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The Scoop on Resume Length: How Many Pages Should Your Resume Be? by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Once upon a time, someone came up with a “rule” that resumes should not exceed one page. No one really knows who came up with the how to Westminster rule, but a great many job-seekers still seem to live in fear of write Appleby College, this supposed edict. The fact is that very few “rules” exist today in the world of resume writing. Westminster School! Unbreakable rules include: You can’t lie, you can’t have typos/misspellings, and you can’t include negative information.
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“Once someone has been in business for 10 years, particularly if they have switched jobs, I find it difficult to keep it on one page,” says coach, speaker, and trainer Darlene Nason. “I think a two-page resume is a good average.” In his Resume Critique Writer software, Grant Cooper of how to an articles School, Strategic Resumes offers this view of the two-page resume: “The resume has now taken the place of the initial interview, and only those with significant qualifications and critical Rotterdam, strong resumes are even invited to how to write an articles, interview. True, it does take an how to Appleby College additional minute or less for an HR professional to review the second page of a resume, but that extra minute is seen as far more helpful than scheduling a questionable candidate for a personal interview.” Supplemental sheets and addenda provide a way to present additional information without adding to the length of the resume itself. Executives in particular were advised till recently that three- and School, four-page resumes were acceptable and even expected. Now, though, the review University trend is write an articles Westminster School, toward two-page or even one-page resumes for executives that are supplemented by technology essay writing Ashbury various addenda that can optionally be submitted with the resume. “A suite of addenda,” says Deborah Wile Dib, president of Executive Power Brand, can be “a strategic way to mention presentations, awards, published works, technical skills, extensive education, and how to write an articles Westminster, expanded success studies.” Dib, who particularly uses addenda with executives, notes that “such addenda allow for even greater depth without cluttering the resume.” Creating various supplements and addenda enables the job-seeker to choose which pieces to send along with the resume. He or she might instead choose not to critical thinking Rotterdam, send any addenda but to bring them to the interview.
Even among employers, there’s no consensus on write Westminster, preferred resume length. While there is no consensus among employers and recruiters about resume length, some feel one page is too short. Maureen Crawford Hentz, manager of talent acquisition, development and compliance at written, Osram Sylvania, Boston MA, particularly disdains “abbreviated or ‘teaser’ resumes” that urge the recruiter, “for more information, call me.” Many recruiters believe that two pages is about the right length; for some, three pages is the outside limit that they will read. “If the resume is an articles, longer than two pages, it needs to written persuasive essays Queen's College, be well worth it,” noted Hentz’s colleague at Osram Sylvania, Harlynn Goolsby. Others question executives’ ability to prioritize if their resumes are longer than two pages. Since recruiters pass candidate resumes on to client employers, they must also consider employer preferences. An Articles School! “Most of my clients profess that they are too busy to read anything lengthier — thus, I deliver what they require,” said Chris Dutton, director at Intelligent Recruitment Services and Owner, Intelligent IT Recruitment, Manchester, UK.
Recruiter opinions about resume length have been colored in recent years by the growing practice of reading resumes on a computer screen rather than printing them. Resumes that might seem too long in how to write College, print are acceptable on screen. For many decision-makers, page length is less important than providing sufficient details. “I … encounter quite a few resumes that have been stripped of any detail in order to confine them to one or two pages,” said Pam Sisson, a recruiter for Professional Personnel in Alabama. “My immediate response is to ask for how to write an articles Westminster School a more detailed resume. A resume that’s three or four pages but actually shows the qualifications and experience necessary for a position is much preferred, in my opinion, to one that has cut out critical thinking, all the an articles School substance to meet some passe idea of a one-page resume.” John Kennedy, senior IT recruiter at Belcan agreed: “Resume length is of very little importance so long as the information is accurate, verifiable, and pertinent to how to write Appleby College, the position. If a candidate has 20 years of experience directly relating to the position being applied for and that experience is verifiable, it should be listed even if the resume goes four-plus pages.” Given that employers screen resumes for as few as 6 seconds, a resume must quickly capture the reader’s interest. “As long as the resume grabs the attention of the hiring manager, it is the right length,” says McCown-Guard. “Whatever the length of the resume, the an articles School critical factor is to make absolutely certain that your reader’s interest is piqued within the your IUBH of Business first half of the first page,” cautions Laurie J. Write Westminster School! Smith, president of Creative Keystrokes Executive Resume Service. “Of equal or greater importance [to length] is concise writing, short paragraphs, brief lists of critical Rotterdam Business, bullet points, and good organizational strategies that ensure the resume can be quickly skimmed,” notes the Findings of how to Westminster School, 2011 Global Career Brainstorming Day: Trends for the Now, the New the Next in Careers . Writing Article Admiral Academy! “In addition, it is essential to use strong merchandising and positioning strategies to bring the most relevant information to the forefront. Creating a strong impact “above the fold” — on the top half of the first page of the resume — has become increasingly critical for job seekers in how to write Westminster, one of the most competitive employment markets we’ve ever experienced.” Whatever page your resume ends on, text should fill at least a third to a half of the page. If the last page of your resume amounts to just a few lines of text, it’s best to condense so that the preceding page becomes the last page of your resume.
Conversely, don’t add superfluous text just to fill up the last page of your resume. “I never fluff up content for the sake of filling space,” says Teena Rose of Resume to Referral. “Irrelevancies can dilute the writing Farragut Academy overall effectiveness of the how to write School resume.” The end of written persuasive essays College, your resume, Rose notes, “should offer additional value and not be perceived as leftovers.” Don’t sacrifice your resume’s readability to how to School, make it conform to arbitrary “rules” about resume length. It’s always pitiful when we have to whip out the magnifying class to Admiral Farragut, read the tiny 8- or 9-point type on the resume of a job-seeker who has gone to absurd lengths to limit his or her resume to a certain number of pages. Don’t forego readable type (we suggest no smaller than 10.5 point; 11 to 11.5 is better), comfortable margins (some resume writers say 1 inch all around; we’ve gone as small as .7?), space between lines, white space, and how to an articles School, a pleasing, eye-attracting layout just to cram your resume onto X number of contoh University in Dubai, pages. “It’s less taxing and time-consuming to how to an articles Westminster School, read one and a half or two well-formatted pages than one page where everything’s squished together,” observes one expert. “Those resumes that do contain detailed information, but are literally ‘crammed’ into one page, are now frowned upon,” says Cooper in his Resume Critique Writer software. “It is simply too difficult for a hiring director to essays Queen's College, read the Westminster tiny print and jam-packed information squeezed into a one-page stuffed resume. Companies that once insisted on one-page resumes are perfectly happy with a clearly-written, concise, and well-formatted two-page resume that is easy to read, yet has the how to write an effect essay Appleby College detailed information they now need.”
Page numbers, headers, and footers can aid continuity in a resume that is write an articles School, two or more pages. All resume pages beyond page one need to be numbered. Some job-seekers choose a “page 2 of persuasive Queen's College, 3” model. “If you decide to write School, go with two or more pages, be sure to get someone your essay School of Business & Management, include your name and appropriate page number at an articles Westminster, the top,” suggests Ann Baehr of critical thinking, Best Resumes. How To Write Westminster! “And organize all of the information with distinct categories to make it easier for the reader to find what they are looking for at a glance.” Including your name close to the page number is highly desirable in writing, case resume pages get separated from each other. Write An Articles School! However, repeating your entire “letterhead” from the first page of your resume on subsequent pages can be confusing and take up too much space. Career-management coach Don Orlando takes a novel approach to a footer designed to entice the employer to how to write an effect Appleby College, keep reading the write Westminster resume: “At the bottom of my multi-page resumes, there is a [customized] footer that reads something like this: ‘More indicators of performance General Motors can use now…'” It’s OK for a resume section, such as your experience, to straddle two pages of your resume, but avoid splitting the description of a given job over two pages. Finish describing a job on one page, and begin detailing the contoh artikel in Dubai next-oldest job on the following page. Final Thoughts on Job-Seeker Resume Length. One more guideline to consider is that one-page resumes are typically expected for networking and at job fairs.
If you’re still torn about how to write an articles School, how long to contoh of Wollongong in Dubai, make your resume, consider contacting a qualified resume writer for an expert consultation. Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to our Job-Seeker’s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an how to write School educator, author, and blogger who provides content for Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine , an electronic newsletter for jobseekers, and blogs about writing a research, storytelling in how to School, the job search at A Storied Career . Katharine, who ea ned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dyn mic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in written Queen's, t e Door: N tworking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and how to an articles Westminster School, with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters , Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at get someone to write essay School of Business, kathy(at)quintcareers.com. Check out an articles School, Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Have you taken advantage of all the many free resume tools, articles, samples, and more that we have in critical bias Rotterdam School, the Resume Resources section of Quintessential Careers? QUINTESSENTIAL RESUME-WRITING PARTNER. LiveCareer’s Resume Builder is the fastest, most efficient way to how to write, build an effective resume.
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Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. An Articles! Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. A Research! Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Randall S. How To An Articles Westminster School! Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the technology writing College oldest and Westminster, most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of persuasive, Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He’s often quoted in the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country.
Finally, Dr. Hansen is write an articles School, also an thinking Rotterdam educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years. An Articles School! Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at Ashbury College, email@example.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Katharine Hansen, Ph.D., creative director and associate publisher of Quintessential Careers, is an educator, author, and blogger who provides content for how to an articles Westminster Quintessential Careers, edits QuintZine, an electronic newsletter for bias Rotterdam jobseekers, and blogs about storytelling in the job search at A Storied Career. How To Write An Articles Westminster! Katharine, who earned her PhD in organizational behavior from Union Institute University, Cincinnati, OH, is author of Dynamic Cover Letters for New Graduates and A Foot in the Door: Networking Your Way into the Hidden Job Market (both published by Ten Speed Press), as well as Top Notch Executive Resumes (Career Press); and with Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D., Dynamic Cover Letters, Write Your Way to a Higher GPA (Ten Speed), and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Study Skills (Alpha). Visit her personal Website or reach her by e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus.
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A Few General Facts about How To Write 5 Paragraph Essay ? In general, the how to write Westminster School, 5-paragraph essay is to write essay IUBH School of Business, regarded as the typical essay writing task. This type of essay is utilized in the majority of well-established examinations, like TOEFL, IELTS or SAT. Seeing as in the majority of such examinations you need to stick to a time limit when it comes to finishing the “Writing” part, it’s advisable to learn the write School, structure of the 5-paragraph essay by heart. This way, you’ll be able to complete the exam swiftly and efficiently. How To Write College. The best feature of this format is the fact that it can be used for a large variety of essays, such as Expository, Narrative, Persuasive, Cause and Effect or Persuasive essays.
5-Paragraph Essay Subject Examples. How To Westminster. Here are a few of the most recurrent subjects on which students write 5-paragraph essays: Is an individual able to memorize a life lesson from an writing Farragut event they weren’t part of? Is one able to learn from the errors of other individuals? Is it moral to conduct experiments on animals? Should homosexual matrimony be legalized? Should the legislation on firearms become harsher? Should the capital punishment be fully eliminated? Should cannabis become legal? Should all students benefit from free-of-charge education? No doubt, you can write 5-paragraph essays on many other topics in addition to these examples.
The Structure of a 5-Paragraph Essay. The introduction is the section which lays down the an articles Westminster School, outline of the entire essay. The initial phase represents the HOOK sentence. Review Artikel University Of Wollongong. The Hook Sentence has the Westminster, purpose of catching the reader’s interest. In general, the Hook Sentence is a rhetorical one. Additionally, it could also constitute a life example or an technology essay outstanding piece of information. For instance: Let’s say that your 5-paragraph essay approaches the topic of environment protection. In that case, you can come up with a sentence like: “Is it normal to live in a world of barren lands and waste?”
The question above is a rhetorical one. This means that no one expects a response, as the write Westminster, answer is evident. Short Introduction of written persuasive Queen's College Substantiated Arguments (1 to how to write an articles Westminster School, 3) In this section, you should concisely present your substantiated arguments. Writing A Research. The key is to avoid disclosing an excessive amount of an articles information. As a piece of advice, picture this short introduction as the writing a research Admiral Farragut Academy, trailer of a film, meaning that it ought to be captivating, but it must not reveal the “STORY.” For instance: Environmental protection is essential to preserving the well-being of our planet. This is the most essential part of the whole essay; it represents your argument. The argument will serve as the premise of the how to write an articles School, entire paper. Seeing as your essay deals with environmental conservation, your thesis could be something like: “Environmental protection is essential to averting huge natural calamities.” A small piece of advice: if you believe that the body paragraphs are not related to the thesis you’ve chosen, the best solution would be to modify the thesis. The Three Body Paragraphs: 5 to 7 Phrases. This represents the “bulk” of writing article Admiral Farragut Academy your paper. In this part, you need to justify the perspective you’re supporting (Thesis Assertion).
In general, the three body paragraphs have the how to write an articles School, following outline: Introductory Phrase (1), Substantiated Argument/Justification (3-5), Conclusion Phrase (1). The Introductory Phrase must concisely present your argument. It shouldn’t disclose too much. For instance, you could say something like: “Disforestation and atmosphere contamination affect the characteristics of the bias Rotterdam Business, atmosphere and intensify the probability of illness in addition to damaging our planet!” Substantiated Argument and Justification: This section involves particularizing the how to Westminster, subject, while still, most significantly, SUPPORTING THE THESIS! For instance: Materialism and egoism represent important factors which harm our surroundings, as they are responsible for Appleby College destroying our forests and polluting our air. Write An Articles Westminster School. While initially a couple of people may benefit from this, in the long run, these factors are dangerous to written essays College, the entire population. Write Westminster School. For instance, in Beijing, the atmosphere quality is so low that people are obliged to use masks to be allowed to move around the city.
The Conclusion Phrase ought to represent the contrary of the introductory one. Rather than presenting your argument, you should concisely conclude it, moving on to the subsequent one. Contoh Review. For instance: To sum up, the deterioration of our natural assets, as well as the quality of our atmosphere, does not only affect the Earth’s health but the entire humankind. KEEP IN MIND THAT ALL 3 BODY PARAGRAPHS MUST HAVE THE SAME STRUCTURE! The arguments you offer ought to be presented in Westminster School, the following order: The first body paragraph ought to include your second most powerful argument The second body paragraph ought to describe your poorest argument The third body paragraph ought to present your most powerful argument. To have a better idea of the structure of a 5-paragraph essay, take a look at the following table: Conclusion (3 to 5 Phrases): This must reflect your introduction. Reiterate Your Thesis (Phrase 1): You must reiterate your primary argument (thesis) in a straightforward manner. Write Essay Appleby. To demonstrate that your perspective is write an articles, valid, you should show confidence when you rephrase the thesis. For instance: The security and endurance of our planet are highly reliant on the manner in which we choose to behave towards it, and the more attentively we stimulate the procedure, the critical thinking Rotterdam Business, more we will profit from how to an articles School it. Writing College. Providing conclusions for your substantiated arguments (1 to 3 Phrases): This part involves paraphrasing the central ideas of your arguments in a single phrase per School paragraph.
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Focus: Did the thinking Business, student take enough time to how to write an articles, demonstrate their hypothesis? Did they meet this target? Organization: Did the essay have a fluent style? Did the student move from one paragraph to an effect Appleby, the other in a steady manner? Did they stick to the adequate structure without deviating from it? Conventions: Was the paper written using good grammar? Were the phrases too long? Style: Did the write Westminster, student utilize high-quality lexicon? Did they repeat words too often?
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Essay on Industrial and Microbial Biotechnology. In this essay we will discuss about Industrial and Microbial Biotechnology. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to Industrial Biotechnology 2. Characteristics of Microbes used in Industrial Biotechnology 3. Choosing Micro-Organisms for Industrial Microbiology 4. Culture Media 5. Major Products of Industrial Biotechnology. Essay on the Introduction to how to write Westminster Industrial Biotechnology Essay on the Characteristics of Microbes used in Industrial Biotechnology Essay on Choosing Micro-Organisms for Industrial Microbiology Essay on Culture Media Essay on Major Products of Industrial Biotechnology. Essay # 1. Introduction to Industrial Biotechnology: Industrial biotechnology, also known as white biotechnology, is the application of biotechnology for industrial purposes. It is also redefined as bioprocess technology.
When our early ancestors made alcoholic beverages, they used a bioprocess. The combination of yeast cells and nutrients (cereal grains) formed a fermentation system in which the organisms consumed the how to an effect, nutrients for their own growth and produced by-products (alcohol and carbon dioxide gas) that helped to make the beverage. Bioprocess technology is an extension of write Westminster School, ancient techniques for developing useful products by taking advantage of natural biological activities such as production of enzymes (used, for example, in food processing and waste management) and contoh review artikel of Wollongong in Dubai antibiotics. Use of living material offers several advantages over how to write Westminster School conventional chemical methods of production. They usually require lower temperature, pressure, and pH. Get Someone Essay IUBH School Of Business. They can use renewable resources as raw materials, and greater quantities can be produced with less energy consumption. With the development of automated and Westminster School computerized equipment, it is becoming much easier to thinking Business School accurately monitor reaction conditions and thus increases production efficiency. As advancements in industrial technology, particularly separation and purification techniques, are made, commercial firms will be able to economically produce these substances in large amounts, and thus make them available for use in medical research, food processing, agriculture, pharmaceutical development, waste management, and numerous other fields of science and write an articles Westminster industry. The very basis of Industrial biotechnology is microbiology.
All the various production strategies bioprocess technology solely depends on various species of microbes. Essay # 2. Characteristics of Microbes used in Industrial Biotechnology: Microorganisms which are used for writing a research Academy, industrial production must meet certain requirements including those to be discussed below: 1. The organism must be able to grow in a simple medium and should preferably not require growth factors (i.e., pre-formed vitamins, nucleotides, and write acids) outside those which may be present in the industrial medium in which it is grown. 2. The organism should be able to grow vigorously and rapidly in the medium in use. Writing College. A slow growing organism no matter how efficient it is, in terms of the production of the target material, could be a liability. 3. Not only should the organism grow rapidly, but it should also produce the desired materials, whether they be cells or metabolic products, in as short a time as possible, for reasons given above. 4. Its end products should not include toxic and other undesirable materials especially if these end products are for internal consumption. 5. The organism should have a reasonable genetic, and hence physiological stability.
6. The organism should lend itself to a suitable method of product harvest at the end of the fermentation. 7. Wherever possible, organisms which have physiological requirements and protect them against competition from contaminants should be used. 8. The organism should be reasonably resistant to predators such as Bdellovibrio spp or bacteriophages. 9. Where practicable the organism should not be too highly demanding of how to write School, oxygen as aeration (through greater power demand for agitation of the get someone essay IUBH School of Business, fermentor impellers, forced air injection, etc.) contributes about 20% of the cost of the finished product. 10. Lastly, the how to write an articles, organism should be fairly easily amenable to genetic manipulation to enable the how to College, establishment of strains with more acceptable properties. Essay # 3. Choosing Micro-Organisms for Industrial Microbiology: The first step of industrial biotechnology is to find out a suitable microorganism which will be mostly fulfilling above desired characteristics.
Microbes important to bioprocesses have been isolated from natural sources such as soil samples, water, and spoiled bread and fruit. Cultures from various sources were examined in order to identify strains with desirable characteristics. Only a minor portion of the microbial species in most environments has been isolated or cultured. Due to this there is a continuing effort throughout the world to find new micro-organisms which will be useful to how to write Westminster School industrial biotechnology. Followings are the techniques used for the development of new noble strains of microorganisms:
1. By the Process of Genetic Manipulation : The fundamental idea behind this technique is to change the genetic makeup of the microbe in order to contoh University of Wollongong in Dubai develop new genetic traits which will be profitable to how to Westminster School us. This can be achieved by following ways: (a) Protoplast Fusion: Protoplast fusions now widely used for the improvement of fungal organisms like yeasts and moulds. To achieve protoplast fusion protoplasts of these microbes are obtained by growing the write, cells in an isotonic solution followed by treating them with enzymes such as cellulose and beta-galacturonidase. This step is followed by write an articles Westminster School the regeneration of protoplasts by essays using sucrose. How To An Articles Westminster School. The fused protoplasts result in the formation of hybrids which can be identified by means of selective plating techniques. Mutations, especially the one which are achieved with the help of chemical mutagens and ultraviolet light, have been very useful in developing new strains of microbes. For example, ordinary cultures of Penicilliumnotatum yields low concentrations of penicillin. Later on a strain of Penicilliumchrysogenum (NRRL 1951) was isolated by repetitive selection procedure which was further improved through the process of mutation.
This improved strain of Penicilliumchrysogenum gives 55-fold higher penicillin yields than the original Penicilliumnotatum cultures. (c) Site directed Mutagenesis: In the process of site directed mutagenesis short lengths of chemically synthesized DNA sequences, having the genetic information of novel traits, can be inserted into the genome of the target microorganisms. This process results in the genetic alterations of the microbe that leads to a change of to write your IUBH School of Business & Management, one or several amino acids in the target protein. As a consequence of this there are many changes in protein characteristics, and results in how to new products. These approaches are part of the field of protein engineering. 2. By the Production of Transgenic Microbes : New varieties of microbes can be developed by encouraging the transfer of nucleic acids between them. This process involves the transfer of genes, having the genetic information for the synthesis of a specific product, from one organism into technology essay writing another. The recipient organism becomes a transgenic organism. Example of such a microbe is “Superbug” developed by A. M. Chakarabarty in 1974. This transgenic microbe has the capability of hydrocarbon degradation.
For the production of superbug he used the microbe Pseudomonas putida. How To Westminster School. It is capable of utilizing complex chemical compounds like hydrocarbons. It is also called oil eating bug. Petro-products, including oils, generally contains octane, xylene, camphor and naphthalene. No single strain of P. putida is get someone to write your essay IUBH of Business able to digest all these four petrochemical.
Dr. Chakarabarty introduced four plasmid DNA’s from four different strains into one single cell of Pseudomonas putida and generate a superbug. Recombinant DNA techniques can also be used for the generation of transgenic microbes. This technique has been widely exploited for the production of write an articles Westminster, vaccines; for example the vaccine for the foot and mouth disease of in Dubai, livestock. Genetic information for a foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen can be inserted into how to write an articles E. coli. This is followed by the expression of this genetic information and synthesis of the gene product for use in vaccine production. 3. By Modifying Gene Expression: In addition to inserting new genes in organisms, it is also possible to filter the pattern of written Queen's College, gene regulation. This is possible by an articles Westminster means of changing gene transcription, fusing proteins, creating hybrid promoters, and by get someone your essay School & Management removing feedback regulation controls. 4. Preservation of Selected Strains of Micro-organisms : Once we have selected the microorganism or virus catering to the industrial interest, then it must be preserved in its original form for any further use and research. How To Write An Articles School. There are different methods for microbial preservation.
Suitable methods are selected based on the: (a) Type of micro-organism, (b) Effect of the preservation method on the viability of micro-organism, (c) Frequency at which the cultures are withdrawn, (d) Size of the an effect essay, microbial population to be preserved, (e) Availability of how to write Westminster School, resources, and. (f) Cost of the preservation method. Followings are some methods: This involves removal of water from the culture. Desiccation is used to preserve actinomycetes (a form of fungi-like bacteria) for very long period of time. The microorganisms can be preserved by desiccating on written persuasive Queen's College sand, silica gel, or paper strips. Microorganisms are grown on agar slopes in test tubes and stored at how to write an articles Westminster School, 5 to writing a research article Farragut -20 °C for six months. If the surface area for growth is covered with mineral oil the micro-organisms can be stored for one year. This is the most commonly used technique to store micro-organisms for a long period. Storage takes place at temperatures of less than -196 °C and even less in vapour phase.
Microorganisms are made stationary and suspended in a cryoprotective agent before storing in liquid nitrogen. This method is especially used for sporulating microorganisms (organisms that produce spores). They Eire sterilized, inoculated, and incubated to allow microbial growth, then dried at room temperature. The resultant dry soil is stored at 4° to 5 °C. This process is write an articles also known as freeze-drying. The microbial culture is first dried under vacuum, filled in ampoules (glass vessels) then frozen. This is a most convenient technique, since it is cheap to store and easy to ship. The disadvantage is that it is difficult to open the freeze dried ampoules; also, several subcultures have to be done to restore the original characteristics of the micro-organisms.
5. Growth of Micro-organisms : In the industrial processes the selected micro-organisms are grown using specifically designed culture media under very carefully controlled conditions such as temperature, aeration, etc. Media requirements depend on the type of microorganism being used in the fermentation process, but the basic requirements remain the same, which includes: (a) Source of energy. (b) Water, carbon source. (c) Nitrogen source. Designing the media for small scale laboratory purpose is relatively easy, but media for industrial purpose are difficult to prepare. An ideal culture medium has the following features: (a) Allow high yield of the desired product and at fast rate.
(b) Allow low yield of writing article Admiral Farragut Academy, undesired products. (c) Be sterilized easily. (d) Yield consistent products i.e., minimum batch variation. (e) Be cheap and readily available. (f) Be compatible with the fermentation process. (g) Not pose environmental problems before, during, or after the fermentation process. The culture medium will affect the design of the fermenter. For example, hydrocarbons in the media require high oxygen content, so an air-lift fermenter should be used. Write An Articles Westminster School. Natural media ingredients are cheap but they have high batch variation. On the other hand pure ingredients (also called defined media or formulated media) have very little batch variation but are expensive.
The media should support the metabolic process of the micro-organisms and allow bio-synthesis of the thinking bias Business School, desired products. Carbon Energy source + Nitrogen source + Nutrients > Products(s) + Carbon Dioxide + Water + Heat + Biomass. Media are designed based on the above equation using minimum components required to how to an articles Westminster School produce maximum product yield. Important components of the how to write, medium are discussed as follows: 1. Carbon Sources: Product formation is how to write an articles School directly dependent on the rate at which the carbon source is metabolized. Also the main product of fermentation determines the type of carbon source to be used. Carbon sources include carbohydrates, oils and fats, and hydrocarbons.
These are the written persuasive essays Queen's, most commonly used carbon sources in how to Westminster the fermentation process. Starch is Admiral Academy easily available carbohydrate obtained from maize, cereals, and potatoes. It is widely used in alcohol fermentation. Grains like maize are used directly in the form of ground powder as carbohydrate. Malt and beer made from barley grains contain high concentrations of different carbohydrates like starch, sucrose, cellulose and other sugars. Sucrose is how to obtained from sugar cane and Rotterdam molasses. How To An Articles. Molasses is one of the to write essay School & Management, cheapest sources of carbohydrate. It contains high sugar concentration and other components like nitrogenous substances and vitamins and is used in alcohol, SCP (Single-cell Protein), amino acid, and organic acid fermentations. Extraction and purification of the products is expensive. Sulfate waste liquor is the how to write Westminster School, by-product of the paper industry; it contains carbohydrates and is used in yeast cultivation. Whey is the Admiral Farragut, by-product of dairy industry.
It is used in alcohol, SCP, gum, vitamins, and lactic acid fermentation. Vegetable oils are used as a carbon source. Oils provide more energy per weight compared to sugars. They also have anti-foaming properties but are generally used as additives rather than as the sole carbon source. Examples are olive oil, cotton seed oil, soya bean oil, linseed oil, and lard (animal fat). C12-C18 alkanes can be used as carbon sources. They are cheap, and have more carbon and energy content per weight than sugars. They can be used in how to write organic acids, amino acids, antibiotics, enzymes, and proteins fermentation. 2. Nitrogen Sources: Ammonia, ammonium salts, and urea are the most commonly used nitrogen sources in the fermentation process.
Ammonia also serves the purpose of pH control. Other substances used as nitrogen sources are corn-steep liquor, soya meal, peanut meal, cotton seed meal, amino acids, and proteins. Calcium, chlorine, magnesium, phosphorous, potassium and sulfur are the essential minerals for all media. Other minerals like copper, cobalt, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc are needed in trace amounts and are generally present as impurities in other components. The specific concentration on these elements depends on the micro-organism being used.
4. Growth Factors: Vitamins, amino acids, and fatty acids are used as growth factors in writing the fermentation process to complement the cell components of the micro-organisms. 5. Chelating Agents: Chelating agents prevent formation of insoluble metal precipitates. They form complexes with the metal ions present in the medium and can be utilized by the micro-organisms. Chelating agents are not required in large scale fermentation processes since some of the other ingredients like yeast extract will perform the function of how to write an articles Westminster School, forming complexes with the metal ions.
One example of writing article, a chelating agent is EDTA (ethylenedi-aminetetra-acetic acid). EDTA is a versatile, being able to form six bonds with a metal ion. How To. It is an effect College frequently used in soaps and detergents because it forms a complex with calcium and magnesium ions. These ions are in hard water and interfere with the how to an articles School, cleaning action of soaps and detergents. Other chelating agents are citric acid and pyrophosphates. Buffers are used to maintain the pH of the medium as microbial growth is affected by the pH changes. How To Essay College. Optimum pH for most microorganisms is 7.0. Commonly used buffers are calcium carbonate, ammonia, and sodium hydroxide. 7. Antifoaming Agents:
Microbial process produces a large amount of foam in the fermentation vessel. This is due to microbial proteins or other components of the media. Foaming causes removal of write an articles, cells from the media and their autolysis, thus, releasing more microbial foam-producing proteins, hence, aggravating the problem. Foam will reduce the working volume in the fermentation vessel, decrease rate of heat transfer, and deposit cells on the top of the fermenter. The air filter exits then become wet allowing growth of contaminating microorganisms. Antifoaming agents are also called surfactant, i.e., they reduce the surface tension in the foam and destabilize the foam producing proteins. Appleby College. Commonly used antifoaming agents are stearyl alcohol, cotton seed oil, linseed oil, olive oil, castor oil, soya bean oil, cod liver oil, silicones, and how to write Westminster sulphonates. Air is required for aeration and is supplied to the fermenter by means of pumps or compressors. It is sterilized by passing through filters before being introduced. The amount of air required and the extent of purity depends on the fermentation process being carried out. Steam is technology used to sterilize fermenters and other equipment and to control temperature.
Continuous dry steam supply is required for write an articles, the fermentation process, and care should be taken to written persuasive Queen's prevent condensation. Factors that Influence Microbial Growth: Temperature, water, pH, and nutrients can influence microbial growth. Most microorganisms that are mesophiles require temperatures of 25-40°C for how to write, optimum growth. Artikel In Dubai. As temperatures increase or decrease the growth rate is adversely affected. How To Write An Articles. Thermophiles require high temperatures over 50°C; they cannot survive at low temperatures. Psychrophiles require very low temperatures -15 to 20°C for survival and growth.
Microorganisms require optimum amounts of water to written Queen's maintain their metabolism and produce required products. Optimum pH for bacteria is 6.5-7.5, yeasts 4-5, moulds 4-7. Westminster. The pH of the written College, medium should be maintained at optimum level for the micro-organism being employed to ensure better product yield. Microorganisms require optimum concentrations of write an articles School, nutrients like nitrogen, vitamins, and minerals for maximum growth rate. This will be different for each of the different types. Critical Thinking. The optimum concentration of nitrogen is 0.1-1mg/L. The media and culture vessel are sterilized in order to prevent the growth of any unwanted microorganisms which contaminates our desired culture. Sterilization is carried out in how to many ways. The most widely method of Queen's College, sterilization is done by the help of an autoclave which is a type of steam sterilization. An autoclave or pressure cooker maintains a temperature of 120°C for 15 to 20 minutes under 15 psi pressures. Under these conditions all the microbes (except the microbial thermo resistant spores) die.
When microbes are cultivated in a fermentor in the industries then it is convenient to sterilize the fermentor first as a whole before letting the media to enter it. 2. Maintaining Suitable Environment for Microbial Growth : There are various factors which influence the School, growth of the microorganisms. This includes the composition of the growth medium, concentration of salts, pH, temperature, level of aeration, etc. Most of the bacteria grow at neutral pH, whereas yeast and a research article Admiral fungi prefer acidic pH. Mixing of the broth is essential for the uniform distribution of the nutrients in the culture medium. Aeration is needed for the proper gaseous exchange between the medium and the surrounding environment. This aerated medium is rich in oxygen which is essential for the proper growth of the microorganisms. Aeration and mixing is achieved by shaking the medium on a shaker in how to write School the case of small scale cultures whereas in big bioreactors it is achieved by stirring the medium with the help of a mechanical stirrer with baffles attached to it. Equipment’s Necessary for Microbial Culture at Industrial Scale: Followings are the various equipment’s which are necessary for writing Admiral, culturing microorganisms in the laboratory.
Baffle flasks are a type of modified flasks for microbial culture. In such flasks there are v-shaped notches in write Westminster the sides. The presence of baffles promotes the level of oxygen transfer to the growing culture and thereby boosts the growth of microbes. 2. Stirred Tank Fermenters: These are the to write essay IUBH & Management, most commonly used fermenters. They are cylindrical vessels with a motor driven agitator to stir the contents in write Westminster the tank. The Top-entry stirrer (agitator) model is most commonly used because it has many advantages like ease of operation, reliability, and writing a research Admiral robustness. The Bottom-entry stirrer (agitator) model is rarely used. Laboratory scale stirred tank fermenters are made of borosilicate glass with a stainless steel lid and top-entry stirrer. How To Westminster School. Typical volume of these fermenters is 1 to 100 litres. Stirrers consist of a motor attached to the shaft.
The shaft contains impellers. Stainless steel fermenters are also used in laboratories and have special requirements. They should be made of high grade stainless steel, have an internal surface that should be polished to reduce adhesion of essays Queen's, contents to the walls of the fermenter, and have joints that should be smooth and free from pin-holes. Fermentation Vessel Additional Equipment: This consists of shaft, impellers with 4 to 6 blades and motor to drive.
Shafts should have double seals to prevent leakage of the contents. The main function of the agitator is mixing of the contents, aeration, and removal of carbon dioxide produced during fermentation process by mixing action. Different types of write an articles Westminster, impellers are: 1. Rushton blade or disc turbine: This is the most commonly used impeller because of its simple design, robustness and ease of operation. It has 4 to 6 blades. 2. Open turbine impellers. 3. Marine impellers.
Four baffles are fixed on the walls of the fermenter which are used to prevent formation of a vortex. Impellers and baffles produce axial or radial flow patterns of the contents in the fermenter. Compressors are used to thinking Rotterdam School pump air under pressure into the fermenter from the bottom, to promote aeration and mixing. They are used mainly in the large fermenters. For laboratory scale, small fermenters air pumps are used. How To Write An Articles. Compressors should be oil-free in essay Ashbury College order to how to Westminster provide food-grade clean air to the fermenter. This is College used to filter the air supplied by Westminster the compressor before it enters the thinking bias, fermenter to ensure clean air. Types of filters are:
1. Membrane Filters: They are made of cellulose acetate and write an articles nitrate with constant pore size of 0.2 mm to ensure filtering of a research Farragut Academy, particulate matter. How To Write School. They are not cheap but easy to maintain. 2. Packed Bed Filters: They contain glass wool or cotton wool packed in a container through which air is passed. Technology Essay. Pore size is not uniform and these filters are susceptible to compaction and wetting thus causing channeling. 3. Cartridge Filters: Filter element is present in a stainless steel or polycarbonate cartridge. They are more reliable and durable but are expensive.
Filtered air is introduced to the fermenter from the bottom through a sparger in how to write an articles Westminster the form of small air bubbles to ensure proper aeration and mixing. These are used to monitor and control various fermentation parameters like pH, temperature and contoh review University of Wollongong oxygen content. Autoclaves are used to sterilize equipment, media, and other components of fermentation. They are similar to pressure cookers. Different sizes of School, autoclaves are available on the market. Hot air ovens are used to sterilize or dry the equipment used in the fermentation process. The equipment to be dried or sterilized should withstand high temperatures, borosilicate or Pyrex glass equipment being good examples. The inner chamber is made of heat resistant stainless steel and written persuasive College has a fan to circulate the hot air evenly throughout the chamber to ensure proper heat transfer. Microwave ovens are used to perform drying and melting agar.
The main advantage of microwave ovens is they take a very short time to how to do the job. Incubators are used to cultivate micro-organisms from stock cultures to produce inoculum. Incubators provide optimum temperature for growth of micro-organisms. Liquid/media is introduced to the fermenter by a pump. There are various types of pumps available, including: They provide constant flow rate and written persuasive essays Queen's mild pumping. Liquids do not back- flow, so check-valves are not required.
They are used for adding pH control agents like acid, alkali, and adding anti-foam agents. Mini pumps are fixed-speed pumps and can pump against the pressure. They are used to how to write School add nutrients to writing article Admiral Farragut Academy the medium. Speed can be varied by altering the Westminster School, bore size of the tubes. These fermenters do not have mechanical agitation systems (motor, shaft, impeller blades) but contents are agitated by injecting air from the bottom.
Sterile atmospheric air is used if microorganisms are aerobic and written Queen's College “inert gas” is used if micro-organisms are anaerobic. This is a gentle method of mixing the contents and how to write is most suitable for fermentation of animal and plant cell cultures since the mechanical agitation produces high shearing stress that may damage the cells. Air-lift fermenters are most widely used for large-scale production of monoclonal antibodies. Draft tubes are used in some cases to technology essay writing Ashbury provide better mixing, mass transfer, and to write Westminster School reduce bubble coalescence by inducing circulatory motion. These are also called immobilized cell fermenters. Persuasive Queen's College. The cells are absorbed onto or entrapped in how to Westminster School the solid surfaces like plastic beads, glass or plastic wool and solidified gels to render them immobile. Fixed bed fermenters are most commonly used for waste water treatment and as biological filters in small aquarium water recycling systems and production of amino acids and contoh review enzymes. Tower fermenters are simple in design and easy to construct. They consist of a long cylindrical vessel with an an articles Westminster inlet at the bottom, an exhaust at the top, and a jacket to control temperature. They do not require agitation hence there are no shafts, impellers or blades.Tower fermenters are used for continuous fermentation of beer, yeast and SCP.
This type of fermentation is also called a closed culture system because nutrients and how to write essay Appleby other components are added in specific amounts at the start of the process and are not replenished once the fermentation has started. At the end of the process the product is recovered; then, the fermenter is how to School cleaned, sterilized, and written essays Queen's College used for another batch process. In the initial stages microorganisms grow at a rapid rate in the presence of excess nutrients but as they multiply in large numbers they use up the nutrients. They also produce toxic metabolites which retard further growth of microorganisms during the later stages of the fermentation process. In this process the nutrients and School substrates are added at the start of the process and at review of Wollongong, regular intervals after the start. Westminster School. This is called controlled feeding. Inoculum is added to the fermentation vessel when micro-organisms are in exponential growth phase. Fed-batch culture is controlled by feed-back control and contoh artikel University of Wollongong control without feed-back. 1. Feed-Back Control: The fermentation process is controlled by monitoring process parameters like dissolved oxygen content, carbon dioxide to oxygen ratio, pH, concentration of substrate, and concentration of the product. 2. How To. Control without Feed-Back:
The substrates and nutrients are added at regular intervals. Fed-batch culture requires special equipment such as a reservoir which holds the nutrients, pH modifiers so that they can be added to the fermenter at thinking bias Business, regular intervals, and pumps to deliver culture medium aseptically to the fermenter. This method prolongs the exponential growth phase of microbial growth as nutrients are continually supplied and metabolites and other wastes are continually removed thus promoting continual growth of the microorganisms. School. Continuous culture fermentation is advantageous because of its high productivity. Get Someone Your School Of Business & Management. Two control methods are used in continuous culture fermentation, namely, chemostat and turbidostat. This medium contains excess of all but one of the nutrients which determine the rate of growth of the microorganism. How To Write. At steady state of the chemo-stat the rate of a research article Farragut, input of how to write an articles Westminster, medium into the fermenter is equal to the rate of output of the fermenter. This medium contains excess of how to, all nutrients, so the microbial growth is at its maximum specific growth rate. The system consists of a photoelectric cell which is a turbidity sensor that detects changes in turbidity of the contents in the fermenter and then controls the amount of medium fed to the fermenter.
Measurement and Kinetics of Microbial Growth : The growth of a microorganism may result in the production of how to write an articles Westminster School, a range of metabolites but to produce a particular metabolite the desired organism must be grown under precise cultural conditions at a particular growth rate. If a micro-organism is introduced into a nutrient medium that supports its growth, the inoculated culture will pass through a number of stages and the system is termed batch culture. Contoh Of Wollongong In Dubai. Initially, growth does not occur and this period is referred to as the lag phase and may be considered a period of adaptation. Following an interval during which the growth rate of the cells gradually increases, the cells grow at a constant, maximum rate and this period is referred to as the how to, log or exponential phase, which may be described by the equation. where x is the cell concentration (mg ml -1 ), t is the time of incubation (h), and p the specific growth rate (h 1 ). On integration equation (1) gives. where x 0 is the cell concentration at written, time zero and x t is the cell concentration after a time interval, t h.Thus, a plot of the natural logarithm of the cell concentration against time gives a straight line, the slope of which equals the specific growth rate. The specific growth rate during the exponential phase is the write Westminster, maximum for the prevailing conditions and is described as the maximum specific growth rate. Written Essays. Equations (1) and (2) ignore the facts that growth results in the depletion of write an articles Westminster, nutrients and the accumulation of toxic by-products and essay writing Ashbury thus predict that growth continues indefinitely. However, in reality, as substrate (nutrient) is exhausted and toxic products accumulate, the growth rate of the cells deviates from the an articles Westminster School, maximum and eventually growth ceases and the culture enters the stationary phase.
After a further period of time, the culture enters the death phase and the number of viable cells declines. It should be remembered that this description refers to the behaviour of both unicellular and mycelial (filamentous) organisms in batch culture, the growth of the latter resulting in the exponential addition of an effect, viable biomass to the mycelial body rather than the production of separate, discrete unicells. As already stated, the cessation of growth in a batch culture may be due to the exhaustion of a nutrient component or the how to an articles, accumulation of a toxic product. However, provided that the growth medium is designed such that growth is limited by the availability of a medium component, growth may be extended by addition of an aliquot of Ashbury, fresh medium to the vessel. If the fresh medium is added continuously, at an appropriate rate, and the culture vessel is fitted with an how to write overflow device, such that culture is displaced by the incoming fresh medium, a continuous culture may be established. The growth of the cells in a continuous culture of this type is controlled by the availability of the growth limiting chemical component of the medium and, thus, the system is described as a chemostat. To Write Your School Of Business. In this system a steady-state is eventually achieved and the loss of biomass via the how to an articles Westminster School, overflow is replaced by College cell growth. The flow of medium through the system is described by how to write Westminster the term dilution rate, D, which is a research Admiral equal to the rate of how to write an articles Westminster, addition of writing Admiral Academy, medium divided by the working volume of the culture vessel. The balance between growth of cells and their loss from the system may be described as: dx/dt – growth – output. Under steady-state conditions, and, therefore, px = Dx and p = D. Hence, the growth rate of the organisms is controlled by how to write School the dilution rate, which is an experimental variable. Admiral Farragut. It will be recalled that under batch culture conditions an how to write an articles Westminster School organism will grow at its maximum specific growth rate and, therefore, it is obvious that a continuous culture may be operated only at artikel University in Dubai, dilution rates below the maximum specific growth rate.
Thus, within certain limits, the dilution rate may be used to control the growth rate of a chemo-stat culture. The mechanism underlying the how to an articles School, controlling effect of the dilution rate is essentially the relationship between p, specific growth rate, and s, the limiting substrate concentration in the chemo-stat, demonstrated by Monod in writing a research article Admiral Farragut Academy 1942: where K s is the utilization or saturation constant, which is write an articles Westminster School numerically equal to the substrate concentration when p is get someone essay School of Business half pmax. At steady-state, p = D, and, therefore, where S is the write, steady-state concentration of substrate in the chemo-stat, and. Equation (4) predicts that the substrate concentration is determined by the dilution rate. In effect, this occurs by to write IUBH of Business growth of the cells depleting the substrate to a concentration that supports that growth rate equal to the dilution rate. If substrate is write School depleted below the level that supports the growth rate dictated by get someone to write essay the dilution rate the following sequence of events takes place: (a) The growth rate of the cells will be less than the dilution rate and they will be washed out of the vessel at a rate greater than they are being produced, resulting in a decrease in biomass concentration.
(b) The substrate concentration in the vessel will rise because fewer cells are left in the vessel to consume it. (c) The increased substrate concentration in the vessel will result in the cells growing at a rate greater than the dilution rate and biomass concentration will increase. (d) The steady-state will be re-established. In batch culture fermentation microorganisms grow initially and at the end of fermentation. The resultant broth contains product and dead microorganisms, thus it is essential to how to write Westminster separate out the desired product. Microorganisms can be removed from the broth by filtration or centrifugation to article Admiral Farragut separate microbial cell from the cell-free solution containing the product. The product is isolated from cell-free solution by precipitation, adsorption, or solvent extraction techniques. This is the simplest method of isolation.
Fermentation products like carbohydrates are precipitated by adding alcohol, while organic acids are salted out of the solution. This technique provides isolation and purification of product in write an articles a single step. Organic solvent is added to the fermentation broth which dissolves the product to form a solvent layer which is separated from the review University of Wollongong, aqueous layer and is evaporated to obtain the pure product. Ion exchange resins containing organic complexes exchange their ion for the product. The process involves two steps, adsorption and elution. The fermentation broth when passed through a column containing the resin gets absorbed to the resin. Product is separated from the resin by passing suitable reagent through the an articles Westminster, column.
The advantage of this technique is reusability of the ion-exchange resin after the product is isolated. Essay # 5. Artikel In Dubai. Major Products of Industrial Biotechnology: There are many products which are produced in the industries by the help of write an articles School, fermentation technology. These are discussed as follows: Many antibiotics are produced by essay Ashbury the help of microorganisms such as actinomycetes (e.g., Streptomyces) and how to write filamentous fungi. Following are some antibiotics which are produced by the help of contoh, fermentation technology. While our scientific knowledge of antibiotics has only recently been developed, the practical application of antibiotics has existed for centuries. How To Write An Articles School. The first known, use was by the Chinese about 2,500 years ago. Writing Article Admiral Farragut. During this time, they discovered that applying the how to, mouldy curd of soybeans to infections had certain therapeutic benefits. It was so effective that it became a standard treatment. Evidence suggests that other cultures used antibiotic-type substances as therapeutic agents.
The Sudanese-Nubian civilization used a type of contoh of Wollongong in Dubai, tetracycline antibiotic as early as 350 A.D. In Europe during the Middle Ages, crude plant extracts and cheese curds were also used to fight infection. Although these cultures used antibiotics, the general principles of Westminster School, antibiotic action were not understood until the twentieth century. The development of modern antibiotics depended on a few key individuals who demonstrated to the world that materials derived from microorganisms could be used to cure infectious diseases. One of the review artikel University of Wollongong, first pioneers in an articles Westminster School this field was Louis Pasteur. In 1877, he and an associate discovered that the growth of disease-causing anthrax bacteria could be inhibited by a saprophytic bacteria. They showed that large amounts of to write of Business, anthrax bacilli could be given to animals with no adverse-affects as long as the saprophytic bacilli were also given. Over the next few years, other observations supported the fact that some bacterially derived materials could prevent the growth of disease-causing bacteria.
In 1928, Alexander Fleming made one of the most important contributions to the field of antibiotics. How To Westminster School. In an experiment, he found that a strain of writing a research, green Penicilliummould inhibited the growth of how to Westminster School, bacteria on an agar plate. This led to the development of the first modern era antibiotic, penicillin. A few years later in 1932,. Written Essays College. a paper was published which suggested a method for treating infected wounds using a penicillin preparation. Although these early samples of write Westminster, penicillin were functional, they were not reliable and further refinements were needed.
These improvements came in the early 1940s when Howard Florey and associates discovered a new strain of Penicillium, which produced high yields of penicillin. This allowed large-scale production of a research Admiral Farragut Academy, penicillin, which helped launch the how to write an articles School, modern antibiotics industry. After the discovery of get someone to write essay School & Management, penicillin, other antibiotics were sought. In 1939, work began on the isolation of potential antibiotic products from the soil bacteria streptomyces. It was around this time that the term antibiotic was introduced. Selman Waxman and associates discovered streptomycin in 1944. Subsequent studies resulted in the discovery of a host of new, different antibiotics including actinomycin, streptothricin, and neomycin all produced by Streptomyces. Other antibiotics that have been discovered since include bacitracin, polymyxin, viomycin, chloramphenicol and tetracyclines. How To Westminster. Since the 1970s, most new antibiotics have been synthetic modifications of naturally occurring antibiotics. The compounds that make the fermentation broth are the primary raw materials required for antibiotic production. This broth is an aqueous solution made up of artikel, all of the ingredients necessary for the proliferation of the microorganisms.
Typically, it contains a carbon source like molasses, or soy meal, both of which are made up of lactose and glucose sugars. These materials are needed as a food source for the organisms. Nitrogen is another necessary compound in the metabolic cycles of the Westminster, organisms. For this reason, an ammonia salt is typically used. Additionally, trace elements needed for the proper growth of the antibiotic-producing organisms are included. These are components such as phosphorus, sulfur, magnesium, zinc, iron, and copper introduced through water soluble salts. To prevent foaming during fermentation, anti-foaming agents such as lard oil, octadecanol, and silicones are used. Although most antibiotics occur in nature, they are not normally available in the quantities necessary for large-scale production.
For this reason, a fermentation process was developed. It involves isolating a desired microorganism, fuelling growth of the culture and critical thinking Rotterdam Business School refining and isolating the final antibiotic product. How To Westminster. It is important that sterile conditions be maintained throughout the manufacturing process, because contamination by foreign microbes will ruin the fermentation. 1. Before fermentation can begin, the essay School of Business, desired antibiotic-producing organism must be isolated and how to Westminster School its numbers must be increased by many times. To do this, a starter culture from a sample of previously isolated, cold-stored organisms is created in the lab. In order to how to write an effect essay grow the initial culture, a sample of the organism is how to write transferred to an agar-containing plate.
The initial culture is then put into shake-flasks along with food and other nutrients necessary for growth. This creates a suspension, which can be transferred to seed tanks for further growth. 2. The seed tanks are steel tanks designed to provide an ideal environment for growing microorganisms. They are filled with all the things the specific microorganism would need to survive and thrive, including warm water and carbohydrate foods like lactose or glucose sugars. Additionally, they contain other necessary carbon sources, such as acetic acid, alcohols, or hydrocarbons, and nitrogen sources like ammonia salts. Growth factors like vitamins, amino acids, and minor nutrients round out the composition of the seed tank contents.
The seed tanks are equipped with mixers, which keep the growth medium moving, and a pump to deliver sterilized, filtered air. After about 24-28 hours, the material in the seed tanks is transferred to the primary fermentation tanks. The fermentation tank is essentially a larger version of the steel seed tank, which is able to hold about technology essay writing 30,000 gallons. It is filled with the same growth media found in the seed tank and also provides an environment inductive to growth. Here the microorganisms are allowed to grow and School multiply.
During this process, they excrete large quantities of the desired antibiotic. The tanks are cooled to writing article Farragut Academy keep the temperature between 73-81°F (23-27.2°C). It is constantly agitated, and a continuous stream of sterilized air is pumped into it. For this reason, anti-foaming agents are periodically added. Since pH control is vital for optimal growth, acids or bases are added to the tank as necessary. C. Isolation and Purification : After three to five days, the maximum amount of antibiotic will have been produced and the isolation process can begin. Depending on the specific antibiotic produced, the fermentation broth is processed by various purification methods.
For example, for antibiotic compounds that are water soluble, an ion-exchange method may be used for purification. In this method, the compound is first separated from the waste organic materials in the broth and then sent through equipment, which separates the write, other water-soluble compounds from the desired one. To isolate an oil-soluble antibiotic such as penicillin, a solvent extraction method is used. In this method, the broth is treated with organic solvents such as butyl acetate or methyl isobutyl ketone, which can specifically dissolve the antibiotic. The dissolved antibiotic is then recovered using various organic chemical means. At the technology essay Ashbury, end of this step, the manufacturer is write typically left with a purified powdered form of the antibiotic, which can be further refined into different product types. 1. Antibiotic products can take on critical thinking Rotterdam Business many different forms.
They can be sold in solutions for intravenous bags or syringes, in pill or gel capsule form, or they may be sold as powders, which are incorporated into topical ointments. Depending on the final form of the antibiotic, various refining steps may be taken after the initial isolation. For intravenous bags, the crystalline antibiotic can be dissolved in a solution, put in the bag, which is then hermetically sealed. For gel capsules, the powdered antibiotic is physically filled into the bottom half of a capsule, then the top half is mechanically put in place. When used in write an articles topical ointments, the article Academy, antibiotic is mixed into the ointment. 2. How To An Articles School. From this point, the antibiotic product is transported to the final packaging stations. Here, the written persuasive essays College, products are stacked and put in boxes. They are loaded up on trucks and transported to various distributors, hospitals, and how to write an articles Westminster pharmacies. The entire process of fermentation, recovery, and processing can take anywhere from five to eight days. Quality control is of utmost importance in the production of essay, antibiotics. Since it involves a fermentation process, steps must be taken to ensure that absolutely no contamination is introduced at any point during production.
To this end, the medium and all of the processing equipment are thoroughly steam sterilized. During manufacturing, the quality of all the how to School, compounds is checked on a regular basis. Of particular importance are frequent checks of the condition of the critical Rotterdam Business, microorganism culture during fermentation. These are accomplished using various chromatography techniques. Also, various physical and chemical properties of the finished product are checked such as pH, melting point, and moisture content. In the United States, antibiotic production is highly regulated by the Food and write an articles School Drug Administration (FDA). Depending on the application and type of essay College, antibiotic, more or less testing must be completed. For example, the FDA requires that for how to an articles, certain antibiotics each batch must be checked by them for effectiveness and purity. Only after they have certified the batch, it can be sold for general consumption.
Since the development of a new drug is writing a research article Academy a costly proposition, pharmaceutical companies have done very little research in the last decade. How To Write School. However, an alarming development has spurred a revived interest in the development of new antibiotics. It turns out that some of the disease-causing bacteria have mutated and developed a resistance to many of the standard antibiotics. How To Write An Effect Essay College. This could have grave consequences on the world’s public health unless new antibiotics are discovered or improvements are made on the ones that are available. This challenging problem will be the focus of research for many years to come. Micro-organisms can be used to produce enzymes that are useful in certain industrial applications. How To Write School. A more efficient method of using them is to writing a research isolate an enzyme and use it by itself. How To Write. This is better because higher concentrations of enzyme can be obtained and only one reaction is taking place, whereas using whole micro-organisms would have numerous enzyme reactions and more products to process.
A further problem encountered is that enzymes are expensive to produce. This is technology essay writing College solved by reusing the enzyme, this is made possible by how to an articles Westminster immobilizing the enzymes, this way they do not contaminate the end products which can be reused. Critical Thinking Bias. In the following table different methods of immobilization are discussed. Hybridomas are cells that have been engineered to how to an articles School produce a desired antibody in large amounts, to produce monoclonal antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies can be produced in specialized cells through a technique now popularly known as hybridoma technology. Hybridoma technology was discovered in 1975 by three scientists, Georges Kohler of written persuasive essays Queen's, West Germany and Cesar Milstein of Argentina and Niels Jerne of Denmark. They were awarded the 1984 Noble prize for physiology and medicine. A hybridoma is produced by the injection of a specific antigen into a mouse, procuring the antigen-specific plasma cells (antibody-producing cell) from the mouse’s spleen and the subsequent fusion of this cell with a cancerous immune cell called a myeloma cell. The hybrid cell, which is thus produced, can be cloned to produce many identical daughter clones. These daughter clones then secrete the immune cell product. Since these antibodies come from only one type of cell (the hybridoma cell) they are called monoclonal antibodies.
The advantage of this process is that it can combine the qualities of the two different types of cells; the ability to grow continually, and to produce large amounts of how to write, pure antibody. HAT medium (Hypoxanthine Aminopetrin Thymidine) is critical thinking bias Business used for preparation of monoclonal antibodies. Laboratory animals (e.g.; mice) are first exposed to an antigen whose corresponding antibody we want to how to write develop. Once splenocytes are isolated from the mammal, the artikel University, B cells are fused with immortalized myeloma cells, which lack the HGPRT (hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltrans-ferase) gene, using polyethylene glycol or the Sendai virus. Fused cells are incubated in the HAT (Hypoxanthine-Aminopetrin Thymidine) medium. Aminopetrin in the myeloma cells die, as they cannot produce nucleotides by an articles the de novo, or salvage medium blocks the pathway that allows for critical, nucleotide synthesis. Hence, un-fused D cells die. Un-fused B cells die as they have a short life span. Only the B cell-myeloma hybrids survive, since the HGPRT gene coming from the B cells is functional. Write School. These cells produce antibodies (a property of B cells) and are immortal (a property of myeloma cells). The incubated medium is then diluted into multi-well plates to such an extent that each well contains only cell.
Then the supernatant in each well can be checked for desired anti body. Since the thinking, antibodies in a well are produced by the same B cell, they will be directed towards the same epitope, and how to an articles Westminster are known as monoclonal antibodies. Once a hybridoma colony is established, it will continually grow in essay writing Ashbury culture medium like RPMI-1640 (with antibiotics and foetal bovine serum) and produce antibody. The next stage is write Westminster School a rapid primary screening process, which identifies and selects only those hybridomas that produce antibodies of appropriate specificity. The hybridoma culture supernatant, secondary enzyme labelled conjugate, and chromogenic substrate, is critical thinking bias then incubated, and the formation of how to Westminster School, a coloured product indicates a positive hybridoma. Alternatively, immunocytochemical screening can also be used. Essay Writing. Multi-well plates are used initially to grow the hybridomas and after selection, are changed to larger tissue culture flasks.
This maintains the well-being of the hybridomas and provides enough cells for cryopreservation and write Westminster School supernatant for subsequent investigations. The culture supernatant can yield 1 to 60 ug/ml of monoclonal antibody, which is maintained at 20°C or lower until required. By using culture supernatant or a purified immunoglobulin preparation, further analysis of a potential monoclonal antibody producing hybridoma can be made in terms of reactivity, specificity, and cross-reactivity. J. Large-Scale Production of Monoclonal Antibodies (mAB) : Large scale production of monoclonal antibodies consider production scales of 0.1-10 g as small, 10-100 gas medium, and over 100 g as large. Critical Thinking Bias Rotterdam Business. This is generally performed to produce monoclonal antibodies for three purposes: diagnosis, therapy, and research on how to an articles and development of new therapeutic agents. Amino acids such as lysine and bias Rotterdam Business glutamic acid have been used in the food industries for a long time as a nutritional supplement (in order to how to Westminster School increase the nutritional value of the bread) and as flavor enhancing compound.
Glutamic acid is produced in large quantities by using mutants of Corynebacteriumglutamicum that lack the ability to convert the thinking bias Business School, TCA cycle intermediate alpha ketoglutarate to succinyl-CoA. Lysine is also produced from the mutant bacterium Corynebacteriumglutamicum which blocks the synthesis of homoserine and an articles accumulates lysine. L. Organic Acid Production : Organic acids such as Citric, acetic, lactic, fumaric, and School gluconic acids are major products of microbial industry. Citric acid has a wide level of applications , starting from the food and beverage industry, in pharmaceuticals, etc. Aspergillusniger is used for the production of citric acid. The fundamental idea behind the production of citric acid is to how to write Westminster School limit the availability of the amounts of trace metals such as manganese and iron to prevent the growth of Aspergillusniger at a specific point in the process of fermentation.
The medium for the citric acid fermentation contains high sugar concentrations (15 to write College 18%) and copper.The success of this fermentation depends widely on the regulation and functioning of the glycolytic pathway and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Cheese is produced from a lactic acid fermentation of milk, which results in coagulation of milk proteins and how to write an articles Westminster School formation of a curd. Rennin is generally used to promote this curd formation. After the curd is formed, it is heated and pressed in order to remove the watery part of the milk called as whey. The solid curd is then salted and kept aside for ripening.
In the production of cheese, microorganisms are widely used. For example, for the production of Roquefort cheese Penicilliumroqueforti spores are added to the curds just before the final cheese processing. Also during the get someone your IUBH School, production of Camembert cheese, the cheese is inoculated with spores of Penicilliumcamemberti. N. Production of Alcoholic Beverages : Alcoholic beverages are basically produced from the fermentation of carbohydrates. The most widely consumed alcoholic beverages are wine and beer. Wine is how to School produced by the fermentation of grape juice. Folio wings are the how to College, basic six steps involved in how to write Westminster the production of essay writing, wine.
As a known fact the flavour of the wine is dependent on the kind of grapes which are used. The variety of write an articles Westminster School, grapes depends on essays Queen's the place where they are grown, the write Westminster School, climate of the place where they are grown, the drainage system around the winery, the quality of the written, soil, humidity content of the region and even the how to, exposure levels to the sun. Other than these factors, one of the most vital points which is an important determinant in the making of wine is the techniques used to make the wine. In fact, the different wineries formulate a customized wine making procedure according to the needs of bias, their winery, so that they can bring out the best flavours of their grapes. The next step in how to an articles Westminster the wine-making process is the harvesting of the finely cultivated grapes. When the a research article, grapes are ripped and harvested it is very important that the timing of ripping the grapes is apt and the exact timing can be ascertained through experience. The timing of the ripping the grapes should be such that the grapes have the apt combination of sugar, acid and moisture. The harvesting of the grapes can be either done manually or mechanically, however majority of the grape wineries reap it manually.
The next step after the grapes have been harvested is to crush and press so as to have their inherent flavours in the form of write, liquid. As the fruits Eire crushed the critical bias School, grapes withdraw their moisture content and the sugars. Many wineries make the usage of specialized machines for the process of crushing and pressing the grapes. The resultant liquid which is formed after crushing and how to an articles School pressing the wines is referred to as must, at this stage the wine will either turn into red colour or white colour depending on the preference of the wine-maker. The wines become red when they are simply left after, they are crushed because in this stage juices from the skin and the flavours are ripped off, thus when you leave the must for a certain period of time, the to write essay, wine become red wine, and in case you immediately crush the wine after pressing and segregate the skin, then the wine becomes white wine. After the grapes are being crushed and pressed, the fermentation takes place. Since the grapes have good quantity of sugar and moisture they easily get fermented with the reaction of wild yeast. Fermentation takes place in almost 10 to 30 days; however, this depends on how to Westminster School the quality of grapes and the climate. Clarifying the Solution: The next step in wine making is clarifying the solution. It is also referred to as stabilization.
The final stage is to transfer the clarified solution in the wooden barrels or bottles. Beer-makers use grains or extracts to begin the mash, the base that will define the taste of the finished beer. Grains of barley or wheat are pre- soaked to begin the release of enzymes to produce maltose, a sugar. The brewer crushes a mixture of malted and un-malted grains and then heats them in critical bias water. This activates enzymes that break down proteins and carbohydrates into starches and then into sugars. The process heats and cools the mixture according to a recipe to produce a specific flavour. When finished, the liquid is drained through the sediment and the grains are dried in a kiln. The dried grain is soaked in warm water and drained again to extract more sugars from the mash. A final rinse with fresh hot water pulls out the last of the sugars.
The three extractions produce a liquid called “wort,” which is brought to the boil to kill any harmful bacteria and concentrate the extract. Hops, a cone-like bloom, contains oils and how to Westminster resins that offset the sweetness of the sugars. It may be added to the wort during the article Admiral Farragut Academy, “boil” to how to School “bitterize” the mash before fermentation or it may be added at the end of fermentation, depending on the recipe and brewer. Each mix of grain and written persuasive essays Queen's College hops produce different types and amounts of sugars to Westminster School be available for fermentation, the next process in brewing. Fermentation is a chemical process.
The brewer adds yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), a type of your essay IUBH School of Business, fungus that metabolizes sugars in the absence of how to write an articles School, oxygen, to the aerated wort. As fermentation begins, a foamy coat of “krausen” grows on the surface of the wort and the chemical reaction produces carbon dioxide and written essays alcohol. A valve on top of the sealed fermentation chamber vents the carbon dioxide as the fermentation progresses. The chemical reaction also produces esters and how to write an articles School phenols that contribute to the character of the beer’s flavour as well as chlorine and fatty acids. Another by-product, Diacetyl, is a ketone compound that gives darker ales their butterscotch-like taste. Lactic acid is review of Wollongong in Dubai often added to wheat wort to add tartness. Temperature is used to control the how to write an articles Westminster School, fermentation process, but eventually it will stop because the sugars have been consumed and contoh artikel in Dubai most of the yeasts have died. The final process of brewing is write School bottling but many brewers insert intermediate steps in this finishing process.
The fermented wort must be separated from the foamy krausen and persuasive solid remnants of hops, dead yeast and other by-products that may coat the sides of the chamber, often by draining from the bottom or siphoning. The brew may be filtered or pasteurized before bottling or being put into barrels. As beer is bottled or barrelled, a bit of sugar—white sucrose, brown or molasses—is added to Westminster School it to encourage the to write IUBH of Business & Management, remaining live yeast to ferment and vent carbon dioxide, which will stay in the sealed container as carbonation. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! Our mission is to write an articles Westminster School provide an online platform to help students to share notes in technology College Biology.
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