmes, and suggest that efforts should be made to find new ways of disseminating improved germplasm. Domestication is a man-driven process involving selection processes rendering the target species increasingly useful to human beings by increasing the yield and/or quality of whatever product they produce. The World Agroforestry Centre defines domestication as “the socio-economic and biophysical processes involved in the identification, characterisation, selection, multiplication, and cultivation of high-value tree species in managed systems” (Garrity 2008 ). In this paper, we focus on the intentional changes in genetic constitution of trees associated with domestication.
In the Sahel, one of the most conspicuous examples of a domesticated species is mango ( Mangifera indica L (Anacardiaceae)), with its many cultivars imported from various parts of the world (Rey et al. Article Writing Geneva School Of Diplomacy? 2004 ). Compared to write Heritage, this, local fruit tree species have only article about Geneva, undergone intentional selection to a limited degree, and most of them must be characterised as being undomesticated or semi-domesticated in the genetic sense of the word. Selection in favour of superior trees by persuasive on Robert University farmers may slowly have improved the productivity of the species as e.g. suggested for article about Geneva of Diplomacy Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn (Sapotaceae) by Lovett and Haq ( 2000 ), but not to an extent that differences between improved and unimproved trees are easily observed. However, a number of projects dealing with formal domestication of mainly local species have recently been initiated in the West African Sahel. These species include V. paradoxa , Adansonia digitata L. (Malvaceae), Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) Benth (Fabaceae), Tamarindus indica L (Fabaceae), and Ziziphus mauritiana Lam (Rhamnaceae). Research approaches vary between projects, and how to write fast Moreton, different germplasm collections now exist. We present here what is article about Geneva known, what is ongoing, and which research objectives still need to be addressed.
We will discuss (i) the potential of domesticating traditional Sahelian West African fruit trees, (ii) strategies for effective management of the genetic resources, (iii) lack of knowledge about key processes of domestication, and (iv) the write a comparison College current state of domestication of a number of selected species from the Sahel. We deal with programmes carried out at about of Diplomacy national and regional levels, and will not discuss local participatory tree breeding programmes. For information about how to essays Hall School, this issue, the reader is referred to e.g. Tchoundjeu et al. Geneva Of Diplomacy? ( 2008 ). Genetic improvement can be defined as a process under which given traits are changed in a favourable direction over generations by alteration of the underlying genes (Namkoong et al. 1988 ). The initial steps involve identification and selection of superior populations (provenances) and attractive phenotypes in such populations, followed by recurrent rounds of testing and selection (Eriksson et al. 2006 ). Write For Money D'Overbroeck's? The approach includes four important phases: (1) the screening and mobilisation phase, where populations and individuals with desired phenotypic traits are identified and selected; (2) the of Diplomacy testing phase where the individuals are evaluated and selected; (3) the how to write essay American Heritage School breeding phase where superior genotypes are crossed either by controlled or random mating; followed by (4) the recurrent phase where progenies from these crosses are tested in the field, new selections made, crossed and evaluated over successive generations.
In principle, such recurrent breeding activities can continue over many generations, if the breeding populations are managed for long term improvement (Namkoong et al. 1988 ). Gain in each recurrent breeding cycle (progenies compared to Geneva School of Diplomacy, the parent generation) may be large or modest, but the progress of the breeding programmes will in the long run depend on the gain per year, i.e. the gain per selection cycle divided by its length. A key parameter for the potential of breeding is therefore time required for proper testing and/or the age at which seed set starts (generation time). This is important when dealing with relatively slow growing species such as many tree species native to the Sahel. Over several generations, the accumulated gains can be considerable without compromising the genetic diversity even after multiple rounds of selection, if the selection regimes incorporate the concern for maintaining a suitable effective population size (Johnson et al. Writing Fanshawe? 2001 ). Even strong selection intensity in a population showing high phenotypic variability will only lead to writing Geneva of Diplomacy, substantial gains if the heritability is how to a psychology American School of acceptable size, because the gain depends on the product between selection intensity, heritability and within population variation (Eriksson et al. 2006 ). Knowledge of the heritability and the phenotypic variability for writing School of Diplomacy different fruit characters is therefore important in how to essays Moreton Hall School order to determine which traits are worth selecting for. At present, data on heritability ( h 2 ) of Geneva fruit traits lack for all major native West African Sahelian fruit trees as will be discussed below. How To Moreton? However, results from other fruit trees tested under controlled field conditions suggest that heritability may be large. Silva et al. ( 2007 ) found quite high narrow sense heritability for fruit weight ( h 2 = 0.60) in the early domestication phase of Custard Apple ( Annona squamosa L.) in North Eastern Brazil.
Based on article Geneva, selected commercial cultivars of Guava ( Psidium guajava L.), Thaipong and Boonprakob ( 2005 ) found similar high broad sense heritability for fruit weight of 0.65 in Thailand. In North-Eastern Australia, Hardner et al. ( 2001 ) estimated similar broad sense heritability in kernel weight (0.64) of Macadamia nuts ( Macadamia integrifolia Maiden and Betche and M. tetraphylla L.A.S. Johnson). Strong genetic components behind the online Hudson observable phenotypic variation has also been found for several domesticated subtropical and temperate fruit species such as Hazelnut ( Corylus avelana L) where Yao and Mehlenbacher ( 2000 ) found heritability for fruit size above 0.6. Similar high heritabilities have been reported for walnuts (Hansche et al. 1972 ) and almonds (Kester et al. 1977 ; Chandrababu and writing Geneva School, Sharma 1999 ), while somewhat smaller heritability ( h 2 = 0.35) was reported for pecan nuts (Thompson and Baker 1993 ). Status for domestication of Sahelian fruit trees in West Africa. A number of studies have laid the foundations for domestication, by clarifying the role of fruit trees for rural livelihoods (e.g. Leakey and Simons 1998 ; Schreckenberg et al.
2006 ), and setting priorities for how to contrast essay domestication (Franzel et al. About Geneva School Of Diplomacy? 2008 ). Also, efforts have been made to how to contrast Pickering College, develop vegetative propagation for P. biglobosa and V. Article About Writing School? paradoxa (Teklehaimanot et al. Lessons? 1996 ; Sanou et al. 2004 ). However, regarding genetic improvement, the efforts have been concentrated on article about School, establishment of provenance trials and articles, studies of germplasm using molecular markers (Bouvet et al. 2004 ; Fontaine et al. 2004 ; Sanou et al. 2005 ; Sina 2006 ; Assogbadjo et al. 2006 ; Diallo et al. 2007 ). About Writing Geneva? As for published results on essay on Robert Gordon, genetic variation in article School adaptive traits and fruiting, they are rather difficult to find.
Kalinganire et al. ( 2008 ) reviewed domestication efforts in Sahelian West Africa for the same species that will be discussed here. However, since submission of that paper, new research projects have been initiated including the projects DADOBAT, INNOVKAR, SAFRUIT, NUTREE and articles d'Overbroeck's College, the ICRAF/IFAD project ‘Programme for strengthening livelihood strategies in about School of Diplomacy the West African Sahel through improved management and utilization of parkland agroforests’. Here, we present an overview of past and ongoing work in order to identify gaps in our knowledge and define future activities within Sahelian fruit tree breeding. The species that will be presented here are those studied by the above-mentioned projects (apart from the ICRAF/IFAD project which includes additional species). All rank high on the species priority lists for the West African Sahel as illustrated by Franzel et al. ( 2008 ). We will discuss the status of creative Fanshawe College domestication considering collection, characterisation, evaluation and conservation of germplasm, knowledge of genetic parameters and mating systems, and development of vegetative propagation. In human nutrition, A. digitata is used for its leaves (in sauces), fruit pulp and seeds. Thus, in breeding programmes, two very different approaches should be used. If the main interest is leaf production, young plants can be tested and elite material selected and multiplied at this stage. If fruit characters are in focus, mature trees will have to be tested. About Writing Geneva School Of Diplomacy? A thorough review of the importance of the baobab in the Sahel has been presented by Sidibe and Williams ( 2002 ). Food composition and nutritional values of A. digitata have been reviewed by Chadare et al. ( 2009 ). An overview of the nutritional and pharmacological uses of the species is given by De Caluwe et al. ( 2009 ). The food potential of A. digitata appears underutilized.
It is used daily in rural households as well as commercialized (Sidibe and Williams 2002 ). Presently there is an increasing export of fruit pulp from Southern Africa and creative Fanshawe, Senegal to foreign markets ( www.phytotrade.com ; www.baobabfruitco.com ). In 1989, two provenance trials were established in Gonse and Djibo in Burkina Faso, including accessions from about writing Geneva School, Burkina Faso, Cote-d’Ivoire, Senegal, and how to write essay American, Kenya (Diallo, unpublished data). About School? Today, only the write articles for money d'Overbroeck's College test site at about writing Geneva of Diplomacy Djibo remains operational. Articles Online? The trial has shown remarkable differences in survival between origins, but due to the small sizes of the test plot along with its design, it is difficult to judge whether the observed differences are caused by genetic, environmental, or random variation. In 2006 and 2007, a collection of article about writing Geneva provenances was realised by the partners of the SAFRUIT project in the Sahelian West Africa, with a focus on material from Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. A total of 12 provenances were thus selected, covering the distribution area from north to south in each of the three countries (Jensen et al. this issue). Seeds from articles d'Overbroeck's, different mother trees were kept separately. The collection was supplemented with five additional provenances from West Africa (Benin, Senegal and article about Geneva School, Togo). Twelve provenances were obtained from East Africa, including Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Sudan. The first collection was used to online College, establish BSO trials (Breeding Seed Orchards, cf. Barnes 1995 ; Dhakal et al. 2005 ) in Burkina Faso, Mali and Geneva School of Diplomacy, Niger, whereas the international collection was used for provenance trials in Mali and Niger.
Central West Africa is thus relatively well covered by these germplasm collections, while peripheral West Africa and how to School, the rest of the African continent are less intensively covered. Also, there is article Geneva of Diplomacy a need to add collections from the northern (dry) limits of the distribution area. When the DADOBAT project made collections in Senegal, only a few trees were sampled in the northern parts because of a low fruit set and because local people had collected and used all available fruits and seed. We are not aware of studies documenting tree regeneration and population structure in these areas, but since the northern populations may be especially adapted to dry conditions, there may be a need to have a special focus on conservation of these populations. Because of the lack of old genetic field trials, heritability and genetic variability for central parameters are unknown. However, several studies by the DADOBAT, SAFRUIT, and NUTREE projects, characterising provenances and families with respect to adaptation as well as fruit and leaf characters are underway. This includes determination of vitamins, medicinal properties, eco-physiological studies related to drought stress, and occurrence of nematodes. Current trials at IER in Mali, using what is known as “market garden cultivation”, are investigating parameters related to leaf production. Based on these field trials, it will soon be possible to make estimates for genetic parameters related to morphological and adaptive characters. Key nematode species associated with baobabs in Mali have been identified, showing that Pratylenchus spp. is the most abundant genus in baobab grown in online College nutritional banks for leaf production (Liesbet Huybrechts, pers. comm.). Estimation of parameters related to fruit production will be possible when the Geneva of Diplomacy planted trees become mature, which may take many years.
Frequently, local people define a number of morphotypes, often based on bark colour, and associate them with different organoleptic characters such as taste of leaves and fruits (Assogbadjo et al. 2008 ; Sanou et al. 2009 ). Whether there is a correlation between these morphotypes and creative writing Fanshawe, the characters mentioned remains to article about writing School of Diplomacy, be studied, and so does the heritability of these traits. However, a molecular genetic study carried out by Assogbajo et al. ( 2009 ) shows that for eight morphotypes defined by ethnic groups from Benin, Senegal, and Ghana, the AFLP markers applied could not differentiate between these putative types. Currently, baobab fruit characteristics are being studied on a national and regional scale in order to identify possible fruit-based morphotypes. Provided these ‘formal’ morphotypes are validated, they could be used in strategies for essay Gordon (NAVITAS) germplasm collection and article writing of Diplomacy, conservation (SAFRUIT and DADOBAT projects). Baobab is primarily pollinated by fruit bats, whereas a number of mammals are listed as dispersal vectors for the seeds. These include elephants, primates, and ruminants (Wickens and Lowe 2008 ). Creative Fanshawe? Assogbadjo et al. ( 2006 ) studied the genetic diversity in six populations of A. Article Writing Geneva School? digitata from Benin by AFLP markers and found relatively high levels of genetic diversity within populations. Results indicated some degree of physical isolation of the populations from different climatic zones and suggested a substantial amount of genetic structuring between the analysed populations. Although variation as revealed by how to essays fast Moreton Hall School AFLP markers does not necessarily correlate well with adaptive variation, this is still a first guideline for planning germplasm collection.
It remains to be determined whether this differentiation between populations is due to isolation or heavy selection over article about Geneva of Diplomacy, the environmental gradients going from northern to southern Benin. Assogbadjo et al. ( 2006 ) suggest that similar studies be carried out throughout the whole baobab distribution area. Microsatellite markers have been developed (Larsen et al. 2009 ), and will be used to investigate the breeding system of A. digitata . Work is also underway to describe past migration patterns and write Hall, possibly to infer on the extent to article about writing of Diplomacy, which human influence determined present day distribution of the species. Data on baobab flower morphology, phenology and pollination are sparse, but a study on controlled pollination and flower morphology in online d'Overbroeck's College Benin is forthcoming. Another study will look at article School of Diplomacy the germination success of how to a psychology essay American School seeds sown under the crown of the mother tree compared to those sown under other tree species (SA Edon, pers. comm.).
Status for domestication of A. digitata in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in the research. West African collection almost complete. Pan-African collection initiated. Few samples from Eastern, Central and Southern Africa.
Parameters for leaf production in progress. About Geneva? Results for growth and adaptation can be expected soon. Studies of molecular genetic variation are under way. No parameters for fruit production. Relationship between morpho-types and genotypes still to be confirmed. Characterisation and evaluation. Provenances and online lessons Hudson, half-sib families are being established in article about writing School of Diplomacy BSO trials.
Eco-physiological stress trials ongoing (drought) Studies of vitamin and persuasive essay on Robert University, nutritional values ongoing. AFLP and micro-satellite markers developed. Phylogeographic study under way along with local studies of differentiation between populations. Need to repeat trials in other environments, and to article about writing School, establish large international trials. Mating systems and patterns. Marker studies on provenances from Benin. Study of gene flow ongoing. Germination incompatibility under mother trees being investigated. On Robert Gordon? Detailed studies of pollinators.
Test of article writing Geneva incompatibility system. Degree of self pollination in populations. Persuasive Essay On Robert University (NAVITAS)? Effective population sizes. Presence of about writing Geneva of Diplomacy inbreeding depression. Collected germplasm conserved in four trials with some degree of write essay Pickering replication. Need to make more trials, to establish the complete set of provenances in at least three sites.
Grafting and other techniques successful. Optimization of article Geneva grafting techniques. Micro-propagation techniques (under development) The projects PARKLAND and PARKIA collected seed sources from lessons College, a broad range of West African origins (Teklehaimanot 1997 ). Three trials were established in the Sahelian West Africa (two in Burkina Faso and one in Nigeria), of which the Burkina Faso trials still exist and represent a unique source of article reference material, both for gene conservation and comparative studies. On Robert University (NAVITAS)? Furthermore, during 2006 and 2007, seeds were collected from plus trees in Burkina Faso and Mali as part of article about writing Geneva School SAFRUIT, and subsequently used in BSO trials in the two countries. Lessons? It is noteworthy that along the northern limit of the distribution area in article about Geneva of Diplomacy Burkina Faso, tree distribution was strongly fragmented, and it was difficult to find large healthy trees in certain areas. Moreover, there are problems of fruit depletion by birds (e.g. College? parrots) and by communities collecting fruits for Geneva School their own consumption, thus making seed collection a limiting factor to improving P. biglobosa . In total, 10 trees were collected at the northern limits (Moussa Ouedraogo, unpublished data). How To American School? Outside Burkina Faso and article writing Geneva School of Diplomacy, Mali, there only write articles for money d'Overbroeck's College, seem to be few research activities on the species. If the trend from Burkina Faso is general, it would be very important to article about Geneva, sample especially the how to write essays fast Moreton Hall School northern distribution range in order to conserve genetic resources of relatively drought tolerant origins. Estimates of provenance repeatability and variation for morphology, adaptive characters and fruits are under way, using the article of Diplomacy before mentioned field trials in Burkina Faso (NUTREE and SAFRUIT). Preliminary results indicate that there is large variation between the West African provenances in terms of online College adaptability and morphology. For seed production, data will become available in a few years, as fructification has only recently started in these trials.
Since there are no mature trials with offspring from individual mother trees, family heritability will remain unknown until the BSO trials mature. The primary pollinators of P. biglobosa appear to be bats, but honey bees can act as pollinators too. The species is not autogamous, but self-pollination is possible. However, self-pollinated flowers had significantly more aborted seeds, indicating some degree of self-incompatibility (Lassen 2004 ). Sina ( 2006 ) found that the species had a high degree of article about writing outcrossing, also indicating partial self-incompatibility. In his study, flowering took place over a period of 4 months and was largely synchronous. There is a clinal variation in flowering and fruiting from south to north with southern populations starting earlier (Ouedraogo 1995 ). By means of iso-enzymatic analysis, Sina ( 2006 ) also investigated the species’ genetic diversity and found a high diversity within populations but only moderate differences between populations. Status for domestication of P. biglobosa in West African Sahel. Essay On Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS)? Achievements and Geneva, ongoing research.
Identified gaps in the research. Provenance collection by earlier projects. Plus tree selection in Burkina Faso and Mali. Plus tree selection in other countries, especially on the Northern limits of the distribution area. Studies of essay College morphology and growth in progress. Missing for all traits related to fruits. Characterisation and evaluation. Phenotypical parameters for article about Geneva of Diplomacy natural populations available from Burkina Faso and Mali. Results for how to adaptive traits and leaf morphology from provenance trials are becoming available.
Ecophysiological stress trials ongoing. About Geneva School? No data on family level. No data on fruits in write contrast essay College relation to genotypes. Mating systems and patterns. Partly self incompatible. Geneflow for populations? Degree of inbreeding. Provenance collections exist in Burkina Faso. About Geneva? Northern populations seem threatened, need to secure the how to essays fast Moreton School resource as soon as possible. Cuttings of young plants possible.
Grafting possible, but with low rates of success. Development of efficient macropropagation. The principal product of Tamarindus indica is the pulp which is used as an ingredient in cooking and juices. Seeds, leaves, and flowers are also used in human nutrition, and various products of the species have pharmaceutical properties (De Caluwe et al. 2010 ). In several countries in Asia, including Thailand, the Philippines, and India, domestication activities are advanced, and several cultivars have been selected for different properties related to consumption (El-Siddig et al. Article Writing Geneva Of Diplomacy? 2006 ). In Sahelian West Africa, activities have commenced relatively recently.
A provenance trial in Burkina Faso revealed considerable variation in growth and biomass production among Sahelian provenances. Considerable variation in pod production within and among provenances was also reported from a 15-year old provenance trial in Dinderesso, Burkina Faso (Diallo, unpublished data). For Money D'Overbroeck's? No heritability estimates are yet available due to the lack of trials at family level. A new collection on separate mother trees was made in writing School 2006 and d'Overbroeck's, 2007 in article about writing Geneva of Diplomacy Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger by the SAFRUIT project, yielding a total of 9 provenances and approximately 180 mother trees. This collection has been used to establish BSOs in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Furthermore, ICRAF has established a clonal orchard in Mali with 51 plus trees from essay Gordon University, Senegal and Burkina Faso. This has been supplemented by collections of sweet varieties from outside Africa. Tamarind flowers appear to be principally bee-pollinated, and honeybees are frequent visitors (e.g. Nagarajan et al. 1998 ; Radhamani et al.
1993 ). Tamarind populations in the Sahelian zone of West Africa are usually small, and often isolated from other populations. Isolated trees also occur in the landscape as a consequence of seed dispersal by humans and domesticated or wild animals (Aubreville 1950 ). While fruit production appears to be higher in trees located near other T. indica trees, even isolated trees sometimes produce fruits. This suggests that trees might be self-compatible. About Writing School Of Diplomacy? The consequences of writing Fanshawe College self pollination for fruit quality and survival as well as growth and fruit production of the progenies are unknown. However, detailed studies show that T. indica appears to be at least preferentially outcrossing. Flowers are hermaphroditic, but the spatial arrangement of anthers and stigma may tend to about writing Geneva, limit self-pollination (Diallo et al. 2008 ). Also, female flowers precede male flowers by one day. This poses an University (NAVITAS) additional barrier to self-pollination (Bajpai et al. 1968 ). Studies on phenology and controlled pollination of tamarind have started in Benin and Mali, and first results are expected soon (DADOBAT project).
Little is known about the genetic diversity of tamarind at different geographical scales (El-Siddig et al. 1999 ). Based on RAPD markers, Diallo et al. ( 2007 ) found a high degree of article about Geneva of Diplomacy genetic diversity within Asian and African populations. Three major groups were constituted by populations from West Africa, East Africa, and Cameroon. The highest level of diversity was recorded in a population from write contrast Pickering College, Cameroon. The high genetic diversity revealed in West African populations indicates that there is no immediate risk of article writing School of Diplomacy genetic erosion in this region, as long as ecological conditions continue to permit regeneration.
Displacement of essay on Robert seed by humans is about believed to have played a major role in persuasive on Robert shaping the distribution of the species and the observed pattern of diversity. Though the article writing Geneva School of Diplomacy species is persuasive essay University believed by many to have its origin in article writing Geneva Africa (references in El-Siddig et al. 2006 ), Diallo et al. ( op. cit. ) found no conclusive evidence for this. In Senegal, eco-physiological behaviour of articles Fanshawe T. indica is presently being studied: a few individual trees are characterised in situ and seedlings from several agro-ecological zones are characterised under greenhouse conditions subjected to drought stress. Similar experiments are underway with T. indica accessions from Mali (DADOBAT). Status for domestication of article about of Diplomacy T. indica in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in the research.
Existing provenance trials. How To Hall? Collection of half-sib families in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Provenance and half-sib collections from the article writing Geneva School of Diplomacy rest of the distribution area. Lack of information on phenotypic variability and heritability. Characterisation and evaluation. Adaptive and fruit traits from provenance trials. Ecophysiological stress trials. No information at family level. Mating systems and patterns. Studies of pollination in Burkina Faso. Degree of inbreeding.
Effective population sizes. Provenance trials and new BSO trials. Need to include the rest of the distribution area (see germplasm collection) Vitellaria paradoxa is used for firewood and charcoal, whereas fruit flesh is writing consumed fresh. Nuts are an School of Diplomacy important product as the write contrast essay Pickering latter can be transformed into butter used for cooking, in cosmetics and as a cocoa butter substitute. Article About Geneva? Natural V. paradoxa stands are in for money online d'Overbroeck's College many places ageing and especially in the northern parts of the distribution area degrading. Reasons are probably complex with both intensive land use and frequent occurrence of drought periods playing an important role. The EU-funded INNOVKAR project attempts to improve management recommendations for V. About Geneva Of Diplomacy? paradoxa parklands based on creative writing articles College, their ability to face drought and by prediction of the School distribution of writing College shea tree under future climatic scenarios. The work follows three approaches, including (1) characterisation of about writing School of Diplomacy abiotic variables, tree phenology and 13 C discrimination of University V. paradoxa populations across their natural range; (2) analysis of tree structure, morphological and eco-physiological traits in nursery experiments with three water regimes, combined with carbon budget estimation of trees in natural parkland systems; and (3) modelling of changes in the distribution of shea tree under different climate change scenarios (Bayala et al. 2008 ). The species appears to perform best in agricultural settings.
Lamien et al. ( 2004 ) conducted a study aimed at article Geneva School of Diplomacy comparing fruit production of lessons Hudson College shea nut trees located in agroforestry parklands to those present in natural habitats. Results revealed that 94% of trees located in agroforestry parklands produced fruits against only 56% of about Geneva trees located in natural habitats. Average kernel yield of trees located in agroforestry parklands was 167% higher than that of trees located in creative College natural stands. Fruits (length, width, weight) were also larger in parklands compared to those taken outside parkland populations. The same was found in a study from Mali (Kalinganire, unpublished data). Insect infestation of shoots and article School, fruits was shown to be more serious in a site close to a natural forest than in a site further away, and is likely to have an impact on fruit production (Lamien et al. 2008 ). Resistance to insects could thus be a trait considered in domestication programmes. Mistletoe ( Loranthaceae ) infestation which is present on most V. paradoxa trees however did not appear to affect fruit production (Lamien et al.
2006 ). Studying nuts from different populations across the lessons distribution area, Maranz et al. ( 2004 ) found large variation in the seed’s fatty acid composition, with fats from Uganda being liquid at room temperature. In West Africa, the composition is variable both between and within populations, with the hardest butter obtained in article about School central Burkina Faso. A trial with five provenances from Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal is located in write articles for money online College Burkina Faso. The aim was to article School of Diplomacy, address issues such as the long juvenile phase and large variability in annual fruit yields. Seeds for these provenances were harvested on trees selected by farmers for their desirable characteristics including, among others, precocity, taste, and how to write contrast, oil content (Bayala et al. 2009 ). Analysis after 6 years revealed significant differences among provenances for article writing Geneva School tree height, collar diameter, transpiration rates, and number of leaves.
The local provenance was performing poorly, whereas another provenance from Burkina Faso and a provenance from Mali showed good performance in terms of growth. ICRAF in Mali has a collection of 110 plus trees (clones) from Burkina Faso, Benin, Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroun, Niger, and Mali. The INNOVKAR project made a new collection of on Robert Gordon germplasm, including material from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Senegal and Uganda, which has been used for a new provenance trial in Burkina Faso. If successful this trial will make it possible to compare fruit and oil properties of West and East African origins when grown at the same site. The INNOVKAR collection will be established in orchards serving future breeding purposes. Eco-physiological stress trials to characterise the germplasm with respect to drought tolerance are ongoing. Article Of Diplomacy? A small clonal trial in farmers’ fields in Burkina Faso with grafting of 10 local plus trees has been established by CNSF in Burkina Faso. The trial has shown that flowering is initiated earlier in grafted plants and studies of essays Hall variation in the fruit set and quality are ongoing. Once completed, calculations of clonal performance will be available. These data will show to what degree fruit characters are transferred when material is grafted on wild rootstocks, and thus give an idea of the gains that can be obtained by selecting plus trees. Fontaine et al. ( 2004 ) studied populations from of Diplomacy, across the distribution area with RAPD markers and write d'Overbroeck's, found segregation between eastern and western populations.
Three chloroplast microsatelite markers, used by the same authors, gave a less clear picture. Sanou et al. ( 2005 ), using microsatellite markers, found low levels of heterozygosity and low differentiation between populations from Mali and northern Ivory Coast. However, morphological leaf characters showed a strong and significant differentiation between families as well as populations. These differences were not associated with clinal variation in rainfall. In Mali, spatial genetic structure has been assessed (Sanou et al. 2006 ), whereas studies on seed dispersal (Burkina Faso) and pollen flow (Mali) are in progress as part of the INNOVKAR project. These studies will shed light on the genetic dynamics and structures at the landscape level. Status for domestication of V. About Geneva School Of Diplomacy? paradoxa in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in the research.
ICRAF clone collection from West Africa. Provenance trial in Burkina Faso. Farmer based selection of superior clones is taking place. Collection of provenances from how to essays, Uganda to Senegal ongoing. Relatively good collection on Geneva of Diplomacy, a regional scale, but there may be a need to sample more intensively for locally adapted material. Local studies of genetic variation in molecular genetic markers as well as fruit and leaf characters underway. Study of creative writing articles clonal variation ongoing. No information about heritability of fruit characters. Characterisation and evaluation.
SSR based studies of genetic differentiation available. Eco-physiological stress trials ongoing. Few genotypes in existing clonal trials. Article About Geneva School? Mating systems and patterns. Molecular based studies of articles for money online d'Overbroeck's seed and pollen dispersal in progress.
Degree of inbreeding not established. Provenance trial + clone collection. Farmer selected clones will be conserved in replicated trials. Need to duplicate clone selections. Grafting and layering techniques developed. Other vegetative propagation techniques are missing. It is believed that Z. mauritiana originates in Asia but has spread through cultivation to Africa, where it became naturalised. The species is preserved in farmlands because of its nourishing fruits and is also increasingly planted as a live fence to protect crops grown during the dry season. A survey in Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal revealed that this species is among the farmers’ 10 most preferred species (Bonkoungou et al. About Writing? 1998 ). However, the small size of the fruit of the local cultivar (1–2 g per fruit) and its sensitivity to pests and diseases limit the adoption of persuasive on Robert Gordon University agroforestry techniques based on this species (Ouedraogo 1998 ; Diallo et al. 2000 ). Geneva School Of Diplomacy? In Asia, domestication of the species has been ongoing for centuries, and more than 300 cultivars have been recorded.
Asian cultivars typically have large juicy fruits up to 3 ? 5 cm, whereas fruits of the African naturalised origins are much smaller, 1–2 cm in diameter (Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). Cultivars are mainly consumed fresh, but in the Sahel, the local “wild” fruits are also consumed dry, or pounded and write essay School, transformed into flour for different uses. Fruit yield during the first two growing seasons of three Asian varieties was shown to be several times higher than the yield of a local variety in Burkina Faso (Ouedraogo et al. 2006 ). About Writing? Research on the species has been synthesised by write for money d'Overbroeck's Azam-Ali et al. ( 2006 ), showing that there are numerous domestication efforts going on writing of Diplomacy, in Asia. Domestication activities of the species in the Sahelian West Africa are recent, and two strategies have been applied: import of cultivars from Asia, and test and selection of local landraces. Twelve of the Asian varieties have been transferred to West Africa by ICRAF, and five of them are currently being promoted by creative different institutions in the region (e.g. Ganaba et al. 2007 ). Ouedraogo et al. ( 2006 ) studied responses of three imported and one local cultivar to irrigation and article about School of Diplomacy, fertilization and found clear responses to both treatments.
The SAFRUIT project is currently studying adaptability and yield of five varieties in three agroclimatic zones in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. Six provenance and half-sib family trials of essay Gordon (NAVITAS) Z. mauritiana were established in Senegal, Burkina Faso and Mali from about writing Geneva, 2000 to essay Heritage School, 2002. Preliminary results from Mali and Senegal showed significant differences in growth and biomass production among provenances, whereas there were indications that fruit production also varied between provenances (Kalinganire et al. 2008 ). Because Z. mauritiana will fructify after only 2–3 years, the provenance trials mentioned earlier can already be analysed with respect to fruit yield and writing, quality. Studies are ongoing in articles d'Overbroeck's College Mali and will give valuable information about family heritability, provenance, and family variation. The first evaluations reveal some variation in morphological traits (Sanou, unpublished data).
In Asia, studies of article Geneva School of Diplomacy cultivars have shown high heritability for a number of fruit traits (Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). It remains to be confirmed whether this is also true for genotypes from how to write essay School, West Africa. ICRAF has collected more than 70 plus trees from Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso and Senegal that were established in article writing School a clonal orchard at Bamako. Moreover, the introduced cultivars and varieties from Thailand, India and Vietnam make the collection more diverse. The germplasm collections from the write College Sahelian West Africa are estimated to be sufficient to establish a breeding population. However, it may be reasonable to enlarge the collection especially with genotypes from the extremes of the distribution area in article writing order to how to write Moreton Hall School, ensure adaptability in a time with changing climates.
Many of the Asian cultivars appear to be polyploid, whereas the ploidy of African origins seems to be unknown (references in Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). Polyploidy may lead to incompatibility and failure of about Geneva School of Diplomacy controlled crosses, but can also be exploited in breeding. There was a very low fruit set and some incompatibilities when crossing between various accessions from creative writing articles, India and article writing Geneva School of Diplomacy, Thailand with Sahelian provenances (Kalinganire et al. this issue). The level and causes of such failures need to be further investigated. Many of the Asian cultivars are self-incompatible, but the situation is not clear for Sahelian sources (Azam-Ali et al. 2006 ). Status for domestication of Z . mauritiana in West African Sahel. Achievements and ongoing research. Identified gaps in the research.
Collection of plus trees from West Africa. Provenance trials in Senegal, Mali and Burkina Faso. Expand collections in the extremes of the distribution area. Estimated for some Asian varieties. Contrast Essay? Not available for African sources. Characterisation and evaluation. Ongoing research on provenance trials and half-sib progeny trials in Mali. Need to repeat trials in other countries and conditions.
Mating systems and patterns. Incompatibility between African and Asian varieties. Degree of about School of Diplomacy inbreeding. Effective population sizes. Hybridization (between improved and wild varieties) Phylogeny and relation between Asian and African origins. Gene flow studies. Plus tree collection at ICRAF and several provenance trials in West Africa. Plus tree collection should be established at other sites.
Grafting and different micropropagation techniques developed. Domestication of fruit trees in the western Sahel has just started, and there is still a long way to go for tree breeders. For all of the five species discussed above, germplasm collections have been made, either on plus tree candidates or on randomly selected trees. The collections seem to be relatively broad and write a comparison contrast essay Pickering College, cover large parts of the distribution areas, especially in Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger. For P. biglobosa , however, collections are limited to Burkina Faso and Mali.
Despite the broad collections, there may be reason to writing Geneva School of Diplomacy, make additional collections at write for money d'Overbroeck's College the extreme limits of the distribution areas, in particular in the dry zones of the north and article writing Geneva, the relatively humid areas in contrast essay Pickering the south. In this way, germplasm that is article about writing Geneva supposedly adapted to climatic extremes could be secured (e.g. Weber et al. 2008 ). Unfortunately, much of the collected germplasm is only planted in the field in one or a few sites, making the how to write Pickering College collections vulnerable to stochastic and catastrophic events. Ideally, the collections should be established in at least two copies in each agroclimatic zone where the species occur. In particular, the valuable plus tree collections at ICRAF in Mali should be replicated in other countries in West Africa. Even more important is that there are no regional or even national plans for conservation of the genetic resources of the different species. Conservation efforts are not coordinated between countries, and are fragmented and article writing School of Diplomacy, depending on externally-funded projects.
It is thus difficult to get an overview of the conservation status. Breeding efforts are only just starting, and it will take some years before the first cycles of writing articles College recurrent selection are completed. About Writing Geneva School Of Diplomacy? With respect to online lessons Hudson, knowledge of the genetic parameters, there is some information about phenotypic variability, especially with regards to characters related to adaptation. However, information about the heritability of those characters and heritability of fruit characters is writing almost completely lacking. This information will not become available before BSO orchards mature. Probably the online first information will come from studies of writing of Diplomacy Z. mauritiana , where trials are fructifying and controlled crossings have already been made. Fortunately, efficient vegetative propagation methods have been developed for all the species presented here except for P. biglobosa , so that increasing yields and quality of fruits is possible by online Hudson College selection and propagation of about writing Geneva School superior genotypes. Current activities of e.g. the SAFRUIT project aim at write essays Moreton developing techniques at the village level, enabling farmers to propagate their own selected material. Molecular marker studies have served to better understand issues of diversity and to some degree the phylogeography of the species. For all of the about School species discussed, effective population size, degree of inbreeding, and minimum isolation distance are unknown. Additional research is needed on pollination biology for most species, and in general the mating systems and patterns are poorly understood.
The reports of high genetic variability and heritability from other fruit trees (as discussed above) indicate that substantial gains may be obtained during the selection and write School, testing phases if performed carefully. However, the gain during the article initial mobilisation phase (plus tree selection) may be modest for West African Sahelian fruit trees, because the heterogeneous landscape within which the a psychology essay School initial selection is performed, different ages, and year-to-tear variation between trees may lead to article about Geneva School, low heritability. On the online lessons Hudson College other hand, since selection at this stage can be very intensive (1:100 or higher), gains may be substantial for traits of medium or high heritability. Additional gains may be obtained in article writing the mobilisation phase by release of heterosis. Inbreeding can be due to fragmentation or genetic bottlenecks as result of the species’ distribution history, if it grows in a heterogeneous and dynamic landscape (Dhakal et al. 2005 ). Fanshawe College? In such cases, selection, seed orchard establishment and subsequent cross breeding between trees with different origins may reverse effects from inbreeding depression and release vigour and article School, reproductive fitness.
Reproductive energy and online lessons, success, which may be especially sensitive to inbreeding depression (Wiens et al. 1987 ), is a key component of productivity in terms of article writing School of Diplomacy fruit yield. Clarifying the potential of release of inbreeding by crossing geographically distant trees is how to write Hall therefore important. The Breeding Seed Orchard (BSO) concept has the interesting feature of integrating testing, breeding, seed procurement and conservation efforts in a relatively low input approach (Barnes 1995 ; Dhakal et al. 2005 ) and selection can be quite efficient, providing substantial gains (Jha et al. 2006 ). BSOs established with a relatively large number of provenances and families can provide the necessary infrastructure for testing, selection, estimation of genetic parameters, breeding (controlled or open pollination), genetic management and seed procurement (Barnes 1995 ). The approach can be combined with clonal deployment of superior genotypes identified at any stage in the improvement cycles, and is currently a part of the domestication strategy of P. biglobosa in Burkina Faso. Writing? The potentials in recurrent selection programmes for breeding of Sahelian fruit trees are limited by the relatively long expected time until first fruiting for many of the species.
Gains from selection of superior phenotypes in the field may be harvested sooner if these selected individuals are vegetatively propagated and deployed directly as clones without any additional breeding. In this way the full genetic variation (additive and non-additive) is how to write a comparison Pickering College transferred from the selected trees to the grafted plants, allowing utilisation of any genetic variation that is due to a unique combination of genes at different loci. This is important where specific combinations of taste, fruit size and appearance are desired, and there is a number of potential advantages by using the clonal material directly for article about School African fruit trees (Leakey and Akinnifesi 2008 ). In the initial stages of domestication (the mobilisation phase) clonal deployment seems especially attractive when outstanding individuals can be identified in wild populations, and the characteristics of such trees easily duplicated. If so, clonal deployment can allow fairly rapid multiplication of superior trees through use of multiplication gardens or similar approaches. Over the last few decades, a number of for money d'Overbroeck's valuable gene pools have been mobilised and testing initiated as described above. However, follow up in terms of article about writing Geneva School of Diplomacy continued breeding activities will require additional funding, because most of the previous work described above has been supported by external funding. It is therefore fair to write a comparison Pickering College, assume that National agricultural research institutions only have sufficient funding to exploit the article about writing Geneva results of the established trials and germplasm collections, if they are enrolled in larger projects. This leads to great losses, because trials and activities are discontinued or not carried through. There are numerous trials for Gordon (NAVITAS) which data were never analysed or published, and unfortunately there are also many examples of article Geneva data or trials being wasted because documentation disappeared. It requires long term commitment and continuity to carry out domestication, and for money College, a stable financial situation appears to be one of the prerequisites for efficient breeding programmes. Advanced breeding in temperate fruit tree species has involved testing of thousands of writing of Diplomacy individuals, descending from controlled crosses.
It is important to online lessons Hudson, build capacity at national institutions in article about of Diplomacy the Sahelian West Africa to carry out long term activities on this scale. Sustainability has been an important argument for starting village based participatory domestication programmes, which put farmers in charge of the domestication process (e.g. Tchoundjeu et al. 2010 ). The countries in the Sahel share the same climate and the same agro-ecological zones. Therefore, there is reason to believe that knowledge and genetically improved material developed in one country can be adapted to corresponding zones in other Sahelian countries. Today, collaboration on on Robert Gordon University, domestication across borders is mediated by ICRAF Sahel, whereas collaboration also takes place within the context of the different projects. However, coordination could be strengthened and would prevent duplication of research efforts. Writing School? Closer collaboration and sharing of results and germplasm would be an easy way to increase the impact of the breeding programmes. One of the priorities thus must be to enhance networking and creative writing Fanshawe College, collaboration between national institutions and researchers when it comes to fruit tree research. In this respect, the roles of fora such as FARA (Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa), PROKARITE, the Sub-Sahara Africa Challenge Programme (SSA-CP), and the SAFORGEN networks should be analysed. Reaching out to farmers with improved material is another problem.
CNSF, the National Seed Centre in Geneva of Diplomacy Burkina Faso, is diffusing large amounts of for money online College seed and plants to state services, NGOs and about writing Geneva of Diplomacy, projects, and also to some degree to individuals. Yet, surveys show that in rural areas, farmers predominantly use seed and creative articles Fanshawe, plants collected in their own fields or in Geneva nearby villages (R?bild et al. College? 2005 ). About Geneva School? Few of the farmers interviewed had received seed from write articles for money d'Overbroeck's, CNSF, and it appears that improved seed and varieties are only slowly diffusing out in Geneva School the country. In neighbouring countries where tree seed centres are smaller or non-existent, the for money online College situation can only be expected to be more difficult. There is a need to develop pathways for about Geneva of Diplomacy efficient distribution of seeds and plants to farmers in order for domestication efforts to have any effect whatsoever.
Such strategies could build on the commonly adopted farmer-to-farmer exchange of germplasm, but it seems that a variety of creative writing College dissemination channels will have to be used to efficiently diffuse seeds and about Geneva School of Diplomacy, plants. In this respect, diversifying the approaches is creative writing articles likely to give a better result. The research underlying this paper originates in writing Geneva of Diplomacy several projects, supported by various sources: The Sahelian Fruit Tree project (SAFRUIT, supported by the European Union’s Sixth Framework Programme, contract no. Persuasive Essay On Robert University (NAVITAS)? INCO-CT-2005-015465), the NUTREE project (supported by the Danish Council for Development Research), the DADOBAT project (Domestication And Development Of Baobab And Tamarind, supported by the European Union’s Sixth Framework Programme, INCO contract no. 032217), and article writing Geneva School of Diplomacy, the ICRAF/IFAD project “Programme for strengthening livelihood strategies in the West African Sahel through improved management and utilization of parkland agroforests”. We gratefully acknowledge their support. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
Anders R?bild 1 Email author Anders Sondergard Larsen 1 Jan Svejgaard Jensen 1 Moussa Ouedraogo 1 2 Sitske De Groote 3 Patrick Van Damme 3 Jules Bayala 4 Boukary Ousmane Diallo 5 Haby Sanou 6 Antoine Kalinganire 4 Erik Dahl Kjaer 1 1. Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning University of Copenhagen Frederiksberg C Denmark 2. Centre National de Semences Forestieres Ouagadougou Burkina Faso 3. Laboratory for Tropical and Subtropical Agronomy and a psychology essay American School, Ethnobotany, Department of Plant Production Ghent University Ghent Belgium 4. ICRAF SAHEL c/o ICRISAT Bamako Mali 5. Institut National de l’Environnement et de la Recherche Agronomique Ouagadougou Burkina Faso 6. Institut d’Economie Rurale Bamako Mali. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of Springer Nature.
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