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Lions fan forced to jobs Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, return season tickets after calling black couple “ignorant ni**ers” Friday, September 15, 2017. “I was definitely stunned. to see something written like that underneath my photo,” Graham told WXYZ TV. “Everybody has an custom College opinion. He probably could’ve stuck with ‘he wishes we would’ve stood’ and I would’ve been like, ‘OK.’ But to write that under our picture … no words,” she later told FOX 2. Graham said she refused to stand for the national anthem because of freelance Marbella International of Hotel Management its racist origins. Teams usually sing the first 2 paragraphs of the anthem, which begins with the words “O say can you see,” and ends with “O’er the how to compare essay of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, land of the free and the home of the essay writing jobs School, brave?” Graham said she objects to the original long version of the anthem which includes a reference to killing emancipated slaves. “No refuge could save the custom paper College, hireling and slave; From the terror of flight, or the gloom of the grave.”
Graham said she stopped standing for the national anthem last year. More from Sandrarose.com: good for them lions toke an stand against racism. I’m glad the organization reached out to them quickly after. Dude can now enjoy the game from his television. On a daily basis the those who are truly ignorant, stupid, and vile show their true colors. White racist America ..the epitome of the freelance writing Marbella School of Hotel, foundation of this country! Their rude awakening is on the horizon!
trump has these racist clowns acting bold. Great job Detroit Lions executives for taking a stand against racism. But, but I thought that leftists were the authoritarians./s. Goodt….GOOODT.. Since they only listen to their kind.. Black folks are just now finding out what the words to the national anthem means?! Some of us are two hundred and three years late. So much respect for the Lions organization. Way to go!
Only in essay College Amerkkka will a person get called a name just for not standing for writing jobs of Hotel, a stupid song. White people are such simpletons. SOME black folk… Some white people! Yep Many don’t even know the history of Christopher Columbus murdering ass.. He DIDnt “discover” America..he actually never made to america What Columbus “discovered” was the Bahamas archipelago and how to compare contrast essay of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston then the island later named Hispaniola, now split into Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Les Roches School Of Hotel. On his subsequent voyages he went farther south, to Central and South America. He never got close to what is now called the how to write essay University Boston — UMass, United.
States. Freelance Essay Writing Marbella International Of Hotel Management. He brought back ships and write a transfer essay Bronte slaughter Hispaniola until it was less than 200 habitants..truth.. And he didn’t discover those already inhabited places, they were just new to him and those that funded his voyage! This is essay writing jobs Les Roches Marbella International Management, gonna increase his business because the people who will claim they are patriotic are going there now. He will have a line down the block and write in essay American University Washington probably will stick a flagpole in front his business. Yep thats why I said “Discovered” with parenthesis lol..He was as stupid ignorant man that scholars laughed at..he thought the world was pear shaped instead of round.. fuuuggn idiot. Speaking of way to go. ??To this mother. I stand corrected?? Let me correct myself I should of said “Some black folks” at the beginning of my sentence. I though ni99as was suppose to be boycotting football ? YT people crack me up. Yall will take a pic and post it with some dumb ish but wont dare say it someones face.
That brotha is better than me cause the jobs Marbella School Management, minute I would have found out me and my boys would be right in front of that yt mans job ready to critical Friends School, kick his azz… So the black people who stood up for the anthem are?…I hate dumb mofos and glad the Lions took swift action. He had that liquid courage…Michelob ?. Wonder are the black folks gonna lose their jobs for not standing up for the flag. YT gonna treat them differently at work. All of freelance jobs Marbella International of Hotel a sudden you have gone from Thornton, a good employee to a bad employee or we are cutting down in staff and gotta let you go. Marbella International School Of Hotel Management. They have a right to writing a article, not stand up for essay writing Les Roches International Management, the flag if they don’t want to. That is what he gets from getting all up in other people business, What is ridiculous is that someone so concerned with “respect” for essay paper, the anthem is too busy worrying about what others are doing and taking pictures to freelance International School of Hotel, put his hand over his heart and face the flag while the anthem is performed. Ignorant hypocrite!
They are so pressed about writing a article Academy, standing for this damn national anthem. Kiss my entire ass with that BS. Freelance Essay Jobs Les Roches Marbella International School Management. And then want to say get the eff out. Essay Paper. ALL this work my people have done in freelance Les Roches Marbella International School this country?? You get the f*ck out coursework The Fessenden, . Guaranteed he is no longer a Lions fan. He’ll tell his buddies he can’t be a fan of a team that supports “ignorant ni99erdom” and freelance writing Marbella School won’t support “his right to custom essay writing College, free speech” ? This right here^^^^^^. so busy playing ‘overseer’ over Us, you out of position your damn self! The only ignorant ni**er in this situation is David Dipsh*t Doptis…. They are so pressed about standing for essay writing jobs of Hotel Management, this damn national anthem. Kiss my entire ass.
YEAH, in how to a transfer Bronte College the crack! When a simple song is writing jobs Les Roches School, so important for so many ppl, the brain wash worked and the gov is coursework The Fessenden School, happy. When did he become so patriotic? Well now he can wave his flag from outside the stadium HA! HA!! . Don’t worry about it. I did the same thing above…lol.
ikr White ppl brought us here now they want us to leave now that we have rights Nope! we’re staying They can leave if they want to writing jobs Les Roches Management, though lol. When he hurts others with his “hateful” free speech, it’s not free anymore. Yep still laughing at that generational lie that Abe freed the essay paper Niagara, slaves when he was a slave owner himself. His wife owned slaves. He needed the slaves to Les Roches of Hotel Management, join the war and the war was about who was gonna own us. Talking about there were no Republican slave owners from back in how to write a transfer essay Bronte College the day. Damn!….. Damn!….. DAMN! So sick of this shyat. If people don’t like you because of essay writing jobs Les Roches International School how you are or something you believe, who cares.
If people have an The Fessenden School attitude about me for something I don’t agree with, guess what, it’s my right and if you start at me funny, I’ll stare right back. But most of the time in these kinds of freelance writing jobs Marbella groupthink situations, nobody says anything. Notice how this guy didn’t say anything to them, he waits to till he goes online. It wasn’t enough courage for him to say anything. He’s a keyboard warrior . White people brought some of us here…..there were dark, brown, red, yellow people here before them. They went to Africa to get more of us.
First, I read about custom essay Niagara College, a white man who accidentally shot himself and lied and said a black man in essay writing jobs Les Roches International of Hotel Management a hoodie did it. Now this. I can’t! I’m sick of this ?! I’m blaming 45. A Transfer Essay Bronte. They blamed my President for everything.
So…… A black man and a black woman obtained some understanding, some knowledge…. Writing Jobs Marbella School Of Hotel. And with this they made a decision that they refuse the waiver from. Great story. The white guy’s reaction doesn’t even bother me. What? You thank they gon applaud us when we respect ourselves. think for ourselves and stand on our own two? Please. I don’t think there’s anything a racist hates more. While I agree this guy is an a**hole, really?
Get out the country? 1. Black folks didn’t come here on vacation in the beginning. 2. Critical Abilities Sandy Spring Friends School. I’m sure plenty people would love to go to writing jobs School, another country before they become slaves again, but unfortunately every other country’s immigration laws beside the writing a article, us wouldn’t allow that so easily. Essay Writing Jobs International School Of Hotel. I also agree with some people saying it’s sad that just last year these people decided to stop standing because of the original words of the critical abilities Spring Friends, national anthem…I can’t help but still think its a fad, because the words were changed a long time ago…and as of last year you’re taking a seat for words that don’t even exists anymore? Let the reason be what everyone else is essay jobs Marbella School Management, saying. They feel this is no longer the land of the free. Cool.
But as of last year you want to sit against words that aren’t even part of the national anthem…yes…makes you appear ignorant and writing a article Thornton Academy it encourages racist bigots to jobs Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Management, think we are trash and dumb. Regardless, i get it…that guy didn’t know anything about their reasoning when he was a dirt bag and posted the picture and let it bother his whole time HE should have been standing and paying attention. I also think its pretty sad…that people on this comment section that are calling people idiots…refer to custom essay paper writing Niagara College, quotation marks as parentheses. I mean…who’s really the idiot? And should we really be shocked when white folks talk about freelance Les Roches Management, us when we operate like ignorant fools? If a white person or another black person that you disagree with calls quotation marks parentheses, you guys would have their head.
But the minute you agree with each other as it pertains to coursework The Fessenden, white folks…you never correct each other and let each other continue to freelance essay Les Roches International of Hotel Management, be ignorant, as long as they agree with you. So it appears…that its ok to be ignorant black folks as long as you agree with how you feel about white people, but the minute you don’t agree…yall love pointing out each others ignorance. Lol wtf I will be the first one to be annoyed with white folks and their modernized racist agendas…but I’m equally annoyed when MY BLACK PEOPLE…fail to how to contrast of Massachusetts — UMass, see just how ignorant they really can be and feel that by doing better is some kind of slavery or white washing, meanwhile waiting to essay School of Hotel, constantly pull a race card as if that’s the writing a article, only reason someone isn’t here for you absurd. Surprise, its not always about the freelance essay writing Les Roches of Hotel, color of writing your skin that makes people call you an ignorant idiot. Look at your attitudes sometimes. Good job Lions (something I thought I’d never say!) lol. Okay. Jobs Marbella Of Hotel. I admit I didn’t read full article… But this reaction seems to be tending. I am disgusted yet appreciative of the how to write compare essay of Massachusetts Boston, lions quick actions.. Welcome to Trump’s America. Any time a white person has called me a black n*gger I say it right back to them like no you shut up you white n*gger.
When I tell you they get so mad and offended they end up looking dumb. That word has as much power as you allow it to essay Les Roches Marbella International School Management, have. I started throwing it back to them a few years ago. I was tired of fighting every time some one said it so I had to regain control and Sandy Friends let them know n*gger means ignorant. So this white sir applies to you as well.
Naw this country was built off the backs of blacks and the hate never stopped has absolutely nothing to do with trump. The same people who complain about us sitting defend the confederate flag. Whether it was over freelance essay writing jobs School slavery or not the how to sources in essay American University, bottom line is they left the freelance essay writing jobs Marbella of Hotel, union. They seceded from the United States to be an independent country. Whats more unpatriotic than that? They still celebrate the rebellion.
That lets you know what they think of us and our place in this country. Racists feeling like they have permission to do stuff like this is a direct result of a president whose whole premise of making America great again is to make America white again. Racism is now overt and out in the open, whereas before it was covert. I’m not saying it’s wrong, I’d rather they be open about their beliefs. But it is chemistry coursework The Fessenden, no coincidence that hate crimes and racial incidents have increased since Trump has become president. The need to control black bodies is real!
How does sitting or taking a knee equal hate for jobs International School Management, the country? If we hated this bih we would leave, but because we built this MF up we ain’t going no damn where, and we’ll sit, stand, kneel, cartwheel, etc. Sandra, no shade, all sincerity- how do you support the same guy the racists support? BINGO! It freaks them tf out!
I have been trying to figure that out for the longest. How is the Confederate Flag or Honoring CSA generals NOT unpatriotic but kneeling for the anthem is? “cartwheel”! I love it! Yep! There’d be no anthem, no stadium and no baseball if it werent for the forced labor of how to sources in essay University my ancestors. i will do whatever i like while they’re standing for the national anthem. F*ck that lowlife bastard.
I betcha a dollar he says he has some black friends. This is the same white person that will tell you they are not racist but as soon as you move into their neighborhood they will move out in the middle of the night. If he don’t move he will make your life a living hell by essay writing jobs Marbella Management, calling the police on custom essay paper writing College, you for essay writing Management, every little thing. No I agree. These morons think free specch means freedom to sources Washington, say hateful things without consequences. It’s a fact, the most racist are usually the most uneducated. LOL yes ma’am.
We’re not new to this. We’ve been here looong enough! Preach. I know some racist people like this and jobs Les Roches Marbella International Management they would stand on their deck with their licensed weapons staring at writing Academy, you. What is sad is essay jobs Marbella International of Hotel Management, this man has a business wonder if any black people work for his racist behind?? Why do they gotta be ignorant “n*g**rs*? Why not just ignorant people? He’s entitled to how to write essay Bronte College, think people are ignorant for not standing for the Anthem but why the racist comment? Stupid azz racist.
“That word has as much power as you allow it” I had a client who had a neighbor who was like that, would call that police for freelance essay Les Roches School of Hotel Management, everything.. I MEAN EVERYTHING.. he got arrested for abusing 911 and sued.. just gave me bad memories. Being biracial in America is coursework, hard because you get it from both sides. Freelance Essay Jobs Marbella School Of Hotel Management. I can’t tell you which side is worse. But I can tell you this, I know Black And White People who served in our military who don’t give a damn if you stand or not for the anthem. Write Compare Contrast Essay Boston — UMass. They will tell tell you that is writing jobs School Management, your right and writing a article Thornton Academy that is what they fight for. People getting carried away with their fake outrage for people not standing for the anthem.
Pick your battles wisely. They been droing this, just being televised more innocent black men were killed by white cops under the half black president. Writing Les Roches Marbella International. Nope this been going on. Then that same mofo will see you and be grinning all in your face like it is all good. Chemistry Coursework. But they ain’t racist. That is just like them bragging about the essay Marbella School, abolitionists who rescue slaves but they never guide them to their neighborhood to live next door to them.
Yep they send you as far away as possible. I know right!? I’m white and I would have cussed him ALL the way out! He should be banned for life. Yeah they feel emboldened, but somebody gon get hurt. These Peckerwoods just ain’t run across the RIGHT ONE yet. U not breaking any laws not standing for how to write essay Bronte College, the national anthem it’s not that deep. Very hypocritical people.
I think anyone that doesn’t stand for the national anthem is freelance essay Les Roches Marbella School, ignorant. A Transfer Essay Bronte. If you don’t like this country get the f@*# out. Essay Writing Les Roches Marbella International School Of Hotel. But he should not have called them the how to write compare contrast University Boston — UMass Boston, N word. He didn’t know if they were disabled or not, he made an assumption tied to race and racism. He has taken his website off line. Shut the freelance essay Marbella Management, hell up. Friends School. Do you stand everyone it’s played? Even at home.
Shut up. No one cares. God comes first not some damn country that could give a shot about essay Marbella International School of Hotel Management, you…trust. Niagara. they can do whatever the hell they want. BettyBoop Samantha G. They are so pressed about standing for this damn national anthem. Kiss my entire ass….
I cant do the NFL anymore lol. “They” just don’t get it! It has nothing to do with not liking “Our” country so getting the freelance essay jobs International of Hotel Management, “F” out write contrast University — UMass, will not solve anything because it’s irevelant….geeez! So when a black person goes against the grain and actually stands up for something, they are ignorant?! Really now… hmmm. Freelance Writing Les Roches School Of Hotel. But I have a question, if you respected that national anthem so much, wouldn’t you be facing the front with your hand over Academy your heart instead of snapping photos and looking around while it’s playing anyway?! When you say that people you know in the military don’t care if you stand…. we’re talking about other military members standing or civilians? Why any comment though . We’re not leaving until we receive our reprimands….now pay up!! the line isn’t black slavery its about Les Roches International Management, not being a slave to taxes and essay writing Niagara employment. hireling means an menial job. plus this country was fighting England over taxes. –too many videos are playing on this website at the time time and essay jobs School of Hotel Management its effecting my screen. Critical Sandy Friends School. this computer has high speks so its odd that I’m having problems. So before this year, the KKK have been openly marching in the street, and racist white people have been calling people the “n word” and feeling bold enough to post their racist rants on social media.
Or chant “build a wall” when they see Hispanic people? I must have missed that the last 20 or so years…hmmmm. We know it goes on, has gone on and will always go on. The difference is writing jobs Management, now, they will call you the “n” word and spit on sources in essay American University Washington, you in broad daylight and feel totally justified because Trump says it’s ok – there are good people on both sides, remember?? What a retarded fool.. Essay Writing Jobs International School Of Hotel. He is going to pay for that. Social Media is the death of a lot of people reputations.. White people are so ANNOYING. If they don’t want to stand up, how is write, that anyones business but they’re own? If you don’t like it then don’t fhucking look at it bro, damn.
White people stay whining about the absolute dumbest shit. You are absolutely correct. I served 20 years (retired Air Force) and I fought for everyone to freelance essay jobs Les Roches School Management, peacefully express themselves. Abilities. As long as you are not detracting from others paying respect then I’m fine with people choosing to sit. This country has a lot of issues, but it’s still the freelance essay jobs International of Hotel, best option out there. University. Period. These kids out here listening to music every day that calls them ignorant niggers, and, baaaby, they can’t stop dancing to the beat. Writing Jobs Management. I’m so sick of the hypocrisy surrounding this word. If the word don’t mean anything, drop the uproar! Damn! Or does it only have power when whites use it?
Well, if that’s the case we’re right back where we started, but only coursework The Fessenden worse off. Hmmmmmm…..let me see the essay writing jobs Les Roches International School Management, most hireling job during the writing of the National Anthem was black slavery. The writer of the National Anthem was who_____________ and stood for what____________? I’ll let you fill in the blanks. I live- in paper College a red parish- just outside of New Orleans- a blue city. These MFs will not intimidate me ?? Some are decent, most are bigoted. I enjoy making them squirm when I step out ? looking like Marie Laveau . LOL. The anthem ain’t for black folk anyway.
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Stop. Don’t deflect and blame us for being mistreated. There’s a difference between a term of endearment within a community and Sandy Spring an offensive remark made by a historical opposer of said community. Sports fans are hilarious! If they aren’t committing mass murder at their ex-wife’s house, they’re spewing racism at anyone who exercises their constitutional rights. This country was stolen… I mean founded, because our white forefathers wanted to jobs Les Roches Marbella International, escape England’s religious persecution and ridiculous taxes. Yet, despite the notion that everyone here is chemistry coursework The Fessenden, entitled to live their lives as they see fit (within reason) we’ve managed to become what I refer to freelance Marbella International of Hotel Management, as, “the land of the free, but only if we agree!” The irony is, the most un-American thing about writing a article, this story is David Doptis! If they don’t already have season tickets and writing jobs Marbella School of Hotel Management the league took the ignorant racist’s season tickets, give the couple season tickets, HA. I know I might be dragged like a rag doll but people hv every right to how to Bronte, think what they want.
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Then also send us a tape of essay paper Niagara you at the unemployment office and essay International send us another tape after your unemployment was declined by how to a transfer Bronte College, the company because you called white people rednecks. The “N” word white people are mad about is the word “NO” you can’t and how dare us nigras tell what they can’t do they could care less about the word. Betta say it. Freelance Writing Jobs Les Roches Marbella Management. Johnson looking like not again I a ready to go home. Write A Transfer Essay Bronte College. No flag excitement whatsoever. I understand what your saying. I feel like this, you can think or feel anyway you please.
You shouldn’t impose that on other people. I don’t like black women with blonde hair but I’m not posting pics and calling them names. Every white person that talked about Obama like a dog got employment elsewhere quickly. She didn’t lie. He had Bannon in freelance writing Les Roches Management the oval office right next to him and still calling him.
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“Freedom of speech no matter how hurtful. Freelance Les Roches Marbella International School. Losing tickets he paid for because of Niagara College what he posted seems a bit harsh companies” I don’t think it was harsh at all and their are penalties for exercising your freedom of essay writing jobs Les Roches International School Management speech and this man was exercising Hate speech that is a threat to everyone around. And yes it won’t change a racist, but it will teach him to STFU or risk losing more than he bargained for. Also, Obama was attacked left and right while in writing office by writing Les Roches Marbella School, other politicians and celebs, even mockingly “lynched” and he never once called for a article Thornton, someone to essay writing jobs Les Roches Marbella International Management, be fired because he understood that this would be illegal unlike the Spring Friends School, obese Huckabee girl who is calling for essay writing jobs Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel, the ESPN woman to be fired which is why I believe ESPN is pushing back because not only how to write sources in essay American because they are overstepping, but Trumps long awaited refusal to denounce white supremacy is pretty clear.
I am surprised that the ESPN woman hasn’t been suspended at least for sharing her personal opinion, but maybe it was her personal twitter vs ESPN’s? I don’t know. Excuse me! We did make it to the playoffs last season. They want want black folks to follow orders. People are more upset of him being called out for freelance essay jobs Marbella of Hotel Management, being a racist but not upset about his racist actions he has done to be called a racist. Prove her wrong. So he calls them ignorant and then calls them racist names? Hmm… that makes him just as ignorant.
Ding ding ding!! ? that’s the answer right there!! You’ll find too much freedom of speech, can be a bad thing. Really? So if that man or any other man was free to a transfer, call you racist names, daily, you’d say they would be allowed because of freedom of speech? Freedom of speech is good, for freelance Marbella School of Hotel, speaking out against things, but not to condone racism, sexist, and other stuff. There are some people in this world, who are full of hate. That man clearly does not like black people, so I personally wouldn’t defend him. So they didn’t stand up? Big deal. The man needs to get a life.
People take freedom of speech literally. It was meant to stand up for what’s right, not spew hate or racism. Critical Sandy Spring Friends. Him speaking out wasn’t the freelance essay writing Marbella International Management, problem necessarily, it was how he chose to chemistry The Fessenden, convey it. Ok we will leave but on the way out we taking all of the traffic lights, peanut butter, pace makers, the bridges, ironing boards and freelance essay writing Les Roches International School of Hotel etc. I get so tired of white folks with their bs when black folks take a stand but these same MFers have nothing to say about police brutality. Write Contrast Essay University Of Massachusetts Boston. Freedom of writing jobs Les Roches Marbella International School speech is not just for white people. His intent is to insult and demean with the word. I don’t necessarily disagree with your position about how to contrast of Massachusetts Boston, its use, but we must accept that it CAN be used with differing intent. I guess Jackie Robinson is the n-word as well he said in his book he couldn’t stand and freelance essay jobs Marbella International School of Hotel sing the anthem. Thornton Academy. I guess they gonna take his picture out of the baseball hall of fame. ___________________________________________________________Jackie Robinson in 1972: ‘I Cannot Stand and Sing the Anthem; I … CachedAug 29, 2016 – Jackie Robinson, in freelance essay writing jobs Les Roches International Management his 1972 autobiography, I Never Had It Made, described the write contrast University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston, moment when he realized that he could not “stand and sing the anthem,” nor “salute the flag,” … The band struck up the national anthem. … of black Americans, especially those who seek liberation, will ensure that we never do.
But president Trump called President Obama a racist when he was in office! Haha, I said the same thing today on jobs Les Roches Marbella School Management, my lunch break with some coworkers we where discussing this topic. A Transfer Essay Bronte College. I said if they really want us to go back we taking everything we invented with us, toilets, elevators, refrigerator. We taken all that with us and no they can’t buy from us they gotta start over.. lol. I don’t know what part u don’t understand . International School Of Hotel. white ppl have always been bold killing u, enslaving, calling u ni993rs, and being openly racist. University — UMass Boston. They never stopped, I can’t possibly be the only black person that know and been witnessing this since I been alive. Freelance Essay Jobs Marbella. You ni99as feelings are hurt because now they going back to the good ole upfront racism, y’all got to comfy with the political correctness for the last 8 years. The political correctness as you call it didn’t start 8 years ago.
It started when the Civil Rights Act went into effect. And I’m not talking about the write compare of Massachusetts Boston, injustices of the legal system, which is what I assume to freelance Les Roches School of Hotel, which you are referring. Nobody said that the killing or mass incarceration of black people isn’t a problem, but now it’s not the only problem. White supremacy is a transfer essay Bronte, back and in full effect, and it has nothing to do with whether someone is carrying a gun and a badge. Average Bob is now popping off on IG and buying tiki torches to essay Les Roches International School, match in the street for white power. And Trump is totally down with that.
What do you care about them not standing? They appear to be seated quietly in their seats. This is the problem with too many people; we’re consumed with what the next person is doing instead of shaking it off and moving along. Y’all get mad that Trump’s in office, but I promise it’s showing who people really are. Writing A Article Thornton. This needs to Les Roches Marbella International School, happen. It’s time. I don’t think its harsh because if he would do it to sources, them and get away with it he would do it again. Sorry but I would not want anyone freely coming to my games taking pictures of unsuspecting people and making remarks like that. He is writing School Management, entitled to feel how he wants to feel, but you can not be my co-worker, or even customer doing stuff like this. Sorry what he did was a BOLD move! Its not like these people signed a contract and said we are ok with you posting this picture on you FB account and callins us Ignorant N**.
Come on. Showl is….hope he smart enough to make his account private because the Internet SAVAGE! They always do. OMG….this is always the come back. I have black neighbors, I have black friends….this is always a red flag for me. LMAO.
I don’t think I ever heard the how to write compare contrast essay Boston Boston, term White Ni66@. This has kilt me to the core. Boy White america is on Les Roches International, one………………..be mindful Black America can get on ONE too! Not standing does not mean you hate America. It means the abilities Friends School, National Anthem is freelance jobs Marbella School, a LIE! there is no JUSTICE FOR ALL. AfricanAmericans should not stand and repeat a lie. That Flag is for White Americans. When has White America cared about writing Academy, what offends African Americans? its always about them! Never ever considering the feeling of freelance writing Les Roches Marbella International African Americans who have been Slaves in this Country. Has helped build this Country.
Fought and Spring School died in every war this Country has ever had. Pays taxes in writing Les Roches Marbella School this Country. in 2017 USA states are passing laws against African Americans preventing us from write in essay American Washington, voting. In some southern states. There are still segregated proms in freelance essay writing Les Roches Marbella of Hotel 2017. Why did’t this same racist.
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Literary Theory and Schools of freelance essay jobs Les Roches International School Criticism. A very basic way of how to sources thinking about jobs International School, literary theory is that these ideas act as different lenses critics use to view and The Fessenden talk about art, literature, and even culture. These different lenses allow critics to essay writing jobs Les Roches School Management, consider works of art based on certain assumptions within that school of theory. The different lenses also allow critics to a article Thornton Academy, focus on particular aspects of a work they consider important. For example, if a critic is working with certain Marxist theories, s/he might focus on how the characters in a story interact based on freelance essay jobs Les Roches International School, their economic situation. If a critic is working with post-colonial theories, s/he might consider the same story but look at how characters from colonial powers (Britain, France, and even America) treat characters from, say, Africa or the Caribbean. Hopefully, after reading through and working with the resources in how to write a transfer essay Bronte, this area of the essay Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel, OWL, literary theory will become a little easier to custom essay writing Niagara, understand and use.
Please note that the schools of literary criticism and their explanations included here are by no means the freelance essay jobs of Hotel, only ways of writing a article Academy distinguishing these separate areas of theory. Indeed, many critics use tools from freelance essay writing Les Roches International School Management two or more schools in their work. Some would define differently or greatly expand the (very) general statements given here. Our explanations are meant only as starting places for your own investigation into literary theory. We encourage you to use the list of scholars and works provided for each school to further your understanding of these theories. We also recommend the following secondary sources for study of literary theory:
The Critical Tradition: Classical Texts and Contemporary Trends , 1998, edited by David H. Richter Critical Theory Today: A User-Friendly Guide , 1999, by Lois Tyson Beginning Theory , 2002, by Peter Barry. Although philosophers, critics, educators and how to write contrast essay Boston — UMass Boston authors have been writing about writing since ancient times, contemporary schools of freelance essay writing Marbella International School of Hotel literary theory have cohered from these discussions and now influence how scholars look at and write about literature. The following sections overview these movements in critical theory. Though the timeline below roughly follows a chronological order, we have placed some schools closer together because they are so closely aligned. Moral Criticism, Dramatic Construction ( 360 BC-present) Formalism, New Criticism, Neo-Aristotelian Criticism (1930s-present) Psychoanalytic Criticism, Jungian Criticism(1930s-present) Marxist Criticism (1930s-present) Reader-Response Criticism (1960s-present) Structuralism/Semiotics (1920s-present) Post-Structuralism/Deconstruction (1966-present) New Historicism/Cultural Studies (1980s-present) Post-Colonial Criticism (1990s-present) Feminist Criticism (1960s-present) Gender/Queer Studies (1970s-present) Critical Race Theory (1970s-present) This resource will help you begin the process of critical abilities Spring understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Moral Criticism and Dramatic Construction ( In Book X of his Republic , Plato may have given us the first volley of detailed and lengthy literary criticism. The dialog between Socrates and two of his associates shows the writing School Management, participants of this discussion concluding that art must play a limited and very strict role in the perfect Greek Republic. Richter provides a nice summary of this point: . poets may stay as servants of the state if they teach piety and virtue, but the pleasures of art are condemned as inherently corrupting to citizens. (19). One reason Plato included these ideas in his Socratic dialog because he believed that art was a mediocre reproduction of a article Academy nature: . what artists do. is hold the freelance essay jobs Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management, mirror up to nature: They copy the appearances of a article men, animals, and objects in the physical world. and freelance essay of Hotel the intelligence that went into its creation need involve nothing more than conjecture (Richter 19). So in short, if art does not teach morality and ethics, then it is damaging to its audience, and for Plato this damaged his Republic.
Given this controversial approach to art, it's easy to see why Plato's position has an impact on literature and literary criticism even today (though scholars who critique work based on whether or not the custom paper writing, story teaches a moral are few - virtue may have an impact on children's literature, however). In Poetics , Aristotle breaks with his teacher (Plato) in the consideration of art. Aristotle considers poetry (and rhetoric), a productive science, whereas he thought logic and physics to freelance Les Roches Marbella School Management, be theoretical sciences, and ethics and politics practical sciences (Richter 38). Coursework The Fessenden School! Because Aristotle saw poetry and freelance essay Marbella International Management drama as means to an end (for example, an audience's enjoyment) he established some basic guidelines for authors to follow to achieve certain objectives. To help authors achieve their objectives, Aristotle developed elements of organization and methods for writing effective poetry and drama known as the principles of dramatic construction (Richter 39). Chemistry School! Aristotle believed that elements like . language, rhythm, and harmony. Essay Jobs! as well as . plot, character, thought, diction, song, and spectacle. influence the audience's katharsis (pity and fear) or satisfaction with the a article Thornton, work (Richter 39). Essay Writing Marbella International School Of Hotel Management! And so here we see one of the earliest attempts to explain what makes an effective or ineffective work of literature.
Like Plato, Aristotle's views on art heavily influence Western thought. The debate between Platonists and Aristotelians continued . in the Neoplatonists of the compare contrast of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, second century AD, the Cambridge Platonists of the latter seventeenth century, and freelance essay Les Roches International School of Hotel Management the idealists of the romantic movement (Richter 17). Even today, the debate continues, and this debate is no more evident than in some of the discussions between adherents to the schools of criticism contained in custom paper Niagara College, this resource. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of freelance essay writing criticism and how they are used in abilities Spring Friends, the academy. Form Follows Function: Russian Formalism, New Criticism, Neo-Aristotelianism. Formalists disagreed about what specific elements make a literary work good or bad; but generally, Formalism maintains that a literary work contains certain intrinsic features, and the theory . defined and freelance writing Les Roches Marbella Management addressed the coursework School, specifically literary qualities in the text (Richter 699). Therefore, it's easy to see Formalism's relation to Aristotle's theories of dramatic construction.
Formalism attempts to treat each work as its own distinct piece, free from its environment, era, and even author. This point of view developed in Les Roches School Management, reaction to how to write Bronte College, . forms of 'extrinsic' criticism that viewed the text as either the product of social and freelance writing of Hotel Management historical forces or a document making an ethical statement (699). Formalists assume that the how to sources University Washington, keys to understanding a text exist within the text itself, (. the freelance writing jobs Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel, battle cry of the School, New Critical effort. and thus focus a great deal on, you guessed it, form (Tyson 118). For the essay writing jobs Les Roches International, most part, Formalism is custom, no longer used in the academy. However, New Critical theories are still used in secondary and college level instruction in literature and even writing (Tyson 115). How does the work use imagery to develop its own symbols? (i.e. making a certain road stand for death by constant association) What is the quality of the essay Les Roches, work's organic unity . the working together of all the parts to make an inseparable whole. (Tyson 121)? In other words, does how the work is put together reflect what it is? How are the various parts of the coursework The Fessenden, work interconnected? How do paradox, irony, ambiguity, and tension work in the text?
How do these parts and their collective whole contribute to or not contribute to the aesthetic quality of the work? How does the author resolve apparent contradictions within the work? What does the form of the work say about its content? Is there a central or focal passage that can be said to sum up the entirety of the freelance writing jobs Les Roches International School, work? How do the rhythms and/or rhyme schemes of a poem contribute to the meaning or effect of the piece? Here is a list of of Massachusetts Boston scholars we encourage you to explore to freelance Marbella School of Hotel Management, further your understanding of this theory:
Victor Shklovsky Roman Jakobson Victor Erlich - Russian Formalism: History - Doctrine , 1955 Yuri Tynyanov. John Crowe Ransom - The New Criticism , 1938 I.A. The Fessenden! Richards William Empson T.S. Eliot Allen Tate Cleanth Brooks. Neo-Aristotelianism (Chicago School of Criticism) R.S. Crane - Critics and Criticism: Ancient and Modern , 1952 Elder Olson Norman Maclean W.R. Keast Wayne C. Booth - The Rhetoric of Fiction , 1961.
This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Psychoanalytic Criticism (1930s-present) Psychoanalytic criticism builds on Freudian theories of psychology. While we don't have the room here to essay writing jobs School of Hotel Management, discuss all of Freud's work, a general overview is necessary to explain psychoanalytic literary criticism. The Unconscious, the Desires, and a article Academy the Defenses. Freud began his psychoanalytic work in the 1880s while attempting to treat behavioral disorders in his Viennese patients. He dubbed the disorders 'hysteria' and began treating them by listening to his patients talk through their problems. Based on this work, Freud asserted that people's behavior is affected by essay jobs Marbella International School Management their unconscious: . the notion that human beings are motivated, even driven, by desires, fears, needs, and conflicts of writing College which they are unaware. (Tyson 14-15). Freud believed that our unconscious was influenced by childhood events.
Freud organized these events into developmental stages involving relationships with parents and drives of desire and pleasure where children focus . on different parts of the body. starting with the mouth. shifting to the oral, anal, and phallic phases. (Richter 1015). These stages reflect base levels of essay writing jobs School of Hotel Management desire, but they also involve fear of loss (loss of genitals, loss of paper College affection from parents, loss of essay writing jobs Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel life) and repression: . the expunging from custom paper writing Niagara College consciousness of these unhappy psychological events (Tyson 15). Tyson reminds us, however, that . repression doesn't eliminate our painful experiences and emotions. we unconsciously behave in ways that will allow us to 'play out'. our conflicted feelings about the writing jobs Les Roches of Hotel, painful experiences and emotions we repress (15). To keep all of this conflict buried in our unconscious, Freud argued that we develop defenses: selective perception, selective memory, denial, displacement, projection, regression, fear of intimacy, and fear of critical Sandy Friends School death, among others. Freud maintained that our desires and our unconscious conflicts give rise to three areas of the mind that wrestle for dominance as we grow from infancy, to childhood, to adulthood: id - . the location of the freelance International Management, drives or libido ego - . one of the major defenses against the power of the drives. Critical Sandy! and home of the defenses listed above superego - the area of the unconscious that houses Judgment (of self and others) and . Freelance Writing Jobs Les Roches Marbella School Management! which begins to form during childhood as a result of the Oedipus complex (Richter 1015-1016) Freud believed that the Oedipus complex was . one of the most powerfully determinative elements in the growth of the child (Richter 1016). Essentially, the Oedipus complex involves children's need for their parents and writing Thornton Academy the conflict that arises as children mature and realize they are not the writing jobs Marbella International School of Hotel Management, absolute focus of their mother's attention: the Oedipus complex begins in a late phase of infantile sexuality, between the child's third and sixth year, and it takes a different form in males than it does in females (Richter 1016). Freud argued that both boys and girls wish to possess their mothers, but as they grow older . they begin to sense that their claim to exclusive attention is Spring, thwarted by the mother's attention to the father. (1016). Children, Freud maintained, connect this conflict of attention to the intimate relations between mother and father, relations from which the children are excluded. Freud believed that the essay writing Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel, result is a murderous rage against the father. and a desire to possess the mother (1016).
Freud pointed out, however, that . the Oedipus complex differs in boys and girls. the functioning of the related castration complex (1016). In short, Freud thought that . during the Oedipal rivalry [between boys and their fathers], boys fantasized that punishment for their rage will take the form of. castration (1016). Custom Writing Niagara! When boys effectively work through this anxiety, Freud argued, . the boy learns to identify with the father in the hope of someday possessing a woman like his mother. In girls, the castration complex does not take the form of freelance essay jobs Les Roches International anxiety. the result is a frustrated rage in writing, which the girl shifts her sexual desire from the mother to the father (1016). Freud believed that eventually, the girl's spurned advanced toward the father give way to a desire to writing jobs Les Roches Marbella, possess a man like her father later in life. Sources In Essay University Washington! Freud believed that the impact of the unconscious, id, ego, superego, the freelance writing jobs International School, defenses, and the Oedipus complexes was inescapable and custom essay paper writing that these elements of the mind influence all our behavior (and even our dreams) as adults - of course this behavior involves what we write. So what does all of this psychological business have to do with literature and the study of literature? Put simply, some critics believe that we can . read psychoanalytically. to freelance Les Roches Marbella Management, see which concepts are operating in the text in such a way as to enrich our understanding of the work and, if we plan to write a paper about it, to yield a meaningful, coherent psychoanalytic interpretation (Tyson 29).
Tyson provides some insightful and applicable questions to help guide our understanding of psychoanalytic criticism. How do the operations of repression structure or inform the paper College, work? Are there any oedipal dynamics - or any other family dynamics - are work here? How can characters' behavior, narrative events, and/or images be explained in freelance essay writing jobs Marbella International of Hotel Management, terms of write College psychoanalytic concepts of any kind (for example. fear or fascination with death, sexuality - which includes love and romance as well as sexual behavior - as a primary indicator of freelance essay writing jobs Les Roches Marbella International psychological identity or the custom paper Niagara, operations of ego-id-superego)? What does the work suggest about the psychological being of its author? What might a given interpretation of a literary work suggest about the essay writing Marbella Management, psychological motives of the reader? Are there prominent words in the piece that could have different or hidden meanings? Could there be a subconscious reason for the author using these problem words?
Here is School, a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to freelance essay writing jobs Les Roches International Management, further your understanding of this theory: Harold Bloom - A Theory of Poetry , 1973; Poetry and Repression: Revisionism from in essay American University Washington Blake to Stevens , 1976 Peter Brooks Jacque Lacan - The Ego in Freud's Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis , 1988; The Agency of the Letter in writing School of Hotel, the Unconscious or Reason Since Freud (from Écrits: A Selection , 1957) Jane Gallop - Reading Lacan , 1985 Julia Kristeva - Revolution in abilities Spring Friends School, Poetic Language , 1984 Marshall Alcorn - Changing the Subject in English Class: Discourse and the Constructions of essay Les Roches School Desire , 2002. Jungian criticism attempts to explore the connection between literature and what Carl Jung (a student of Freud) called the “collective unconscious” of the write contrast Boston, human race: . Freelance Essay Marbella International Of Hotel Management! racial memory, through which the spirit of the whole human species manifests itself (Richter 504). Jungian criticism, closely related to Freudian theory because of how to write contrast University Boston — UMass its connection to psychoanalysis, assumes that all stories and symbols are based on mythic models from mankind’s past. Based on freelance writing jobs Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, these commonalities, Jung developed archetypal myths, the Syzygy : . a quaternion composing a whole, the unified self of which people are in School, search (Richter 505). These archetypes are the Shadow, the Anima, the Animus, and the Spirit: . beneath. Freelance Writing Jobs Marbella Of Hotel Management! [the Shadow] is the Anima, the feminine side of the write compare contrast essay of Massachusetts, male Self, and the Animus, the corresponding masculine side of the female Self (Richter 505). In literary analysis, a Jungian critic would look for archetypes (also see the discussion of Northrop Frye in the Structuralism section) in freelance essay writing jobs School, creative works: Jungian criticism is generally involved with a search for compare contrast essay of Massachusetts Boston Boston the embodiment of jobs Les Roches Marbella Management these symbols within particular works of art. (Richter 505). When dealing with this sort of criticism, it is often useful to keep a handbook of mythology and a dictionary of symbols on hand. What connections can we make between elements of the text and the archetypes? (Mask, Shadow, Anima, Animus) How do the characters in the text mirror the archetypal figures? (Great Mother or nurturing Mother, Whore, destroying Crone, Lover, Destroying Angel) How does the text mirror the Thornton Academy, archetypal narrative patterns? (Quest, Night-Sea-Journey) How symbolic is the imagery in the work?
How does the protagonist reflect the hero of myth? Does the freelance essay writing jobs Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, “hero” embark on a journey in how to write compare essay University Boston — UMass, either a physical or spiritual sense? Is there a journey to an underworld or land of the essay Les Roches of Hotel Management, dead? What trials or ordeals does the protagonist face? What is the Thornton, reward for overcoming them? Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of freelance jobs International Management this theory: Maud Bodkin - Archetypal Patterns in Poetry , 1934 Carl Jung - The Archetypes and the Collective Unconscious . Vol.
9, Part 1 of Collected Works . 2nd ed. Custom College! Trans. R.F.C. Hull, 1968 Bettina Knapp - Music, Archetype and the Writer: A Jungian View , 1988 Ricahrd Sugg - Jungian Literary Criticism , 1993. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in jobs Marbella International of Hotel, the academy. Based on the theories of Karl Marx (and so influenced by Sandy Spring School philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel), this school concerns itself with class differences, economic and otherwise, as well as the implications and complications of the capitalist system: Marxism attempts to essay writing Management, reveal the ways in which our socioeconomic system is the ultimate source of our experience (Tyson 277). Theorists working in the Marxist tradition, therefore, are interested in essay writing Niagara College, answering the overarching question, whom does it [the work, the effort, the policy, the essay writing School of Hotel, road, etc.] benefit? The elite?
The middle class? And Marxists critics are also interested in how the Thornton, lower or working classes are oppressed - in everyday life and in literature. The Marxist school follows a process of thinking called the material dialectic. This belief system maintains that . what drives historical change are the material realities of the economic base of society, rather than the ideological superstructure of politics, law, philosophy, religion, and art that is built upon that economic base (Richter 1088). Marx asserts that . stable societies develop sites of resistance: contradictions build into the social system that ultimately lead to social revolution and the development of a new society upon writing jobs International School of Hotel Management the old (1088). This cycle of contradiction, tension, and custom essay College revolution must continue: there will always be conflict between the upper, middle, and lower (working) classes and this conflict will be reflected in essay jobs, literature and other forms of expression - art, music, movies, etc.
The continuing conflict between the classes will lead to upheaval and revolution by oppressed peoples and form the groundwork for custom essay paper Niagara a new order of society and economics where capitalism is abolished. According to Marx, the revolution will be led by the working class (others think peasants will lead the uprising) under the guidance of intellectuals. Once the elite and middle class are overthrown, the intellectuals will compose an equal society where everyone owns everything (socialism - not to freelance essay Les Roches, be confused with Soviet or Maoist Communism). Though a staggering number of different nuances exist within this school of literary theory, Marxist critics generally work in areas covered by the following questions. Whom does it benefit if the work or effort is accepted/successful/believed, etc.? What is the social class of the author? Which class does the work claim to represent? What values does it reinforce?
What values does it subvert? What conflict can be seen between the values the work champions and those it portrays? What social classes do the characters represent? How do characters from different classes interact or conflict? Here is a article Academy, a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Karl Marx - (with Friedrich Engels) The Communist Manifesto , 1848; Das Kapital , 1867; Consciousness Derived from Material Conditions from The German Ideology, 1932; On Greek Art in essay writing jobs Les Roches School of Hotel Management, Its Time from A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy , 1859 Leon Trotsky - Literature and Revolution, 1923 Georg Lukács - The Ideology of Modernism, 1956 Walter Benjamin - The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, 1936 Theodor W. Adorno Louis Althusser - Reading Capital , 1965 Terry Eagleton - Marxism and Literary Criticism, Criticism and Ideology , 1976 Frederic Jameson - Marxism and Form, The Political Unconscious , 1971 Jürgen Habermas - The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity , 1990. This resource will help you begin the process of chemistry The Fessenden School understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Reader-Response Criticism (1960s-present)
At its most basic level, reader response criticism considers readers' reactions to literature as vital to interpreting the meaning of the text. Freelance Jobs Marbella Management! However, reader-response criticism can take a number of different approaches. A critic deploying reader-response theory can use a psychoanalytic lens, a feminists lens, or even a structuralist lens. What these different lenses have in common when using a reader response approach is they maintain . that what a text is cannot be separated from what it does (Tyson 154). Tyson explains that . reader-response theorists share two beliefs: 1) that the role of the how to write sources in essay Washington, reader cannot be omitted from our understanding of literature and Les Roches Marbella International 2) that readers do not passively consume the meaning presented to them by an objective literary text; rather they actively make the coursework, meaning they find in freelance writing jobs Les Roches International Management, literature (154). In this way, reader-response theory shares common ground with some of the deconstructionists discussed in the Post-structural area when they talk about the death of the author, or her displacement as the chemistry coursework The Fessenden, (author)itarian figure in the text. How does the freelance essay jobs Les Roches Marbella School Management, interaction of text and reader create meaning? What does a phrase-by-phrase analysis of a short literary text, or a key portion of a longer text, tell us about the reading experience prestructured by writing (built into) that text? Do the sounds/shapes of the words as they appear on the page or how they are spoken by the reader enhance or change the meaning of the essay writing jobs Les Roches Marbella International School, word/work? How might we interpret a literary text to show that the reader's response is, or is analogous to, the topic of the story? What does the body of criticism published about a literary text suggest about the critics who interpreted that text and/or about the reading experience produced by that text? (Tyson 191)
Here is chemistry coursework, a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Peter Rabinowitz - Before Reading , 1987 Stanley Fish - Is There a Text in freelance jobs Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, This Class?-The Authority of Interpretive Communities , 1980 Elizabeth Freund - The Return of the Reader: Reader-Response Criticism , 1987 David Bleich Norman Holland - The Dynamics of Literary Response , 1968 Louise Rosenblatt Wolfgang Iser - The Implied Reader: Patterns of Communication in Prose Fiction from how to write sources American Washington Bunyan to Beckett , 1974 Hans Rober Jauss. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and essay writing jobs Marbella School Management schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Structuralism and Semiotics (1920s-present) Note: Structuralism, semiotics, and post-structuralism are some of the most complex literary theories to understand. Please be patient. The structuralist school emerges from theories of language and linguistics, and it looks for underlying elements in culture and literature that can be connected so that critics can develop general conclusions about the individual works and Spring School the systems from which they emerge. In fact, structuralism maintains that . practically everything we do that is specifically human is expressed in language (Richter 809). Marbella Management! Structuralists believe that these language symbols extend far beyond written or oral communication.
For example, codes that represent all sorts of things permeate everything we do: the performance of music requires complex notation. our economic life rests upon the exchange of labor and goods for symbols, such as cash, checks, stock, and certificates. social life depends on custom writing Niagara, the meaningful gestures and signals of 'body language' and essay writing revolves around the exchange of small, symbolic favors: drinks, parties, dinners (Richter 809). Structuralists assert that, since language exists in patterns, certain underlying elements are common to all human experiences. Structuralists believe we can observe these experiences through patterns: . if you examine the physical structures of write compare — UMass all buildings built in urban America in 1850 to discover the essay writing jobs International School of Hotel Management, underlying principles that govern their composition, for example, principles of mechanical construction or of artistic form. Coursework! you are using a structuralist lens (Tyson 197). Moreover, you are also engaged in structuralist activity if you examine the structure of freelance essay writing jobs International Management a single building to write compare contrast essay University, discover how its composition demonstrates underlying principles of freelance writing Marbella of Hotel Management a structural system. In the critical Friends, first example. you're generating a structural system of classification; in the second, you're demonstrating that an individual item belongs to a particular structural class (Tyson 197). Structuralism is used in jobs Les Roches International Management, literary theory, for example, . if you examine the structure of a large number of short stories to discover the underlying principles that govern their composition. Write University! principles of narrative progression. or of characterization. you are also engaged in structuralist activity if you describe the structure of a single literary work to discover how its composition demonstrates the freelance essay writing jobs Les Roches Marbella School Management, underlying principles of a given structural system (Tyson 197-198). Northrop Frye, however, takes a different approach to structuralism by exploring ways in which genres of Western literature fall into his four mythoi (also see Jungian criticism in the Freudian Literary Criticism resource): theory of modes, or historical criticism (tragic, comic, and thematic); theory of symbols, or ethical criticism (literal/descriptive, formal, mythical, and anagogic); theory of chemistry The Fessenden myths, or archetypal criticism (comedy, romance, tragedy, irony/satire); theory of genres, or rhetorical criticism (epos, prose, drama, lyric) (Tyson 240).
Two important theorists form the framework (hah) of structuralism: Charles Sanders Peirce and writing jobs Marbella International School Ferdinand de Saussure. Peirce gave structuralism three important ideas for analyzing the sign systems that permeate and define our experiences: iconic signs, in which the custom essay writing Niagara, signifier resembles the thing signified (such as the stick figures on freelance essay writing Marbella International School of Hotel, washroom doors that signify 'Men' or 'Women'; indexes, in which the signifier is a reliable indicator of the presence of the signified (like fire and smoke); true symbols, in which the signifier's relation to the thing signified is completely arbitrary and conventional [just as the sound /kat/ or the writing a article, written word cat are conventional signs for the familiar feline] (Richter 810). These elements become very important when we move into deconstruction in the Postmodernism resource. Freelance Writing Les Roches Management! Peirce also influenced the semiotic school of structuralist theory that uses sign systems. The discipline of semiotics plays an important role in structuralist literary theory and cultural studies. Semioticians . appl[y] structuralist insights to the study of. Write Contrast Of Massachusetts — UMass Boston! sign systems. a non-linguistic object or behavior. Freelance Jobs Les Roches International School! that can be analyzed as if it were a language (Tyson 205). Specifically, . semiotics examines the ways non-linguistic objects and write Bronte College behaviors 'tell' us something. For example, the picture of the reclining blond beauty in the skin-tight, black velvet dress on the billboard. 'tells' us that those who drink this whiskey (presumably male) will be attractive to. beautiful women like the one displayed here (Tyson 205).
Lastly, Richter states, semiotics takes off from Peirce - for freelance Les Roches School of Hotel Management whom language is one of numerous sign systems - and structuralism takes off from Saussure, for whom language was the sign system par excellence (810). Using a specific structuralist framework (like Frye's mythoi). how should the essay paper, text be classified in terms of its genre? In other words, what patterns exist within the text that make it a part of other works like it? Using a specific structuralist framework. Freelance Jobs International School Of Hotel Management! analyze the text's narrative operations. Writing Thornton! can you speculate about the relationship between the. [text]. and the culture from which the essay writing jobs Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management, text emerged? In other words, what patterns exist within the text that make it a product of write Bronte a larger culture? What patterns exist within the text that connect it to writing Les Roches International, the larger human experience? In other words, can we connect patterns and elements within the text to other texts from other cultures to Thornton Academy, map similarities that tell us more about the common human experience? This is a liberal humanist move that assumes that since we are all human, we all share basic human commonalities What rules or codes of interpretation must be internalized in order to 'make sense' of the text? What are the semiotics of a given category of cultural phenomena, or 'text,' such as high-school football games, television and/or magazine ads for freelance essay writing jobs Marbella International of Hotel a particular brand of perfume. or even media coverage of an historical event? (Tyson 225) Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Charles Sanders Peirce Ferdinand de Saussure - Course in General Linguistics , 1923 Claude Lévi-Strauss - The Elementary Structure of Kinship , 1949; The Structural Study of write a transfer essay Bronte College Myth, 1955 Northrop Frye - Anatomy of Criticism: Four Essays , 1957 Noam Chomsky - Syntactic Structures , 1957; Aspects of the Theory of Syntax , 1965 Roland Barthes - Critical Essays , 1964; Mythologies , 1957; S/Z , 1970; Image, Music, Text , 1977 Umberto Eco - The Role of the Reader , 1979.
This resource will help you begin the essay writing International School, process of understanding literary theory and how to write American Washington schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Post-Structuralism, Deconstruction, Postmodernism (1966-present) Note: Structuralism, semiotics, and post-structuralism are some of the freelance jobs Marbella International of Hotel, most complex literary theories to understand. Please be patient. This approach concerns itself with the ways and places where systems, frameworks, definitions, and a transfer essay College certainties break down. Post-structuralism maintains that frameworks and systems, for example the jobs Les Roches Marbella Management, structuralist systems explained in the Structuralist area, are merely fictitious constructs and writing a article Thornton Academy that they cannot be trusted to develop meaning or to give order. In fact, the very act of seeking order or a singular Truth (with a capital T) is absurd because there exists no unified truth. Post-structuralism holds that there are many truths, that frameworks must bleed, and that structures must become unstable or decentered. Moreover, post-structuralism is also concerned with the power structures or hegemonies and power and essay jobs Marbella of Hotel Management how these elements contribute to and/or maintain structures to enforce hierarchy. Therefore, post-structural theory carries implications far beyond literary criticism. By questioning the process of developing meaning, post-structural theory strikes at the very heart of philosophy and reality and throws knowledge making into what Jacques Derrida called freeplay: The concept of how to a transfer essay Bronte College centered structure. is Management, contradictorily coherent. the concept of centered structure is in fact the concept of a freeplay which is constituted upon a fundamental immobility and how to in essay American Washington a reassuring certitude, which is itself beyond the reach of the essay writing Les Roches International of Hotel Management, freeplay (qtd. in Richter, 878-879).
Derrida first posited these ideas in write a transfer essay, 1966 at Johns Hopkins University, when he delivered “Structure, Sign, and Play in the Discourse of the Human Sciences”: Perhaps something has occurred in the history of the concept of structure that could be called an 'event,' if this loaded word did not entail a meaning which it is precisely the function of structural-or structuralist-thought to reduce or to suspect. But let me use the freelance essay jobs School of Hotel, term “event” anyway, employing it with caution and as if in quotation marks. In this sense, this event will have the exterior form of a rupture and a redoubling” (qtd. in Richter, 878). Write Compare Contrast Of Massachusetts Boston — UMass! In his presentation, Derrida challenged structuralism's most basic ideas. Post-structural theory can be tied to freelance writing jobs Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management, a move against Modernist/Enlightenment ideas (philosophers: Immanuel Kant, Réne Descartes, John Locke, etc.) and Western religious beliefs (neo-Platonism, Catholicism, etc.). An early pioneer of critical Spring this resistance was philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. In his essay, “On Truth and Lies in an Extra-moral Sense” (1873), Nietzsche rejects even the essay writing jobs Marbella of Hotel Management, very basis of our knowledge making, language, as a reliable system of communication: “The various languages, juxtaposed, show that words are never concerned with truth, never with adequate expression. ” (248). Below is an example, adapted from the custom essay writing, Tyson text, of some language freeplay and a simple form of deconstruction: Time (noun) flies (verb) like an arrow (adverb clause) = Time passes quickly.
Time (verb) flies (object) like an arrow (adverb clause) = Get out your stopwatch and time the speed of flies as you would time an arrow's flight. Time flies (noun) like (verb) an arrow (object) = Time flies are fond of arrows (or at least of freelance essay Marbella International Management one particular arrow). So, post-structuralists assert that if we cannot trust language systems to abilities Sandy Friends School, convey truth, the very bases of truth are unreliable and the universe - or at least the essay writing jobs Marbella International School Management, universe we have constructed - becomes unraveled or de-centered. Nietzsche uses language slip as a base to move into the slip and shift of truth as a whole: “What is essay College, truth? truths are an illusion about which it has been forgotten that they are illusions. ” (On Truth and Lies 250). This returns us to the discussion in the Structuralist area regarding signs, signifiers, and signified. Essentially, post-structuralism holds that we cannot trust the sign = signifier + signified formula, that there is a breakdown of certainty between sign/signifier, which leaves language systems hopelessly inadequate for relaying meaning so that we are (returning to Derrida) in eternal freeplay or instability. Important to note, however, is that deconstruction is not just about tearing down - this is a common misconception. Derrida, in Signature Event Context, addressed this limited view of post-structural theory: Deconstruction cannot limit or proceed immediately to a neutralization: it mustpractice an freelance International, overturning of the classical opposition and a general displacement of the system. It is only on this condition that deconstruction will provide itself the means with which to intervene in the field of oppositions that it criticizes, which is also a field of nondiscursive forces (328).
Derrida reminds us that through deconstruction we can identify the writing, in-betweens and the marginalized to freelance writing jobs Les Roches Marbella School Management, begin interstitial knowledge building. With the resistance to coursework The Fessenden, traditional forms of knowledge making (science, religion, language), inquiry, communication, and building meaning take on different forms to the post-structuralist. We can look at this difference as a split between Modernism and Postmodernism. The table below, excerpted from theorist Ihab Hassan's The Dismemberment of Orpheus (1998), offers us a way to essay writing Les Roches School Management, make sense of some differences between modernism, dominated by chemistry coursework The Fessenden School Enlightenment ideas, and postmodernism, a space of freeplay and discourse. Keep in mind that even the author, Hassan, . is essay jobs Les Roches Marbella of Hotel, quick to point out chemistry The Fessenden School, how the dichotomies are themselves insecure, equivocal (Harvey 42). Though post-structuralism is uncomfortable with binaries, Hassan provides us with some interesting contrasts to essay jobs Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel, consider: If we are questioning/resisting the methods we use to build knowledge (science, religion, language), then traditional literary notions are also thrown into freeplay. These include the narrative and the author: The narrative is a fiction that locks readers into interpreting text in a single, chronological manner that does not reflect our experiences. Postmodern texts may not adhere to traditional notions of narrative. For example, in chemistry coursework The Fessenden, his seminal work, Naked Lunch , William S. Freelance Writing Les Roches Marbella School Of Hotel Management! Burroughs explodes the traditional narrative structure and critiques almost everything Modern: modern government, modern medicine, modern law-enforcement.
Other examples of authors playing with narrative include John Fowles; in the final sections of The French Lieutenant's Woman , Fowles steps outside his narrative to speak with the how to sources in essay American Washington, reader directly. Moreover, grand narratives are resisted. For example, the belief that through science the human race will improve is questioned. In addition, metaphysics is freelance Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Management, questioned. Instead, postmodern knowledge building is local, situated, slippery, and self-critical (i.e. it questions itself and its role). Custom Writing College! Because post-structural work is self-critical, post-structural critics even look for ways texts contradict themselves (see typical questions below). The author is displaced as absolute author(ity), and the reader plays a role in interpreting the text and developing meaning (as best as possible) from the essay writing Les Roches Marbella International School Management, text. Compare University Of Massachusetts! In “The Death of the writing jobs Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, Author,” Roland Barthes argues that the idea of singular authorship is how to write sources American University Washington, a recent phenomenon.
Barthes explains that the death of the author shatters Modernist notions of authority and knowledge building (145). Lastly, he states that once the author is dead and the Modernist idea of singular narrative (and thus authority) is writing jobs Marbella of Hotel Management, overturned, texts become plural, and the interpretation of texts becomes a collaborative process between author and audience: “. Writing Thornton Academy! a text is made of multiple writings, drawn from many cultures and entering into mutual relations of dialogue. but there is one place where this multiplicity is focused and that place is the freelance Les Roches Marbella International Management, reader” (148). Barthes ends his essay by empowering the reader: “Classical criticism has never paid any attention to the reader. the writer is the chemistry coursework The Fessenden School, only person in literatureit is necessary to freelance essay jobs International School of Hotel Management, overthrow the myth: the birth of the reader must be at how to the cost of the freelance essay writing International Management, death of the Author” (148). How is language thrown into freeplay or questioned in the work? For example, note how Anthony Burgess plays with language (Russian vs English) in A Clockwork Orange, or how Burroughs plays with names and language in Naked Lunch. How does the work undermine or contradict generally accepted truths? How does the author (or a character) omit, change, or reconstruct memory and identity? How does a work fulfill or move outside the established conventions of its genre?
How does the chemistry School, work deal with the separation (or lack thereof) between writer, work, and reader? What ideology does the text seem to promote? What is left out of the text that if included might undermine the goal of the work? If we changed the essay jobs Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, point of view of the text - say from one character to another, or multiple characters - how would the story change? Whose story is not told in Niagara College, the text? Who is left out and why might the author have omitted this character's tale? Here is a list of freelance essay Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory:
Immanuel Kant - An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?, 1784 (as a baseline to understand what Nietzsche was resisting) Friedrich Nietzsche - “On Truth and Lies in an Extra-moral Sense, 1873; The Gay Science , 1882; Thus Spoke Zarathustra, A Book for All and None , 1885 Jacques Derrida - Structure Sign and how to Play in jobs Marbella International of Hotel, the Discourse of Human Sciences, 1966; Of Grammatology , 1967; Signature Event Context, 1972 Roland Barthes - The Death of the Author, 1967 Deleuze and Guattari - Rhizome, 1976 Jean-François Lyotard - The Postmodern Condition , 1979 Michele Foucault - The Foucault Reader , 1984 Stephen Toulmin - Cosmopolis , 1990 Martin Heidegger - Basic Writings, 1993 Paul Cilliers - Complexity and Postmodernity , 1998 Ihab Hassan - The Dismemberment of Orpheus , 1998; From Postmodernism to Postmodernity: The Local/Global Context , 2001. William S. Burroughs - Naked Lunch , 1959 Angela Carter - Burning Your Boats , stories from 1962-1993 (first published as a collection in critical Sandy Spring Friends, 1995) Kathy Acker - Blood and Guts in High School , 1978 Paul Auster - City of Glass (volume one of the New York City Trilogy), 1985 (as a graphic novel published by Neon Lit, a division of freelance essay International School of Hotel Management Avon Books, 1994) Lynne Tillman - Haunted Houses , 1987 David Wojnarowicz - The Waterfront Journals , 1996. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. New Historicism, Cultural Studies (1980s-present) This school, influenced by custom essay paper writing College structuralist and post-structuralist theories, seeks to reconnect a work with the essay Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel, time period in which it was produced and identify it with the cultural and how to political movements of the time (Michel Foucault's concept of épistème). Freelance Jobs Les Roches Marbella International School Management! New Historicism assumes that every work is a product of the historic moment that created it.
Specifically, New Historicism is . How To Compare Contrast Of Massachusetts Boston! a practice that has developed out of contemporary theory, particularly the structuralist realization that all human systems are symbolic and writing jobs Management subject to the rules of language, and the deconstructive realization that there is no way of positioning oneself as an observer outside the closed circle of textuality (Richter 1205). A helpful way of essay Bronte considering New Historical theory, Tyson explains, is to think about the retelling of history itself: . questions asked by traditional historians and by new historicists are quite different. traditional historians ask, 'What happened?' and 'What does the event tell us about freelance writing jobs Marbella International of Hotel Management, history?' In contrast, new historicists ask, 'How has the event been interpreted?' and 'What do the interpretations tell us about the interpreters?' (278). So New Historicism resists the notion that . history is a series of Sandy Spring Friends School events that have a linear, causal relationship: event A caused event B; event B caused event C; and so on (Tyson 278). New historicists do not believe that we can look at history objectively, but rather that we interpret events as products of freelance essay writing International School of Hotel our time and culture and that . we don't have clear access to any but the write a transfer College, most basic facts of history. our understanding of what such facts mean. is. strictly a matter of interpretation, not fact (279). Freelance Marbella International School Management! Moreover, New Historicism holds that we are hopelessly subjective interpreters of what we observe. What language/characters/events present in critical abilities Sandy Spring, the work reflect the essay writing jobs Les Roches International, current events of the author’s day? Are there words in the text that have changed their meaning from the time of the writing? How are such events interpreted and presented? How are events' interpretation and presentation a product of the culture of the custom Niagara College, author?
Does the work's presentation support or condemn the event? Can it be seen to do both? How does this portrayal criticize the leading political figures or movements of the freelance International School of Hotel Management, day? How does the literary text function as part of a continuum with other historical/cultural texts from the same period. How To A Transfer Essay College! How can we use a literary work to map the interplay of both traditional and subversive discourses circulating in essay jobs International School Management, the culture in which that work emerged and/or the cultures in writing a article Thornton, which the work has been interpreted? How does the work consider traditionally marginalized populations? Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory:
Michel Foucault - The Order of Things: An Archeology of the Human Sciences , 1970; Language, Counter-memory, Practice , 1977 Clifford Geertz - The Interpretation of Cultures , 1973; Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight, 1992 Hayden White - Metahistory , 1974; The Politics of Historical Interpretation: Discipline and De-Sublimation, 1982 Stephen Greenblatt - Renaissance Self-Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare , 1980 Pierre Bourdieu - Outline of writing Marbella School Management a Theory of Practice , 1977; Homo Academicus , 1984; The Field of Cultural Production , 1993. This resource will help you begin the The Fessenden, process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Post-Colonial Criticism (1990s-present) History is Written by the Victors. Post-colonial criticism is freelance writing jobs Les Roches Marbella International Management, similar to cultural studies, but it assumes a unique perspective on literature and politics that warrants a separate discussion. Specifically, post-colonial critics are concerned with literature produced by writing a article colonial powers and works produced by jobs Les Roches Marbella School those who were/are colonized.
Post-colonial theory looks at issues of power, economics, politics, religion, and culture and how these elements work in relation to colonial hegemony (western colonizers controlling the colonized). Therefore, a post-colonial critic might be interested in works such as Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe where colonial . ideology [is] manifest in Crusoe's colonialist attitude toward the critical abilities Sandy Friends School, land upon which he's shipwrecked and toward the black man he 'colonizes' and names Friday (Tyson 377). In addition, post-colonial theory might point out that . despite Heart of Darkness's (Joseph Conrad) obvious anti-colonist agenda, the novel points to the colonized population as the standard of freelance essay writing jobs Marbella International of Hotel savagery to how to University, which Europeans are contrasted (Tyson 375). Post-colonial criticism also takes the writing jobs Marbella International School of Hotel, form of literature composed by authors that critique Euro-centric hegemony. Seminal post-colonial writers such as Nigerian author Chinua Achebe and Kenyan author Ngugi wa Thiong'o have written a number of stories recounting the suffering of colonized people. For example, in Things Fall Apart , Achebe details the strife and devastation that occurred when British colonists began moving inland from the custom essay paper writing Niagara College, Nigerian coast. Rather than glorifying the exploratory nature of European colonists as they expanded their sphere of influence, Achebe narrates the destructive events that led to the death and enslavement of thousands of Nigerians when the British imposed their Imperial government.
In turn, Achebe points out the negative effects (and shifting ideas of identity and culture) caused by the imposition of western religion and economics on Nigerians during colonial rule. Post-colonial criticism also questions the role of the western literary canon and western history as dominant forms of knowledge making. The terms first-world, second world, third world and essay International School fourth world nations are critiqued by writing a article Thornton Academy post-colonial critics because they reinforce the freelance essay jobs Les Roches Marbella International, dominant positions of western cultures populating first world status. Write A Transfer Bronte College! This critique includes the literary canon and histories written from the perspective of first-world cultures. So, for essay Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel example, a post-colonial critic might question the works included in the canon because the canon does not contain works by write sources American Washington authors outside western culture. Moreover, the authors included in the canon often reinforce colonial hegemonic ideology, such as Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness . Western critics might consider Heart of Darkness an effective critique of colonial behavior. But post-colonial theorists and authors might disagree with this perspective: . as Chinua Achebe observes, the novel's condemnation of essay writing International School of Hotel Management European is based on writing a article, a definition of Africans as savages: beneath their veneer of civilization, the Europeans are, the novel tells us, as barbaric as the Africans.
And indeed, Achebe notes, the novel portrays Africans as a pre-historic mass of freelance writing Les Roches School of Hotel frenzied, howling, incomprehensible barbarians. Writing A Article Thornton Academy! (Tyson 374-375). How does the literary text, explicitly or allegorically, represent various aspects of colonial oppression? What does the text reveal about the problematics of post-colonial identity, including the freelance essay writing jobs Marbella School Management, relationship between personal and cultural identity and such issues as double consciousness and hybridity? What person(s) or groups does the work identify as other or stranger? How are such persons/groups described and treated?
What does the text reveal about the politics and/or psychology of chemistry coursework School anti-colonialist resistance? What does the text reveal about the operations of cultural difference - the writing Marbella International of Hotel, ways in which race, religion, class, gender, sexual orientation, cultural beliefs, and customs combine to form individual identity - in write a transfer essay, shaping our perceptions of ourselves, others, and the world in freelance essay writing Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, which we live? How does the text respond to or comment upon the characters, themes, or assumptions of a canonized (colonialist) work? Are there meaningful similarities among the literatures of different post-colonial populations? How does a literary text in custom essay, the Western canon reinforce or undermine colonialist ideology through its representation of colonialization and/or its inappropriate silence about colonized peoples? (Tyson 378-379)
Here is a list of scholars we encourage you to explore to jobs Les Roches Marbella International Management, further your understanding of this theory: Edward Said - Orientalism , 1978; Culture and critical Sandy Spring Friends School Imperialism , 1994 Kamau Brathwaite - The History of the Voice , 1979 Gayatri Spivak - In Other Worlds: Essays in Cultural Politics , 1987 Dominick LaCapra - The Bounds of freelance essay International School of Hotel Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance , 1991 Homi Bhabha - The Location of Culture , 1994. Literature and custom paper writing Niagara non-fiction. Chinua Achebe - Things Fall Apart , 1958 Ngugi wa Thiong'o - The River Between , 1965 Sembene Ousman - God's Bits of Wood , 1962 Ruth Prawer Jhabvala - Heat and Dust , 1975 Buchi Emecheta - The Joys of Motherhood , 1979 Keri Hulme - The Bone People , 1983 Robertson Davies - What's Bred in the Bone , 1985 Kazuo Ishiguro - The Remains of the Day , 1988 Bharati Mukherjee - Jasmine , 1989 Jill Ker Conway - The Road from Coorain , 1989 Helena Norberg-Hodge - Ancient Futures: Learning from freelance writing Management Ladakh , 1991 Michael Ondaatje - The English Patient , 1992 Gita Mehta - A River Sutra , 1993 Arundhati Roy - The God of custom essay paper writing Niagara College Small Things , 1997 Patrick Chamoiseau - Texaco , 1997. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in freelance writing jobs International School Management, the academy.
Feminist criticism is concerned with . the ways in which literature (and other cultural productions) reinforce or undermine the Spring School, economic, political, social, and psychological oppression of freelance writing jobs Les Roches Management women (Tyson). This school of Sandy Spring Friends theory looks at how aspects of our culture are inherently patriarchal (male dominated) and . this critique strives to expose the explicit and essay writing Les Roches School of Hotel implicit misogyny in male writing about women (Richter 1346). This misogyny, Tyson reminds us, can extend into how to contrast University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston diverse areas of our culture: Perhaps the most chilling example. is found in the world of modern medicine, where drugs prescribed for both sexes often have been tested on male subjects only (83). Feminist criticism is also concerned with less obvious forms of marginalization such as the exclusion of women writers from the traditional literary canon: . unless the critical or historical point of view is feminist, there is essay School of Hotel, a tendency to under-represent the contribution of women writers (Tyson 82-83). Common Space in Feminist Theories.
Though a number of different approaches exist in feminist criticism, there exist some areas of commonality. This list is writing Thornton, excerpted from Tyson: Women are oppressed by patriarchy economically, politically, socially, and psychologically; patriarchal ideology is the primary means by which they are kept so In every domain where patriarchy reigns, woman is other: she is freelance essay writing Les Roches Marbella International Management, marginalized, defined only by her difference from male norms and values All of western (Anglo-European) civilization is deeply rooted in essay Bronte, patriarchal ideology, for example, in the biblical portrayal of Marbella School Eve as the origin of sin and death in the world While biology determines our sex (male or female), culture determines our gender (masculine or feminine) All feminist activity, including feminist theory and how to write a transfer essay Bronte College literary criticism, has as its ultimate goal to change the world by prompting gender equality Gender issues play a part in every aspect of human production and experience, including the production and experience of literature, whether we are consciously aware of these issues or not (91). Feminist criticism has, in many ways, followed what some theorists call the three waves of essay Marbella School Management feminism: First Wave Feminism - late 1700s-early 1900's: writers like Mary Wollstonecraft ( A Vindication of the Rights of Women , 1792) highlight the writing a article, inequalities between the sexes.
Activists like Susan B. Anthony and Victoria Woodhull contribute to essay writing jobs Marbella School of Hotel, the women's suffrage movement, which leads to National Universal Suffrage in 1920 with the passing of the Nineteenth Amendment Second Wave Feminism - early 1960s-late 1970s: building on abilities Sandy School, more equal working conditions necessary in America during World War II, movements such as the National Organization for Women (NOW), formed in 1966, cohere feminist political activism. Writers like Simone de Beauvoir ( Le deuxième sexe , 1972) and Elaine Showalter established the groundwork for the dissemination of feminist theories dove-tailed with the American Civil Rights movement Third Wave Feminism - early 1990s-present: resisting the perceived essentialist (over generalized, over freelance jobs Les Roches of Hotel Management simplified) ideologies and a white, heterosexual, middle class focus of second wave feminism, third wave feminism borrows from post-structural and contemporary gender and race theories (see below) to expand on marginalized populations' experiences. Writers like Alice Walker work to . Chemistry School! reconcile it [feminism] with the concerns of the black community. Freelance Jobs Les Roches Marbella! [and] the survival and wholeness of writing Thornton her people, men and freelance essay writing jobs Les Roches of Hotel Management women both, and for a article Thornton the promotion of dialog and community as well as for the valorization of freelance writing Marbella International of Hotel women and of all the varieties of work women perform (Tyson 97). How is the relationship between men and women portrayed? What are the a article Thornton Academy, power relationships between men and women (or characters assuming male/female roles)? How are male and female roles defined?
What constitutes masculinity and femininity? How do characters embody these traits? Do characters take on traits from opposite genders? How so? How does this change others’ reactions to them? What does the work reveal about the operations (economically, politically, socially, or psychologically) of patriarchy? What does the work imply about the possibilities of sisterhood as a mode of writing Les Roches International School resisting patriarchy?
What does the work say about women's creativity? What does the history of the work's reception by the public and by Academy the critics tell us about the operation of patriarchy? What role the work play in terms of women's literary history and literary tradition? (Tyson) Here is a list of freelance writing jobs Marbella International of Hotel scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory: Mary Wollstonecraft - A Vindication of the Rights of Women , 1792 Simone de Beauvoir - Le deuxième sexe , 1972 Julia Kristeva - About Chinese Women , 1977 Elaine Showalter - A Literature of abilities Sandy Friends Their Own , 1977; Toward a Feminist Poetics, 1979 Deborah E. McDowell - New Directions for Black Feminist Criticism, 1980 Alice Walker - In Search of Our Mother's Gardens , 1983 Lillian S. Robinson - Treason out Text: Feminist Challenges to the Literary Canon, 1983 Camile Paglia - Sexual Personae: The Androgyne in Literature and Art , 1990. This resource will help you begin the process of freelance writing Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Gender Studies and Queer Theory (1970s-present) Gender(s), Power, and Marginalization. Gender studies and queer theory explore issues of sexuality, power, and marginalized populations (woman as other) in literature and culture.
Much of the how to write in essay Washington, work in freelance essay writing Les Roches International Management, gender studies and The Fessenden queer theory, while influenced by feminist criticism, emerges from post-structural interest in fragmented, de-centered knowledge building (Nietzsche, Derrida, Foucault), language (the breakdown of sign-signifier), and psychoanalysis (Lacan). A primary concern in gender studies and freelance essay writing jobs Les Roches School of Hotel queer theory is the manner in write contrast University Boston — UMass Boston, which gender and sexuality is jobs Les Roches Marbella of Hotel, discussed: Effective as this work [feminism] was in changing what teachers taught and what the essay paper writing, students read, there was a sense on the part of freelance essay Les Roches Marbella Management some feminist critics that. it was still the essay writing Niagara College, old game that was being played, when what it needed was a new game entirely. The argument posed was that in writing jobs Marbella School, order to a article, counter patriarchy, it was necessary not merely to think about new texts, but to think about them in radically new ways (Richter 1432). Therefore, a critic working in gender studies and of Hotel Management queer theory might even be uncomfortable with the binary established by many feminist scholars between masculine and feminine: Cixous (following Derrida in Of Grammatology ) sets up a series of binary oppositions (active/passive, sun/moon. father/mother, logos/pathos). Each pair can be analyzed as a hierarchy in which the former term represents the positive and abilities School masculine and freelance essay writing Les Roches School of Hotel the latter the writing Niagara, negative and feminine principle (Richter 1433-1434). Many critics working with gender and queer theory are interested in the breakdown of binaries such as male and female, the in-betweens (also following Derrida's interstitial knowledge building).
For example, gender studies and queer theory maintains that cultural definitions of sexuality and what it means to be male and female are in flux: . the distinction between masculine and feminine activities and behavior is constantly changing, so that women who wear baseball caps and fatigues. Freelance Essay Jobs Les Roches International School Of Hotel! can be perceived as more piquantly sexy by some heterosexual men than those women who wear white frocks and gloves and look down demurely (Richter 1437). Moreover, Richter reminds us that as we learn more about critical abilities Spring School, our genetic structure, the biology of male/female becomes increasingly complex and murky: even the physical dualism of freelance essay Marbella International School of Hotel Management sexual genetic structures and bodily parts breaks down when one considers those instances - XXY syndromes, natural sexual bimorphisms, as well as surgical transsexuals - that defy attempts at binary classification (1437). What elements of the text can be perceived as being masculine (active, powerful) and feminine (passive, marginalized) and how do the characters support these traditional roles? What sort of support (if any) is given to elements or characters who question the masculine/feminine binary? What happens to how to compare essay University — UMass Boston, those elements/characters? What elements in the text exist in the middle, between the perceived masculine/feminine binary?
In other words, what elements exhibit traits of essay Marbella International of Hotel Management both (bisexual)? How does the author present the sources in essay University, text? Is it a traditional narrative? Is it secure and forceful? Or is freelance jobs Les Roches School of Hotel Management, it more hesitant or even collaborative? What are the politics (ideological agendas) of essay writing specific gay, lesbian, or queer works, and how are those politics revealed in. the work's thematic content or portrayals of its characters?
What are the poetics (literary devices and strategies) of a specific lesbian, gay, or queer works? What does the work contribute to our knowledge of queer, gay, or lesbian experience and history, including literary history? How is queer, gay, or lesbian experience coded in texts that are by writers who are apparently homosexual? What does the freelance writing jobs School Management, work reveal about the operations (socially, politically, psychologically) homophobic? How does the literary text illustrate the problematics of sexuality and sexual identity, that is the ways in which human sexuality does not fall neatly into the separate categories defined by the words homosexual and heterosexual? Here is a list of custom paper writing Niagara scholars we encourage you to explore to further your understanding of this theory:
Luce Irigaray - Speculum of the Other Woman , 1974 Hélène Cixous - The Laugh of the writing Marbella International Management, Medusa, 1976 Laura Mulvey - Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, 1975; Afterthoughts on Visual Pleasure and essay Niagara College Narrative Cinema, 1981 Michele Foucault - The History of freelance Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Sexuality , Volume I, 1980 Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick - Epistemology of the Closet , 1994 Lee Edelman - Homographesis, 1989 Michael Warner Judith Butler - Imitation and Gender Insubordination, 1991. This resource will help you begin the process of understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. Ecocriticism is an critical abilities, umbrella term under which a variety of approaches fall; this can make it a difficult term to freelance writing jobs Marbella, define. As ecocritic Lawrence Buell says, ecocriticism is an “increasingly heterogeneous movement” (1). But, “simply put, ecocriticism is the study of the relationship between literature and the physical environment” (Glotfelty xviii). How To Write Essay Bronte! Emerging in the 1980s on the shoulders of the environmental movement begun in the 1960s with the publication of Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring , ecocriticism has been and continues to be an “earth-centered approach” (Glotfelty xviii) the freelance essay writing jobs Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel, complex intersections between environment and culture, believing that “human culture is connected to the physical world, affecting it and affected by it” (Glotfelty xix). Ecocriticism is interdisciplinary, calling for collaboration between natural scientists, writers, literary critics, anthropologists, historians, and more. Ecocriticism asks us to examine ourselves and write sources American Washington the world around us, critiquing the way that we represent, interact with, and construct the environment, both “natural” and manmade. At the heart of ecocriticism, many maintain, is “a commitment to environmentality from whatever critical vantage point” (Buell 11).
The “challenge” for ecocritics is “keep[ing] one eye on the ways in which ‘nature’ is freelance essay jobs School Management, always  culturally constructed, and the other on the fact that nature really exists” (Gerrard 10). Similar to critical traditions examining gender and in essay University Washington race, ecocriticism deals not only with the socially-constructed, often dichotomous categories we create for reality, but with reality itself. Several scholars have divided Ecocriticism into two waves (Buell)(Glotfelty), recognizing the first as taking place throughout the eighties and nineties. The first wave is characterized by its emphasis on nature writing as an freelance jobs Les Roches School of Hotel Management, object of study and as a meaningful practice (Buell). Central to this wave and to the majority of ecocritics still today is the environmental crisis of Sandy Friends School our age, seeing it as the duty of writing Marbella International of Hotel both the humanities and The Fessenden School the natural sciences to freelance writing jobs Marbella Management, raise awareness and invent solutions for how to compare contrast essay University Boston — UMass Boston a problem that is both cultural and physical.
As such, a primary concern in freelance essay jobs International School of Hotel, first-wave ecocriticism was to “speak for” nature (Buell 11). This is, perhaps, where ecocriticism gained its reputation as an “avowedly political mode of analysis” (Gerrard 3). This wave, unlike its successor, kept the compare University Boston — UMass, cultural distinction between human and nature, promoting the freelance jobs Marbella International School, value of nature. The second wave is particularly modern in its breaking down of essay writing College some of the long-standing distinctions between the human and the non-human, questioning these very concepts (Gerrard 5). The boundaries between the human and the non-human, nature and non-nature are discussed as constructions, and freelance essay Marbella School of Hotel Management ecocritics challenge these constructions, asking (among other things) how they frame the environmental crisis and how to compare contrast Boston — UMass its solution.
This wave brought with it a redefinition of the term “environment,” expanding its meaning to essay writing Les Roches of Hotel, include both “nature” and the urban (Buell 11). Out of this expansion has grown the ecojustice movement, one of the more political of ecocriticism branches that is “raising an awareness of class, race, and gender through ecocritical reading of text” (Bressler 236), often examining the plight of the poorest of a population who are the victims of pollution are seen as having less access to “nature” in abilities Friends School, the traditional sense. These waves are not exactly distinct, and there is debate over what exactly constitutes the essay writing of Hotel, two. For instance, some ecocritics will claim activism has been a defining feature of ecocriticism from the chemistry coursework School, beginning, while others see activism as a defining feature of primarily the first wave. While the exact features attributed to writing jobs Les Roches School Management, each wave may be disputed, it is clear that Ecocriticism continues to evolve and has undergone several shifts in attitude and direction since its conception.
This trope, found in much British and American literature, focuses on the dichotomy between urban and rural life, is “deeply entrenched in how to compare contrast Boston Boston, Western culture”(Gerrard 33). At the forefront of works which display pastoralism is a general idealization of the freelance essay writing Management, nature and the rural and the demonization of the urban. Often, such works show a “retreat” from city life to sources, the country while romanticizing rural life, depicting an idealized rural existence that “obscures” the reality of the hard work living in such areas requires (Gerrard 33). Freelance Writing International School Of Hotel Management! Greg Gerrard identifies three branches of the pastoral: Classic Pastoral, “characterized by nostalgia” (37) and an appreciation of nature as a place for compare contrast University of Massachusetts human relaxation and reflection; Romantic Pastoral, a period after the Industrial Revolution that saw “rural independence” as desirable against Les Roches International School of Hotel Management, the expansion of the urban; and American Pastoralism, which “emphasize[d] agrarianism” (49) and represents land as a resource to be cultivated, with farmland often creating a boundary between the urban and the wilderness. An interesting focus for many ecocritics is the way that wilderness is represented in literature and write contrast University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass popular culture. This approach examines the ways in which wilderness is constructed, valued, and engaged. Representations of wilderness in British and American culture can be separated into a few main tropes. First, Old World wilderness displays wilderness as a place beyond the borders of civilization, wherein wilderness is freelance essay Les Roches School of Hotel Management, treated as a “threat,” a place of “exile” (Gerrard 62). Critical Abilities Spring School! This trope can be seen in Biblical tales of creation and early British culture. Old World wilderness is freelance essay writing jobs Les Roches International School of Hotel, often conflated with demonic practices in early American literature (Gerrard 62). Write Sources American! New World wilderness, seen in portrayals of wilderness in later American literature, applies the pastoral trope of the “retreat” to wilderness itself, seeing wilderness not as a place to freelance essay writing School, fear, but as a place to how to write compare contrast University Boston Boston, find sanctuary.
The New World wilderness trope has informed much of the essay Les Roches Marbella International School, “American identity,” and often constructs encounters with the wilderness that lead to a more “authentic existence” (Gerrard 71). As a branch of ecocriticism, ecofeminism primarily “analyzes the interconnection of the oppression of women and nature” (Bressler 236). Drawing parallels between domination of in essay American Washington land and the domination of men over Les Roches Marbella School women, ecofeminists examine these hierarchical, gendered relationships, in which the land is often equated with the how to, feminine, seen as a fertile resources and the property of man. The ecofeminism approach can be divided into two camps. The first, sometimes referred to as radical ecofeminism, reverses the patriarchal domination of man over essay jobs Marbella International School Management woman and nature, “exalting nature,” the non-human, and the emotional” (Gerrard 24). Chemistry Coursework The Fessenden School! This approach embraces the idea that women are inherently closer to nature biologically, spiritually, and writing Marbella emotionally.
The second camp, which followed the first historically, maintains that there is no such thing as a “feminine essence” that would make women more likely to connect with nature (Gerrard 25). Of course, ecofeminism is a highly diverse and complex branch, and many writers have undertaken the job of examining the hierarchical relationships structured in our cultural representations of nature and of women and other oppressed groups. In particular, studies regarding race have followed in this trend, identifying groups that have been historically seen as somehow closer to nature. The way Native Americans, for instance, have been described as “primitive” and Academy portrayed as “dwelling in harmony with nature,” despite facts to freelance essay jobs Les Roches International School, the contrary. Gerrard offers an examination of write essay this trope, calling it the freelance writing Marbella International of Hotel Management, Ecological Indian (Gerrard 120). Similar studies regarding representations and oppression of aboriginals have surfaced, highlighting the misconceptions of these peoples as somehow “behind” Europeans, needing to progress from “a natural to a civilized state” (Gerrard 125). Taking an chemistry The Fessenden, ecocritical approach to School of Hotel Management, a topic means asking questions not only of a primary source such as literature, but asking larger questions about cultural attitudes towards and definitions of chemistry coursework The Fessenden nature.
Generally, ecocriticism can be applied to a primary source by either interpreting a text through an ecocritical lens, with an eye towards nature, or examining an ecocritical trope within the text. Writing Jobs Les Roches Marbella International School Of Hotel Management! The questions below are examples of questions you might ask both when working with a primary source and when developing a research question that might have a broader perspective. How is nature represented in this text? How has the concept of nature changed over time? How is the setting of the play/film/text related to the environment? What is the influence on metaphors and representations of the land and the environment on how to write essay College, how we treat it? How do we see issues of environmental disaster and crises reflected in essay writing Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel, popular culture and literary works? How are animals represented in this text and what is their relationship to humans? How do the abilities School, roles or representations of men and women towards the environment differ in this play/film/text/etc.
Where is the environment placed in the power hierarchy? How is freelance Les Roches Management, nature empowered or oppressed in chemistry coursework School, this work? What parallels can be drawn between the sufferings and oppression of groups of people (women, minorities, immigrants, etc.) and treatment of the land? What rhetorical moves are used by freelance writing jobs Les Roches School environmentalists, and what can we learn from them about paper Niagara College, our cultural attitudes towards nature? There are many more questions than these to be asked, and a large variety of essay Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel Management approaches already exist that are asking different questions. Do some research to check on the state of The Fessenden ecocritical discussion in freelance writing Les Roches International School Management, your own area of writing Academy interest. There are many more approaches to analyzing interactions between culture and freelance essay writing Les Roches School of Hotel nature, many of which are interdisciplinary. The following texts are recommended to help you start exploring other avenues of Ecocriticsm.
Lawrence Buell - “ The Environmental Imagination : Thoreau, Nature Writing, and the Formation of American Culture ” (1995) and “Toxic Discourse,” 1998 Charles Bressler - Literary criticism: an custom, introduction to theory and practice , 1999 Cheryll Glotfelty and Harold Fromm The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology , (1996) Greg Garrard Ecocriticism , 2004 Donna Haraway - A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century, (1991) ISLE: Interdisciplinary Studies in Literature and Environment (Journal) Joseph Makus - The Comedy of Survival: literary ecology and freelance Les Roches School of Hotel Management a play ethic, (1972) Leo Marx The Machine in the Garden: Technology and University Washington the Pastoral Ideal in freelance jobs Marbella International School of Hotel Management, America , (1964) Raymond Williams - The Country and custom paper writing College The City , (1975) Desert Solitaire: A Season in freelance writing Les Roches Marbella International Management, the Wilderness (1968) Appalachian Wilderness (1970) The Monkey Wrench Gang (1975) Mary Hunter Austin. A Sand County Almanac: And Sketches Here and There (1949) Henry David Thoreau. Lyrical Ballads, with a Few Other Poems (1798) Lyrical Ballads, with Other Poems (1800) This resource will help you begin the process of custom essay Niagara College understanding literary theory and jobs Les Roches Management schools of a article criticism and how they are used in the academy. Critical Race Theory (1970s-present) Critical Race Theory, or CRT, is a theoretical and interpretive mode that examines the appearance of race and jobs Marbella School Management racism across dominant cultural modes of expression. In adopting this approach, CRT scholars attempt to understand how victims of systemic racism are affected by cultural perceptions of race and how they are able to represent themselves to counter prejudice. Closely connected to such fields as philosophy, history, sociology, and law, CRT scholarship traces racism in America through the nation’s legacy of how to contrast University Boston — UMass Boston slavery, the essay jobs Marbella School of Hotel, Civil Rights Movement, and recent events.
In doing so, it draws from work by writers like Sojourner Truth, Frederick Douglass, W.E.B. Du Bois, Martin Luther King, Jr., and others studying law, feminism, and post-structuralism. CRT developed into its current form during the abilities Friends, mid-1970s with scholars like Derrick Bell, Alan Freeman, and Richard Delgado, who responded to what they identified as dangerously slow progress following Civil Rights in the 1960s. Prominent CRT scholars like Kimberlé Crenshaw, Mari Matsuda, and Patricia Williams share an interest in recognizing racism as a quotidian component of American life (manifested in textual sources like literature, film, law, etc). In doing so, they attempt to confront the beliefs and practices that enable racism to persist while also challenging these practices in order to seek liberation from systemic racism. As such, CRT scholarship also emphasizes the importance of finding a way for diverse individuals to share their experiences. However, CRT scholars do not only essay writing jobs International Management, locate an individual’s identity and custom paper College experience of the world in his or her racial identifications, but also their membership to essay Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel, a specific class, gender, nation, sexual orientation, etc. They read these diverse cultural texts as proof of the institutionalized inequalities racialized groups and essay Bronte individuals experience every day. As Richard Delgado and Jean Stefancic explain in their introduction to the third edition of Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge , “Our social world, with its rules, practices, and assignments of jobs Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management prestige and power, is how to sources University, not fixed; rather, we construct with it words, stories and silence. But we need not acquiesce in arrangements that are unfair and one-sided. By writing and speaking against them, we may hope to contribute to a better, fairer world” (3).
In this sense, CRT scholars seek tangible, real-world ends through the intellectual work they perform. This contributes to many CRT scholars’ emphasis on social activism and freelance essay writing Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel transforming everyday notions of race, racism, and power. More recently, CRT has contributed to splinter groups focused on Asian American, Latino, and custom writing Indian racial experiences. What is the significance of race in contemporary American society? Where, in freelance writing jobs Les Roches International, what ways, and to what ends does race appear in dominant American culture and writing a article Academy shape the ways we interact with one another? What types of texts and other cultural artifacts reflect dominant culture’s perceptions of freelance essay Marbella School race? How can scholars convey that racism is writing Thornton, a concern that affects all members of society?
How does racism continue to function as a persistent force in American society? How can we combat racism to ensure that all members of American society experience equal representation and access to fundamental rights? How can we accurately reflect the experiences of victims of racism? As we can see, adopting a CRT approach to literature or other modes of cultural expression includes much more than simply identifying race, racism, and racialized characters in writing jobs Les Roches Marbella School of Hotel, fictional works. Rather, it (broadly) emphasizes the importance of examining and attempting to understand the socio-cultural forces that shape how we and how to write a transfer College others perceive, experience, and respond to racism. These scholars treat literature, legal documents, and other cultural works as evidence of freelance essay writing Marbella International of Hotel American culture’s collective values and Thornton Academy beliefs.
In doing so, they trace racism as a dually theoretical and Marbella International School historical experience that affects all members of a community regardless of their racial affiliations or identifications. Most CRT scholarship attempts to demonstrate not only how racism continues to be a pervasive component throughout dominant society, but also why this persistent racism problematically denies individuals many of the constitutional freedoms they are otherwise promised in the United States’ governing documents. This enables scholars to locate how texts develop in and through the cultural contexts that produced them, further demonstrating how pervasive systemic racism truly is. Write A Transfer Bronte! CRT scholars typically focus on both the evidence and freelance writing Les Roches of Hotel the origins of racism in American culture, seeking to eradicate it at write in essay American its roots. Additionally, because CRT advocates attending to freelance jobs Les Roches School Management, the various components that shape individual identity, it offers a way for scholars to understand how race interacts with other identities like gender and class. How To Write Essay College! As scholars like Crenshaw and Willams have shown, CRT scholarship can and should be amenable to adopting and adapting theories from related fields like women’s studies, feminism, and history. In doing so, CRT has evolved over the last decades to essay Les Roches International School, address the various concerns facing individuals affected by racism. Interestingly, CRT scholarship does not only draw attention to and address the concerns of a transfer essay College individual affected by racism, but also those who perpetrate and freelance jobs Les Roches Marbella International are seemingly unaffected by how to write essay Bronte College racial prejudice. Scholars like W.E.B.
Du Bois, Peggy McIntosh, Cheryl Harris, and freelance writing Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management George Lipsitz discuss white privilege and notions of whiteness throughout history to better understand how American culture conceptualizes race (or the seeming absence of race). White privilege: Discussed by Lipsitz, Lee, Harris, McIntosh, and critical Friends other CRT scholars, white privilege refers to essay jobs Les Roches of Hotel Management, the various social, political, and economic advantages white individuals experience in contrast to non-white citizens based on School, their racial membership. Writing Jobs International! These advantages can include both obvious and subtle differences in access to power, social status, experiences of custom essay paper Niagara College prejudice, educational opportunities, and much more. For CRT scholars, the notion of white privilege offers a way to discuss dominant culture’s tendency to normalize white individuals’ experiences and ignore the experiences of non-whites. Fields such as CRT and whiteness studies have focused explicitly on essay writing International of Hotel, the concept of white privilege to understand how racism influences white people. Microaggressions : Microaggressions refer to the seemingly minute, often unconscious, quotidian instances of prejudice that collectively contribute to racism and the subordination of racialized individuals by dominant culture. Peggy Davis discusses how legal discourse participates in and can counteract the effects of microaggressions. Institutionalized Racism : This concept, discussed extensively by Camara Phyllis Jones, refers to the systemic ways dominant society restricts a racialized individual or group’s access to opportunities.
These inequalities, which include an individual’s access to critical abilities Spring, material conditions and power, are not only deeply imbedded in legal institutions, but have been absorbed into writing Marbella School of Hotel Management American culture to such a degree that they are often invisible or easily overlooked. Social construction : In the context of CRT, “social construction” refers to the notion that race is a product of social thought and a article relations. It suggests that race is a product of neither biology nor genetics, but is rather a social invention. Freelance Writing Jobs Marbella School Of Hotel! Intersectionality and anti-essentialism : These terms refer to how to write sources in essay, the notion that one aspect of an writing Les Roches of Hotel Management, individual’s identity does not necessarily determine other categories of membership. As Delgado and Stefancic explain, “Everyone has potentially conflicting, overlapping identities, loyalties, and allegiances” ( CRT: An Introduction 10). In other words, we cannot predict an individual’s identity, beliefs, or values based on categories like race, gender, sexuality, religion, nationality, etc; instead, we must recognize that individuals are capable of claiming membership to a variety of different (and oftentimes seemingly contradictory) categories and belief systems regardless of the identities outsiders attempt to impose upon them. Delgado, Richard and sources American University Washington Jean Stefancic. Jobs School! Critical Race Theory: An Introduction . How To Write Sources American! 2 nd ed. New York: New York University Press, 2012. Delgado, Richard and Jean Stefancic, eds.
Critical Race Theory: The Cutting Edge. 3 rd ed. Freelance Writing Marbella Of Hotel Management! Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2013. Print. Recommended Sources for Additional Research. Bell, Derrick A. “Who’s Afraid of University Washington Critical Race Theory?” University of Illinois Law Review 4 (1995): 893-910. Crenshaw, Kimberlé, Neil Gotanda, Gary Peller, and Kendall Thomas, eds. Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement. New York: The New Press, 1995. Davis, Peggy. “Law as Microaggression.” Yale Law Journal 98 (1989): 1559-1577. Gates, Henry Louis.
The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management African American Literary Criticism . New York: Oxford University Press, 2014. Harris, Cheryl. Writing Thornton Academy! “Whiteness as Property.” Harvard Law Review 106.8 (1993): 1707-1791. hooks, bell. Feminist Theory: From the Margins to the Center. Boston: South End Press, 1984. Lipsitz, George. Writing Les Roches School Of Hotel Management! The Possessive Investment in Whiteness: How White People Profit from Identity Politics . A Article Thornton! Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998. Spillers, Hortense. “Mama’s Baby, Papa’s Maybe: An American Grammar Book.” Diacritics 17.2 (1987): 64-81. Williams, Patricia. Seeing a Color-Blind Future: The Paradox of Race. New York: Noonday Press, 1998.
This resource will help you begin the writing Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, process of custom paper writing Niagara understanding literary theory and schools of criticism and how they are used in the academy. (1990s to Present) Disability studies considers disability in political, aesthetic, ethical, and cultural contexts, among others. In literature, many critics examine works to understand how representations of disability and “normal” bodies change throughout history, including the ways both are defined within the essay jobs International School of Hotel Management, limits of chemistry School historical or cultural situations. Disability studies also investigates images and descriptions of disability, prejudice against people with disabilities (ableism), and freelance jobs Les Roches of Hotel Management the ways narrative relates to disability (see “Narrative Prosthesis” below). It’s important to understand disability as part of one’s identity, much like race, class, gender, sexuality, and nationality. Compare Contrast Essay University Boston — UMass! Because of freelance writing jobs Les Roches International School Management its concern with the body and embodiment, disability studies also intersects other critical schools like gender studies, queer studies, feminism, critical race studies, and more. Write Compare! In fact, many races, classes, ethnicities, and other parts of identity have been classified as or associated with disabilities in the past, emphasizing what feminist and disability theorist Rosemarie Garland-Thomson describes as the tendency of disability to be a “synecdoche for essay writing jobs Marbella International School of Hotel Management all forms that culture deems non-normative” (259). Put differently, disability frequently signifies things outside of the “normal” world, making it an important area to investigate critically. The Social Model: Physical vs.
Social. One approach to disability studies is the social model, a theory that distinguishes between impairment and disability. “Impairment” refers to a physical limitation, while “disability” refers to social exclusion. For instance, damage to the optic nerve resulting in limited vision may be an impairment. Coursework The Fessenden School! However, the inaccessibility of our society to those who are partially or fully blind is really based on assumptions about what a “normal” body is, not on freelance writing jobs Les Roches Marbella of Hotel, some universal Truth or ideal. Critical Abilities Sandy Spring School! The social model stresses that we live in a disabling societythat the issue isn’t people with disabilities; rather, society has failed to account for the diversity of bodies that live in the world. Sociologist Tom Shakespeare writes that the social model is useful for jobs of Hotel Management creating a group identity, spreading knowledge about disability, and write compare contrast essay of Massachusetts promoting activism. However, the social model has been criticized in recent decades for too-easily making distinctions between physical impairment and social disability (Shakespeare 202). The way we understand the freelance writing jobs School Management, body is based on socially constructed terms, ideas, and narratives; therefore, the body is always already socially “coded” in one way or another.
So, the clear dividing line between physical and social sometimes breaks down. Nevertheless, the social model is a good starting point for many when thinking about Spring School, disability. Many literary critics in disability studies examine the ways novels and other public spaces reinforce concepts about essay Les Roches Management, “normal” individuals. How To A Transfer Essay College! For instance, Lennard Davis writes about the historical context of the term “normal,” noting that the essay Marbella International School, word’s modern use came into being with the rise of statistics and eugenics in the nineteenth century. At this time, the idea of “the average man” became central to national discourses. For Davis, a normal body is actually a theory or idea based on “the average man,” a concept that ultimately disguises the drastic differences among individuals in a society. In the context of literature, Davis writes, “the very structures on which the novel rests tend to be normative, ideologically emphasizing the universal quality of the central character whose normativity encourages us to identify with him or her” (11).
Therefore, investigating normalcy in literary texts allows one to use a disability studies approach when reading almost any work. In a similar vein, Garland-Thomson uses the term “normate” to describe those who are unmarked by in essay the stigmas of disability, framing disability as a minority (rather than medical) discourse. The word “normate” highlights assumptions about the body in politics, rhetoric, literature, and other areas, including the writing jobs School of Hotel Management, erasure of cultural and bodily difference (compare “normate” to terms like “cisgender” or “cissexual,” for instance). Narrative Prosthesis: The Story’s “Crutch” Narrative is also intricately tied to how to a transfer essay, disability.
Theorists Sharon Snyder and freelance Marbella David Mitchell write that disabled characters act as a “crutch upon which literary narratives lean for their representational power, disruptive potentiality, and analytical insight” (49). Unlike some marginalized groups, people with disabilities have frequently been at School the foreground of essay jobs Les Roches International School representation, according to Snyder and essay writing Mitchell in essay writing Marbella School of Hotel, Narrative Prosthesis . For example, a captain’s prosthetic leg may entail a story about his obsession with a whale, or characters like Tiny Tim may serve as wellsprings of pity and emotion. In Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex , the protagonist’s disfigured foot and eventual blindness metaphorize disability as destiny, and the hunchbacked protagonist of William Shakespeare’s Richard III has a complex performance history that blurs high- and low-art conventions. The list goes on. “Narrative prosthesis” refers the ways narrative uses disability as a device of characterization or metaphor, but fails to abilities Sandy Spring School, further develop disability as a complex point of view. Les Roches Marbella School Management! Disability is Sandy Friends, used to mark characters as “unique,” and it is sometimes what prompts a narrative in freelance essay writing jobs International School, the first place; however, few works develop complex perspectives about disability (Mitchell and Snyder 10). If a work does feature disability prominently, it is often used as a symbol or for comparative purposes. For example, Benjy in The Sound and the Fury has a cognitive disability, but many critics argue he is sometimes reduced to how to write sources in essay, a “moral arbiter for the rest of the characters” (Bérubé 575), a standard on freelance essay jobs Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel, which the how to write sources University, reader’s judgements about essay Les Roches Marbella Management, morality might be based.
In short, stories often revolve around disability yet erase it simultaneously. How is disability represented in literature? How are “normal” people or bodies constructed? How is normalcy reinforced? Is disability a catalyst for the narrative? Are people with disabilities gendered differently? As asexual? As feminized? In what ways do disability, gender, race, nationality, and class intersect? Does the narrative refigure the ways we define the human body?
For example, how is prosthesis or technology tied to write a transfer essay Bronte College, the body, and how does this change the ways we relate to our environment? How are disabilities like blindness tied to freelance jobs Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management, “Truth” or deafness to communication within a literary work? What symbolism is attached to disability? Disability studies is a recent and developing area compared to how to write in essay American, other theories and schools of criticism in literature; nevertheless, there are some works that stand out in the field. The following list is in no way comprehensive; rather, it provides avenues for exploration in literary criticism, theory, and history. Contours of Ableism (2009) by Fiona Kumari Campbell Concerto for the Left Hand (2008) by Michael Davidson Enforcing Normalcy (1995) by Lennard J. Davis The Birth of the Clinic (1963) and Madness and Civilization (1964) by Michel Foucault Extraordinary Bodies (1996) and freelance jobs Marbella International Staring: How We Look (2009) by how to write compare University of Massachusetts — UMass Boston Rosemarie Garland-Thomson Feminist, Queer, Crip (2013) by Alison Kafer Bodies of Modernism (2017) by Maren Tova Linett Narrative Prosthesis (2000) and Cultural Locations of Disability (2005) by Sharon L. Snyder and David T. Mitchell A Disability History of the United States (2013) Kim Nielsen Aesthetic Nervousness (2007) by Ato Quayson Deafening Modernism (2015) by Rebecca Sanchez Disability Aesthetics (2010) and Disability Theory (2008) by Tobin Siebers The Question of Access (2011) by Tanya Titchkosky.
Bérubé, Michael. “Disability and Narrative.” PMLA , vol. 120, no. 2, Mar. 2005, pp. 568-76. Davis, Lennard. “Constructing Normalcy: The Bell Curve, the Novel, and essay International School Management the Invention of the Disabled Body in writing Academy, the Nineteenth Century.” The Disability Studies Reader , 2 nd ed., edited by Lennard Davis, Routledge, 2006, pp. 3-16. Garland-Thomson, Rosemarie. “Integrating Disability, Transforming Feminist Theory.” The Disability Studies Reader , 2 nd ed., edited by essay writing Marbella International of Hotel Lennard Davis, Routledge, 2006, pp. 257-73. Mitchell, David and Sharon Snyder. Narrative Prosthesis: Disability and The Fessenden School the Dependencies of essay writing Marbella International School of Hotel Discourse . U of Michigan P, 2000.
Shakespeare, Tom. “The Social Model of Disability.” The Disability Studies Reader , 2 nd ed., edited by Lennard Davis, Routledge, 2006, pp. 197-204. Copyright 1995-2017 by The Writing Lab The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission.
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Probably the most important feature of Progressivism, and its closest point of intersection with liberal post-industrialism, was its focus on the application of disinterested expertise as transcending politics and class conflict. Of course it’s no coincidence this was the heyday of Taylorist “scientific management,” whose purpose was to suppress labor conflict on freelance essay Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management the shop floor by substituting the manager’s and engineer’s expertise for the skilled worker’s direction of the work process. And according to Shenhav. [l]abor unrest and other political disagreements of the period were treated by mechanical engineers as simply a particular case of machine uncertainty to be dealt with in much the same manner as they had so successfully dealt with technical uncertainty. Whatever disrupted the smooth running of the how to American University Washington organizational machine was viewed and constructed as a problem of uncertainty.  Christopher Lasch argued that for the new managerial class. conflict itself, rather than injustice or inequality, was the evil to be eradicated. Accordingly, they proposed to Les Roches of Hotel reform society… by means of social engineering on a transfer essay Bronte College the part of disinterested experts who could see the problem whole and who could see it essentially as a problem of resources… the freelance essay writing Les Roches Marbella School Management proper application and conservation of which were the work of enlightened administration.  Going back to Shenhav, “American management theory was presented as a scientific technique administered for the good of society as a whole without relation to politics.”  Taylor saw bureaucracy as “a solution to writing a article Thornton Academy ideological cleavages, as an engineering remedy to the war between the classes.”  At the level of state policy, the Progressives’ professionalized approach to politics was “perceived to be objective and rational, above the give-and-take of political conflict.” It reflected “a pragmatic culture in which conflicts were diffused and ideological differences resolved.”  Both Progressives and essay writing jobs Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management industrial engineers “were horrified at the possibility of ‘class warfare’” and saw “efficiency” as a means to “social harmony, making each workman’s interest the same as that of his employers.”  The end of ideology and post-industrialism exemplified all these earlier qualities of Progressivism in full measure. And so, equally, have all the various strands of capitalist techno-utopianism that have emerged from the 1990s on.
Bell’s post-industrialist thesis intersected, in Sandy Friends School the 1970s, with the rise of networked digital communications and the personal computer revolution. The result was a new wave of techno-utopian literature exemplified by Alvin Toffler’s The Third Wave and freelance jobs School of Hotel Management John Naisbett’s Megatrends . Exponents of this model have used exuberantly optimistic, “revolutionary” or utopian rhetoric about the nature of the social transformations that can be expected. The undesirable features of industrial society — meaningless work, huge impersonal organizations, rigid routines and hierarchies, anonymous and alienating urban existences — are seen dissolving. How To Sources American Washington. In their place the freelance essay writing Marbella International Management information age holds out the hope of diversification, localism, flexibility, creativity, and equality. How To Essay. Promises include the computer-aided recovery of craft skills and artisanal traditions…; the revivication of domestic life in an electronic cottage; the writing jobs Marbella International Management participatory democracy of electronic town halls; and a historically unprecedented diffusion of how to essay University Boston — UMass Boston every sort of knowledge — “all information in all places at all times.”  The liberal capitalist variant of information age utopianism is distinguished — like its Progressive and post-industrial antecedents — by essay writing School of Hotel Management its hand-waving away of class antagonism. The transition to Third Wave information capitalism will be peaceful. It will be positive-sum and benefit everybody, rendering the old class struggles irrelevant.  But the class struggles remain very much real — only under post-industrialism they center on American University the ownership, not of land or physical capital, but of knowledge.
Dyer-Witheford’s reference above to knowledge as a “wealth-creating resource” is central to the real nature of capitalist techno-utopianism. “The generation of wealth increasingly depends on an ‘information economy’ in which the exchange and manipulation of symbolic data matches exceeds, or subsumes the importance of material processing.”  As Manuel Castells summed up the post-industrial thesis: The source of productivity and growth lies in the generation of knowledge, extended to all realms of Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management economic activity through information processing. Economic activity would shift from goods production to services delivery…. The new economy would increase the how to write University importance of occupations with a high informational and knowledge content in writing Les Roches International School their activity. Managerial, professional, and technical occupations would grow faster than any other occupational position and would constitute the core of the new social structure. 
Toffler described it as a “new system of how to write American University Washington accelerated wealth creation” based on “the exchange of data, information and knowledge.” Land and labor are less important than the knowledge that can find substitutes for them.  The same principle resurfaces in one of the most recent iterations of post-industrialism, Paul Romer’s “New Growth Theory.” The main source of growth is not simply adding inputs of material resources or labor, which are finite, but developing better ideas — which can be imitated without limit — on writing Marbella School how to use the same amount of resources and labor in more effective ways.  The problem is that, absent coercion, the natural result of ephemeralization — the use of knowledge to reduce the material inputs required for critical abilities Sandy Spring School production — is deflation. The only way to transform this improved efficiency into wealth — money wealth — is prevent competition from diffusing the benefits and making things cheaper for everybody. Knowledge can only be a wealth-creating resource — or capital — if it is owned. It can function as a source of rents only if it is enclosed, if access to it is restricted, if tribute can be demanded for allowing such access. It’s no coincidence that the most fervent enthusiasts of the “Information Superhighway” in the ’90s, were also strident advocates of freelance jobs School draconian “intellectual property” laws and critical abilities Spring Friends subsidies to the telecom industry. Newt Gingrich’s Progress and Freedom Foundation issued a pamphlet called “Cyberspace and the American Dream: A Magna Carta for the Knowledge Age,” whose agenda included proposals that sounded remarkably like the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and Telecommunications Act.
And it’s likewise no coincidence that Romer’s model of growth relies heavily on writing Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management “intellectual property” for monetizing the coursework The Fessenden increased productivity as rents to investors rather than allowing it to deflate prices for consumers. Romer: …When we speak of freelance writing jobs of Hotel Management institutions, economists mean more than just organizations. We mean conventions, even rules, about how things are done. The understanding which most sharply distinguishes science from the market has to do with property rights. In the market, the fundamental institution is the notion of Bronte private ownership, that an essay writing Marbella International individual owns a piece of critical abilities Sandy Spring land or a body of water or a barrel of essay writing International School oil and that individual has almost unlimited scope to decide how that resource should be used. In science we have a very different ethic. When somebody discovers something like the quadratic formula or the Pythagorean theorem, the convention in science is that he can’t control that idea. He has to give it away.
He publishes it. What’s rewarded in science is dissemination of ideas. Chemistry Coursework The Fessenden. And the way we reward it is we give the freelance writing jobs Marbella International School of Hotel most prestige and respect to those people who first publish an idea. reason: Yet there is a mechanism in the market called patents and copyright, for of Massachusetts — UMass quasi-property rights in ideas. Romer: That’s central to the theory. Freelance Writing International Management. To the extent that you’re using the market system to refine and bring ideas into practical application, we have to coursework The Fessenden School create some kind of control over the idea. Writing Jobs Les Roches School Management. That could be through patents.
It could be through copyright. It might even be through secrecy….  Although Romer classifies “intellectual property” as an “institution of the market,” it is in fact no such thing (except perhaps insofar as it’s an institution that enables people to charge money for something on Spring the “market,” in the sense of the jobs Marbella International School cash nexus, that would otherwise be naturally free). The fact that he distinguishes IP, as an “institution of the market,” from “institutions of science” like free sharing of knowledge, is an admission that for him the “market” is paper College, not simply the realm of voluntary interaction but the cash nexus as such. “Intellectual property” is an artificial creation of the state. Romer — again — implicitly admits as much, arguing that the natural functioning of the market price-setting mechanism, under which price tends towards marginal production cost, is inadequate to pay back the original outlays for RD.  In fact he explicitly argues for the superiority of monopoly pricing over market competition for some purposes.
There was an old, simplistic notion that monopoly was always bad. Freelance International Management. It was based on Sandy Spring Friends School the realm of objects — if you only have objects and you see somebody whose cost is significantly lower than their price, it would be a good idea to break up the monopoly and get competition to reign freely. So in the realm of things, of physical objects, there is a theoretical justification for why you should never tolerate monopoly. But in the realm of ideas, you have to have some degree of monopoly power. Jobs Les Roches Marbella Of Hotel. There are some very important benefits from monopoly, and there are some potential costs as well. What you have to writing do is weigh the costs against the benefits.  Romer’s model is essentially Schumpeterian, in the sense that Schumpeter regarded the market power of the freelance essay Les Roches Marbella International monopoly corporation as “progressive” because it enabled it to charge a price above marginal cost in order to subsidize innovation. Hence Romer’s Schumpeterian schema precludes price-taking behavior in College a competitive market; rather, it presupposes some form of market power (“monopolistic competition”) by which firms can set prices to cover average costs.
Romer argues that his model of economic growth based on innovation is freelance jobs Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management, incompatible with price-taking behavior. A firm that invested significant sums in innovation, but sold only at marginal cost, could not survive as a price-taker. It is write essay Bronte College, necessary, therefore, that the benefits of writing jobs Marbella of Hotel Management innovation — even though non-rival by their nature — be at least partially excludable through “intellectual property” law.  And cognitive capitalism and College Romer’s “new growth theory” are implicit in all the models of “progressive capitalism,” “green capitalism” and the like that we hear from Bill Gates, Warren Buffet, Bono and their ilk. … 1. Nick Dyer-Witheford, Cyber-Marx: Cycles and Circuits of Struggle in High-Technology Capitalism (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999). pp. Essay Writing Les Roches Marbella. 16-17. 5. Rakesh Khurana, From Higher Aims to Hired Hands: The Social Transformation of American Business Schools and the Unfulfilled Promise of Management as a Profession (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2007), p. 56.
6. Yehouda Shenhav, Manufacturing Rationality: The Engineering Foundations of the write sources in essay Washington Managerial Revolution (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1999). 9. Christopher Lasch, The New Radicalism in America (1889-1963): The Intellectual as a Social Type (New York: Vintage Books, 1965 ), p. 162. 14. Dyer-Witheford, p. 25. 17. Manuel Castells, The Rise of the writing jobs Les Roches of Hotel Network Society (Blackwell Publishers, 1996), pp. 203-204. 18.
Dyer-Witheford, p. 24. 19. Ronald Bailey, “Post-Scarcity Prophet: Economist Paul Romer on growth, technological change, and an unlimited human future” Reason, December 2001 http://reason.com/archives/2001/12/01/post-scarcity-prophet/. 23. Paul M. Romer, “Endogenous Technological Change” (December 1989). NBER Working Paper No.
W3210. The Fifth Season Cooperative: Building Community Wealth and a Regional Food System. 1 Comment > Techno-Utopianism, Counterfeit and Real (1) I think what Mansons lack -and also his critics- is the «crisis of scales» critique we have worked about in las Indias during the last ten years, recovering the work of economists as Kenneth Boulding and linking it to p2p and how to write sources in essay American Washington distributed networks scenario. Kevin Carson is a senior fellow of the Center for a Stateless Society (c4ss.org) and essay jobs Marbella International of Hotel Management holds the Center's Karl Hess Chair in Social Theory. He is a mutualist and individualist anarchist whose written work includes Studies in Mutualist Political Economy, Organization Theory: A Libertarian Perspective, and The Homebrew Industrial Revolution: A Low-Overhead Manifesto, all of which are freely available online. A Transfer Essay Bronte. Carson has also written for such print publications as The Freeman: Ideas on writing Les Roches Marbella Management Liberty and a variety of how to compare essay Boston — UMass internet-based journals and blogs, including Just Things, The Art of the Possible, the P2P Foundation, and essay writing jobs Marbella of Hotel his own Mutualist Blog.
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