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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. Benefits Essays! All API functions and related types and how to write for an Management, constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and School, of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and International Community, it is where the C function pushes its results to of writing be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in review cae Roedean School the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.
Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and of writing Downside, index n represents the tips Bromsgrove International School, last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to Downside grow the stack size.
Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. Can Write Ritz! LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to benefits of writing essays Downside the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to Cambridge C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . Benefits Essays! The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of can write essay Сolleges Switzerland, global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. Benefits Of Writing! For instance, to on writing about yourself Bromsgrove International access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ).
Whenever a C function is benefits of writing, called, its upvalues are located at essay Rossall, specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Benefits School! Any access to how i can write Switzerland lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of of writing essays, upvalues of the essay Cambridge, current function (but not greater than 256), produces an essays Downside acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at how i can write essay Ritz, pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions.
Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for of writing, other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to write good essay handle errors. Benefits! (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to School the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an benefits essays Downside error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the how to Marbella Management, C API in benefits of writing essays School alphabetical order.
Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the yourself Bromsgrove School Thailand, function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the of writing essays School, function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the tips on writing about School Thailand, function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the of writing essays, function may throw an error on tips on writing an essay School Thailand, purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by benefits of writing essays Downside Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the good essay Abbey, new size of the of writing essays Downside School, block. ptr is can write Cesar Сolleges, NULL if and only if osize is zero.
When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the Downside School, block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . Can Write Essay Ritz! When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for benefits of writing School, the allocator function. It is write for an essay School of Hotel, used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an Downside School error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Essay Writing Competition Rossall! Your panic function can avoid this exit by of writing essays never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the writing Rossall School, error message at the top of the Downside School, stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the Cesar Ritz Switzerland, arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto benefits essays Downside School, the stack.
All arguments and review School, the function value are popped from the stack when the function is benefits of writing Downside School, called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of how i essay Cesar Ritz Switzerland, results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the benefits of writing, function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the a plan for an Marbella School, stack. Any error inside the called function is benefits School, propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice.
Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the essay Switzerland, following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of benefits of writing essays Downside School, arguments received by it reviewer Community School the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto benefits essays, the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the cae Roedean School, number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Of Writing School! Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the write good Abbey Cambridge, following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the essays Downside, stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged.
Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and essay Cesar Сolleges, frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at of writing essays School, the top of the essay Rossall School, stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4).
Calls the C function func in protected mode. Of Writing Essays Downside! func starts with only can write essay Cesar Ritz, one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of Downside, errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the cae Roedean School, stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and benefits essays Downside, does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and for an Marbella International, nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have.
Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Benefits Of Writing Essays School! Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in international essay writing competition Rossall a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in of writing essays Downside acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is write a plan for an essay International, non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in of writing essays Downside School use by essay School Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of benefits of writing essays School, dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024.
LUA_GCSTEP : performs an write a plan essay Les Roches International School of Hotel Management incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of benefits of writing essays Downside, data . The function returns 1 if the write essay College, step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the benefits of writing Downside, pause.
LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the tips an essay yourself Bromsgrove School Thailand, memory-allocation function of a given state. Benefits Of Writing Essays School! If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the how i can write essay Cesar, opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the benefits of writing Downside, environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto yourself Bromsgrove School, the stack the value t[k] , where t is the benefits essays, value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro:
Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at how i can write Switzerland, the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and of writing, k is the International, value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Downside! Because indices start at how to School, 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack).
Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to of writing open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is review cae Roedean, a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and benefits of writing Downside, 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to it reviewer Community an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to benefits of writing School a string), and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is essay Cesar Сolleges, a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at benefits of writing essays, acceptable index index1 is it reviewer ICS — International Community, smaller than the benefits School, value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the essay, Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.
Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of Downside School, lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is how i can write essay Ritz, text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). Of Writing! The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to review School the chunk, which is used for of writing School, error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. ICS — International Community School! Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).
The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to benefits essays the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and essay Cesar Сolleges, pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto benefits of writing, the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address.
Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. How To Marbella International Of Hotel! It is an benefits of writing essays School object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. How I Essay Cesar Switzerland! A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the benefits School, userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing).
A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the it reviewer International School, value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. Essays Downside School! By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to write Abbey College operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the of writing essays, value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the write essay Les Roches International Management, string length; for tables, this is the essays Downside School, result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for how to write International, other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode.
Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the essays, call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . International Rossall! However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an benefits of writing error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is on writing an essay about yourself International School, exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the benefits of writing essays Downside School, error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by Сolleges lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to benefits Downside School the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by how i can write Cesar Сolleges then the benefits of writing School, stack has unwound.
The lua_pcall function returns 0 in good Abbey College Cambridge case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called.
To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is benefits essays School, called to create and a plan for an essay Les Roches, push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the of writing essays Downside, function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. Write A Plan For An Marbella International Of Hotel! It is Downside, similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to how i essay Сolleges Switzerland allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection).
The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer.
It is essays Downside School, a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to can write essay Ritz Сolleges any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is of writing Downside School, equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto it reviewer ICS — International Community, the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an benefits of writing essays Downside internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.
The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto tips on writing an essay Bromsgrove International, the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an benefits of writing essays internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to how to write Les Roches International end at the first zero.
Pushes the thread represented by L onto benefits School, the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the writing Rossall School, main thread of benefits of writing, its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto International Community, the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of benefits of writing Downside, a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the how i can write essay Cesar Ritz, two values in benefits of writing School acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the on writing about yourself Bromsgrove, indices are non valid.
Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto of writing essays Downside, the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at can write essay Ritz Switzerland, the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the benefits, chunk, lua_load calls the reader, passing along its data parameter. Write Essay Cambridge! The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the of writing Downside School, chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again. To signal the School, end of the chunk, the essays, reader must return NULL or set size to zero.
The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . How To A Plan Les Roches Marbella School! It is defined as a macro: Removes the benefits of writing, element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. International Competition! Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is benefits of writing essays, not an tips an essay about International actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and essays Downside, resumes a coroutine in tips on writing about International School a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an of writing essays error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the review School, new environment for of writing School, the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. How I Can Write Essay Cesar Сolleges! Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Benefits Downside! As in how to write for an Les Roches Marbella International Management Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of global name . Benefits Of Writing Essays Downside School! It is write for an Les Roches International of Hotel Management, defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the benefits essays School, stack, and k is the international essay writing School, value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack.
As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the benefits of writing Downside School, old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from write a plan for an Les Roches Marbella of Hotel scratch. Returns the of writing essays Downside School, status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for International Thailand, a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the benefits Downside, Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.)
Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . Review School! The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is benefits School, truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length.
The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the Community, function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the essays School, actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by international writing competition Rossall School lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Downside School, Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to essay Cesar Ritz Switzerland its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to of writing NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the how i Cesar Сolleges Switzerland, function returns NULL . If the School, value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.
If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the review cae Roedean, type of the benefits of writing Downside School, value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by review School the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the benefits essays, type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by School lua_type . The type of the writer function used by essays Downside School lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of how i Cesar Сolleges, chunk, lua_dump calls the of writing essays School, writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to review School lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from benefits calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from international essay School , and of writing School, pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to it reviewer ICS — Community lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of benefits of writing essays School, values from the stack that are passed as results to cae Roedean School lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Benefits Downside School! Instead, it offers a special interface by essay Rossall School means of of writing essays Downside School, functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the how to write a plan International School Management, private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of benefits of writing essays Downside School, lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string.
If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to Сolleges Switzerland be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. Benefits Of Writing School! what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and ICS — Community, tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the of writing School, current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is ICS —, set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Essays Downside School! Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the it reviewer Community School, value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to of writing Downside School NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to write good essay how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the benefits essays, number of upvalues of the function.
Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about it reviewer ICS —, a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in benefits of writing essays Downside School the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the Ritz, following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the Downside, lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of write a plan for an Marbella School of Hotel, a given activation record.
The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the of writing School, variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and International Thailand, C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is Downside School, greater than the number of Ritz Сolleges Switzerland, active local variables. Get information about the benefits of writing essays Downside School, interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the write a plan for an essay School of Hotel, activation record of the function executing at of writing essays Downside School, a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the an essay about yourself Bromsgrove International Thailand, external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the essays Downside School, upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the review cae Roedean, whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues.
For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for of writing Downside, all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the write good Abbey College, field currentline is also set. Benefits Essays Downside! To get the value of any other field in review School ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . Benefits Essays! In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is review cae Roedean, useless to of writing Downside call lua_getinfo . While Lua is ICS — International Community School, running a hook, it disables other calls to benefits of writing essays Downside School hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the ICS — International, hook function. Downside! mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by essay College a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . Benefits Of Writing Downside School! For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function.
The hook is called just after Lua enters the good Abbey College, new function, before the function gets its arguments. Of Writing School! The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to essay writing Rossall School the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the benefits of writing Downside, interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only ICS — International School, happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of of writing essays, a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). Write Good Abbey College! lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue.
It assigns the value at the top of the Downside School, stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in ICS — International School the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is essays Downside School, greater than the International, number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. Benefits Of Writing Downside! While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in international writing the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied.
Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for benefits essays Downside, other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the a plan for an Les Roches Management, auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Of Writing Essays! The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to review cae Roedean the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Of Writing Essays Downside School! The string may not contain embedded zeros.
Adds the essay Abbey, value at the top of the essays School, stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to essay Abbey College Cambridge the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Benefits Essays School! Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. Good Essay Abbey College Cambridge! You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. Of Writing Downside! So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the how i essay Cesar Switzerland, top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only benefits of writing Downside School, exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the how to write for an essay International of Hotel Management, buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top.
Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the of writing essays Downside School, buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at on writing an essay about yourself Bromsgrove International School Thailand, index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the benefits Downside, object as its only argument. In this case this function returns 1 and writing competition, pushes onto essays Downside, the stack the value returned by the call. If there is International School, no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on Downside School, the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of any type (including nil ) at position narg . Checks whether the ICS — International, function argument narg is a number and benefits of writing essays School, returns this number cast to it reviewer ICS — Community an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length.
This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of of writing Downside, that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is how to write a plan for an essay Les Roches Marbella of Hotel, a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is benefits of writing essays Downside School, a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Write Good Cambridge! Returns the benefits of writing essays, index in the array where the how to write a plan Management, string was found. Raises an error if the argument is Downside School, not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to International Community School use strings instead of numbers to benefits of writing essays School select options.) Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. An Essay Yourself Bromsgrove! msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string.
This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the essays, given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the on writing an essay about yourself Bromsgrove, given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in benefits essays School case of errors. Raises an error. How I Cesar! The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . Benefits Of Writing Essays Downside! It also adds at the beginning of the tips, message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is of writing essays Downside School, available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and College, pushes nothing.
Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the benefits essays Downside School, chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input.
The first line in Ritz Сolleges Switzerland the file is Downside, ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the how i Cesar, same results as lua_load , but it has an of writing essays extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the write essay College Cambridge, chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for essays School, userdata, adds it to can write essay Ritz Сolleges Switzerland the registry with key tname , and returns 1.
In both cases pushes onto the stack the School, final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an cae Roedean School error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into benefits of writing essays, the given state.
If the function argument narg is how i essay Cesar, a number, returns this number cast to an int . Benefits Of Writing Essays School! If this argument is writing competition Rossall School, absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to benefits essays School a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . Essay Abbey College! If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the benefits of writing, position *l with the results's length. If the cae Roedean School, function argument narg is a number, returns this number.
If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to of writing School a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the on writing an essay yourself Bromsgrove International School Thailand, final string on the top of the Downside School, stack.
Creates and returns a reference , in the table at International School, index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into of writing School, table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by good Cambridge calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Essays Downside! Function luaL_unref frees a reference and ICS — International Community School, its associated object. If the object at of writing essays, the top of the stack is cae Roedean, nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . Of Writing Essays Downside School! The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from Abbey College any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for of writing, arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . Review Cae Roedean! name is the function name and of writing Downside School, func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to Cesar Ritz Сolleges NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and benefits of writing essays School, registers on it all functions in essay Marbella International Management the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one.
In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the benefits Downside School, running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the it reviewer International, C API.
Some of benefits Downside School, these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an cae Roedean School implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the of writing essays, official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the it reviewer School, luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by benefits of writing calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the good College, package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the benefits of writing essays Downside, table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities.
This function is a generic interface to tips on writing an essay yourself International Thailand the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in benefits essays Downside School use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Write Good Essay College! Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. Of Writing! setpause: sets arg as the new value for international, the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Of Writing Essays! Returns the previous value for Community, pause . Of Writing! setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).
Returns the previous value for international writing competition, step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to benefits Downside get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the tips on writing yourself Thailand, function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of benefits of writing essays, error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Review Cae Roedean! Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the benefits essays Downside, table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over how to a plan for an essay Les Roches of Hotel Management, the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the of writing Downside, table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results.
A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the on writing yourself Bromsgrove International School, compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the essays School, idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Essay Writing Competition! Its first argument is a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value.
When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and essays, its associated value. When called with the how to for an essay School Management, last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . Of Writing Essays! If the write good essay, second argument is benefits Downside, absent, then it is tips on writing an essay about Bromsgrove International School, interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for benefits, numeric indices . International Competition School! (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to School a non-existent field in on writing an essay about Bromsgrove School the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.
In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is of writing essays Downside School, a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the tips on writing about International School Thailand, environment to benefits of writing be used by how i essay Ritz the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is benefits of writing essays, 0 setfenv changes the essay, environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values.
Sets the metatable for the given table. Benefits Downside School! (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. Write Good Essay! If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the essays, base to international essay competition Rossall interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. Of Writing Essays School! In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35.
In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). An Essay About School Thailand! In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of of writing essays School, e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the writing competition School, result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. By default, i is 1 and benefits Downside School, j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the it reviewer ICS — School, err function with the original error object, and of writing Downside, returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.
In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Write A Plan Les Roches Marbella Of Hotel! Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the benefits School, execution of tips about, coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. Benefits Of Writing Downside! If the how to for an essay Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management, coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the benefits Downside, values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the write good essay Abbey College, coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the benefits of writing essays School, running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the review cae Roedean, coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error.
Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of benefits essays Downside School, error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator.
Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of College Cambridge, its functions directly in benefits Downside School the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. On Writing Yourself School! If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of of writing essays, package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below).
Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of essay, field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the benefits School, module name, where each option is how to a plan International School of Hotel Management, a function to be applied over the module. Loads the benefits School, given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to Ritz Сolleges Switzerland find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. Benefits Essays Downside! By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. Good Abbey College! The following explanation is essays, based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for how to a plan for an Marbella International School Management, a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the benefits of writing essays Downside School, loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to tips about yourself International Thailand package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry.
In any case, require returns the final value of benefits essays Downside School, package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for write Abbey Cambridge, the module, then require signals an error. The path used by benefits of writing School require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the a plan International of Hotel Management, C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by Downside School require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . Tips On Writing About Yourself International School Thailand! When looking for benefits of writing essays Downside School, a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to International Community School require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say).
Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the of writing, path stored at a plan essay Les Roches Management, package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. Benefits Of Writing School! For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by writing competition School filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to Downside School open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the review School, string.
the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and essays Downside School, /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in essay Ritz Сolleges Switzerland that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for of writing essays, module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Ritz Switzerland! Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to of writing essays be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore.
Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is essay Rossall School, a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an benefits Downside School all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for tips on writing yourself International School, an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the benefits of writing Downside School, host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the how i can write essay Cesar Сolleges Switzerland, protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. Of Writing Essays School! It completely bypasses the package and cae Roedean School, module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and benefits essays Downside, does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for Community, a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in benefits of writing luaconf.h , if the it reviewer ICS — International Community School, environment variable is not defined.
Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in benefits Lua, the international essay, first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the benefits of writing Downside, string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the Cambridge, table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the Downside School, __index field points to international School the string table. Benefits Of Writing Essays! Therefore, you can use the International Community, string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.
Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the of writing essays Downside School, pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices.
will produce the Cesar Ritz, string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop. will iterate over of writing essays Downside, all the words from string s , printing one per it reviewer International School, line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at Downside, the start of tips Bromsgrove Thailand, a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. Of Writing Downside School! The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the how i can write Cesar Сolleges, table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key.
If repl is a function, then this function is benefits essays Downside School, called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in tips about yourself School Thailand order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the benefits of writing Downside School, original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of on writing yourself Bromsgrove Thailand, characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. Benefits Downside School! %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . School! This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to of writing essays represent itself in a pattern. About Bromsgrove International School! [ set ] : represents the of writing School, class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in write good essay College Cambridge set represent themselves.
For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the benefits of writing Downside, underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the Ritz Switzerland, lowercase letters plus the of writing essays Downside, ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. Write Good Essay Abbey College! [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the essays School, corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in Abbey Cambridge the class.
These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the School, longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . ICS — International! This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the of writing essays Downside, first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to good Abbey College Cambridge their left parentheses.
For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is School, stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. How I Switzerland! Use %z instead.
This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the benefits of writing essays, length of the review School, table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by of writing the given order may have their relative positions changed by International the sort. This library is an interface to benefits Downside the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of how to for an essay International School, x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the benefits of writing Downside, arc sine of x (in radians).
Returns the essay Cesar Сolleges, arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the benefits Downside, signs of both parameters to writing competition Rossall School find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the benefits of writing Downside, angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by good Abbey College Cambridge y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value.
Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of benefits of writing essays School, x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in essay writing School degrees) in radians.
This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in benefits the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the ICS — School, seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of essays Downside School, numbers. Returns the sine of international essay competition Rossall, x (assumed to essays Downside School be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to International Community School be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. Benefits Of Writing! The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to write Abbey Cambridge set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the of writing essays School, operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the can write Cesar, file descriptor.
The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to of writing essays Downside School file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file.
When called without parameters, it returns the write good Cambridge, current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and of writing essays Downside School, returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over cae Roedean, all lines of the file. When the essays Downside School, iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the ICS — International School, file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file.
In this case it does not close the of writing essays School, file when the international essay writing Rossall School, loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in benefits School the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in good Abbey College case of errors, nil plus an benefits School error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is can write Сolleges, preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at benefits essays, the end, which is an essay about, needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from essays School this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ).
This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is international writing, a valid file handle. Returns the benefits of writing essays Downside, string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an International Community School unpredictable amount of time to of writing School happen.
Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the on writing an essay yourself International, loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format.
When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the benefits, only format that returns a number instead of a string. Write Essay College! *a: reads the whole file, starting at Downside School, the current position. On end of file, it returns the empty string. How I Can Write Essay Cesar Switzerland! *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. School! If number is zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the can write Ritz Switzerland, file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of benefits essays Downside, success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in review bytes from the beginning of the of writing essays Downside, file.
If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for how i can write Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland, whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the benefits School, call file:seek(set) sets the it reviewer ICS — International School, position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and essays Downside School, returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is review, any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to of writing School the file . ICS — International Community! The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the essays Downside, time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value).
Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the how i can write essay Ritz, following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is of writing Downside, 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the write a plan for an essay Les Roches of Hotel, number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell.
It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an essays Downside optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the write essay Abbey College Cambridge, file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error.
Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . Benefits Downside School! If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the essay Cesar Switzerland, program. Downside School! locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an cae Roedean School optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is benefits of writing essays School, all . The function returns the International Thailand, name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is essays Downside School, set to international essay writing an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the benefits of writing essays, string C , the how i Ritz, current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the essays, first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for essay competition School, the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only benefits, as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for essay College, a temporary file.
The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the essays School, name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to ICS — use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library.
The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over School, a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is write College, always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and benefits essays Downside School, other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and how to a plan for an Les Roches School of Hotel, local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on.
A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the benefits of writing Downside, thread, as three values: the good College, current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at essays Downside School, level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the good, string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function.
This function returns the essays, name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and how i can write essay Switzerland, raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to essays Downside check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the School, function func . The function returns nil if there is of writing Downside School, no upvalue with the given index.
Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of it reviewer, code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the benefits School, event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and international essay writing, count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to benefits essays Downside get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is tail return . Write Good Essay! In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is benefits Downside, no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable.
Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to on writing about yourself Bromsgrove School the upvalue with index up of the essays Downside School, function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Cae Roedean School! Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. Benefits Of Writing Essays Downside School! An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).
Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in an essay yourself Bromsgrove International Thailand a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the Downside School, standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise.
Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for review, an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the benefits Downside, file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of International Community, a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in benefits of writing essays Downside School the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at a plan essay Marbella International School of Hotel, index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Benefits Essays Downside School! Any arguments before the tips Bromsgrove Thailand, script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the benefits of writing Downside School, file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . Write Good College! '.
In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by benefits essays Downside issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by International School assigning to _PROMPT . See the of writing essays, next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the Abbey, use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the of writing essays School, program would just end silently right after the international Rossall, assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the essays Downside, use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in writing competition Rossall your machine.
If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the essays Downside, incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of international essay writing School, the for statement and for the repeat statement. School! The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in can write Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the of writing School, whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated.
Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . How I Can Write Cesar Ritz! (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the of writing Downside School, path from write a plan for an Marbella International of Hotel Management package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. Downside! They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function.
Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to tips set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to of writing essays Downside School create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of on writing about International, luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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Pros and Cons Series Part 3: Should Cursive Be Taught in School?
Writing About Hair: The Thick and benefits of writing, Thin of Descriptions. You all are getting another peek into my magic notebook. Write Cambridge. This time we’re taking a page out of my 17 page section that covers hair, wigs and benefits of writing essays, every description of body hair you can imagine (and probably some of you can’t). International Essay Competition. Now that I’ve scared you, we’re going to talk about the benefits of writing Downside hair on your character’s heads – the color, the length, the style . . . We’re covering it all. But there are a few very important points we should chat about first. T he #1 thing about hair descriptions is essay Abbey Cambridge Do Not overuse them . Essays. You do not want to be known as “hair girl “or “hair boy!” #2 on the essential List: Hair descriptions are a part of the character so make them work harder by it reviewer ICS — International Community School, using them to of writing essays, describe the person “inside,” not just what the write for an essay Marbella School Management person looks like outside. A tomboy might have a very short, non-nonsense haircut.
Then again, she might hide long tresses under a ball cap, because secretly she’d like to be noticed as the girl she really is. A man who works as an executive might conform to a short, and very tailored look. Benefits School. Or, he wears expensive suits but he wears his hair a little too long because on it reviewer ICS — International Community the weekends he caters to of writing essays, his passion and joins his buddies for motorcycle road trips. Okay, because I have so many descriptions and yourself Bromsgrove Thailand, definitions, I’m going to cut to benefits Downside School, the chase. Alternative Generic Names For Head Hair. Bangs obscured her eyes like a sheepdog. Flaked with snowy dandruff. Bleached, bottle baby.
Braid like a thick black rope. Bundled at the nape. Bun resembled a cow patty. Cascading down her back. Coiled in a top-knot. Curls foamed luxuriously.
Tendrils danced on the breeze. Downy bond hair sprinkled her arms. Dramatic widow’s peak. Elaborately dressed with ribbons. Smelled like burnt chicken feathers. Snow drifts of dandruff. Veiled her expression with. Greased into a ducktail. Flaming locks fluttered to the floor. Frizz job, bad perm. Glossy locks lifted on the wind.
Grew like a thatch of straw on a roof. Grizzled, gray hair. Hair drooped around pale cheeks. Hair like Rapunzel. Hung like a dark river. Left unbound to it reviewer School, tumble. Like a clown wig, artificial red, plastic shine and fuzzy. Like a thatched roof. Like she put her finger in of writing School, a light socket. Limp and lifeless.
Long, shaggy hippy look. Lustrous as onyx stone. Marcelled into fingerwaves. Matted to good College Cambridge, the scalp. Puffed like a bubble around her head. Shock of Downside hair stood straight up. Slapped her face like wet worms. Smooth honey dripped over her shoulders. Spiky Mohawk style of a punk rocker.
Spilled out of the hat. Spread like feathers on it reviewer ICS — School a pillow. Standing on benefits end. Stiff in international writing competition Rossall School, front like a cockatoo. Straight as a wire. Stuck to benefits of writing School, her sweaty nape. Two-toned dye job.
Unconquered curls sprang loose. Old-lady blue rinsed hair. Vibrant color and shine. White Pigeon Wings at temples. Wondered what rubble lay beneath that mess. Wreathed her face. Bleached hair like mushy wet works. Blue feather hair of Rossall old lady. Cotton candy hair, fine. Short-cropped and stiff. Soft curls and waves.
Descriptive Hair Color Words Phrases. Battleship gray, dull gray. Blue dandelion fuzz. Blue rinse gray. Maltese gray (blue gray) Salt and Pepper. Rawhide, dark reddish.
Professional Hair Color Descriptions. Ash blond — Lacks red or gold highlights (verges on of writing School green tones); light mousy blond, medium and School, dark blond, dishwater, beige. Ash brown — Browns lacking warm/red tones tones; light mousy brown, medium and dark brown. Black — Different shades of black vary according to benefits, the amount of Cesar Ritz Switzerland highlighting or pigmentation shadings present in the hair; black lacking all highlighting will be duller, ash shade; black containing a lot of benefits essays School red may appear as deep burgundy. Red — Warm shades; berry, russet, strawberry (red-blonde), rusty orange, wine, carrot top, etc.
Towhead — Whitish blond; usually an Cesar Сolleges, ash blond lacking warm tones but not always. Warm blond — Blond with touch of gold and red; whiskey, wheat, honey, strawberry, brassy, golden etc. Warm brown — Brunette, dark or light brown that contains red or gold tones; varies from light to nearly black; reddish brown, chestnut, dark amber, auburn etc. Hair Styles Modern And Historical. It’s impossible to name all the benefits of writing essays Downside hairstyles but the selection here should be a good start.
Many listed here also are known by write essay International School Management, other names. [See of some these hairstyles here.] Afro — Unisex style borrowed from the African Americans; short and very curly, forming a bowl shaped profile; a pick is used to pull the hair away from the head and shape it. Asymmetric — Hair is cut long on side of the head and short on the other. Bedhead — Popularized in 1990s by of writing essays School, starlet Meg Ryan; short to mid-length shaggy cut worn jelled or moussed in tossed fashion. Beehive — A 60’s French twist coiled at it reviewer ICS — School, the back of the head and rising above it to form a cone shape (see upsweep) Bob — Introduced in 1915 this short cropped hair style was popular during the benefits of writing essays School 1920’s; also called the shingle bob, the good shingle, the Eaton crop. It is often cropped at the jawline and aligned close to the face. Bouffant — Puffy hair style’ hair is backcombed or ratted then barely smoothed, resulting in a bubble affect. Bowl — Most commonly worn by young boys.
The bang area cut straight cross the forehead as if measured by turning a bowl upside down on the head. The top layers are longer and cut along the this bowl line around the head. Bubble — 60’s hairstyle, short to mid-length, ratted/backcombed to appear like a football helmet or bubble surrounding the head. Butch/flattop/crewcut — A man’s style; usually cut with electric shears; very short and stands on end at the front of the head and his shaved close to the head on the sides; sometimes called a GI cut. Buzz – Modern slang for a hair shaved close to the head. Chignon — Bun, usually at the nape or top of head; topknot. Conk — African American textured hair that is straightened. Cornrows — Small tightly braided rows of benefits of writing essays Downside School hair that hug the scalp; most often worn by African Americans. Duck tail — 50’s style worn by girls and boys alike; hair on either side of nape combed toward the center of the head; reminiscent of Elvis Presley, Fabian, Doris Day, Debbie Reynolds etc.
Farraha Fawcett — Long layered hair flipped or feathered back off the face with a bang that feathers or rolls off the face as well; made popular by the TV star of the same name; late 70’s and early 80’s. Finger waved — Usually short haircut in which a stylist uses lotion and her fingers to create deep waves that circle the head. Popular in the 1920s and 30s. Flip — Feminine hair style of the 50’s and 60’s; long hair usually shoulder length turned up at School, the ends, sometimes in a roll. Fontange — Worn 1690’s to 1710; a towering fountain of of writing School frills and complex, lacy intertwining shaped around a wire frame and considered the height of fashion; nicknamed by disdaining men, the “tower and the comet” French twist/seam — Hair swept back from School, both sides the head (front to School, back) and rolled down the center of the head into how i can write essay Ritz Switzerland a roll or tucked to benefits School, make a seam. Fringe — Curly bangs worn in the 1880’s; in an essay about yourself, 1900’s worn straight; alternate name for benefits essays Downside, bangs. Kiss curls — Seen immediately after Civil War; ringlets of curls on the cheeks or forehead. London Cut — Short female cut popular during the 1960s and early 70s. The hair was cut over how i Cesar Сolleges Switzerland, the ears, leaving a fringe in front of the ears, often brushed toward the of writing Downside face or straight down. How I Сolleges. The nape hair was cut along the hairline like a boys but more rounded instead of squared off like a man’s neckline.
Mohawk — Shaved head with a strip of hair growth down the center of the of writing essays Downside School head from it reviewer International School, forehead to the nape. Pads — Late 1830’s long coiled curls over the ears (looked like ear muffs); at the back of the essays head they were called a Grecian knot or psyche knot. Pageboy — Introduced in late 1930s early 40’s; long, hair turned under, usually just touching the shoulders. Pigtails — Same as pony tail only the hair is parted down middle and essay competition School, each section is cinched into its own tail above or below the benefits essays ear. Pixie — Female short cut; feathered around profile of face and onto cheek, short at the nape line; usually with full bang and combed forward onto face; also called an Italian cut; permed version called a poodle cut. Pompadour — Style of wearing the hair high over the forehead usually in some type of rolled affect; in 1940’s women used rats (nylon mash) to roll the hair off the forehead and puff it; a version of this also worn during the 1700’s and early 1800’s by most and cae Roedean School, women; name comes from a lady of Downside School this era called Madame. Ponytail — Hair gathered together and cinched with a rubber band or barrette to make a tail at the back of the head; worn high or low; worn low it’s sometimes called a George (referring to George Washington) or a Paul Revere. Powdered hair/wigs — Unisex style worn from about 1760’s to 1820; after 1740 men were wearing shorter, simpler wigs and began to how i can write essay Сolleges Switzerland, powder their own hair. Punk — Usually short on top and styled with lotion to stand up off the head; often a mohawk fashion from of writing School, forehead to nape; sometimes dyed bright neon colors of pink, purple, blue, orange etc.
Queue — Pigtail, esp. that of a Chinese. How I Essay Cesar Switzerland. (Chinese queue was braided) Men of Colonial America wore these as well, usually tied back with a ribbon and in some cases men wore a periwig styled with a queue. Roach — Hair brushed into benefits of writing Downside a roll. Sausage curl — Long tube-like coils of hair; popular in how to write a plan for an essay Marbella International School of Hotel Management, early 1800’s; in the early 1970’s these were piled on top of the head in a cluster, esp. for formal dress for benefits essays Downside, teens. Shag — Like a pixie, only it reviewer ICS — International School long at the nape. Lengths vary from short to long layered cut; popular during the early 70’s. Skin heads — Group of radical racist youths, men and Downside School, women alike, who shaved their heads. Spaniel’s curls — Late 1840’s into the 50’s; long thick curls worn by the ear (as worn by Elizabeth Barrette Browning) Spit curls — First seen in 1831; flat curls on essay College Cambridge women in front of the benefits of writing essays School ear.
Tonsure — Shaven part of a monk or cleric’s head. Updo/upsweep — Generic term for long hair styled high on top of head; hair might petaled (layered curls), barrel curled, arranged in a chignon, backcombed into a beehive or styled in French roll etc. Wedge cut — Also called Dorothy Hammil cut; short cut worn mostly by women; sides feathered off the face, back cut longer from the drown to the occipital bone, where its layered into a wedge; nape is trimmed close the head and short; a late ‘70’s and how to write a plan Marbella Management, early 80’s style; a. Sharla has published three historical romances and of writing essays, her fourth, How to tips on writing an essay International School Thailand, Fell a Timberman, is of writing School impatiently waiting to be formatted for Kindle. When she’s not writing and how to for an essay Les Roches Marbella School Management, researching ways to bedevil her book characters, Sharla enjoys collecting authentically costumed dolls from Downside School, all over the world, traveling (to seek more dolls!), and reading tons of books. Review Cae Roedean School. You can find Sharla here at Writers In The Storm, on Twitter at @SharlaWrites or on Facebook. 25 comments to Writing About Hair: The Thick and Thin of Descriptions. Thanks for sharing this wonderful list, along with the great pic! Thank “you” for dropping by Erin.
Sharla, once more I must say … you are amazing. Of Writing Downside School. How in the world do you do this ?? Reading your posts is like having our own personal writing coach. International School. Each element of each writing technique in such amazing detail, that I need a workbook for your posts only. Thanks … everything I ever wanted to know about of writing Downside hair #128578; Thanks for international essay writing competition, such a great compliment! Glad you enjoy my lists. Goodie, another list of descriptions to add to benefits of writing Downside School, my personal long list.
Thanks so much for for an Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management, posting this – you save all of of writing essays Downside us a lot of long hours researching those perfect terms/descriptions for our manuscripts. Always, V. Glad you like the list Virgina. I wasn’t kidding when I said I could only write good essay College Cambridge post a section of my hair list. But I figured you guys would be most interested in this one. Benefits Of Writing Essays Downside. #128578; You’ve done it again, Sharla. The descriptive range you provide for such everyday characteristics is write Abbey Cambridge beyond impressive.
Thanks. Wow, you just made my top of the list for awesome. Thank you for essays School, all the work, and write good, sharing. Thank you ladies for essays, stopping by. I’m happy to share.
That’s the best thing about being a romance writer. We share. #128578; Wow! I’ll never look at hair the same again. Thanks Janie and thanks for stopping by WITS today. Sharla, Thanks for the detailed description of HAIR that all writers can use in how to for an Management, their stories. what a helpful library you’ve created for hair. thank you. Thanks for benefits of writing essays Downside, posting such a useful resource! I made my own reference table, leaving a space for blonde and bald #128578;
My characters will never have a “bad hair day again!” Unless it furthers my plot, of course. #128578; Thanks for international essay School, taking so much time to compile these lists for us. It’s so appreciated. You are all welcome ladies. Of Writing Downside. Now I wonder if I should tell my daughter, I used her punk hair style for my blog today. #128578; What a great collection of facts! Thanks, Sharla! One of my characters, a Las Vegas showgirl, wears her hair in a “bob.” Now I know what to School, call it. Thanks for opening up your magic notebook, Sharla. I tend to benefits essays, get in a rut with hair and eye descriptions.
Thank you, wonderful descriptions. School. In Australia we also have (or had, it’s a bit retro), a men’s style called “short back and sides”, like a crew cut but not as short. It was a conservative style that was the socially acceptable opposite of long hippy hair in the nineteen sixties. Hair styles carry a strong social message. I love this regional information. Every country is different and of writing Downside, sometimes even states here in the US. Thanks for sharing. Very informative and fun, Sharla! I write stories set in the 15th century, and you included descriptions that I can use, also. Thanks for sharing!
Thanks. I write American historicals so I wanted to include styles from the past. Also I think sometimes it’s fun to refer to old styles even for contemporary stories as they make great descriptions themselves. This will save time I would have spent googling–thank you! Your welcome Toni. You can find pictures of many hairstyles at the link I included above if that helps. I must admit I only skimmed this, but I pinned it. It’s an excellent resource.
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There are some credible, legitimate jobs there if you look hard enough and have a little patience. The cPro Craigslist app is about as good as it gets in the space unless you prefer to use your mobile browser. It#8217;s worth a shot and essays Downside one of the good essay College, more unique job search apps. Glassdoor is a one of essays Downside School, those job search apps that have become fairly reliable over the last couple of years. The app also has a variety of College Cambridge, tools to benefits essays School, help you figure out some various stats.
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LinkedIn Job Search is of writing Downside School a separate app from the main one that helps streamline the process of finding jobs for you to apply for. Write A Plan For An Essay Les Roches International Of Hotel. It#8217;s easy to use and integrates well with LinkedIn proper. It#8217;s worth a shot if you use that network. School. [Price: $3.99 / $12.99] Resumem Builder Pro will help you build a resume that you can be proud of. Naturally, it can#8217;t hold a candle to Abbey College, powerful desktop apps. For mobile, though, you can#8217;t do much better than this. You can build a basic resume that includes the benefits of writing, usual things like skills, objective, experience, education, and references. Filling in the information is surprisingly easy given that you#8217;re doing this on a mobile device. The generated resumes look highly professional even if it lacks a bit of international essay writing, flair. It#8217;s an essential app for those looking for jobs.
Simply Hired has one of the most popular job search sites in the world. As you can imagine, they have one of the more popular job search apps as well. Downside. You can search for the basic stuff, including full or part-time jobs based on write essay Abbey College Cambridge your location. The site services mainly North America, although there are a few additional countries that have limited support. With an account, you can have jobs and you#8217;ll have additional features at your disposal. It#8217;s one of the more buggy apps on the list so be prepared for that. Otherwise, it#8217;s pretty decent. Snagajob is a lesser-known. However, it is still one of the more reliable job search apps. Benefits School. You can do the usual stuff such as search for jobs of various types and keywords.
Some of the more unique features include a one-click method for on writing Bromsgrove International School application submission, a video profile, and more. It caters its search to a younger (college age) audience, but there are still postings there that everyone can apply for. It#8217;s a fun little job search app overall. Trovit is another one of the essays Downside School, more popular job search apps. It features a pretty decent search with plenty of filters to find the kind of job that you want. International Essay Competition School. You can also add jobs to your bookmarks for future use. The app can also send you alerts when jobs that fit what you want show up. It#8217;s a good #8220;fire and forget#8221; app for job searching so you don#8217;t have to put a lot of effort into it. Otherwise, it#8217;s a fairly basic app in this genre which can be good or bad depending on what you#8217;re looking for. ZipRecruiter is a newcomer in the job search apps world.
However, it has already amassed a million downloads and a 4.7 Google Play rating. You can do the usual stuff like searching for jobs with filters so you can find the kind of jobs you want. Benefits Of Writing Essays. It also has a #8220;one click apply#8221; function so you can apply for a lot of jobs quickly. You#8217;ll be able to browse a variety of job boards from different sites so that you can consider this an all-in-one stop. It#8217;s worth a shot if you#8217;re interested.
If we missed any of the tips an essay yourself Bromsgrove School, best job search apps, tell us about them in the comments! To see our complete list of best app lists, click here.
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essay on nabby [an error occurred while processing this directive] Jim Olson's Essay on Abigail Adams. At first she did not give it much thought, noticing it now and then when she bathed or dressed. Benefits Of Writing School? Nor did she talk about it. She was a shy, somewhat withdrawn woman, quiet and cautious in her expressions, most comfortable with people who guarded their feelings. She blushed easily and rarely laughed out School, loud, allowing only a demure, half-smile to crease her face when she was amused. She had a pleasant disposition and a mellow temperament, both endearing to family and friends. Nabby was a striking woman, with long, red hair, a round face, deep-blue eyes, and a creamy, porcelain complexion. Benefits Of Writing Essays? She commanded respect, not because of an aggressive personality but simply because of the quality of her mind and her unfailing dignity.
She was born in Quincy, Massachusetts, in 1766. Review? Her parents named her Abigail Adams, but they began calling her Nabby when she was still an benefits essays Downside, infant. Nabby had an extraordinary childhood. Her father was John Adams, the write Abbey Cambridge future president of the United States, and her mother Abigail Adams, the most prominent woman in benefits essays School, early American society. Her younger brother John Quincy was destined to win many honors, among them the presidency of the United States.
From the time of her birth, Nabby's parents busied themselves with colonial politics, eventually playing leading roles in ICS — International Community School, the American Revolution. Benefits Essays Downside School? They raised her on how i can write Cesar Ritz Сolleges, a steady diet of political talk about freedom, liberty, rights, despotism, and foreign policy. Nabby absorbed it all. An only Downside School, daughter, she enjoyed the it reviewer International Community special attentions of her father, who felt the need to protect and pamper her. Abigail doted on her, dressing her up in benefits School, the latest fashions when she was little and counseling her when she was an adolescent. On Writing Yourself Bromsgrove School Thailand? Their relationship evolved into a deep friendship. Nabby took it all in stride, never becoming spoiled or self-indulgent. She was even-handed, thick-skinned, and benefits of writing Downside School unafraid of responsibility. In 1783, when Congress appointed her father as minister to England, Nabby was seventeen-years-old. Write For An Marbella International? The family took up residence in a house on Grosvener Square in London. Caught up in a whirlwind of social and benefits of writing School political activity, they met King George III at court and other prominent politicians at write good essay Cambridge, parties and benefits of writing essays banquets common to write a plan for an essay Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management the life of an ambassador.
After a few months, Nabby became acquainted with William Smith, a thirty-year-old veteran of the Continental Army and secretary to the American legation in benefits of writing Downside School, London. A dashing, handsome figure, Smith raced around London in a two-seated carriage, the eighteenth-century equivalent to a modern sports car. He dressed well and how i Cesar Ritz Сolleges kept company with people in benefits of writing Downside, London's expatriate community, especially Latin American liberals and radicals interested in securing independence from Spain. He was bold and impetuous, inspired by courage and limited by poor judgment. Review Cae Roedean School? Because of School, his work with the U.S. legation, and his role as secretary to Minister John Adams, he saw a great deal of the Adams family, and Nabby fell secretly in love with him. Drawn to Nabby's beauty, grace, and intelligence, he soon felt the same way about her. They married in tips on writing an essay about Bromsgrove International, June 1786, after a courtship which John and Abigail Adams felt was too short. They accepted it, however, because a soldier is always more expeditious in his courtships than other men. But Colonel William Smith was a soldier without a war, a has-been at essays School, the age of thirty, and ICS — School Nabby, an innocent victim of essays Downside School, what her brother John Quincy called fortune's treacherous game, faced a difficult life. Colonel Smith was not cruel.
In fact, he always loved and cared for Nabby and their three children. With a stoicism that would have made the most devout Puritan proud, she accepted her fate and made a life for her family wherever Smith settled. The problem was that Smith never really settled down. He wasted his life away, winning and losing political appointments, dabbling in Latin American coup d'etats, dragging Nabby and the children back and forth between New York and London in search of a new power broker or another promising deal. He spent more money than he ever earned, and Nabby worried constantly about bills and the family reputation. Early in the new century, Smith tried his hand at real estate speculation, but he lost everything. In 1809, when Nabby first noticed the lump in her breast, they were living on the edge of the frontier, on a small farm along the Chenango River in how to a plan for an essay School of Hotel, western New York, where Smith spent his days behind a walking plow and a mule. Nabby was a well-informed woman, and breast cancer was as much a dread disease in the early 1800s as it is today. No records exist describing her initial reaction to the lump, but it is safe to say that concern about the dimple flared into gut-twisting fear.
Like so many women, then and today, she tried to benefits Downside ignore the lump, hoping that in the busy routines of running a small farm and household she would not have time to think about can write essay Cesar it. But cancer has a way of asserting itself, finally obliterating even the most elaborate denials. Nabby was no exception. The lump grew ominously, in School, spite of the efforts of local healers and their potions. She wrote home to John and Abigail Adams in February 1811 that her doctor had discovered a cancer in my breast.
As soon as they received the letter, the Adams wrote back urging her to come to Boston for it reviewer International medical advice. In June 1811, with the lump visible to the naked eye, a desperate Nabby returned to Massachusetts, accompanied by her husband and of writing Downside daughter Caroline. As soon as she arrived in Quincy, she wrote to Benjamin Rush, describing her condition and an essay about yourself School Thailand seeking his advice. When Abigail Adams first looked at her daughter's breast, she found the condition allarming. The large tumor distended the breast into a misshapen mass. John and Abigail took Nabby to see several physicians in Boston, and of writing Downside they were cautiously reassuring, telling her that the situation and her general health were so good as not to threaten any present danger. They prescribed hemlock pills to tips an essay about Thailand poison the disease. Soon after those reassuring examinations, however, the benefits Downside School family received an unsettling reply from write Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, Benjamin Rush. In her initial letter, Nabby told Rush that the tumor was large and benefits of writing Downside School growing, but that it was movable--not attached to the chest wall. Rush found the news encouraging, as would most cancer specialists today.
Malignant tumors which are movable are better candidates for can write Ritz Сolleges surgery, since it is benefits of writing essays, more likely that the surgeon can get what is termed a clean margin--a border of non-cancerous tissue surrounding the essay writing competition School tumor--reducing the odds that the cancer will recur or spread. Knowing that Nabby had already traveled from of writing Downside, western New York to on writing an essay about yourself International Boston to seek medical advice, Rush wrote to John and Abigail, telling them to break his news gently to Nabby: I shall begin my letter by replying to your daughter's. I prefer giving my opinion and advice in her case in this way. Of Writing Downside School? You and Mrs. Adams may communicate it gradually and in how to write for an essay, such a manner as will be least apt to distress and alarm her. After the experience of more than 50 years in cases similar to hers, I must protest against all local applications and internal medicines for relief. They now and essays Downside School then cure, but in 19 cases out of 20 in tumors in an essay about Bromsgrove International, the breast they do harm or suspend the disease until it passes beyond that time in which the only radical remedy is ineffectual.
This remedy is the knife. Benefits Essays? From her account of the moving state of the international essay writing competition Rossall tumor, it is now in a proper situation for the operation. Should she wait till it suppurates or even inflames much, it may be too late. I repeat again, let there be no delay in flying to the knife. Her time of benefits essays, life calls for expedition in it reviewer ICS — International, this business. I sincerely sympathize with her and with you and your dear Mrs. Adams in this family affliction, but it will be but for a few minutes if she submits to have it extirpated, and if not, it will probably be a source of distress and pain to benefits of writing you all for years to come. It shocks me to cae Roedean think of the consequences of of writing School, procrastination. Mastectomy was Nabby's only chance, but first the family had to convince William Smith, who was in an advanced state of denial. When he learned of Rush's recommendation, he reacted indignantly, heading for libraries to learn whatever he could about the disease and hoping to spare her the operation.
He convinced himself for a while that perhaps the tumor would just go away, that it was not so bad. Write Essay Abbey College Cambridge? Nabby's mother had more faith in of writing Downside School, Rush and wrote to international competition School Smith: If the benefits of writing essays Downside operation is necessary as the Dr. How To For An International Of Hotel? states it to be, and as I fear it is, the sooner it is done the better provided Mrs. Smith can bring herself along, as I hope she will consent to it. She even asked her son-in-law to be with Nabby through the painful tryal. Smith finally agreed. They scheduled the operation for October 8, 1811. The day before the surgery, John Warren, Boston's most skilled surgeon, met with the family in Quincy. He gave Nabby a brief physical examination and told her what to expect. His description was nightmarishly terrifying, enough to make everybody reconsider the of writing School decision.
But Rush's warning--It shocks me to think of the consequences of procrastination in her case--stuck in their minds. Nabby had no choice if she ever hoped to live to see her grandchildren. The surgery took place in an upstairs bedroom of the Adams home in Quincy, Massachusetts. It was as bad as they had all feared. John Warren was assisted by his son Joseph, who was destined to become a leading physician in his own right, and several other physicians. Can Write Ritz? Exact details of the operation are not available, but it was certainly typical of essays Downside, early nineteenth surgery. Warren's surgical instruments, lying in a wooden box on ICS — School, a table, were quite simple--a large fork with two, six-inch prongs sharpened to a needle point, a wooden-handled razor, and a pile of of writing essays, compress bandages. In the corner of the room a small oven, full of red-hot coals, heated a flat, thick, heavy iron spatula. Nabby entered into School the room as if dressed for a Sunday service. She was a proper woman and acted the of writing essays Downside School part. The doctors were professionally attired in frock coats, with shirts and ties.
Modesty demanded that Nabby unbutton only the top of her dress and slip it off her left shoulder, exposing the about International diseased breast but little else. She remained fully clothed. Since they knew nothing of bacteria in the early 1800s, there were no gloves or surgical masks, no need for Warren to scrub his hands or disinfect Nabby's chest before the operation or cover his own hair. Warren had her sit down and lean back in a reclining chair. He belted her waist, legs, feet, and benefits Downside School right arm to essay College Cambridge the chair and of writing School had her raise her left arm above her head so that the international School pectoralis major muscle would push the breast up. A physician took Nabby's raised arm by the elbow and held it, while another stood behind her, pressing her shoulders and neck to the chair. Warren then straddled Nabby's knees, leaned over benefits of writing Downside her semi-reclined body, and went to work.
He took the how to write Les Roches Marbella School Management two-pronged fork and thrust it deep into the breast. With his left hand, he held onto the fork and raised up on it, lifting the breast from the chest wall. He reached over for the large razor and started slicing into the base of the breast, moving from the middle of her chest toward her left side. When the breast was completely severed, Warren lifted it away from benefits of writing Downside, Nabby's chest with the fork. But the review tumor was larger and more widespread then he had anticipated. Hard knots of tumor could be felt in the lymph nodes under her left arm. He razored in there as well and pulled out nodes and tumor. Nabby grimaced and groaned, flinching and twisting in the chair, with blood staining her dress and Warren's shirt and pants. Her hair matted in sweat. Abigail, William, and Caroline turned away from the gruesome struggle.
To stop the bleeding, Warren pulled a red-hot spatula from the oven and applied it several times to the wound, cauterizing the worst bleeding points. With each touch, steamy wisps of smoke hissed into the air and filled the room with the distinct smell of Downside, burning flesh. Warren then sutured the wounds, bandaged them, stepped back from Nabby, and mercifully told her that it was over. It Reviewer International Community School? The whole procedure had taken less than twenty-five minutes, but it took more than an hour to dress the wounds. Benefits Of Writing? Abigail and Caroline then went to the surgical chair and helped Nabby pull her dress back over her left shoulder as modesty demanded. Can Write Cesar Сolleges Switzerland? The four surgeons remained astonished that she had endured pain so stoically. Nabby endured a long recovery. She did not suffer from post-surgical infections, but for months after the operation she was weak and feeble, barely able to get around. She kept her limp left arm resting in a sling. Going back to the wilds of western New York was out of the question, so she stayed in Quincy with her mother, hoping to regain strength.
What sustained all of them during the ordeal was the of writing essays School faith that the operation had cured the cancer. Within two weeks of the surgery, Dr. Rush wrote John Adams congratulating him in the happy issue of the operation performed upon Mrs. Smith's breast. her cure will be radical and durable. Write? I consider her as rescued from a premature grave. Abigail wrote to a friend that although the operation had been a furnace of benefits essays School, affliction. what a blessing it was to have extirpated so terrible an enemy. In May 1812, seven months after the surgery, Nabby Smith felt well again. Write Good College? She returned home to the small farm along the Chenango River. But she was not cured. Of Writing Essays? Breast cancer patients whose tumors have already spread to the lymph nodes do not have good survival rates, even with modern surgery, radiation treatments, and chemotherapy. In Nabby's case, long before Warren performed the mastectomy, the cancer had already spread.
Nabby suspected something was wrong within a few weeks of arriving home in essay Abbey Cambridge, New York. She began to complain of benefits of writing essays, headaches and pain in her spine and abdomen. A local physician attributed the discomfort to rheumatism. The diagnosis relieved some of her anxiety, since she was already worried that the pain had something to do with cancer. But it was not the rhemuatism. That became quite clear in 1813 when she suffered a local recurrence of the tumors. When Warren amputated her breast and excised tissues from her axilla, he thought he had gotten it all. International Essay? But cancer is benefits, a cellular disease, and millions of invisible, microscopically-tiny malignant cancers were left behind. By the spring of 1813 some of it reviewer Community, them had grown into tumors of their own--visible in the scar where Nabby's breast had once been and on essays School, the skin as well. Her doctor in New York changed the can write essay Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland diagnosis: the headaches and now excruciating body pains were not rheumatism.
The cancer was back--everywhere. She declined steadily in benefits of writing School, the late spring, finally telling her husband that she wanted to die in about Bromsgrove Thailand, her father's house. Benefits Of Writing School? William Smith wrote John and Abigail in May that the cancer had returned and that Nabby wanted to spend her state of convalescence within the how i can write Ritz Сolleges Switzerland vortex of essays Downside, your kindness and assiduities than elsewhere. The colonel was back in denial. Since the country was in the midst of the good essay Abbey War of 1812, he told his in-laws he had to go to Washington, D.C. for a military appointment, and that he would return to Quincy as soon as Congress adjourned. John and Abigail prepared Nabby's room and waited for her arrival. Essays School? The trip was unimaginably painful--more than three hundred miles in a carriage, over bumpy roads where each jolt stabbed into her. Nabby's son John drove the carriage. When they finally reached Quincy on tips on writing about yourself Bromsgrove International, July 26, she was suffering from grinding, constant pain. Her appearance shocked John and Abigail.
She was gaunt and benefits of writing essays School thin, wracked by a deep cough, and her eyes had a moist, rheumy look. Write A Plan For An Marbella Of Hotel? She groaned and sometimes screamed with every movement. Huge, dark circles shadowed her cheeks, and a few minutes after she settled into bed, the smell of death fouled the air. Nabby's pain was so unbearable, and misery so unmitigated, that Abigail slipped into a depression so deep she could not stand even to visit her room. It was John Adams who ministered to their dying daughter, feeding her, cleaning her and seeing to her personal needs, combing her hair and holding her hand. He tried to administer pain killers, but nothing seemed to help. Smith returned from Washington, and the deathwatch commenced. On August 9, Nabby's breathing became shallow and the passage of time between breaths lengthened. The family gathered around her bedside.
She drew her last breath early in Downside School, the afternoon. A few days later, in a letter to Thomas Jefferson, John Adams wrote: Your Friend, my only Daughter, expired, Yesterday Morning in the Arms of Her Husband her Son, her Daughter, her Father and Mother, her Husbands two Sisters and two of her Nieces, in how i Cesar Ritz Сolleges, the 49th. Benefits Essays? Year of Age, 46 of which She was the healthiest and firmest of Us all: Since which, She has been a monument to Suffering and to Patience. Jefferson understood his friend's pain: I know the depth of the affliction it has caused, and can sympathize with it the international School more sensibly, inasmuch as there is no degree of affliction produced by the loss of those dear to us, while experience has not taught me to estimate. time and silence are the only medicine, and these but assuage, they never can suppress, the deep drawn sigh which recollection for ever brings up, until recollection and life are extinguished together. Please send comments, corrections, news tips to Today@Sam.edu.
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