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book poem in academic writing articles essay © 2017 Steve Campsall. improve your poetry grades! Download Free English biz Guides. A Tok Essay Istituto? If you find poetry difficult then you're not alone. For many people, it's the most difficult aspect of the English course. But. fear not as help and articles University (INTO) a higher grade are within reach. Read on! Find time to give the writing of Canberra, English biz guide to essay writing a look over as it's been written to work alongside this one - click here to read this later . If you need help with a specific poet or poem, click here or on a link below.

If you're truly stuck you can also email the teacher at English biz - you'll find a link on the first page of the site, here . What really must be covered in academic Colorado State your coursework and exam answers? At the core of School any and every answer or essay about poetry must be your own interpretation of the poem or poems you are writing about. It is this alone that attracts the majority of academic writing Colorado University (INTO) marks. In a nutshell, the more subtly you interpret a poem - and give support for your interpretation - the higher your marks, and grade, will be. Poems are rarely to be taken at writing essay Marangoni, face value. It is never the literal meanings that will gain you any marks - it is exposing and Colorado University (INTO) discussing the poem's 'deeper meanings' that bring in the marks every time. When you interpret a poem, you seek to explain what you believe these 'hidden meanings' are, show how they have been created and discuss why this was done. Remember: the meanings you seek exist 'between the Marangoni, lines'. Writing State (INTO)? It is the poet's use of literary language that creates these layers of meaning . Poems, more than any other literary form, are dense with meanings created by this type of language. This is because poets have so little space in which to condense as much meaning as possible.

This is what makes understanding a poem sometimes very difficult - and yet also, often, fascinating. Let's get one thing clear: interpretation never deals in writing Bodwell High School facts . An interpretation is always an opinion - an insight into what the poem might mean. This is academic writing Colorado University, why examiners are never happy with students who do no more than trot out the steps a persuasive essay College, opinions of others, those of their teacher or what they've found in a study guide, for example (examiners do read study guides, btw!). Examiners will always give the most marks to a student's original ideas - so long as they are valid and articles Colorado University are supported by The University (Navitas), close and careful reference to academic writing Colorado State University (INTO) the poem itself. Writing Essay Istituto Marangoni Firenze? Whilst it is your own ideas that are needed, it is invariably easier to University (INTO) uncover the layers of meaning in what Epsom a poem by discussing it with others . Somehow an interaction of minds brings about clearer meaning and a moment when the Colorado State, penny drops. This does not mean you should copy others' ideas but do use such a discussion to develop your own interpretations. You might be one of the essay Marangoni London, many who feel discussing poetry is academic articles Colorado (INTO), not cool. Well, keep in mind that it's your grades that are at stake . The exam is not a practice and you need to get the highest grade you can. So, what to do? For once, ignore being 'uncool' and get boosting those exam grades.

Many students lose marks by going off at a tangent and misreading their poem. How can you avoid this and know that your interpretation is on the right lines? Here's a very worthwhile tip. Teachers.com? How does all this work in academic writing State practice? Below is an example to help show you. It is based on a just a couple of lines from the opening of the poem 'Half Caste' by drawing School, John Agard, a very witty poem that many of you will know. Don't be put off if you don't know it, you'll be able to apply exactly the writing State University (INTO), same ideas to any poem you are studying.

You will see from this just how much can be 'squeezed' from only two lines of a poem. This is a key thing for essay London you to appreciate. 'Excuse me standing on one leg I#8217;m half-caste. Writing Articles Colorado (INTO)? Explain yuself wha yu mean when yu say half-caste. ' Agard opens his poem by creating an what reviewed journal College, obvious contrast between the standard English of the opening line of the poem and the Caribbean dialect of the articles Colorado State University (INTO), second. This creates a clear contrast which works to alert the a tok Firenze, reader to the fact that while both kinds of English create perfectly obvious meaning, only academic writing articles (INTO) one kind is considered to be prestigious and 'proper' within educated circles. Ironically, it is the dialect line that creates the more expressive meaning. Essay Website Bodwell School? In this way, Agard manages to open his poem and introduce a key theme. (INTO)? He wants the reader both to consider and reflect upon what is what is peer articles Epsom College, thought of as acceptable and what is looked down upon in British society. Colorado State? He shows us that 'half-caste' language is a persuasive essay, actually very good language and language that is capable of communicating its message well. Poetry has, as has been said above, been called the art of 'saying the academic articles Colorado University (INTO), unsayable'.

Undoubtedly some poems can seem to create meanings and emotions that seem well beyond the words on the page. Language can be a very mysterious and what College wonderful thing! Hopefully, you will come to enjoy at least some of the poems you study at school but, to be realistic, some poems will, initially at least, appear worryingly difficult. One of the difficulties with a poem is academic writing articles State University, connected with its form - generally speaking, poems are short and this means that poets look for ways to squeeze the essay Istituto Firenze, maximum meaning and feeling into them. Poems are often dense with meaning and unlocking these multi-layered meanings requires patience and skill. But it can be very satisfying - a poem can be like a riddle, fun to crack! This english biz guide will help you 'unpick' a poem and enable you to work out just what the poet is academic articles University, trying to say, how the introductions for essays The University (Navitas), poem is 'working' and writing articles State (INTO) why this is Dulwich College, being done - the poet's purpose . Oh, and finally, you'll find out writing articles Colorado University (INTO), what gains most marks - as well as how you can get them!

Click here to read a poem that many people feel has magical qualities; and here is another! Of course, individuals react differently to such poems but many students seem to enjoy these two poems. Appreciating the subtleties of a complex poem in classroom conditions is teachers.com Rugby School, far from ideal. This means that it will be necessary to find a quiet place and time at home with mobile phone, MP3 player and TV all switched off when you can re-read your poems. Even better, find a friend to read and discuss the poem with - two heads are far better than one when it comes to academic writing articles State University understanding a complex poem. An odd but useful thing about a poem is that if you leave a day between reading it, some of the poem's extra layers of meaning seem to become more apparent when you read the poem again.

It's as if the brain has subconsciously 'worked' on the poem in between readings. Writing Essay Istituto London? Reading for Meaning. Quite a useful thing to articles Colorado State University do when you first begin your work on analysing a poem is to. forget it's a poem! Odd as this sounds, your first task is not to essay website Bodwell High dig for hidden meanings but to be sure you've understood the poem's 'story' - that is, what it is generally all about. This can be called the poem's ' big picture '. It's true that in your essay that this will be one of things to which you will be devoting precious little space BUT you simply cannot proceed without it. So, when you first read any poem, first of all, read it for meaning . These questions will get you on your way: Make a note of academic writing State University (INTO) who is doing the speaking in writing essay Istituto Marangoni the poem - what kind of person and in what kind of state or mood? By the way, never assume it's the poet: instead, think of it as an imagined poetic persona . Poets often like to explore all kinds of aspects of life in their work and this can mean that they try to write from writing Colorado (INTO) different viewpoints, for example an older male poet can write as a young boy, or even girl! Now work out who is being spoken to or addressed? (Yes - it could be you, the poem's reader, or it might be an imaginary person. Often, you a poem can seem to be spoken thoughts such as in writing Marangoni a monologue , or it could be one half of an imaginary conversation. Academic Articles Colorado State University? Think about just what is being spoken about? (What is the subject matter being discussed?).

Now - and this is crucial to a good understanding - work out exactly what tone of writing introductions for essays voice or manner of the speaking voice? (Is the speaker sounding worried, reflective, nostalgic, mournful, happy, concerned, angry, for example?). Writing Colorado State? Importantly, does the tone of voice change during the introductions The University of Canberra (Navitas), poem? Make a note of Colorado where this occurs. Finally, where do the events of the poem happen and what is the situation surrounding them ? When you read your poem, simply read it as a group of sentences, forgetting the Dulwich College, fact that these sentences have been split into lines . At the end of each sentence (i.e. Articles (INTO)? stop reading at steps essay, each full stop or, maybe, at each semicolon - ; ), work out what the academic writing Colorado University, meaning is so far. Spend time thinking about this and perhaps note the idea down on the poem itself at essay Bodwell High School, the side of that part of the poem (this is called annotating the text). This is often the easiest and articles Colorado State University surest way to find out what the poet is trying to say. You can consider the effects of other poetic devices the poet has used, such as the way the writing essay School, lines cut up the sentences, the use of rhythm and academic writing articles Colorado State University (INTO) rhyme , alliteration and so on later. Of course, this doesn't always work - some poems are, let's face it, especially difficult to understand! They might even lack any punctuation so have no apparent sentences.

If you find this to be the case, try searching for a study guide to High your poem by clicking here or here - or, of course, ask your teacher or a friend for articles Colorado State (INTO) help. If you are still struggling to for writing a persuasive essay Dulwich College get to grips with your poem, read it a few more times and, this is the important bit! - leave time between readings (of course, in an exam, this is not possible). Writing Colorado State University (INTO)? A useful tip : Most people race through poems using a dull voice. Try reading your poems quite S-L-O-W-L-Y . Even better (in fact, far better!) is to read the poem aloud ? Oh yes, you really should! Find a quiet place, or read with a friend. Put embarrassment to one side for the sake of a higher grade! Reading aloud is a very effective way of getting 'beneath' the a persuasive essay Dulwich, poem's surface and finding its more subtle meanings. But what you have to do is avoid a mouse-like monotone and instead try to achieve the voice the writer of the poem intended (and this won't be mouse like!!). Colorado State? Click here to listen to a clip of the essay website Bodwell High School, GCSE poet John Agard reading a part of articles University (INTO) his poem, 'Half Caste'. You'll see from this just how much more a dramatic reading of drawing Rugby School some poems can reveal.

Always avoid reading the poem in an overly stylised way , i.e. in a non-conversational voice! Modern poems, especially, are often best read in a normal speaking voice - but it will be a voice with a distinct quality . Academic State University (INTO)? Do always try to introductions for essays The University of Canberra capture this distinctiveness. Shakespeare had a strong Stratford accent apparently - why, then, do we pretend he didn't when we read his plays? The poem's images will, for sure, be there and the poet has created them to academic writing articles University (INTO) guide you towards a fuller understanding of the introductions, poem's content and messages . Try hard not to be overly ingenious as this leads you finding meanings that are not there . Articles Colorado? This is a classic problem with even the brightest students when reading poems. Meanings are never 'hidden' - they are always 'there' - maybe 'under the surface', but always 'there'. And they are always consistent with the whole poem. Writing Istituto Firenze? A poem's deeper meaning might not always be easy to get hold of, but it will be there to find - and - very helpfully and importantly - it will be coherent . Coherence is an writing University (INTO), important quality of what articles all literature, poems included.

It means that the meanings in academic articles State University the poem will all be developed and drawing teachers.com Rugby reinforced logically as the writing State (INTO), poem progresses . The first line always contributes to writing essay Istituto Marangoni London the overall meaning, as do all other lines. If you do think you've found a meaning in a poem and articles Colorado State it does not contribute in some obvious way to the overall meaning of the whole poem , you are almost certainly off track and misreading the poem: a classic way to lose marks! Click here to listen to John Agard reading a part of his poem, Half-Caste . Notice the reviewed, slow and emphatic nature of his voice. If you take a leaf from his book and read your poems slowly and dramatically you will obtain far more meaning from your poems - and gain higher grades ! Writing your essay. Writing an essay about a poem needs the same skills that apply to all essay writing. The english biz essay writing guide is full of ideas that will help gain you a higher grade - be sure to read this - click here . Articles Colorado University (INTO)? As with all essays, you cannot hope to do well unless you know your text well . Only then will you be able to develop a sufficiently strong viewpoint from Dulwich which to create the necessary argument that forms the basis of the best essays. The best essays are written as if they were an articles State (INTO), argument - again, the Englishbiz guide has much more on this.

What is your teacher or examiner actually looking for in your essays? You need to show that you have understood not just the poem's 'surface' meaning - try to introductions for essays The University of Canberra (Navitas) show knowledge of its layers of meaning and its more subtle messages . You need to show you have understood how the poet has used language and poetic devices to help create and 'shape' create subtle underlying messages . You need to academic writing Colorado University (INTO) show you have recognised how meaning is online, developed across the whole poem - as each idea is explored and builds up into a coherent whole. How to do this to gain high marks. Read the essay question or title very carefully . You just wouldn't believe how many students answer a different answer to the one asked. Yes - they do, every year! If you are revising for an exam, ask your teacher to show you some past exam questions . There is no better way to familiarise yourself with what is required in the exam and your teacher will be happy to mark any questions you try. State (INTO)? Some exam boards now post downloadable past exam papers on their web sites . Highlight the key words of the essay question and be sure you address each of these in Rugby your answer - marks will be lost if you don't! In an exam question, there will usually be bullet points to guide your response - you MUST cover the points these mention as the exam marker gives marks based on these . If it is not clear in the essay question, decide which poem(s) will help you answer it. Work out exactly what is required of you. Discussing the academic writing, poet's life and times, i.e. their context , rarely gains marks.

It is often better to get on with your analysis of the poem(s) straight away. Be aware of writing essay any significant changes in emphasis and academic articles University (INTO) the tone of voice as the story, ideas or images of the poem unfolds. Work out how and why these tones and changes in online Istituto Marangoni London tone have been made to occur through particular choices of language or form . This is important as it will allow you to articles State (INTO) comment on the structure of the poem and what Epsom this gains many marks. Be especially alert to the use of an ironic tone of voice. Irony is an important and frequent poetic device used by academic writing University (INTO), poets. Irony is an effective means of writing essay online Marangoni engaging the reader. Irony subtly shapes meaning and writing University (INTO) develops layers of meaning within the poem. As well as irony , poets frequently rely on the use of what is called ' figurative' language . It's very important to notice where figurative language is used, the effect it creates and writing essay online Marangoni the purpose intended.

Figurative language creates 'figures' or images in the mind's eye. It is the use of description , metaphor , simile or personification . This common poetic device helps the poet to create and shape meaning. It also works to develop an emotional response in you, the reader. Figurative language works so well because it creates images in the mind - and as the old saying goes, 'a picture is academic Colorado University, worth a thousand words. '. Writing (Navitas)? Look at these opening lines and see how the images are created and begin to writing articles University work: I#8217;ve known rivers: I#8217;ve known rivers ancient as the world and older than the. flow of human blood in human veins. My soul has grown deep like the rivers. from 'The Negro Sings of Rivers' by Langston Hughes. Read your poem through a sufficient number of times for you to writing introductions for essays (Navitas) feel sure you have grasped its big picture . Finally, with the essay question firmly in mind , work out your response to Colorado State University it. This is your own point of view on writing for essays (Navitas), which you will base your essay.

An important way you can unlock subtle meanings in any text, but especially in a poem, is to look for the effects of academic writing State University (INTO) binary oppositions . Click on the hyperlink if this idea intrigues you. It is essay Istituto Marangoni, a guaranteed 'mark grabber' as it allows a very subtle response indeed to academic writing Colorado State (INTO) a poem (or any text). If you can discuss a text at the level of its binary oppositions , you will have at your disposal a sophisticated way of analysing the subtle levels of writing introductions The University of Canberra meaning created in poetry - but this method is sophisticated and requires very careful thought. FOR A FULL GUIDE TO THIS FASCINATING ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUE - CLICK HERE. Some more ways to unlock the academic articles State University (INTO), meaning of introductions The University (Navitas) a poem. There is a key aspect to every poem you need to writing articles State University consider - the one aspect that separates all poems from essay any other kind of writing: its form . You need to work out why the poet wrote it in lines! Writing in lines means the poem is writing articles State (INTO), composed in verse . Notice where the poet sliced up each sentence into shorter lines (and sometimes even across the stanzas of the poem).

Does it allow a special degree of emphasis to be placed on parts of the is peer reviewed journal College, sentence that might have been lost if it was not 'sliced' up into lines - i.e. if it had been written as a piece of continuous prose ? See if you can work out how the poet's use form helps to emphasise certain words or ideas as these often act subtly to shape meaning . Remember that only University (INTO) poetry allows this 'playfulness' with form . Poets truly enjoy playing with the The University of Canberra (Navitas), form of poetry - after all, that's why they like writing poetry! As well as choosing where to end a line or a verse (i.e. properly called a stanza ), or whether to use rhythm or rhyme , there are many other ways in which a poet can play around with the academic writing State University, form of language to add to the meaning: Some lines might seem to end quite abruptly - even without using a full stop. This can be used to create subtle effects. For example, an end-stopped line can lead to a useful pause occurring before you read on thus creating emphasis (see the technical term caesura below). Some lines might 'run on' into the next line or even the next stanza. Poets also sometimes create the effect of an extended pause between words, phrases or lines - again with or without using punctuation to achieve this effect. This enforced mini-pause is called a caesura . Essay Online Marangoni? This is a subtle effect that leads to an emphasis or a pause for thought being created. Some I mportant 'Poetic Devices' Alliteration is the repeating of initial sounds as in William Blake's poem The Tyger: ' T yger! T yger!

B urning b right!'. This often creates emphasis and, like the use of rhythm and academic writing Colorado State University rhyme , makes words memorable. It can also help to create a different tone - depending on which consonants are alliterated. Alliteration using consonants such as 's' or 'f' will create a softer tone of voice. Alliteration created using harsher consonants such as 'b' or 'd' can create a harsh even angry tone. Always try to work out the Istituto Marangoni London, tone of writing articles State University voice within your poem and note how and where this changes . A ssonance is the term used for the repetition of journal Epsom College vowel sounds within consecutive words as in, 'rags of gr ee n w ee d hung down. '. Vowel sounds are always softer sounding and can add to the quality of the tone of voice within the poem, perhaps creating a sense of softness of mood or romance . A combination of soft consonants and long vowels can create a particularly gentle tone. Rhyme is when the final sounds of words are the academic articles Colorado University (INTO), same and are repeated either within a line (this is writing online Marangoni, called internal rhyme , as in 'I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers ') or at the end of two lines (this is called end rhyme ). Work our the effect rhyme creates. Does it make the academic Colorado University (INTO), poem more memorable? Does it add to the 'feel', the meaning or the tone in a useful way? Does it create a happy sense that 'all is well with the world'? Often 'sound effects' created by using the website, form of words help to suggest a particular tone of voice . For example, repeated hard consonants called 'plosive consonants' (b, p, c, k, d, etc.) can suggest harshness or anger, whereas soft consonants (sh, ch, s, f, m, etc.) or 'long' internal vowels (e.g. the s oo n the academic writing State University (INTO), sh ow ers of au tumn') can suggest a calm or romantic quality.

Rhyme can also suggest or add a sense of steps for writing College control or harmony as if 'all is well with the world', whereas half-rhyme (e.g. moan/mourn, years/yours) can suggest a wish for harmony or the presence of discord . Repetition of important words and phrases can help shape meaning because it adds emphasis . Are the stanzas (i.e. what many students wrongly call 'verses') regular in line length, size and shape with a repeating, regular rhythm? This is typical of older more traditional British poetry and hints at that sense of (INTO) 'control' and 'harmony' that seemed to exist in earlier days before the essay Dulwich College, great loss of religious faith or questioning of values of today. Poems with irregular line lengths and no obvious rhythm or rhyme look and writing articles Colorado State (INTO) sound very different from traditional poetry. These poems are called free verse or, technically, 'vers libre' and a persuasive can be a way of academic University suggesting lack of School control or lack of harmony . Look at the way the structure or sequence of ideas builds up in the poem (perhaps through a sequence of images ); make a note of the effect of academic articles State this sequencing of ideas or images and how it adds to the overall effect and what is peer reviewed journal meaning of the poem. Finally, notice if any particular words and phrases stand out in a particularly poetic way.

These words and phrases deserve extra thought as they probably contain layers of meaning or create imagery and ideas. Maybe the words are ironic or metaphorical? Perhaps they create a vivid image , for example. These effects act to draw you deeper into the world of the poem by engaging your attention - a sure sign that the poem is writing articles Colorado (INTO), 'working' on you! In your mind, 'become' the poet and ask yourself these revealing questions: 1. Writing Introductions For Essays The University (Navitas)? What is 'your' poem about generally (e.g. 'war') and in particular (e.g. 'the horror of fighting in trench warfare').

For example, were you trying to help your reader to understand some aspect of society or human life more clearly? What was your intention or purpose? 3. What motivated you to write about such a subject? Were you affected by your circumstances : the beliefs, values and attitudes you hold to compared to the general beliefs, attitudes and values of your society or its leaders (i.e. your society's dominant ideologies )? 4. Were there any literary traditions or fashions that affected the style in academic articles Colorado State University (INTO) which you wrote? Why was this? You will frequently be asked to write about more than one poem and writing essay Bodwell this does add an extra layer of difficulty. However, if you are writing an argument essay , the difficulty is lessened dramatically because you are using the academic writing University (INTO), poems to support your own argument rather than writing directly about the poems themselves. Aspects of writing essay each poem will, therefore, naturally find their way into Colorado State, your essay as you write in a tok essay Istituto Marangoni support of the various points you are making to support your argument. It is, therefore, always best to compare and contrast the ideas each poet explores as you proceed - and this is articles Colorado State University (INTO), best done as providing support for essay Istituto London your own argument.

In each paragraph you write, you should aim to discuss a comparable or contrasting aspect chosen from each poem (and, as before, you must use the 'point-quotation-comment' method) that helps develop a point that supports your overall argument as stated in your opening paragraph. If you find this difficult (and it can be - especially under examination conditions), the alternative is to write an academic writing articles Colorado State (INTO), 'exploring essay'. In this kind of essay, you analyse and write about your first poem fully before moving on to your second poem, then, as you write about the second poem, you must take the chance frequently to refer back to the first poem when you find a suitable point of comparison or contrast. N ever forget to compare and contrast! This is a part of the mark scheme in this type of question. FIVE TOP TIPS FOR SUCCESS. 1. Know your poems well. 2. Analyse closely analysis and develop subtle insights. Only a close analysis of the poem will allow you to develop subtle insights into teachers.com, the poet's reasons and methods. It is the consistency, clarity, depth and subtlety of your analysis and writing State (INTO) insights that will gain the highest marks. A Persuasive Essay Dulwich? 3. Use the P.E.E. method of analysis.

4. Never look for and find what isn't there ! Poems can be difficult so when you are thinking about the writing, deeper levels of steps essay Dulwich a poem's meaning, it is all too easy to be overly ingenious . Do not find meanings that are not really there. If a particular meaning exists within a part of writing articles Colorado a poem, it will be consistent with (i.e. help out the meaning of. ) the whole poem - it will never just apply to writing a tok Istituto a single line or phrase. If you think a line of poetry means something, make sure this fits in with what you think the academic writing Colorado (INTO), poet is trying to say in drawing teachers.com Rugby School the whole poem. Articles Colorado University? A more obvious meaning is far more likely than a very obscure meaning. Always make sure that the words of Rugby your poem clearly support whatever points you want to make about it.

Never be afraid to use a lively style when you write; in fact, whilst remembering always to avoid slang and to use standard English , try hard to make your essay sound as individual and interesting as you are! Avoid stuffiness and over-formality like the plague.

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Bibliometrics, Citation And Citation Analysis. Chapter 3: Bibliometrics, Citation and Citation Analysis. Dr. Ranganathan S. R. Writing Articles Colorado State (INTO)? (1969) coined the term 'Librametry' and presented his concept in ASLIB conference held at Leamington Spa. He used the term to include statistical approaches to study library and its services. However, the practice of using quantitative method to measure information sources were made even before Dr. Ranganathan but under different terms or without any particular term but 'Statistical Analysis' was in common use before the term Librametry. Cole and Eales (1917) graphically mapped the literature and called this method of analysis as 'Statistical analysis'.

Hulme (1923) studied the literature and called it 'statistical bibliography', but the terms were found to be clumsy as it could easily be mistaken. Later the writing essay, term was coined as bibliometrics by Pritchard (1969). 3.2 Different Terminologies in Use:- Many attempts have been made to define the term bibliometrics and its analogous terms since the use of the term 'statistical bibliography' by Hulme (1923), and according to him 'the purpose of statistical bibliography is to throw light on academic articles Colorado State the process of written communication and the nature and course of writing a tok essay Istituto Firenze, development of academic Colorado, a discipline (in so far as this is writing introductions for essays The University of Canberra, displayed through written communication) by means of counting and analyzing its various facets of academic articles Colorado State (INTO), written communication'. Raising (1962), in his article clearly defined the term statistical bibliography as 'the assembling and interpretation of statistics relating to books and periodicals to demonstrate historical movements and to determine national and universal research, use of books and journal, and to (Navitas) ascertain in many local situations the general use of books and journals'. This definition is also treated as one of the classical definitions of bibliometrics. The term Bibliometrics was first coined by Pritchard (1969) in preference to existing terminology 'statistical bibliography' as he felt there is fair likelihood to misinterpret it as bibliometrical methods to books and other media of academic writing articles State, communication'. Writing Introductions (Navitas)? According to Fairthorne (1969), statistical bibliography was 'Quantitative treatment of properties of recorded discourse and behaviour appertaining to it'.

British Standard Glossary (1976) of documentation explained the term bibliometrics as 'the study of use of documents and patterns of publication in which mathematical and statistical methods have been applied' which is basically similar to Pritchard's original definition of bibliometrics. Hawkins (1977), in his on-line bibliometrics study interpreted bibliometrics term as 'The quantitative analysis of the bibliographic features of a body of State University (INTO), literature'. Nicholas and Ritchie (1978), in their books entitled 'Literature on Bibliometrics' opined that bibliometrics provided information about the structure of knowledge and how it is communicated? They further added that bibliometrics studies fall mainly into two broad groups, describing characteristics or features of a literature (descriptive studies) and those examining the relationship formed between the components of literature (behavioural studies). Writing Online Marangoni? More recently Plotter (1981) had defined bibliometrics as 'the study and academic writing measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship'.

Schrader (1981), has also tried to writing High define the term in a more simplified manner and academic articles Colorado stated that bibliometrics is 'the scientific study of recorded discourse.' Broadus (1987b) presented a historical overview of what reviewed articles Epsom, various definitions of bibliometrics and proposed an alternative definition for bibliometrics. According to him, bibliometrics is the quantitative study of physically published units or of bibliographic units or of surrogates of either. More explicitly Sengupta (1990), defines the term as 'organization, classification and quantitative evaluations along with their authorship by mathematical and statistical calculus'. A more elaborate concept of bibliometrics has been recently explained by Egghe (2000), as 'development and writing State University application of mathematical models and techniques to all aspects of communications.' From these definitions it is The University (Navitas), concluded that statistical bibliography is replaced by bibliometrics and it means study of measurement of the publication patterns of all forms of written communication and their authorship by means of academic articles State University (INTO), using citation studies. 3.3 What is Bibliometrics? The term 'bibliometrics' was first used by Pritchard (1969) in his article 'Statistical Bibliography or Bibliometrics' published in the 'Journal of Documentation'. 'Biblio' means book and 'Metric' means a scale or measure. Bibliometric means application of statistical studies in library and information science.

According to essay website Bodwell Pritchard (1969), bibliometrics is defined as 'the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication.' Potter (1981) defines bibliometrics as 'the study and measurement of the publication pattern of all forms of writing State University (INTO), written communication and their author'. In Bibliometrics and Librametry as an area in essay Bodwell High which studies 'information process and information handling in libraries and information canters by quantitatively analyzing the characteristics and behaviour of documents, library staff, and library users.' The study of bibliometrics and Librametry include bibliometric distribution, citation analysis, library use studies, etc. It is also a quantitative study of literatures as reflected in bibliographies. Bibliometrics is the use of academic writing Colorado, quantitative analysis and writing Istituto Marangoni London statistics to writing University (INTO) describe patterns of publication within a given field or body of literature. Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyze scientific and technological literature (Bellis 2009).

The commonly used bibliometric methods are citation analysis and content analysis. Content analysis or textual analysis is writing essay, a methodology used in the social sciences for University (INTO), studying the drawing teachers.com, content of communication. Earl Babbie (2010) defines it as the study of academic Colorado State University, recorded human communications, such as books, websites, paintings and laws. Teachers.com Rugby? According to Farooq Joubish (2011), content analysis is considered a scholarly methodology in the humanities by which texts are studied as to academic articles Colorado (INTO) authorship, authenticity, or meaning. Later subject includes were philology, hermeneutics, and semiotics. Lasswell (1951, p.525 ) formulated the core questions of content analysis and stated that 'Who says what, to whom, why, to what extent and with what effect? Ole Holsti (1969) offers a broad definition of content analysis as any technique for a tok essay Marangoni, making inferences by objectively and systematically identifying specified characteristics of messages.

Kimberly (2002) offers a six-part definition of academic writing (INTO), content analysis:Content analysis is a summarizing, quantitative analysis of messages that relies on articles Epsom College the scientific method (including attention to objectivity, inter subjectivity, a priori design, reliability, validity, generalisability, replicability, and hypothesis testing) and is not limited as to the types of variables that may be measured or the context in which the messages are created or presented. Garfield (1983) and writing articles State University (INTO) Richard (2010) defined citation analysis as 'the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and writing online Istituto Marangoni London books'. Content analysis uses citations in scholarly works to writing Colorado State University establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is teachers.com Rugby, one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. Martyn (1976), defined citation analysis as, 'Analysis of the citations or references or both which forms of part of the scholarly publication.' According to Baughman (1974), 'Citation study is a systematic enquiry into the structural properties of the literature of the subject' he explains that the structure of literature is of a good quality. Bibliometric method is most often used in the field of library and information science; as well it has an equal applicability in other areas also. Writing Colorado State? In fact, in many research fields use of Rugby, bibliometric methods is writing Colorado State, carried out to explore the impact of steps essay Dulwich, their field, the impact of a set of researchers, or the impact of a particular paper etc. Bibliometrics are now used in quantitative research assessment exercises of academic output (Henderson et al 2009). The UK government is considering using bibliometrics as a possible auxiliary tool in Colorado State University (INTO) its Research Excellence Framework, a process which may assess the quality of the research output of UK universities and on the basis of the assessment results, allocate research funding (http://www.ref.ac.uk/) Bibliometric methods have been used to trace relationships amongst academic journal citations.

Citation analysis, which involves examining an item's referring documents, is used in searching for materials and analyzing their merit. Citation indices, such as Institute for Scientific Information's Web of Science, allow users to search forward in time from a known article to more recent publications which cite the known item. Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. These have various applications, from the identification of expert referees to review papers and what grant proposals, to providing transparent data in support of academic merit review, tenure, and promotion decisions. Nicholas (1978) in his article 'Literature and Bibliometrics' explained the importance of citation analysis and its applications in LIS. He pointed out academic writing Colorado that information scientists and librarians use citation analysis to quantitatively assess the core journal titles and watershed publications(less used or border lined publications) in particular disciplines; interrelationships between authors from different institutions and for writing essay schools of academic writing State, thought; and related data about the academia. Some more pragmatic applications of writing introductions The University of Canberra (Navitas), this information includes the planning of Colorado State, retrospective bibliographies, finding the age of material used in writing introductions for essays The University a discipline (Half life) , and comparison between use of recent publications versus older ones, comparing the academic writing articles Colorado University, coverage of secondary services which can help publishers gauge their achievements and competition, and can aid librarians in evaluating the effectiveness of their stock. There are also some limitations to the value of citation data. They are often incomplete or biased; data has been largely collected manually (which is expensive), though citation indexes can also be used; incorrect citing of sources occurs continually; thus, further investigation is required to truly understand the rationale behind citing to allow it to be confidently applied. Thus it is revealed that bibliometric method is very useful to teachers.com Rugby School analyze the impact of literature in any subject areas and in LIS it is useful to decide the policies for different activities like acquisition, organization, stacking, introduction of new service, ranking of periodicals, half life of literature in articles University any subject discipline formatting and collection development policies and writing a tok Marangoni related policies etc.

3.4 Laws of Bibliometrics:- The three most commonly used laws in bibliometrics are. 1) Bradford's Law of Scatter: - which describes how the literature of a subject area is distributed in its journals and which forms the basis for calculating how many journals contain a certain percentage of writing articles, published articles? 2) Lotka's Law of writing essay, Scientific Productivity: - A formula for measuring / predicting the productivity of scientific researchers. 3) Zipf's Law of academic State (INTO), Word Occurrence: - which describes the frequency of the essay website, appearance of certain words or more specifically, suggests that people are more likely to select and use familiar rather than unfamiliar words.

Among all these three laws, Bradford's Law is more useful to LIS professionals and related to citation analysis. 3.4.1 Bradford's Law of academic State University (INTO), Scatter:- Bradford (1934), pointed out that if scientific journals are arranged in essay online order of decreasing productivity of articles on a given subject, they may be divided into writing articles Colorado (INTO), a nucleus of periodicals more particularly devoted to the subject and introductions of Canberra several groups and zones containing the same number of articles as the academic writing articles Colorado State (INTO), nucleus when the number of periodicals in the nucleus and succeeding zones will be 1: n: n2. Bradford's Law states that journals in a single field can be divided into School, three parts, each containing the same number of articles: * A core of academic, journals on the subject, relatively few in what articles Epsom number, that produces approximately one-third of all the articles; * A second zone, containing the same number of articles as the first, but a greater number of journals, and. * A third zone, containing the same number of articles as the second, but a still greater number of journals. The mathematical relationship of the number of journals core to the first zone is a constant n and to the second zone the writing Colorado University (INTO), relationship is n. Bradford expressed this relationship as 1 : n : n. A Tok Essay Marangoni? Bradford formulated his law after studying a bibliography of geophysics, covering 326 journals in the field.

He discovered that 9 journals contained 429 articles, 59 contained 499 articles, and 258 contained 404 articles. So it took 9 journals to contribute one-third of the articles, 5 times of 9, or 45, to produce the articles University, next third, and 5 times 5 times 9, or 225, to produce the last third. Bradford's Law serves as a general guideline to librarians in determining the number of core journals in any given field. Bradford's Law is not statistically accurate, but it is essay Istituto, still commonly used as a general rule of thumb. 3.4.2 What is Citation:- Citation is a reference to a published or unpublished source (not always the original source). More precisely, a citation is an abbreviated alphanumeric expression (e.g. Newell84) embedded in the body of an intellectual work that denotes an entry in the bibliographic references section of the work for the purpose of acknowledging the relevance of the works of others to the topic of discussion at the spot where the citation appears. Generally the combination of both the in-body citation and the bibliographic entry constitutes what is commonly thought of as a citation (whereas bibliographic entries by themselves are not). A prime purpose of a citation is intellectual honesty to attribute prior or unoriginal work and ideas to the correct sources and to academic writing articles Colorado University allow the reader to determine independently whether the for essays The University of Canberra (Navitas), referenced material supports the writing articles Colorado State University, author's argument in the claimed way. 3.4.3 What is Reference:-

Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rfrer, from Latin referre, to carry back, formed from the prefix re- and ferre, to bear. Introductions? A large number of words derived from writing articles Colorado State University (INTO), this root, including referee, reference, referendum, all retaining the basic meaning of the original Latin as a point, place or source of origin. A referee is the provider of this source of origin, and a referent is the possessor of the source of origin, whether it is knowledge, matter or energy. Writing Introductions For Essays The University? Because of its meaning, the word reference is used in every sphere of human knowledge, adopting shades of academic writing articles State (INTO), meaning particular to the contexts in which it is used. References can take on many forms, including: a thought, a sensory perception that is The University (Navitas), audible (onomatopoeia), visual (text), olfactory, or tactile, emotional state, relationship with other, space-time coordinate, symbolic or alpha-numeric, a physical object or an energy projection; but, other concrete and abstract contexts exist as methods of defining references within the scope of the various fields that require an origin, point of departure, or an original form. This includes methods that intentionally hide the reference from some observers, as in cryptography. Academic Writing Articles State University? Citations are measured to find the different use patterns like author, chronology, geography, subject, forms etc in LIS. An essential part of writing introductions for essays of Canberra (Navitas), research papers, particularly in science is the list of references indicating towards prior publications.

Ziman (1968) has rightly indicated 'a scientific paper does not stand alone; it is embedded in academic articles Colorado State the literature of the subject'. Similarly Nann (1976) defines 'A reference is the writing essay online Marangoni, acknowledgement that one document gives to another; a citation is the acknowledgement that one document receives from another'. Academic Writing Articles? Malin (1968) says 'A citation implies a relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and Dulwich a part or the whole of the citing document.' From these statements of stalwarts it is very clear that citation has an importance while publishing scientific or research communications. It is must to cite the author from which data is used. The research activity built on citing papers and using previous knowledge. The use of citation and its study reveals many concepts useful for academic Colorado University (INTO), developing libraries properly. Citation analysis is the area of writing Bodwell, bibliometrics which deals with the study of their relationships which might be useful for bridging research. Weinstock (1974) identified reasons for citing and quoting references in academic writing Colorado State research study as under. 1. Giving homage to pioneers.

2. Steps For Writing College? Giving credit for related works (Homage to Press.) 3. Identifying methodology, equipment etc. 4. Providing background reading. 5. Correcting one's own work. 6. Correcting the writing University, work of others. 7. Criticizing previous work and adding quality and innovation. 8. Substantiating claims. 9. Alerting to forthcoming work.

10. Providing leads to poorly disseminated or poorly indexed or uncited work. 11. Authenticating data and classes of fact-physical constants etc. 12. Identifying original publications in which an idea or concept was discussed. 13. Essay? Identifying original publication or other work describing a concept or term (e.g.HODGKIN'S Disease Pareto's Law, Friedel-Crafts reaction etc.) 14. Disclaiming work or ideas of others. (Negative Claims) 15.

Disputing priority claims of others. (Negative Homage) Apart from these points references appended in the research study is academic articles Colorado State, valid indicator of drawing Rugby, its significance. The facts stated in the research needs to be supported by earlier citations (studies) and writing articles Colorado State there is always a relation between citing theses or book or an article indicating similarity of the research. 3.4.4 Importance of drawing Rugby School, Citations:- Ziman (1968), Price (1968), Narin (1976), Marin (1968) had opened that citations plays an important role in research. Father they added that scientific paper or scientific research does not go alone, but it is embedded in the subject of literature, as a reference (citation) which is acknowledgement for the use of information by the another author who cites in his writing. The relation of cited and citing document stating 'a citation implies relationship between a part or the whole of the cited document and a part or the whole of the citing document.' Citation analysis is the area dealing with the bibliometrics and articles (INTO) deals with study of writing Istituto Marangoni, relationship of cited and citing document and academic writing articles State such studies are essential to track the scholarly development in any subject field. 3.5 Citation Analysis:- When one author cites another author, a relationship is established. Citation analysis uses citations in scholarly works to establish links. Many different links can be ascertained, such as links between authors, between scholarly works, between journals, between fields, or even between countries.

Citations both from writing essay website Bodwell High School, and to a certain document may be studied. One very common use of citation analysis is to determine the impact of a single author on a given field by counting the number of times the author has been cited by others. One possible drawback of this approach is that authors may be citing the single author in a negative context (saying that the author doesn't know what s/he's talking about (Osareh 1996). 3.5.1 Co-citation Coupling:- Co-citation coupling is a method used to establish a subject similarity between two documents. Articles State University? If papers A and essay Dulwich College B are both cited by paper C, they may be said to writing articles State University be related to one another, even though they don't directly cite each other.

If papers A and what is peer journal B are both cited by many other papers, they have a stronger relationship. Academic Writing Colorado State University (INTO)? The more papers they are cited by, the stronger their relationship is. 3.5.2 Bibliographic Coupling:- Bibliographic coupling operates on a similar principle, but in for essays a way it is the mirror image of co-citation coupling. Bibliographic coupling links two papers that cite the same articles, so that if papers A and B both cite paper C, they may be said to University be related, even though they don't directly cite each other. The more papers they both cite, the Istituto Marangoni Firenze, stronger their relationship is.

3.6 Reasons to conduct Bibliometric Studies:- Historically bibliometric methods have been used to writing Colorado trace relationships amongst academic journal citations. The bibliometric research uses various methods of School, citation analysis in order to establish relationships between authors or their work. The Bibliometric studies are conducted to identify the writing articles Colorado State (INTO), peers, social change and the core journal, etc. indexing and Thesaurus, research, formulating search strategies in case of automated system, comparative assessment of the secondary services, Bibliographic control, preparation of retrospective bibliographic and library Management. Collection development includes planning, implementation and evaluation of collections (Baughman, 1977): Planning is to map information needs, to develop aims and steps for writing a persuasive make decisions about priorities. Knowledge about the structure of Colorado State, a subject field and about the information resources used in the field is needed for planning the collection.

Bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, bibliographic coupling, co-word analysis and website co-citation analysis can be used to writing articles (INTO) map the knowledge structure and the use of literature. Implementation of the collection includes library routines, communication and information provision. A working indexing language, which reflects the modern terminology, is needed to organise the collection. Knowledge about the important themes in a field gives a base for developing the terminology. These themes are based on the knowledge structure received by bibliometric methods. Collection Evaluation is analysis and assessment of the collection according to drawing teachers.com School its aim and functions. Different bibliometric methods such as citation analysis, analysis of the scattering of articles to journals and articles Colorado State University analysis of the obsolescence of literature are used for this purpose. Application of bibliometric research identified by essay Istituto Firenze Wallace (1989), indicated that the use is for developing libraries. - Improving the bibliographic control of literature.

- Identifying a core literature especially journals. - Classifying a literature. - Tracing the spread of ideas and growth of a literature. - Improving the efficiency of information handling services. - Predicting publishing trends and needs. - Describing patterns of book use by patrons. - Developing and academic evaluating library collections.

3.7 Strengths of Bibliometrics as a Research Approach:- Bibliometric studies are useful and have a quantitative base. The method helps analysis status and steps Dulwich strength is in: ' Methods are objective and repeatable. ' Results have a wide range of potential practical value. ' Does not require human subject interaction. ' High reliability in writing State University data that are collected unobtrusively, from the High School, published record, and can be easily replicated by others. 3.7.1 Limitations of bibliometrics as a research approach:- Following few limitations of the study are observed by. Results are only valid to extent that citations are assumed to represent significant link between citing and academic articles Colorado cited documents. ' Technical issues related to data obtained from citation indexes and bibliographies. ' Variations and misspelling of a tok essay Firenze, author names, authors with same name, incomplete coverage of non-English publications.

3.8 Application of academic articles Colorado University, Bradford's Law in a tok Istituto Marangoni Firenze Library and academic Information Science Research:- Bradford's law is used to solve problems in journal collection management as well as resource development in any libraries. The basic concept is to conduct Bradford analyses of journals i.e. to sort the journals in Bradford zones and thus identify which belong to the core and which does not. Any Bradford analysis involves three steps. 1. Identify many or all items (usually articles) published in this field; 2. List the sources (usually journals) that publish the articles (or items) in writing introductions The University (Navitas) rank order beginning with the source that produces the most items; 3. While retaining the order of the sources, divide this list into groups (or zones) so that the number of items produced by each group of sources is articles (INTO), about the same. The 'most obvious potentials' of Bradford analyses are: ' Defining the core. ' The law of diminishing returns.

' Calculation of is peer reviewed articles College, cost based on various coverage. ' Setting priorities among journals. Bradford's law is used to writing articles State solve practical problems related to information seeking and retrieval. An automatic option for sorting the output from for writing Dulwich College, online searches of journal literature, which he argued would help online users. 'Computerized sorting of hits by the journals in which they appear, and then of journals, high to low, by the number of academic State University (INTO), hits appearing in each'. Special libraries and information officers make good use of data generated using bibliometric techniques in selecting and maintaining collections of the most needed serials. Bradford's law, Lotka's law, Zipf's law, and citation analysis have contributed to the effective operation of a persuasive Dulwich College, special libraries'

From the writing articles State, various studies it is drawing School, analysed major thrust areas of research in Library and Information Science are using application of Colorado State University, bibliometrics and the reasons are: 1. Drawing School? Identify the quantum and writing State University (INTO) structure literature on a specific subject during a particular period. 2. Examine the growth literature output in a subject during a period of time. 3. Identify the steps for writing essay Dulwich, source and country-wise distribution of research literature in a particular subject. 4. Compare and measure the academic writing articles Colorado State University (INTO), growth rate of literature on a particular subject in various countries.

5. Analyze the authorship pattern of drawing teachers.com Rugby School, literature on a particular subject published from various countries. 6. Analyze the degree of single versus multiple author publication and study the trend in authorship pattern. 7. Articles State University? Apply Lotka's authorship productivity concepts on the frequency distribution of authorship productivity. 8. Track the development of research literature on a particular subject and its language of publication during the period of coverage and analyze the trend in the language of writing a tok Istituto Marangoni Firenze, publication. 9. Study the language of the publication in the context of quantum of pages. 10. Study the frequency distribution of applications in the context of country-wise breakdown. 11. Analyze quantitatively the annual literature output on a specific subject.

12. Identify the academic articles (INTO), variety of research publication on a particular subject. 13. Analyze the trend among the various types of publication. The recent developments and methods used and developed the techniques: 3.8.1 The impact factor:-

The impact factor, often abbreviated as IF, is a measure reflecting the average number of citations to articles published in science and writing website School social science journals. Articles Colorado State University (INTO)? It is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. In case of Rugby, journals with higher impact factors deemed to articles University be more important than those of lower ones. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), now part of writing essay Bodwell School, Thomson Reuters. Impact factors are calculated yearly for those journals that are indexed in Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports and listed in . In a given year, the Colorado, impact factor of a journal is the average number of citations received per paper published in that journal during the two preceding years.[ For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 3 in 2008, then its papers published in 2006 and 2007 received 3 citations each on average in 2008. The 2008 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows, 2008 impact factors are actually published in drawing Rugby 2009; they cannot be calculated until all of the 2008 publications have been processed by the indexing agency. A = the number of times articles published in writing articles Colorado (INTO) 2006 and 2007 were cited by indexed journals during 2008. B = the total number of citable items published by steps Dulwich that journal in 2006 and 2007. (Citable items are usually articles, reviews, proceedings, or notes; not editorials or Letters-to-the-Editor.) 2008 impact factor = A/B. If is used by many libraries as a tool for selecting Journals for writing State (INTO), subscription, similarly researcher try to contribute in writing for essays The University of Canberra using it journals for credits.

New journals, which are indexed from their first published issue, will receive an impact factor after two years of indexing; in this case, the citations to the year prior to Volume 1, and writing State University the number of articles published in reviewed journal College the year prior to Volume 1 are known zero values. Journals that are indexed starting with a volume other than the articles University (INTO), first volume will not get an impact factor until they have been indexed for three years. Annuals and other irregular publications sometimes publish no items in The University of Canberra (Navitas) a particular year, affecting the count. The impact factor relates to a specific time period; it is possible to calculate it for Colorado State University, any desired period, and the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) also includes a 5-year impact factor. The JCR shows rankings of journals by impact factor, by discipline such as organic chemistry or psychiatry. Writing London? The terminology used later and becomes popular is Infometrics which covers:

The h-index is an index that attempts to measure both the productivity and impact of the published work of writing (INTO), a scientist or scholar. The index is based on the set of the scientist's most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. The index can also be applied to the productivity and impact of a group of scientists, such as a department or university or country. The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch, a physicist, as a tool for determining theoretical physicists' relative quality and is sometimes called the Hirsch index or Hirsch number. The h-index can be manually determined using citation databases or using automatic tools. Subscription-based databases such as Scopus and the Web of Knowledge provide automated calculators. Harzing's (2011) Publish or Perish program calculates the h-index based on Google Scholar entries. In July 2011 Google trialed a tool which allows a limited number of scholars to keep track of their own citations and also produces a h-index and an i10-index (Google Scholar Blog, 2011), the I10 index indicates the writing essay Marangoni Firenze, number of academic papers an author has written that have at least ten citations from others. It was introduced in July 2011 by Google as part of their work on articles State (INTO) Google scholar. Journal Epsom College? A search engine dedicated to academic and related papers. Each database is likely to produce a study different h for the same scholar, because of different coverage: Google Scholar has more citations than Scopus and Web of academic Colorado, Science but the smaller citation collections tend to essay Istituto Firenze be more accurate.

In addition, specific databases, such as the Stanford Physics Information Retrieval System (SPIRES) can automatically calculate h-index for researchers working in High Energy Physics. Infometrics is the study of academic writing University (INTO), quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination and use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin. As such, infometrics encompasses the fields of. ' Scientometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of teachers.com Rugby School, science; ' Webometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of the World Wide Web; ' Cybermetrics, which is similar to webometrics, but broadens its definition to academic writing articles Colorado include electronic resources; ' Bibliometrics, which studies quantitative aspects of recorded information.

Scientometrics and webometrics are the latest methods. Scientometrics covers quantitative fashion of the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research. ' Emphasizes investigations in which the development of science and of the mechanism of scientific research is studied by means of (statistical) mathematical methods. ' Publishes original studies, short communications, preliminary reports, review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on scientometrics. ' Includes the Journal of writing introductions The University, Research Communication Studies. Scientometrics is concerned with the academic, quantitative features and characteristics of science and for writing a persuasive essay College scientific research.

Emphasis is placed on investigations in which the development and writing articles Colorado State University mechanism of science are studied by statistical mathematical methods. The journal publishes original studies, short communications, and preliminary reports, and review papers, letters to the editor and book reviews on Bodwell High scientometrics. Due to its fully interdisciplinary character, the journal is indispensable to research workers and research administrators. It provides valuable assistance to librarians and academic State University (INTO) documentalists in central scientific agencies, ministries, research institutes and laboratories. Scientometrics includes the Journal of Research Communication Studies. Consequently its aims and scope cover that of the latter, namely, to bring the results of such investigations together in one place. Bibliometrics and scientometrics are two closely related approaches to measuring scientific publications and science in general, respectively. In practice, much of the work that falls under this header involves various types of introductions The University of Canberra, citation analysis, which looks at how scholars cite one another in publications. This data can show quite a bit about networks of scholars and scholarly communication, links between scholars, and the development of areas of academic articles State, knowledge over online London time.

Bibliometrics are also one of the key ways of academic writing articles Colorado State, measuring the what is peer reviewed, impact of scholarly publications. If an article is published in a journal with a high impact factor, which is writing articles Colorado University (INTO), determined in part by the number of citations to articles within a particular journal, this raises the publishing profile of the writing The University, author. The number of citations to that article over time is also a key measure of the productivity and the impact of that scholar. These techniques are very well developed for State University (INTO), traditional citations among journal articles, but are much less clear for new types of outputs, including data sets, websites, and digitized collections. For items such as these, when researchers have used the materials to support their publications, they often don't have clear methods available to them to Dulwich cite the material. Many of the style guides do not have clear guidance for academic writing, how to cite a database, for instance, or whether to cite a digitized resource in drawing teachers.com School a way to identify its digital location, or that cites the original item, whether or not the researcher actually consulted it. 3.9.2 Webometrics (Cyber metrics):- The concept of webometrics is based on bibliometrics, because like the bibliometrics study, one can measure the different quantitative aspect of the academic Colorado State, web in webometrics study. Secondly it is based on Infometrics.

The Infometrics study is such type of study, which measures the for writing a persuasive, quantitative aspect of any type of information and through webometrics study one can get the academic University, information about web (web site). That's why the above phrase is used. The science of webometrics (also Cyber metrics) tries to measure the World Wide Web to get knowledge about the number and types of hyperlinks, structure of the World Wide Web and usage patterns. According to Bjrneborn and Ingwersen (2004), the definition of for writing a persuasive College, webometrics is the writing articles State University (INTO), study of the quantitative aspects of the construction and use of information resources, structures and technologies on the Web drawing on bibliometric and Infometrics approaches. The term webometrics was first coined by is peer reviewed journal articles Epsom College Almind and Ingwersen (1997). A second definition of webometrics has also been introduced as the study of web-based content with primarily quantitative methods for social science research goals using techniques that are not specific to one field of articles State University, study (Thelwall, 2009), which emphasizes the development of applied methods for use in the wider social sciences. What Reviewed Epsom? The purpose of this alternative definition was to help and publicize appropriate methods outside the information science discipline rather than to replace the original definition within information science.

Similar scientific fields are bibliometrics, infometrics, scientometrics, virtual ethnography, and web mining. Academic Writing Articles Colorado (INTO)? One relatively straightforward measure is the Web Impact Factor (WIF) introduced by Ingwersen (1998). The WIF measure may be defined as the for essays The University of Canberra (Navitas), number of web pages in a web site receiving links from other web sites, divided by the number of web pages published in (INTO) the site that are accessible to the crawler. However the use of WIF has been disregarded due to the mathematical artifacts derived from power law distributions of these variables. Teachers.com? Other similar indicators using size of the institution instead of number of web pages have been proved more useful. There is writing articles Colorado State (INTO), one electronic journal, Cyber metrics published since 1997 by the Spanish National Research Council that is for essays of Canberra (Navitas), devoted entirely to this discipline. Cyber metrics is a branch of knowledge which employs mathematical and statistical techniques of quantity web sites or their components and concepts, measure their growth, stability, propagation, and use examines the authenticity of content, establish laws governing these factors, studies the efficiency of cyber information services and systems, services and products and academic writing Colorado (INTO) assesses the impact of essay Istituto, cyber age on society. Citations in scholarly works are used to establish links to academic Colorado State (INTO) other works. Teachers.com School? It is writing articles Colorado State University, one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics and (Navitas) studies reference to and from State (INTO), documents Gooden (2001). The benefit of bibliometrics and citation analysis is expressed by Van Raan (2003), which is writing a tok Marangoni, reinforced by the studies (Lal and academic articles Colorado State (INTO) Panda, 1996, Aksnes 2006) that have used this method of research enquiry to evaluate a library collection.

Citation analysis reveals interesting information about knowledge producers in terms their information seeking behaviour and usage of various information sources. It can highlight the familiarity, awareness and usage of knowledge producers regarding the online and print information sources. Citation analysis examines the writing essay website Bodwell High, frequency, patterns and graphs of citations in articles and academic writing articles Colorado books (Garfield, 1983). Online Istituto? This chapter satisfy the objective set for academic Colorado State, the study i.e. 'To study the significance of citations as well as citation study and bibliometrics'. Introductions For Essays Of Canberra (Navitas)? This chapter elaborates the academic State University (INTO), detailed study of citations, reference, need of citation study and what articles Epsom laws etc. ' Aksnes, D.W. (2006), Citation rates and perceptions of scientific contribution. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 57(2), p.169-185. ' Bellis, De Nicola (2009). Bibliometrics and citation analysis: from the Science citation index to Cybermetrics. Scarecrow Press, p.417.

ISBN 0-8108-6713-3. Located at http://books.google.com/books/about/Bibliometrics_and_citation_analysis.html?id=ma4YjaKyM9cC accessed on 23.08.2011. ' Bhughman J C (1974), A structural analysis of the literature of sociology, Library Quarterly, Vol. 44 (Oct), p.293-308. ' Birger Hjrland and Jeppe Nicolaisen 'Bradford's Law of Scattering: Ambiguities in the Concept of Subject Royal School of Library and Information Science, Birketinget 6, DK-2300 Copenhagen S., Denmark @db.dk. ' Bradford, S.C. Sources of writing articles Colorado, information on specific subjects. Engineering, 1934, 137 (3550), p.85-86. ' British Standards Institution.

British standards of documentation terms. BSI; London; 1976, p.7. ' Broadus R N (1987a), early approaches to bibliometrics, journal of the for essays of Canberra (Navitas), American society for information science, 38, p.127-129. ' Cole, F J and Eales Nellie B (1917), the history of comparative anatomy: a statistical analysis of the literature, Science Progress (11), p.578-596. ' Earl Babbie (2010), the practice of social research, 10th edition, Wadsworth, Thomson Learning Inc., ISBN 0-534-62029-9.

' Egghe L (2000), Lectures Potter, W G (1981) Introduction to writing State University Bibliometrics. Library Trends Vol 30, p.5. ' Egghe L (2000). A heuristic study of the first-citation distribution. Scientometrics 48(3), p.345-359. ' Fairthorne, R. A. (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions (Bradford-Zipf-Mandelbrot) for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of The University, Documentation, 25, p.319'343.

' Fairthrone R A (1969), Empirical hyperbolic distributions for bibliometric description and prediction, Journal of academic writing State, Documentation, 25, p.319. ' Farooq Joubish and Ashraf Khurram (2011), outlook on some concepts in the curriculum of social studies, World Applied Science Journal 12(9), p.1374-1377. ISSN 1818-4952. ' Garfield, E (1974), Citation Indexing: Its theory and application in science, Technology and Humanities, New York, Wiley, ' Garfield, E. (1983). Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology and what is peer reviewed journal College Humanities. Philadelphia: ISI Press. Retrieved November 4, 2011 from Located at http://garfield.library.upenn.edu/ci/contents.pdf. accessed on 12.04.2011.

' Garfield, E.(1983) Citation Indexing - Its Theory and Application in writing articles Colorado State (INTO) Science, Technology and Humanities Philadelphia's Press. ' Gooden, A.M. (2001). Citation analysis of chemistry doctoral dissertations: An Ohio State University case study. Writing Essay Bodwell School? Retrieved October 13, 2008 Located at http://www.istl.org/01-fall/refereed.html accessed on 27.12.2011. ' Google scholar blog (2011), Google scholar citations open to academic writing (INTO) all, Google. Located at is peer journal, http//en.wikipedia.ogr/wiki/I10-index accessed on writing articles Colorado State 03.09.2011. ' Hawkins D T (1977), Unconventional uses of teachers.com School, on-line information retrieval system on line British metric studies.

Journal of American society for information science, 28(1), p.13-18. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. Academic Writing State University? 3, p.149'167. ' Henderson, M., Shurville, S. and drawing Rugby School Fernstrom, K. (2009). The quantitative crunch: the impact of academic writing State, bibliometric research quality assessment exercises on academic development at small conferences, Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol 26, No. 3, p.149'167. ' Higher Education Funding Council for England, Located at drawing Rugby, http://www.hefce.ac.uk/Research/ref/. and http://www.ref.ac.uk/ accessed on 12th May 2012. ' Hjreppe, P (1982), Supplement to bibliography bibliometrics and citation indexing, 4, p.241-273. ' Hjreppe, R (1980), a bibliography of bibliometrics an dictation indexing and articles Colorado University (INTO) analysis, Royal institute of Technology library, Stockholm, Sweden.

Located at drawing School, http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/ palmquis/courses/biblio.html#Laws and http://www.netugc.com/librametric-bibliometric-scientometrics-informetrics accessed on 25.08.2012. ' Hulme, E.W. Writing Colorado? (1923), Statistical Bibliography in Relation to the Growth of Modern Civilization, Grafton, London. p9. ' Kannappanavar, B U (1991), Citation analysis of the doctoral dissertation in library and steps for writing Dulwich College information science accepted by the universities in Karnataka, Karnataka University, Dharwad, p. 88. (Ph. D Thesis) ' Lal, A., Panda, S (1996). Research in plant pathology: A bibliometric analysis. Library Science with a Slant to Documentation and Information Studies, 33(3), p.135-147. ' Lasswell Harold (1951), the analysis of political behavior: An empirical approach, Rautledge, London, p.525.

' Lotka A J (1926), the academic writing University (INTO), frequency distribution of what Epsom College, scientific productivity, Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 16 (12), p.317-323. ' Malin M V (1968), the science citation index: A new concept in Indexing, Library trends, Vol. 16, p. 376. ' Martin, M U (1968), Science citation index: A new concept in indexing, Library Trends, Vol.

16, p.376. ' Martyn L A (1976), Use studies in library planning, Library Trends 24(30). ' Nann F et al (1976), Evaluative bibliometrics: The use of publications and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, cherry Hill, N J, Computer Horizon Inc, p.334-337. ' Narin, Francis and et. Al. Colorado University (INTO)? (1976), evaluative bibliometrics: the use of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activity, Cherry Hill, New Jercy, Computer Horizon Inc. p.334-337.

' Neuendorf, Kimberly A. Essay Website High School? (2002), the Content Analysis Guidebook Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978), Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.28-29. ' Nicholas, David and Maureen Ritchie (1978). Literature and Bibliometrics London: Clive Bingley, p.12-28. ' Ole R. Holsti (1969(, Content Analysis for writing University, the Social Sciences and Humanities. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ' Potter W G (1981), Introduction to bibliometrics, Library Trends, Vol. 30, p.5. ' Pritchard A (1969), Statistical bibliography an interim bibliography, New Western Polytechnic school of Librarianship, London. ' Pritchard A (1969), statistical bibliography; an interim bibliography, North-western polytechnic, school of Librarianship, p.60. ' Pritchard, A and Witting, G R (1960), Bibliometrics: A bibliography and index (1874-1959), Aaih Books, Westford, ' Raising L (1962), Statistical bibliography in the health sciences, Bulletin the medical library Association, 50, p.450-461.

' Ranganathan S. R. (1969) Librametry and its scope. DRTC Seminar (7) paper DA Bangalore: DRTC, ISI and Sarada Ranganathan Endowment of is peer, Library Science. Reprinted in : JISSI : The International Journal of Scientometrics and academic writing Colorado (INTO) Infometrics; Vol.1, No.1 (1995), p.15-21. (ISSN-0971-6696) ' Rubin, Richard (2010). Foundations of library and information science (3rd ed.). New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers.

ISBN 978-1-55570-690-6. Accessed at http://books.google.com/books?id=Pk1TSAAACAAJ accessed on 09.02.2012. ' Von Sara Ungern-Sternberg Applications in teaching bibliometrics, PhD, Senior lecturer, Abo Akademi University, Department of Library and Information Science, FINLAND. ' Schrader, Alvin M. (1981) Teaching Bibliometrics, Library Trends 30, p.151-172. ' Sengupta I N (1990), Bibliometrics and its application in information science and libraries, Atlantic, New Delhi, p.256.

' Swapna Kumar Patra and Prakash Chand (2006), 'Library and Information science Research in for writing essay India: a Bibliometric Study' Annals of Library and Information Studies, Vol 53, December, p.219-223. ' Van Raan, A.F.J. Colorado? (2003). The use of bibliometric analysis in research performance assessment and monitoring of interdisciplinary scientific developments. Technikfolgenabschatzung, Theories und Praxis/ Technology Assessment- Theory and Practice, 12(1), p.20-29. ' Weinstock M (1974), Citation Index, Encyclopedia of library and information science, Vol.5, New York, Dekker, p.19. ' Ziman John M (1968), Public knowledge: An essay concerning the is peer reviewed journal Epsom, social dimension of articles, science, Cambridge, Cambridge university press, p.58. ' Zipf, G. Writing For Essays The University Of Canberra? K. (1949) 'Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort' Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley Publishing co, p.34. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Chapter/ Section Description Pages. 4.1 Introduction 104.

4.2 LIS Education : Global Overview 104. 4.3 Library and Information Science Education in writing State India 105. 4.4 Historical Development 107. 4.5 Present Scenario of LIS Education in India 108. 4.6 Objectives of Library and Information Science Education 109. 4.7 Levels of Education 110. 4.8 First Course of Library Science in India (Certificate, Diploma and Training Courses) 112. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma Courses 113. 4.10 Degree Courses 114. 4.11 Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC) 114. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS 115.

4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in India 115. 4.14 Specialization 116. 4.15 Syllabus 116. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part 116. 4,17 Practical Exposure 117. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research 117. 4.19 LIS Research in India 117. 4.20 LIS Research: Global Overview 119.

4.21 Research Trend in Indian Universities 128. Chapter 4: Progress of Education and Research in LIS. Higher education in each country has its own unique form of system and is peer articles Epsom varies from Colorado State University (INTO), streams or branches of essay Istituto Marangoni Firenze, knowledge. Academic State? Higher education is imparted by what is peer articles Epsom College universities and in academic writing articles University colleges having equal facilities. Academics in higher education plays an important role in making the society strong as stated different policies are adopted in different countries similarly LIS is a specific subject discipline which support in all educational branches through library systems. Schools of library science provide useful professional education universally and develop library and information professionals to writing essay online Istituto Marangoni London manage the libraries efficiently. The LIS schools have more emphasis towards developing technical and managerial skills through the LIS education.

Following paragraphs briefly narrated the status of LIS education. 4.2 LIS Education: Global Overview: Tsuji et al (2006), pointed out academic writing State (INTO) it in his study that the main theme in LIS education Japan was developed qualified librarians (Shisho) and assistant librarians (Shisho-ho) for public libraries and as well as qualified teacher librarian (shisho-kyouyu) for school libraries. There is no formal education system for academic and special libraries. In education field life line learning, library management, information reference service, information retrieval, library organization, copy right, information literacy etc. were more focused.

Wilson (2012), in his article 'Fifty years of LIS education' in USA and conducted a survey of research productivity and LIS educators during the what is peer articles, period 1959-2008. Author narrated the progress of academic articles Colorado State University (INTO), LIS education in USA and stated that prior to 1960s practicing librarians were teaching LIS education according to syllabus and writing essay London examination conducted by academic (INTO) library associations and similar status was also in Australia and Library Association Australia (now Australia library and drawing School information association (ALIA) was taking care of the education system.. Latter LIS education moved to higher education institute since 1980. Chu (2006) in academic writing articles State (INTO) his paper 'Curricula of LIS programs in the USA: A content analysis' in which the syllabi was reviewed by author from for essays of Canberra (Navitas), 45 ALA accredited LIS master programs in USA. Articles Colorado University? This study brought to the notice that more elective courses offered in LIS education in USA, while number of core requirement is reduced to few. Author has also pointed that 10% of the LIS courses in USA are designed in is peer articles College such a way to deal will emerging subject and latest development in the field of LIS. Thus subjects covered in the syllabus deals with knowledge organization, reference and academic State University information sources services, management, research in writing essay Firenze LIS, ICT, collection development, information use etc. As indicated by author in USA education system is giving more emphasis on elective subject like ICT, librarianship, resources and writing Colorado State (INTO) services, technical services etc. to manage latest situation. Writing The University? Now LIS courses clusters were introduced, which covers: - Information seeking behaviour. - Digital publishing etc.

4.3 Library and Information Science Education in India:- LIS education in writing Colorado University (INTO) India is completing a century of its existence during the period progress have been achieved in developing LIS education to tune with current practices. Radhakrishanan Commission, Kothari Commission, National Knowledge Commission, UGC, NAAC put more efforts in education sector including LIS by establishing advisory commission for libraries, national policy for library etc. Drawing? Curriculum Development Commission (CDC) continues grading and upgraded of LIS education in India. The progress from academic Colorado State University, certificate courses to research level through regular and distance mode took leading developing education in India (Joshi, 2010). There has been enormous growth in education and higher education around the globe. Every country worth its name and has developed a system of education and infrastructure to educate its people, and steps for writing a persuasive India is no exception. There has been a fast growth in institution of higher education since the dawn of twentieth century and more particularly, after India attained independence in 1947. The new India started its development program to achieve the new educational, cultural and economic objectives at the national level.

Such developments at academic writing articles Colorado State (INTO), these institutions contributed to the development of more libraries, which in turn had to accept new responsibilities to meet society's changing needs and demands. Libraries are recognized to play an important role in reviewed education, scientific research and social-economic development of a country. This envisages the need for professionally qualified personnel to manage and run the libraries and information centres effectively and efficiently. In order to feed the growing number of libraries, more trained library professionals were needed. For this purpose, library science departments started springing up, and library science developed into a distinct field of specialization with its own normative principles, theories, techniques, and practices that were deemed sufficient to meet the academic articles Colorado State University (INTO), growing dimensions of writing, library services. Handling of recorded knowledge in modern libraries has given birth to the functional aspects of collecting, organizing and promoting the use of reading materials relevant to the users through information transfer activities. Academic Writing State University (INTO)? These activities, no doubt, assist in defining the spectrum of writing introductions of Canberra (Navitas), studies for librarianship. The basic tenet of writing articles Colorado State University (INTO), LIS education is to provide balanced training, integrating theory with practical exercises, and to cover all aspects of a tok, professional work with equal emphasis embracing new frontier of librarianship. LIS education aims at providing trained manpower to manage different types of libraries, information and documentation centres which, over a period of time have undergone changes in terms of needs, functions, types and range of services offered as well as tools and techniques being used when offering the services. Research in library and information science in articles Colorado University (INTO) India is not deep rooted. In the beginning it was in the form of a trial and writing a tok essay Marangoni error method.

It was Padamashree S R Ranganathan (1889-1972) father of library science who lifted trail librarianship to the level of a science with the formulation of laws of articles Colorado, library science, and establishment library schools and introductions for essays (Navitas) research centres. He even graded them as normative principles, fundamental laws, canons, principles and academic writing articles Colorado State postulates. Ranganathan cut new grounds and blazed new practices in library and information science initially by solo research. This is introductions for essays The University (Navitas), evidence from the published literature that Ranganathan era's is characterized by academic articles Colorado (INTO) a period of intellectual contribution to the library and information science, particularly library classification. The root of the library and information science research in India were off shoots from the country first LIS intellectual workshop (i.e., Department of for essays of Canberra (Navitas), Library and Information Science, University of Delhi) instituted by Dr S R Ranganathan a day of library science profession in India in 1946. The first research degree in the library and information science in the country and academic writing articles State University even in the commonwealth countries was awarded by the University of Delhi in 1957 to D B Krishna Rao for steps for writing essay, his thesis 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the supervision of Dr.

S R Ranganathan. 4.4 Historical Development:- The modern period in the history of academic articles Colorado University, education for librarianship began in teachers.com Rugby School the mid-1800s as librarians around the world recognized that systematic education and training were required so that proper order could be brought to the collections that had been growing in Colorado (INTO) all libraries. The need for professionally qualified personnel to manage these libraries effectively and efficiently was duly recognized during the first half of the present and consequently, the library education programme had been started at several places much before Independence. The history of the education of library science in India may be traced far back as the year of 1911 with the writing a tok essay Istituto Firenze, starting of a short term training programme in library science in writing articles University the Baroda State, under the patronage of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda, who, impressed by the splendid work done by public libraries in the West, secured the services of an American librarian Mr.

W. A. Borden as Director of the State Library Department. Mr. Bordon had been a pupil of Mr. Melvil Dewey, who established the first library school in the Columbia College, New York in 1887. In 1915, another student of Dewey, Mr. A Dickenson, the then librarian of Punjab University, Lahore started a three months apprentice training programme for working librarians. Before Independence, only five universities namely the Andhra University, Banaras Hindu University, Calcutta University and Madras University were offering diploma course in library science. Library education was given a new status and design by Professor S. R. Ranganathan in 1920, when the first systematic programme in library education was started under the auspices of the Madras Library Association in collaboration with the Madras University.

This library school was subsequently taken over by the Madras University in 1931 and in 1937 the course was converted into Postgraduate (PG) Diploma in Library Science. This was the first diploma programme in Library Science in India. University of writing essay website School, Delhi was the first university to establish a full-fledged Department of academic writing State, Library Science just before independence in 1946, and started admitting students to the PG Diploma in 1947. In 1951, the diploma was changed to Master in writing a tok Marangoni Library Science (M.Lib.Sc). Writing University (INTO)? Later, between 1956 to 1959, six new LIS departments were established at teachers.com Rugby School, Aligarh Muslim University, M.S.University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. Since 1960s, the number of LIS departments has continued to increase. After Independence the stimulus for the growth and development of libraries and library science education has come from the progress in academic writing articles University and extension of education, scientific research and writing essay Marangoni London programmes of socio-economic development which started in Colorado University 1951 with the commencement of the First Five-Year Plan. As a result of these developments, Library and Information Science today is a well-recognized discipline of study and research at the post-graduate level in more than hundred universities in the country. The Baroda and Nagpur universities started training course in writing a tok essay Istituto Marangoni Firenze library science in 1956 and the Vikram University in 1957.

4.5 Present scenario of LIS Education in India:- Since its inception decades ago, LIS education has grown and academic articles developed into a full-fledged multi-disciplinary subject. LIS courses at bachelors, masters and research level are being impacted by different institutions ' university departments, colleges, library associations and what is peer journal articles Epsom College specialized institutions. There are now 96 universities in India imparting Library and Information Science education as independent departments in different levels. The list is shown in appendix.

Apart from these departments, there are also specialized RD organizations imparting library and information science education. Worth mentioning is the two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS) imparted by Documentation Research and Training Institute (DRTC), Indian Statistical Institute, Bangalore (Karnataka) and National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR) formerly INSDOC, New Delhi which is equivalent to articles State Mater degree of Library and Information Science (LIS). In addition to, these universities/departments there are several other open universities imparting library education as distance education. The professional associations such as Delhi Library Association (DLA) and the polytechnic institutions throughout the country are also imparting LIS education as lower level such as Certificate/Diploma in Library and Information Science. With the realization of the importance of higher education and research, research in Library education is not lagging behind like other disciplines. Essay Marangoni? The University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) are promoting to research activity in library and information science by awarding scholarships to research and doctoral students. 4.6 Objectives of Library and writing articles Colorado State University Information Science Education:-

The goal of library and information science education is the preparation of personnel for the task of successful performance at different levels of competence in different types of libraries with an insight into the role of these libraries in a fast changing society. It should impart a thorough grounding in the intellectual foundations of the profession and competence in the technical and technological skills required for their day-to-day practice in different positions. In other words, education for library and journal Epsom information science should be both knowledge and theory oriented task or practice oriented. The two aspects of theory and practice blend harmoniously in a sound programme of library and information science education because on this aspects LIS education depend the academic articles State University, effectiveness and success of the programme. In achieving this objective the methods of teaching and evaluation employed are as important as the quality of the faculty. The main objectives of LIS profession are to provide training for building up leadership qualities among the LIS profession develop knowledge on the latest techniques of information storage, transfer and retrieval of information help to acquire necessary skills in handling information, accessing and application of a tok essay Marangoni, electronic resources, tools and media; and help to know the latest developments in academic writing State (INTO) the Information Technology (IT) To sum up, the basic aims of library and information science education may be as follows. ' To develop necessary technical skills; ' To develop administrative skills; ' To develop service orientation; ' To develop thorough knowledge of various sources of information, necessary to give traditional and modern library services. ' To develop professional awareness. 4.7 Levels of Education:-

Out of the 96 university departments, 56 departments conduct one-year Bachelors degree and one year Masters Degree in Library and Information Science at the postgraduate level. Thirteen of these universities conduct two years integrated Masters Degree in Library Science. These programme further leads to M.Phil. and PhD levels. The levels of LIS education in India are discussed as follows in brief: 1.7.1 Certificate/Diploma in Library Science (C/D. Lib.

Sc.):- Many polytechnic colleges, schools and Library Associations impart the low level of library science courses in India having duration of six months to one year. The basic qualification for these courses is 10+2. This course prepares students for low level professional positions in is peer reviewed journal Epsom libraries such as Library Attendant, Library Clerk, etc. 1.7.2 Bachelor of Library and Information Science (BLIS) after any graduation:- This is a one-year post graduate degree course. The basic eligibility is articles University (INTO), a three years degree from any discipline. This course prepares students for junior professional positions at all types of libraries and they perform technical libraries. 1.7.3 Master of Library and Information Science (MLIS):- In the early 19th Century, young people learned librarianship by working under the more experienced practitioners.

But, gradually the introductions for essays The University, tasks performed by librarians became more complex and more dependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from the academic articles University, work-setting to professional schools in Universities. The first ever library school was started by Melvil Dewey in USA in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University). Writing Essay? In 1889 the programme moved to the New York State Library in Albany when Dewey became the Director there. The success of Dewey's training programme and articles State the publication of Training for Library Service, a book by the economist Charles Williamson in 1923, led other universities, institutes of drawing teachers.com School, technology, and academic writing Colorado State University large public libraries to Rugby School establish their own professional degree programmes in library science. Master of Library and Information Science is imparted as a one-year post graduate degree course in academic articles University some universities while in some, it is conducted as a two years integrated course. Many universities which offered one year BLISc and MLISc courses are now switching to two years integrated MLIS course in the line of other masters degree courses. Steps For Writing Essay Dulwich College? The North East Hill University (NEHU), RTM Nagpur, Punjab University Chandigarh, Karnataka University, Dharwad, etc are now offering two years MLISc course.

This course trains persons for senior professional position in libraries, documentation centres and/or information centres and teachers as well. 1.7.4 Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (ADIS):- The Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore (Karnataka) offers two years Associateship in Documentation and Information Science (Now know as Master of Science in Information Science). The National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR), New Delhi , formerly INSDOC also impart two years documentation programme i.e., Associateship in Documentation (AID) after graduation. The course offered by the DRTC and academic articles Colorado NISCAIR have upper age on writing Bodwell the courses as offered by the university departments in terms of ICT syllabus and intake of the enrolments. 1.7.5 Master of academic writing Colorado State University, Philosophy in Library and Information Science (M.Phil):- In Library and Information Science prepares a student for reviewed journal Epsom College, further advanced research in LIS.

The basic eligibility for admission for this programme is minimum 55% MLISc or any equivalent degree recognized by the UGC. With candidates having more qualifications are being preferred for articles Colorado University, superior position, many students are opting for M.Phil. Courses to writing website Bodwell School better equip them for better positions and develop research activity. 1.7.6 Doctor of Philosophy of Library and Information Science:- This is an advanced level of research programme being offered after the completion of MLISc or M.Phil.

The general aim of a research degree, whether M.Phil. or Ph.D. is to provide training in doing research as well as to develop in the candidate a critical and analytical process of thinking with the purpose that they would be able to provide leadership in the profession. They would also be able to help librarians and information scientists to develop techniques and skills required to meet their requirements of the fast changing society. They should be able to identify the needs, set objectives, identify and analyze the problems and find appropriate solutions. They would also be in a position to participate in writing articles (INTO) the planning, organization and a persuasive essay College implementation of programmes at various levels. 1.8 First Course of academic, Library Science in India(Certificate, Diploma and Training courses):-

In India the existence of in service training was initiated by John Macfarlane, the first librarian of the Imperial Library (Now National Library) at Calcutta from teachers.com Rugby School, 1901-06, as mentioned in Colorado State (INTO) some reports. In subsequent years, the training programme was opened to essay Marangoni Firenze the staff of other libraries and even those interested in librarianship who deals with books and writing (INTO) other documents. 1.8.1 Baroda School:- In 1911, Sayajirao Gaikwad (1862-1939), the ruler of Rugby School, Baroda state called the American librarian Mr. William Allenson Borden (1853-1931), a disciple of academic writing, Melvil Dewey to create a cadre of a tok essay Marangoni Firenze, men for the newly established libraries in the state library system. In 1912, he initiated the first training school in library education in India. In 1913, another training class for working librarians of town libraries was started.

These classes continued even after the departure of Borden. 1.8.2 Lahore School:- In 1912, the Punjab University called another librarian Mr. Asa Don Dickinson (1876'1960) from academic articles (INTO), USA. He started the second educational course of three month duration in library science in the year 1915. This happens to writing be the first university course in India.

Mr. Asa Don Dickinson later becomes the Librarian of Panjab University, Lahore (now Pakistan) during 1915'1916. 1.8.3 Andhra Desha:- The Andhra Desha Library Association (founded in 1914) started conducting 'training classes for the library workers' at academic writing articles State (INTO), Vijayawada in 1920. The classes covered a module on Rugby School running adult education classes in addition to library technique. 1.8.4 Mysore State:-

In 1920, a course for the training of librarians was conducted at academic articles (INTO), Bangalore under the 'program of library development' initiated by the then Dewan of Mysore Mr. M. Writing A Tok Istituto? Visweswaraya. 1.8.5 Madras Library Association:- A summer school for college librarians and writing articles State lecturers in charge of college libraries in Madras was held in 1928 and repeated in 1930. The Madras Library Association also organized a regular certificate course in library science from 1929.

Then in 1931, University of Madras took up the training course of MALA in 1931 and started offering the course on a regular basis. 1.8.6 Andhra University:- Andhra University started a certificate course in 1935, which was letter abandoned. 1.8.7 Imperial Library, Calcutta:- The Imperial library, Calcutta started a training class under the supervision of its librarian Mr. Steps A Persuasive Dulwich College? K. M. Asudulah in academic 1935. Essay Online Marangoni London? It was a full time regular Diploma course in librarianship at the Imperial Library, Calcutta (now National Library, Kolkata).

It continued till 1946. 4.9 Post Graduate Diploma courses:- University of academic articles Colorado State (INTO), Madras, in 1937, introduced a one year Post Graduate Diploma course in place of the certificate course of three month duration. This was the first P G Diploma in library science in India. The second university to start a post graduate diploma course was the Banaras Hindu University in writing online Marangoni 1942.

University of Bombay initiated a diploma course similar to Banaras Hindu University in 1943. A training course for the staff working in various government organizations was started in 1953. This course was recognized as equivalent to writing articles State (INTO) the university diploma courses. 4.10 Degree Courses:- In 1947, Aligarh Muslim University started B.Lib.

Science Course for the first time in the country. University of Delhi was the first university to establish a full fledged Department of Library Science in 1946. It also instituted the first post diploma degree course in 1948. In 1949, the structure was changed. The programme of Istituto Marangoni Firenze, Master of Library Science was introduced as a two year course with the first year leading to State Bachelor of Library Science. In between 1956-59, six new LIS departments were established at Aligarh Muslim University, MS University of Baroda, Nagpur University, Osmania University, Pune University and Vikram University. In 1960, Madras University replaced its full time one year diploma course to B.Lib.Sc. Degree course.

By mid 1960, many other universities had fallen in the line of university of Madras following the recommendation of Review Committee Report of UGC in what Epsom College introducing different degree courses. The Government Polytechnique for women, Ambala, Bangalore, Chandigarh, Delhi, Jullandhur, and academic articles Colorado State University (INTO) Rourkela started post matric (class X) diploma courses of two years duration in late 1960s. 4.11 Documentation Research and writing for essays The University Training Centre (DRTC):- In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Previously DRTC courses were of 14 month duration which was later on moved to two years programme. INSDOC conducted a short term course for Asian Documentalists in 1963. In 1964, it started a one year post graduate course in Documentation and Reprography leading to 'Associateship in Documentation and Reprography'. In 1977, the programme was renamed as 'Associateship in Information Science (AIS)'.

On September 30, 2002, INSDOC merged with the National Institute of Science Communication (NISCOM) and was renamed as National Institute of Science Communication And Information Resources (NISCAIR). At present, it is conducting 'Courses in Information Science'. The DRTC and NISCAIR concentrate on the training of professionals for special and industrial libraries and information centres. Their course contents are biased toward information science and technology. The programme of these two institutes are class apart from other similar programmes offered by various institutes.

In India advanced professional education has remained attached to universities, though there are some regional library associations conducting certificate courses of a few months duration and writing articles State University women polytechnics offering post-masters two year diplomas in library science to train paraprofessionals. At present, about 107 institutions, mostly university colleges and polytechnics, have library science education courses. Out of these, M. Writing A Tok Essay Firenze? Lib. I. Sc. course is being offered by more than 75 universities. 4.12 Five Year Integrated Course in LIS:- In 2010, University of Calcutta introduces five year integrated course in Library and Information Science and thus becomes the first university to launch such course in LIS domain. The entry qualification for this course was set at Higher Secondary (10+2) in articles (INTO) Arts / Science or Commerce. Launching of this course will force the learners to choose the LIS by choice and not by chance. It will again help the writing of Canberra (Navitas), students to grasp and understand the contents for LIS in a better and exhaustive way. 4.13 Present Status of LIS Education in academic Colorado State India:- Only few departments and associations now provide Certificate Courses in Library and Information Science (CLIS) and Diploma in Library and Information Science (DLIS).

The others provide BLISc and MLISc courses. In most of the universities, the prerequisite for admission into writing The University, the Bachelor or Master degree course in Library and Information Science is 10+2+3 years of education from any faculty (arts, science, commerce etc). The majority of the universities generally conduct two separate courses for the Bachelor's degree followed by the Master of Library and Information Science of one year (or two semesters) duration each. In recent years, some institutions have offered two years of integrated courses of four semester duration. The University of Calcutta went a step ahead and introduced five years integrated course in LIS with entry qualification as 10 +2. Similarly IGNOU and YCMOU are also playing major role in imparting LIS education along with deemed and formal universities. Students in most schools of library and information science have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some may take advanced courses in particular library functions, such as reference work, while others may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medical librarianship or public librarianship or academic librarianship.

In simple, there are many different courses available in LIS. It makes the professionals available to work at all levels of library irrespective of type, structure and function. The University Grants Commission (UGC), from time to time recommended the broader outlines of courses of academic writing Colorado State, Library and drawing Information Science. The latest effort has been through a UGC Curriculum Development Committee (1993). The UGC and other higher bodies now give emphasis to semester system rather than annual system, and credit-based rather than marks-based system. Every university being autonomous is academic writing State (INTO), free to frame its own course of studies, and reviewed journal articles syllabi of many universities / schools are quite modernized. All programmes to educate librarians share certain characteristics. Programmes typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to academic articles Colorado State University (INTO) give students a background in teachers.com Rugby School the profession's past. It also includes courses in knowledge organization (classification, cataloguing, bibliography, indexing abstracting, Metadata, semantic syntactic analysis, controlled vocabularies, etc.), collection development (acquisition), information seeking behaviors of Colorado State University (INTO), users, search strategies, library services (dissemination of the acquired library materials, reference), and management of the collection (preservation conservation of documents). It also includes contents related to writing online Istituto Marangoni London scholarly communication (bibliometrics, Infometrics, scientometrics, webometrics), digital libraries and ICT. 4.16 ICT as an Integral Part:-

Technology is entering in a very big way in every sector and in academic writing articles Colorado University LIS where it has been used extensively to store and retrieve information in different forms and structures. This new dimension is reflected in the course structure of almost all universities that provides courses in LIS. The courses include topics that impart new skill in organizing web resources, and providing web-based services. 4.17 Practical Exposure:- All courses provide scope of practical knowledge rather than restricting to only theory. Even some universities make it compulsory for their learners to undergo some apprenticeship before practicing the librarianship. 4.18 Problems with Present LIS Education and Research:- 4.18.1 Limited Accommodation Capacity:- All universities which provide Library and Information Science courses witness a great flow of learners.

But they are able to accommodate only a limited number of such desired students. 4.18.2 A Very Competitive Entrance Examination:- In most of the universities, students desire to study the is peer journal Epsom College, LIS has to go through a very competitive entrance examination for admission. 4.18.3 Limitation as a Professional Subject:- LIS is a professional course and so it has the limitations of any other professional courses.

The non-inclusion of articles Colorado (INTO), Library and Information Science in UPSC, Civil Service / State Public Service Commission examination, SET / SLET is a very common. The other problems include lack of a standard cohesive syllabus of LIS and low level of awareness among the general people about this course. 4.19 LIS Research in India:- The LIS research briefly means the collection and analysis of original data on writing The University a problem of librarianship, done within the library school according to scientific and writing articles (INTO) scholarly standard. Research in this connection broadly includes investigation, studies, surveys, academic work at a tok Firenze, the doctoral, post doctoral and research staff level, It also includes in house or action research by practicing librarians, information personnel and documentalists, etc. The aim of research in LIS, like any other discipline is to contribute towards the advancement of articles State (INTO), subject and contribution to the existing knowledge. 4.19.1 Dr. S. R. Ranganathan's Effort:- The era of LIS research in India started with S. R. Ranganathans efforts. He performed individual research for several years. His works that lead to some of the fundamental and theoretical principles have dominated the research activities for five decades.

His idea of classification and cataloguing becomes the area of research in different library schools all over the world. The library and academic community of those days, even today also respect him as a pioneer researcher in LIS. Some of his worth notable contributions are. a) Five laws of library science. b) Colon Classification. c) Prolegomena to library classification. d) Classified Catalogue Code. e) Documentation and its facets. f) Library administration, etc. In India research activity to reflect in two programs. 4.19.2 M. Phil Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- University of Delhi was the first to introduce M. Phil programme in Library and Information Science in 1980.

Today more than 11 universities offer the M.Phil programme. The duration of M. Phil programme in almost all universities in this country is one year. 4.19.3 PhD Programme:- i) University of Delhi:- The credit for introducing the doctoral degree programme in writing introductions The University of Canberra library science in India goes to Dr. S. R. Colorado University? Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started PhD program in a tok essay Istituto Firenze Delhi University in 1958. University (INTO)? The university offered first doctoral degree in writing essay website High Library science to D. B. Articles (INTO)? Krishan Rao for his 'Facet Analysis and Depth Classification of Agriculture' under the guidance of Dr. S. R. Writing For Essays (Navitas)? Ranganathan. In 1977, Panjab University, Chandigarh offered the second Ph.D. Today more than 125 Universities in India have Ph.D. research facilities. ii) Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC):-

In 1962, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan established Documentation Research and Training Centre at Bangalore. Since its inception, it has been carrying out Colorado State University (INTO) research studies on documentation and related areas. iii) Library Associations:- The contribution of library association of India towards research activities is writing for essays The University of Canberra, negligible but they restrict their activities in the field of publication of journals, organization of seminars, conferences and academic writing articles State University workshop, etc. for is peer Epsom College, making ground to do research in LIS. IATLIS, NASSDOC, ILA, IASLIC are the mentionable among them. iv) Funding of writing articles State University, LIS Research in India:- The University Grants Commission (UGC) is promoting LIS research by awarding different kinds of drawing teachers.com School, fellowships to the students. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR) and Defence Scientific Information and Documentation Centre (DESIDOC) are also promoting LIS research programme by awarding scholarship to doctoral students. v) D.Litt Programme:-

In 1992, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar awarded D.Litt. to Dr. B. B. Shukla. It claimed to be the first such degree in library science all over the world.(Kumar, 1998) 4.20 LIS Research : Global Overview:- Rochester and Vakkari (2003) conducted various national studies of different countries to analyse the trends in LIS research at global scenario and record the research trends in LIS research at writing Colorado University (INTO), global level based on the analysis. Steps For Writing A Persuasive Essay? The different national studies in research were conducted by these two authors as an Colorado State (INTO) assignment of IFLA project during 1997-1998 and compared national and writing a tok Marangoni international trends in LIS research and academic (INTO) recorded the development in research. The countries covered in the analysis were basically European countries Japan, China, UK, USA etc. The analytical study conducted and results reported by IFLA provided a descriptive account of research conducted in drawing Rugby various prominent countries of the writing Colorado State University, world. The author's analysis on the research activity and broad subject in which prominent research covered during the period 1965-1995 indicated that the major focus in introductions The University of Canberra LIS research at International level was concentrated mainly of the following topics. 1. Information storage and retrieval (87) 2. Academic Writing Articles Colorado University? Library and information services (77)

3. Information seeking behavior (8) 4. Other LIS topics (25) Thus out of 197 research studies it was reflected that ISR, LIS services and ISB were in prominent areas. Though these are common during the period the trend was almost similar in other countries also. European countries covering Finland, Spain etc had research activity in introductions of Canberra (Navitas) library services, information seeking behaviour, information services and retrieval where as in UK the same situation was reported. In Spain 1995 LIS degrees were recognized as academic degrees in academic State University universities.

Information science research took leading position in writing European countries. The research trends in Australia reflected in LIS services, information seeking and writing (INTO) history were more prominent (74). In China principals in LIS , LIS services, information industry were the major research areas, were more considered but library and information services area was more popular. The most popular sub topics on which research was conducted more during 1965-1995 in for writing a persuasive Dulwich College China were : ' Library management and administration. In China during the writing articles State (INTO), period 1979-1985 it was known as revolver phase of LIS research, 1986-1990 flourishing phase and 1991 onward developing stage and information service, library education were the prominent areas. A comparative study conducted Vakkari (1996) for LIS research in Scandinavia countries like Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway; Spain etc. also reflected European trends in Rugby School LIS research. Thus it was reflected that major countries noted below during this period involved more in research concentration at broad information topics.

It was found that research at international level had orientation towards solving information problems. In LIS many authors reviewed the research methods used by LIS scholars for conducting effective research and noticed that the among the different methods in Colorado (INTO) which descriptive research covering survey (66), historical conceptual research element (79) as well as discussions, mathematical methods, literature review were the prominent methods. In UK, LIS research was examined by Layzell Ward (1998) and pointed out the research trends and informed that research output was low initially and increased latter after establishment of library association which setup research committee 1946 and from 1960 Government funding made available for LIS research. Since the establishment of British Library 1994 the growth in research gradually increased after 1980 and information technology, information storage and retrieval become more popular topics. From the above global study it is noticed that LIS research progress was slow and different topics were grouped in to three areas based in traditional practices and what Epsom College since 1990 area were shifted towards modernization covering : 1. Library history: Library profession, Library administration, Library education, Analysis of academic writing (INTO), libraries, Publishing and steps for writing Dulwich College book industries.

2. Library and information services: Circulation, Collection development, Information and seeking behavior, User education. 3. Information storage and writing Colorado retrieval: Cataloguing, classification and indexing, Information retrieval, Bibliographic databases. 4. Steps For Writing A Persuasive Essay Dulwich College? Information seeking behavior: Methods of information dissemination, Information sources, Information seeking behavior in different subject, Information use, Information management. 5. Scientific and professional communication: Scientific publication, Citation pattern and structures, Methods of communication. At the end of academic articles University (INTO), 2001 centre for writing essay Marangoni, information research at university of central England, Birmingham examines the research landscape in Colorado University (INTO) LIS domain.

They have reviewed LIS research 2002-2005 and recorded potential gaps in LIS research activities. The survey using questioners covered LIS organizations links public library, universities libraries, schools and colleges, government libraries etc. the website Bodwell School, survey was focused on core areas in LIS. The centre reported that in LIS research domain may be local regional, national and international have a practice or academic focus. Hayns et. Writing Colorado State (INTO)? al (2000), pointed out that strategic research, basic research, exploratory research, action research, applied research are the major types of research. Strategic research deals with practical applications, basic research relate to theoretical investigation and helps in understanding principals of information management where as exploratory research generate new ideas with practical applications.

Applied research creates applications or products as well as transferable knowledge. Action research covers findings solutions to problems at work places worked of different services in 1984 Stewert felt that research area in LIS. This covers resources and essay Bodwell High services, new technologies, management of change, library services, staff skills, literacy, staff motivations etc. Writing Articles Colorado State University? thus the prominent areas in LIS research was predicted was information retrieval, library co-operation, digital resources, information services, preservation and access to knowledge, information providers, public library etc. Till 1995 prominent research was conducted in above areas using different research methods for conducting research in LIS like, historical method, survey method, qualitative, evaluation, action (case) research method, content analysis, citation analysis, bibliometric methods, secondary analysis (Literature review) and experimental research, bibliographic methods etc. The data collection techniques used by researcher while conducting the writing essay website High School, study during 1965-1995 mainly covers questioner, observation, interview, content analysis, citation analysis, historical resources analysis and secondary analysis. In UK research conducted mainly in the area public library, library management, user studies, technical processing, information storage and writing Colorado State (INTO) retrieval etc. (Meadows 1994, 1995). Peritz (1977) conducted a study in which analysed research articles published in 39 core journals published during the period 1950-1975 from LIS to find out the publishing trends in the stream. Author analysed about 900 journals articles and recorded the research trends.

Similar study was also performed by Atkins (1988) and Bodwell he analysed subject trends in LIS research carried out during the period 1975-1984 using questionnaire. The purpose of the author in writing articles State University (INTO) conducting this study was to find past, present and future trends in LIS research. Atkins in his study presented a table indicating popularity of the subject in which research articles were publish and these were treated as a base to conduct LIS research. Writing Essay Marangoni Firenze? The areas isolated by him are : 1. Writing Articles Colorado University? Library management. 2. Bodwell High School? Information retrieval. 5. (INTO)? Public library. 6. Library automation. 7. Library history. 8. Library finance. 9. Is Peer Reviewed Journal Articles Epsom? Collection development. 10.

Information services. 15. Citation studies. 16. Special libraries. 17. University (INTO)? Research libraries. 18. Library education. 19. University library. 20. Library building. 21. Special collection. 22. National library. 23. Library security.

The author opined that in developed countries till 1980 traditional concept were considered and since 1980 emphasis was given on latest trends related topics which were in drawing Rugby School currency like databases, ICT applications. The growth of OCLC, RLIN and WLN gave more attention towards research in the advanced topics and academic articles Colorado modernization, automation, database developments etc were considered more by the researcher. 'Citation analysis' was the subject area proved more popular and reported more studies as compared to online Marangoni other topics in LIS, due to its applications in the field to manage libraries and provide better services to users and uses in library at its highest potential. Mcnicol and Nankivell (2003), in their study 'The LIS research landscape: A review and prognosis' conducted a survey of research in academic writing articles Colorado LIS covering the drawing School, period in two parts 1997-2002 and 2002-2005. The comparative analysis of the study leads to academic articles Colorado State University (INTO) find out trends in research in LIS. This study highlighted LIS research landscape to identify trends and analysis as well as the gaps in research.

Slewart (1984) in his study prepared a research agenda and is peer College indicated few research areas in LIS which are not yet considered. 1. Resources utility and user and services requirement. 2. New technologies. 3. Management change. 4. Library services. 7. Retraining staff. 8. Restructuring libraries. Sumsion (1994), also focused on the following research topics and also opined that there is a need to work on the current development to get the quicker solution . 1. Library principals. 2. Identify trends.

3. New user needs. 4. New type of academic writing articles, services. Pluse and Prythech (1996), studied and Bodwell analysed LIS research conducted during 1990-1996 and identified few prospective areas like: 1. Operational management. 2. Standards and benchmarking. 3. Use of internet. 5. Staffing pattern. Few authors pointed out areas of research conducted in UK, USA during period 1996-2002 after a study and reported few of the prominent areas considered more in Colorado State (INTO) developed countries are: 1. Steps For Writing Essay Dulwich College? Information retrieval.

2. Information skill. 4. Academic Writing Colorado State University? Professional development. 7. LIS education. 8. User development. 9. Electronic services. Thus research conducted in writing essay website developed countries during 1996-2002 indicated increasing trends and it was highest since 2001.

Further while indicating future research development themes for research activities suggested were, 1. Electronic information. 2. Information policy. 3. Multimedia policy. 4. LIS education. 5. Business information.

Electronic resources and information services based on academic writing articles (INTO) digital media is the need of the writing a tok Istituto Marangoni, time including internet resource management. Few prominent subjects presented to undertake future studies are: 1. Impact of digital resources. 2. Writing Articles? Digital library development. 3. ICT and school library. 4. For Writing A Persuasive Dulwich College? Use of electronic resources. 5. Community building. 6. Academic Articles State? Controlled vocabulary.

7. Information searching. 10. Semantic web and controlled terminologies. The editorial of library and writing introductions of Canberra (Navitas) information science research (1997), in which research agenda beyond 2000 was highlighted by Burke and others and focused the areas in LIS research before 1997 and next bilinear were also highlighted. Information seeking and information retrieval, storage and preservation technology, information quality was covered more. The opinion of editorial board covers the major topics like economics, manage rising cost of journals, electronic publishing, information retrieval, internets and its impact on libraries, bibliographic information resources, library services, quality information services, information need/assessment, managing organizational change due to application of information technology, digital information services, web technology, value added information services are the State University, major core areas to be looked in to 2000 onwards. Samdani (2011), in his article narrated the status of doctoral research in LIS in Pakistan and appended the views indicating the LIS research was started in 1967 from university of Karachi. Writing A Tok Istituto Marangoni Firenze? In Pakistan seven universities and one private university is offering doctoral research programme in LIS. During 1967-1971 only five candidates admitted for academic writing Colorado State, research program and only one i.e. M A H Chishti completed his thesis and awarded degree in 1981 entitled 'Islamic libraries (749 AD-1257 AD)'.

In 1992 second PhD degree was awarded to Nasim Fatima under the guidance of Dr. Jamil Jalibi from university of Karachi entitled 'cataloguing and standardization of Urdu manuscripts'. The third degree awarded to Munira Ansari in 2005 entitled 'Information needs and information seeking behaviour of the The University of Canberra, media practitioners in academic articles State University (INTO) Pakistan'. The fourth degree awarded to Shamshad Ahmed in essay School 2009 for entitled 'A study of library and academic writing articles State (INTO) archival record in directorate of Sindh archives Karachi'. The ongoing research activity involve 13 candidates in research programme and a tok their topics are information generating and handling, health science libraries, news paper library, digital library, library and information science education curriculum, reference and information sources etc. Writing Articles University (INTO)? It is review that university of for writing Dulwich College, Karachi four PhD degrees awarded and 13 ongoing PhD research work. From university of academic articles Colorado University, Panjab, Lahor initiated doctoral research program in 1971.

First degree awarded in 2004 and second degree awarded in 2005. The topics were funding model in library and collection management in libraries, at present till 2009, three students have submitted the introductions for essays of Canberra (Navitas), thesis. In university of Sindh research programme started in 2001 first degree awarded in writing articles University 2005 and presently four students have registered for ongoing research program and their topics school libraries, college librarianship, user survey/user satisfaction, digital libraries etc. From Islamia University started doctoral program in what reviewed journal Epsom 1986 and first degree awarded in 1991 for university library and presently three students have registered for PhD ongoing research program. From university of articles University, Balochistan only one candidate having registered in 2003. University of Peshawar, Urdu university of Karachi, Hamdard University, Karachi research has been reflected only at initial stage.

It is thus reported that 19 PhD degrees in LIS were awarded during 1964-2010. From foreign university thus 1964-2010, 28 PhD degrees were awarded in 46 years duration, almost single degree in essay High School a twice year. During 2004-2010 total ten PhD were declared and this is the real contribution of Pakistan. Articles State (INTO)? The topics were covered academic library, collection management, library education, classification, cataloguing, library funding, school library, university library, user education etc. as compared Indian progress is excellent. Miwa (2011), in his article trends in Japanese LIS education is highlighted in which more trace was given on LIS education to maintain quality. A Tok Essay Marangoni? The problem areas indentified were public library, academic library, special library, research activities, ICT, professional system etc. it has also same educational pattern followed in India i.e. any bachelor degree, bachelor degree in LIS, master degree and doctoral in LIS. In Sri Lanka (Chamani 2008), the major research covered till 2008 were library professional, library history, publishing, LIS education, Information system, information storage and retrieval, information seeking behaviour etc. The review of LIS research in different countries highlighted that till 2005 almost traditional research was focused more but since 2005 more research is covering latest trends in academic writing State the profession. From the review of India the same picture is reported except the ICT and technology based research initiated since 2009 onwards. 4.21 Research trend in Indian Universities:

The research activity in Indian universities is gathering momentum as there is a greater demand for the research in the discipline. A Tok Essay Istituto Marangoni? During the recent past, quite a number of research activities have been carried out in the universities and research institutions in various parts of the world. In India, due to the establishment of University Grants Commission (UGC), AICTE and other similar bodies and their active support, many students are caring out M. Phil. and Colorado PhD degrees. During pre-independence, there were only few doctorate degree holders, but after independence the research output increased drastically in every field. In India about 125 universities and research institutions are offering PhD programs in steps a persuasive essay LIS. Many researchers made an writing University (INTO) effort to collect data from different universities and analyzed it to fix the research productivity of the writing Bodwell, various universities in India (Chandrashekara 2009). The credit for the formal institution of the doctoral degree program in library science in India goes undeniably to Dr. S.R. Ranganathan (1892'1972). In 1951, he started library science education at articles, the University of Delhi.

The University of Delhi awarded the first de jure degree in The University library science in 1957 to D.B. Krishan Rao who worked on 'faceted classification for agriculture'(Chandrashekara 2009, Gupta 2010). Doctoral research remained in the wilderness when Ranganathan shifted to Delhi in 1955. In 1960s and 1970s some doctorates in library related topics were earned by library professionals under the guidance and supervision of faculties belonging to the disciplines such as sociology, history, law, economics, management, and the like. The purpose of reviving and furthering doctoral research facilities was assumed by J. S. Sharma (1924'1993), the then university librarian and head of the library science department of the Panjab University, Chandigarh. Under his guidance, the second de jure (de jure means devoting something and State University (INTO) someone) Ph.D. in library science was awarded in 1977 after a gap of two decades. Many universities followed with mostly individual efforts and enthusiasm and doctoral research raised since 1980s and gradual improvement in facilities paved ways for India to maintain its third world leadership in library research and library literature. PhD programs thereafter, mushroomed even despite the lack of facilities or adherence to standards (Satija 1999, Gupta 2010).

Chandrashekara (2009) collected the data from essay online Istituto, various authorized sources for the degrees awarded in Indian universities from academic writing University, 1957 to 2008 in LIS discipline and is peer articles Epsom analyzed in proper manner in his paper. His results indicated that during the period 1957 to 2008 about 802 theses were submitted and awarded the degrees to the researchers. From his analysis it is very clear that LIS researches gained momentum since 1991 to 2008 and on an average degree awarded per year were 36 and from 1957 to 1990 only articles State 8 per annum average degrees were awarded. The drastic change is reported since 2003 onwards and on a tok essay an average 43 degrees were awarded per year in Indian universities. Even author had grouped decennial growth of research degrees awarded in academic writing articles Colorado University Indian universities.

The trends resulted from the data presentation indicated that the real growth starts from 1980 to writing High School 2008 and during 1950 to 1979 only 15 degrees were awarded. The analysis of degrees awarded in different states and arranging them the top 10 states in India conducted LIS research are Karnataka (169), AP (96), MP (80), MS (58), West Bengal (56), Punjab (45), Orissa (43), UP(42), Rajasthan (41), TN (31) and other states contribution is (141). The analysis made by academic articles Colorado State (INTO) Chandrashekara and Ramashesh (2009) regarding the research conducted in India during the period 1957-2008 and writing introductions for essays The University of Canberra found that research activity in writing State Karnataka state is leading and Maharashtra is ranked at writing essay Istituto, 4th position. The library and information science deals with all aspects of information and knowledge which includes acquisition of materials, classification and cataloguing, searching tools, information retrieval, library services, preservation and conservation of documents and so on. The library and academic writing State University information science closely related to all other subjects. It forms its own foundation by taking the help of writing for essays The University of Canberra (Navitas), some other subjects. State? Dr. S. R. Ranganathan is a pioneer in School the field of Library and (INTO) Information Science in the world and India in particular. Writing The University Of Canberra (Navitas)? He contributed in almost all aspects of the library science.

Nowadays many university and colleges provides different courses in Library and Information and its related subjects. It ranges from certificate course to PhD. The research trends indicated the academic articles Colorado State University (INTO), growth at global level and also in India. This chapter satisfies the objective 'To study research growth and research trends in LIS and compare it with current developments in LIS'. This chapter summarizes the progress in LIS education, LIS research at global and national level. ' Asundi, A Y and Karisiddappa C R (2007) Library and Information Science Education in India: International perspective with special reference to Developing Countries. DESIDOC Bulletin of Information Technology Vol. 27(2) March, p.5-11.

' Atkins Stephen E (1988), Subject trends in library and information science research, 1975-1984, Library Trends, Spring, p. 633-658. ' Barman Badan (2012), Library and information science education, Accessed at http://www.netugc.com/library-and-information-science-education-in-india dated on 14.04.2012. ' Burke R M and what journal articles Epsom others (1998), A research agenda beyond 2000, Library and academic Colorado State (INTO) information science research, Vol. 19(3), p. What Is Peer Reviewed? 209-216. ' Chamani G (2008), library and academic State (INTO) information science research literature in Sri Lanka: A bibliometric study, journal of the Rugby School, university librarians association of Sri Lanka, Vol. Academic (INTO)? 12. ' Chandrashekara, M and Ramasesh, C P (2009) Library and Information Science Research in India. Asia Pacific Conference on LIS education and practice, p.530-537. ' Gupta, D K and Bhardwaj, K (2010) Library Management Research in Indian Universities. Annals of Library and Information Studies. Vol.

57(Dec), p.333-338. ' Higgins, S E(2007) LIS education and writing introductions The University of Canberra research area for developing countries. 5th International CALIBER. Punjab University Chandigarh. 8-10 Feb. ' Jarvelin, K. and P. Academic Writing Colorado State? Vakkari.

1993. The evolution of library and information science 1965-1985: a content analysis of journal articles. Writing Essay? Information Processing and Management, 29(1): 129-144. ' Joshi Manoj K (2010), Library and information science education in articles Colorado State (INTO) India: Some government initiatives, DESIDOC journal of library and information technology, Vol. 30(5), Sept., p 67-73. ' Kumar PSG (1998), Doctoral studies in library and information science in essay Bodwell India: A study, DESIDOC Bulletin of information technology, vol.18(1), p5-9. ' Layzell Ward (1998), Layzell Ward, P. (1997). The nature of UK research literature: Some thoughts arising from a bibliometric study. Academic Writing? IFLA General Conference in a tok Marangoni Firenze Copenhagen, 1997. Library Theory and Research Section Open Forum paper accessed at http://ifla.queenslibrary.org/IV/ifla63/63rocm.htm accessed on 12.06.2012.

' McNicol; Sarah and Nankivell, Clare (2003) LIS Researchers and Practitioners: a Research Culture, Library and Information Research News 26(83), pp. 10-16. ' Miwa M et. al. (2011), Global LIS: An effort to describe trends in Japanese LIS education for global collaboration, Asia Pacific conference on Library information education and practice 2011. ' Naukri24 (2012), Library and information science education in India, Accessed at http://www.news24online.com/Library-and-Information-Science-Education-in-India--Options,-Opportunities-and-Places_career24_23.aspx accessed on 14.04.2012. ' Peritz (1981), the methods of library science research: some results from a bibliometric survey, Library Research2, p. 251-268. ' Pluse, John M., and Prythech, Ray (1996), Research in Public Libraries, Final Report of the Project on Research in Public Libraries, British Library Research and Innovation Report 8, London: BLRIC. ' Rath, P (2010) Information and Colorado State (INTO) communication technology - Application in higher education with special reference to north Eastern region. Located at www.caluniv.ac.in/news/prabhakar.doc accessed on 23.07.2011. ' Rochester Maxine, and Vakkari, Pertti (1998), 'International LIS research: A Comparison of National Trends', IFLA Journal 24(3), pp. 166-175.

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Fr die Bearbeitung unterscheidet man Intern- und Externformat: Format, in dem die Daten so abgelegt sind, dass sie mit den Programmen eines bestimmten Anwenders weiterverarbeitet werden knnen. Writing For Essays Of Canberra? Durch Bercksichtigung von Hardware- und Software-Erfordernissen knnen Programmieraufwand und Maschinenzeit bei der Verarbeitung der Daten wesentlich beeinflusst werden. Das Internformat kann vom Computer direkt verarbeitet werden. Externformat (auch Erfassungsformat, Kategorienschema genannt), uere Struktur : Das Erfassungsformat enthlt Aussagen ber den inhaltlichen Aufbau, d.h. das Kategorienschema ordnet den Textfeldern des Internformats gewisse Bedeutungen zu. Die Struktur dieses Schemas sollte so angelegt sein, dass es fr den Erfassenden mglichst einfach anwendbar ist. Articles? Im folgenden wird immer von Externformaten die Rede sein. In der Anwendung unterscheidet man Institutionen spezifische Formate und Austauschformate (nationale und internationale)

Austauschformate sind in essay Bodwell, erster Linie dafr gedacht, Daten zwischen verschiedenen Systemen auszutauschen d.h. sie enthalten u.a. Absprachen zur bertragung der Daten. Auf deutscher Ebene wurde lange Zeit MAB [Maschinelles Austauschformat fr Bibliotheken] genutzt. Academic Articles? International hat sich zum Austausch die MARC-Familie durchgesetzt [machine-readable cataloging]. Austauschformate werden aber auch als Format fr spezielle Institutionen benutzt. Reviewed Journal Articles? So liegen heute in University, deutschen Verbnden meist MARC-Strukturen zu Grunde. Writing Introductions The University? Dabei geht es vor allem darum das Format so zu erweitern, dass spezifische Aufgaben eines Verbundes zu erfllen sind. Als Grundlage fr ein Format galt bisher das jeweilige Regelwerk fr die Erschlieung (formale und sachliche Erschlieung). Academic Writing Articles Colorado State University? Eine nicht ganz einfache Aufgabe ist es, die Vorschriften eines neuen Regelwerks in drawing teachers.com Rugby School, ein bestehendes Format einzuarbeiten (s. Academic Writing Articles Colorado University? unten unter MARC 21) Darauf aufbauend entwickelt man ein Pflichtenheft: ein Datenformat muss u.a. Journal College? folgendes leisten: insbesondere muss aufgefhrt werden: die vom Regelwerk geforderten Elemente mssen erfassbar sein, indem man die Elemente Kategorien (Feldern) zuordnet Elemente, die als Sucheinstiege dienen, mssen entsprechend aufbereitet sein Geforderte Verknpfungen mssen funktionieren, z.B. Academic Articles State (INTO)? Verknpfungen zu Normdateien, aber auch Verknpfungen zwischen Datenstzen innerhalb einer Datei (z.B.

Monografie zur Schriftenreihe) Mehrfacheintrge mssen geregelt werden, z.B. Steps For Writing A Persuasive? durch die Mglichkeit der Feldwiederholung Regeln zur Ordnung sollten eingehalten werden, Festlegen der verwendbaren Zeichen Fr den OPAC ist zustzlich ein Pflichtenheft zu erstellen: u.a. Academic Writing Articles State (INTO)? fr die Anzeige der Daten auf dem Bildschirm fr die Benutzerfhrung fr Hilfsbildschirme. Eine gute Einfhrung in das Thema findet man: Eversberg, Bernhard: Was sind und was sollen bibliothekarische Datenformate. Writing? - WWW-Ausgabe. Articles Colorado University (INTO)? - 1999. - URL: http://www.allegro-c.de/formate/formate.htm -- Zugriff 2016-03-26. Istituto? Hilfreich ist der Bezug auf das OSI-Referenzmodell [Open Systems Interconnection] der ISO [International Organization for writing articles Colorado (INTO) Standardization]. 7.4. Aufbau von Formaten und Folgen fr den Datenaustausch. Die heutigen allgemein anerkannten Formate kann man als analytische Datenformate beschreiben, d.h. A Tok Essay Istituto Marangoni Firenze? die Titelaufnahmen sind in academic writing articles Colorado State University (INTO), elementare Kategorien oder Felder aufgeteilt. Anders ausgedrckt: die Titelaufnahme ist in Firenze, einzelne Elemente aufgeteilt, die je eine sachliche Einheit darstellen. Die Abfolge der Elemente wird unterschiedlich gehandhabt. Academic State? Grundstzlich kann man sich an writing website High, der Reihenfolge in academic articles, einer Titelaufnahme nach ISBD und mit traditionellen Kpfen und Nebeneintragungen orientieren wie die MARC-Formate. (Navitas)? Man kann aber auch sachlich zueinander passende Elemente in Segmenten anordnen wie MAB ( Maschinelles Austauschformat fr Bibliotheken , das deutsche Austauschformat) und wie UNIMARC (ein internationales Austauschformat).

Diese Abfolge ist fr einen Datentausch unerheblich. Schwierig wird es erst fr den Austausch, wenn ein Format in academic writing University, einem Feld oder in College, einem Unterfeld mehrere bibliographische Elemente zusammenfasst, wie es MARC tut. MAB nimmt pro academic Colorado State, variablem Feld im allgemeinen nur ein bibliographisches Element. z.B. Writing Essay Marangoni? Feld 245 in USMARC ohne Unterscheidung, was der Paralleltitel ist, und MAB mit einem eigenen Feld fr den Paralleltitel. Es ist auch unterschiedlich festgelegt, ob eine Aufnahme in einem Datensatz oder in mehrere aufgeteilt werden soll. Writing State? So werden in US-MARC smtliche Angaben zum mehrbndigen Werk in einem Satz angegeben, MAB bildet in steps for writing Dulwich College, solchen Fllen mehrere zueinander gehrende Stze (Hauptstze, Unterstze und in MAB 1 Nachstze); diese Stze stehen in articles State, einem hierarchischen Verhltnis zueinander (im Nachsatz standen Ansetzungsformen fr Nebeneintragungen von beigefgten und enthaltenen Werken).

UNIMARC ist flexibel. Neben diesen Problemen fr die Umsetzung muss man u.a. noch fertig werden mit unterschiedlichen Zeichencodes, unterschiedlichen Steuerzeichen (z.B. For Writing Essay College? Nichtsortierzeichen) und unterschiedlichen Verknpfungsstrukturen. Academic State University (INTO)? (Die grten Probleme fr den Austausch bereiten allerdings nicht die Formate sondern die dahinterliegenden Regelwerke.) Die allgemein anerkannten Formate orientieren sich heute im allgemeinen an writing introductions for essays The University of Canberra, nationalen bzw. Academic State? internationalen Normen. Unabdingbar fr einen Austausch ist das Einhalten bestimmter Vorschriften (Protokolle) -- heute oft noch eine normierte Struktur der Daten auf Magnetbndern, mehr und mehr aber normierte Strukturen fr den Austausch ber File transfer.

Dafr wurde die ISO Norm 2709 Documentation -- Format for a persuasive essay Dulwich bibliographic information interchange on magnetic tape (vgl. Academic Writing Articles Colorado State University? DIN 1506) entwickelt. Danach bestehen die Datenstze je aus 3 Teilen: record label (festes Feld, 192 Bytes lang) auch leader, Satzkennung genannt directory (Inhaltsverzeichnis) (12 Bytes je Eintragung) variable fields (variable Datenfelder) Record label (wie der Vorspann zu einem Film) enthlt die fr die Identifizierung und Bearbeitung des Satzes wichtigen Angaben und solche Daten, die im direkten Zugriff stehen sollen z.B. Lnge des Satzes der laufenden Identifikationsnummer der Austauscheinheit. Inhaltsverzeichnis wie die Seitenangabe in einem Buch. (MAB 2 verzichtet inzwischen auf das Inhaltsverzeichnis.) Variable Datenfelder: bestehen aus den Indikatoren, der Feldkennung, den Daten und dem Feldtrennzeichen. bereinstimmend ist damit die logische und physikalische Gliederung der bibliographischen Daten, aber wie oben schon angedeutet nicht die Struktur des Dateninhalts. Beispiele aus einem MARC-record: [¶=Feldendezeichen]

Variable data fields: usw. Steps A Persuasive? fr Imprint, Collation, General Note, Subject Heading. 7.5. Academic University? Kriterien bei der Auswahl eines Formats. Im Zeitalter der Vernetzung von Bibliotheken wird man wohl selten die Mglichkeit haben ein Format auszuwhlen, denn zumindest fr die Bibliotheken innerhalb der deutschen (und sterreichischen) Verbnde ist das eine bibliothekspolitische Frage. Writing Online? Trotzdem sollen hier einige Kriterien zur Auswahl genannt werden: Sind die Daten austauschbar? Sind internationale Standards eingehalten? Knnen die Vorschriften des eigenen Regelwerks erfllt werden? Sind z.B. Writing Articles State University (INTO)? hierarchische Aufnahmen bei mehrbndigen Werken mglich?

Sind Verknpfungen vorgesehen? Sind gengend Felder fr den lokalen Bedarf vorgesehen? Kann es fr ein Mehrdateiensystem eingesetzt werden? Wie einengend ist es? bzw. A Tok Essay Istituto? ist es einfach erweiterbar? z.B. State University (INTO)? gab es in drawing teachers.com, MAB 1 immer nur eine bestimmte Anzahl Felder fr einzelne Elemente (10 Verweisungsfelder fr einen Personennamen), in articles State, MARC dagegen ist teilweise beliebige Wiederholung des Feldes mglich. Welche Hilfen werden angeboten? Listen von Codes, Beispielsammlung, Anwendergremium, Mailing- Liste. Sind alle gewnschten Materialien damit erfassbar?

Ist die gewnschte sachliche Erschlieung mglich? In welchem Format sind schon die meisten Daten erfasst? -- damit man Fremdleistungen bernehmen kann. London? Wie sieht es mit der Anwendung im Web 2.0 aus? Es geht hier um die Formate, die sich durchgesetzt haben. Abgesehen von den selbstgestrickten Formaten fr Kleinstanwender sind das die internationalen Austauschformate (Formatfamilie MARC und das offizielle internationale Austauschformat UNIMARC), die nationalen Austauschformate (z.B. bisher MAB fr deutsche und sterreichische RAK-Anwender) und die Spezialformate der Verbnde, die aber im allgemeinen eine Weiterentwicklung eines nationalen oder internationalen Formats sind. Ein neues Modell ist in Planung: s. 7.7 Bibframe. MARC (machine-readable cataloging) wurde seit 1966 von der LoC benutzt, um ihre Daten per Magnetband an Colorado University (INTO), Bibliotheken zu senden. Teachers.com School? Die Bibliotheken nutzten diese maschinenlesbaren Daten zum Druck von Kartenkatalogen, Listenkatalogen, Bibliographien u.. Colorado? Diese Ausrichtung auf den Kartenkatalog haben die amerikanischen MARC-Formate heute noch. Die LoC hatte im Laufe der Zeit fr verschiedene Materialien je verschiedene MARC-Formate entwickelt, und zwar entsprechend den AACR fr.

Monographien (books) fortlaufende Sammelwerke (serials) AV-Materialien (visual materials) Archivalien und Handschriften (archival and writing essay website Bodwell, manuscripts control) Karten (maps) Musikalien (music) computer files. Dieses MARC-Format wurde bekannt als LC-MARC und lief unter dem Namen US-MARC . Die MARC-Formate der groen US-Verbnde -- OCLC-MARC, RLIN-MARC, WLN-MARC -- sind voll kompatibel mit US-MARC, daher war die bernahme der Verbnde RLIN und WLN durch OCLC erheblich erleichtert. Anfang der 80er Jahre wurde das Format an AACR2 angeglichen. Damit waren gleichzeitig die Forderungen der ISBD's erfllt. Seit 1996 wurde Integrated MARC eingesetzt. Es handelt sich um eine Zusammenfassung der nach Materialien getrennten MARCFormate, da es teilweise schwierig war, eine Vorlage einem bestimmten Format zuzuordnen z.B. Academic Writing? was nimmt man, wenn die Vorlage eine Zeitschrift in writing introductions for essays The University, Mikroform ist? US-MARC in academic articles (INTO), seiner Weiterentwicklung MARC 21 ist vor allem dadurch so interessant, weil damit groe Datenbestnde erfasst sind -- nmlich nicht nur die Daten der LoC, sondern auch die Datenbank von OCLC, im Februar 2015 ber 332 Millionen Titel (mit unzhligen Millionen von Bestandsnachweisen). [s. Teachers.com? http://www.oclc.org/worldcat. - Zugriff 2015-02-09] UK-MARC (United Kingdom) wurde von der British Library (BL) fr die British National Bibliography entwickelt, und gerade in academic writing Colorado University, dieser speziellen Zielsetzung lagen dann auch die Unterschiede zu US-MARC. Die Unterschiede zwischen US-MARC und UK-MARC bestanden u.a. Articles Epsom College? darin, dass UK-MARC weiter untergliedert. Z.B. werden Paralleltitel in academic University (INTO), einem eigenen Unterfeld angegeben (245 subfield $k).

Auch sieht UK-MARC im Unterschied zu US-MARC hierarchisch gegliederte mehrbndige Werke (analytische Levels) vor. Writing? s. Academic Writing Articles? UK-MARC Manual p. Writing Introductions For Essays The University? 5/76 und p. 5/35 multilevel description. Seit etwa 1996 bemhte man sich darum, die unterschiedlichen MARC-Fassungen der USA, Kanadas und Grobritanniens in bereinstimmung zu bringen. Z.B. Academic University (INTO)? hat man sich inzwischen auf gleiche Codes geeinigt (z.B. den Alpha-3-Code [dreistelliger Lndercode] genommen). Writing Essay Website Bodwell School? Auf der Grundlage eines harmonisierten CAN/MARC - USMARC-Formats wurde inzwischen das UK-MARC eingeschlossen. Man erwartet, dass weitere MARC-Formate entsprechend berarbeitet werden. Die National Library of academic articles Colorado State University Canada begann mit dem Einsatz 1999, die LoC im Januar 2000 und die BL 2001. Im Laufe des Jahres 2009 ist MARC 21 als Austauschformat fr die deutschen Verbnde und die DNB bernommen worden. MARC 21 besteht aus folgenden Teilen:

Format for what journal articles College Bibliographic Data (deutsch: MARC 21 fr bibliografische Daten, Stand Oktober 2008. http://files.d-nb.de/pdf/marc_bd.pdf Zugriff 2016-03-26) Format for articles State (INTO) Authority Data (deutsch: MARC 21 fr Normdaten, Stand Oktober 2008. http://files.d-nb.de/pdf/marc_nd.pdf ) Format for drawing teachers.com Holdings Data (deutsch: MARC 21 fr Bestandsdaten, Stand Oktober 2008. Academic Writing Articles (INTO)? http://files.d-nb.de/pdf/marc_hd.pdf ) Format for steps for writing Dulwich Classification Data Format for academic writing Colorado Community Information. Eine hervorragende Einfhrung in a tok Firenze, MARC 21 findet man unter dem Titel: Understanding MARC bibliographic : machine-readable cataloging / written by Betty Furrie in conjunction with the Data Base Development Department of The Follett Software Company. Writing Colorado State? - 8. The University (Navitas)? ed. - Washington, D.C. Academic Writing Colorado? : Library of writing Bodwell High Congress, 2009. Articles State University (INTO)? - URL: http://www.loc.gov/marc/umb/ . - Zugriff am 2016-03-26. Alle Formatteile und weiteres zu MARC 21 findet man unter: http://www.loc.gov/marc/ Zugriff 2016-03-26. Writing Introductions For Essays The University Of Canberra (Navitas)? Beim Format wird jeweils der volle Text und ein Kurztext (concice version) angeboten. Als Beispiel fr das Format fr bibliografische Daten: einige wichtige Felder (tags) mit ihren beiden Indikatoren und Unterfeldern (nicht jedes Feld hat Indikatoren oder bentigt beide Indikatoren).

Felder knnen wiederholbar sein: R bzw NR fr nicht wiederholbar. Sind keine Indikatoren vorhanden, kennzeichnet man das mit ##; Unterfelder werden mit $ und einem Buchstaben oder einer einstelligen Zahl eingefhrt. Writing State University (INTO)? Im Folgenden ist nur angegeben, was man fr eine einfache Titelaufnahme bentigt. 010 ## $a : Nummer des Datensatzes. 020 ## $a ISBN : $c z.B. Journal Articles College? der Preis. z.B.: 020 ## $a 3123423560. 100 Haupteintragung fr den 1. Writing (INTO)? Verfasser, daher nicht wiederholbar. The University (Navitas)? Es gibt nur den Indikator 1 mit 3 Festlegungen: 0 = Vorname (z.B. Academic Writing Articles Colorado State University (INTO)? bei Personen des Mittelalter) oder 1 = Nachname (der Normalfall) oder 3= Familienname (z.B. A Tok Essay? Bach-Familie)

100 1# $a Personennamen, $d Lebensdaten. z.B.: 100 1# $a Mller, Max. 240 Einheitstitel (Uniform title), der nicht die Haupteintragung erhlt: nicht wiederholbar; 2 Indikatoren: der 1. Academic Writing Articles State University? Indikator sagt an, dass der Titel auf dem Bildschirm gezeigt wird; der 2. Indikator (0 - 9) zeigt an, wie viele Stellen beim Sortieren bergangen werden mssen. 240 10 $a Einheitstitel; $l Sprache des Werks; $f Datum des Werks. 245 Angabe des Sachtitels und Verfasserangabe. Writing Bodwell? Der 1. Writing Articles University (INTO)? Indikator sagt, ob eine Nebeneintragung unter dem Sachtitel gemacht werden soll = 1, wenn nicht = 0. Der 2. Indikator zeigt an, wie viele Stellen beim Sortieren bergangen werden mssen. Steps For Writing Dulwich College? Es gibt eine Reihe von Unterfeldern, u.a. Writing Colorado (INTO)? $a = Hauptsachtitel, $b = Zusatz, $c = Verfasserangabe. 245 10 $a Hauptsachtitel : $b Zusatz zum Sachtitel / $c Verfasserangabe. z.B.: 245 14 $a Die Schwarzbren in drawing teachers.com School, Kalifornien : $b Ernhrung aus Mlltonnen ; ein Problem / $c M. University (INTO)? Mller ; F. Drawing Rugby? Meier. 250 ## $a Ausgabebezeichnung. State University (INTO)? z.B. 250 ## $a 25.

Version. 260 ## $a Erscheinungsort (wiederholbar) : $b Verlag (wiederholbar), $c Erscheinungsdatum (wiederholbar) z.B.: 260 ## $a Ofterdingen : $b Reyap, $c 1987. 300 ## $a Umfangsangabe : $b Illustrationsangabe; $c Format (in cm). z.B.: 300 ## $a 555 S. High School? : $b zahlr. Academic Writing Articles University? Ill., Kt. 490 Angabe der Serie: wenn man eine Nebeneintragung unter der Serie haben will, muss zustzlich ein Feld 8XX belegt werden und als Indikator 1 die 1; wenn nicht Indikator 1 mit der Angabe 0. Writing Essay Marangoni London? Der 2. Indikator ist nicht belegt. 490 1# $a Gesamttitel ; $v Zhlung. Academic University? z.B.: 490 0# $a Brenreihe ; $v 36. 500 ## $a allgemeine Funote. 600 : die 600er Felder enthalten verschiedene Arten von Schlagworten z.B. 600 10 $a Subject added entry - Personal name (Indikator 1 nennt den Typ des Verfassernamens: 1 = moderner Personenname; der Indikator 2 nennt das Sacherschlieungssystem: 0 = LoC Subject Heading) 700 : die 700er enthalten die Nebeneintragungen z.B.

700 1# $a Personennamen, $d Lebensdaten, $e Relator term (Indikator 1 s. oben bei Feld 100) z.B.: 700 1# $a Meier, Fritz: MARC 21 wird zur Zeit fortgeschrieben, um Vorschriften des neuen Regelwerks RDA zu ermglichen. Es muss berprft werden, welche Felder, die nach den Regeln von AACR2 belegt sind, fr die Regeln der RDA genutzt werden knnen. Writing Essay Istituto Marangoni? Wegen des groen einzubringenden Altbestands kann man Felder, Unterfelder, Codes usw. Writing Articles State (INTO)? nicht uminterpretieren. Alle alten Felder usw. mssen erhalten bleiben, sollten sie nicht mehr gebraucht werden, erklrt man sie zu Feldern, die nicht angewendet werden drfen. Writing Essay Website High? Wegen neuer Regeln mssen neue Felder und/oder Unterfelder geschaffen werden, auch neue Codes werden eingefhrt. Articles Colorado University? Z.B. Introductions The University (Navitas)? sind bisher Attribute (z.B. Academic State (INTO)? Geburtsdatum) zu Namen im Feld fr die Namensansetzung angegeben worden, inzwischen hat man mit der Einfhrung neuer Felder die Mglichkeit einer getrennten Erfassung der Attribute geschaffen; z.B. 374 - Occupation (R) und 376 - Family Information (R) [Das R steht fr wiederholbar, d.h. man kann mehrere Berufe und mehrere Familien angeben.].

Weiterhin muss man die nach RDA ber 400 mglichen Beziehungen, die es zwischen Werk, Expression, Manifestation und Exemplar geben kann, im Format darstellen. Essay Bodwell School? Die Beziehungen zwischen Namen und Ressourcen knnen im Format aufgefhrt werden. State University (INTO)? [Diese und weitere Angaben findet man in writing of Canberra (Navitas), RDA in MARC -Juli 2014. - http://www.loc.gov/marc/RDAinMARC.html - Zugriff 2016-03-26] Neben einer ganzen Reihe von weiteren nationalen MARC-Formaten (z.B. Articles? CanMARC fr Canada oder MalMARC fr Malaysia) soll INTERMARC hervorgehoben werden, weil man mit diesem Format versuchte, ein allgemeines Austauschformat fr Westeuropa zu schaffen. Essay Marangoni Firenze? Entwickelt wurde dieses Format von Frankreich, Belgien und der Schweiz unter Beteiligung weiterer westeuropischer Lnder. Writing Colorado? Angewendet wird INTERMARC nur von der Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris, und zwar seit 1975. Journal Epsom College? 1980 beschloss man, INTERMARC soweit wie mglich an das neue internationale Format UNIMARC anzupassen, wodurch ein Datenaustausch zwischen den beiden Formaten sehr erleichtert wurde. Academic Writing Articles Colorado State University (INTO)? UNIMARC wird von einer Mehrheit von franzsischen Bibliotheken genutzt. What Reviewed Journal Epsom? [s. Academic? http://www.bnf.fr/fr/professionnels/formats_catalogage.html - Zugriff 2016-03-26] Ab 1977 begann die IFLA das Austauschformat UNIMARC zu entwickeln [ UNIMARC bibliographic in kompletter und in writing introductions for essays The University (Navitas), verkrzter Form mit dem Stand 1.3.2000 unter: http://archive.ifla.org/VI/3/p1996-1/sec-uni.htm Zugriff am 2016-03-26].

Es sollte die Voraussetzung fr ein internationales MARC-Netzwerk sein. Man schlug damals vor, dass Nationalbibliotheken mit bestehenden Formaten Programme entwickeln, mit denen ihre Daten in UNIMARC umgesetzt werden knnen, bzw. Writing Articles University (INTO)? dass Nationalbibliotheken, die neu anfangen, UNIMARC selbst oder eine eigene Anpassung an writing for essays The University of Canberra, UNIMARC nutzen. Praktisch kann man heute von einer ganzen Reihe von nationalen bibliographischen Zentren Daten in academic articles Colorado State, UNIMARC erhalten, z.B. A Tok Essay Istituto Marangoni? aus den USA, Frankreich, (von der DNB zwischen Januar 1992 und 30. Writing Articles Colorado University (INTO)? Juni 2013). Mehrere Nationalbibliotheken nutzen UNIMARC als eigenes Erfassungsformat: z.B. Portugal, Griechenland, Indien, Italien, Ruland. For Writing Essay? Fr das neue italienische Regelwerk REICAT wird die Anwendung von UNIMARC vorgeschlagen. Colorado State University (INTO)? Weitere Lnder, in essay Istituto Marangoni, denen UNIMARC angewendet wird,: Algerien, Marokko, Tunesien.

Seit 2003 ist die Nationalbibliothek von Portugal verantwortlich fr das UNIMARC-Strategic-Programme [s. Academic Articles Colorado State (INTO)? http://www.ifla.org/about-unimarc -- Zugriff 2016-03-26] Die neueste Ausgabe: UNIMARC manual : bibliografic format / ed. by Alan Hopkinson. - 3. ed. Drawing Teachers.com School? - Mnchen : Saur, 2008. Writing University (INTO)? - 760 S. Writing Essay Website? - (IFLA series on bibliographic control ; 36) - ISBN 978-3-598-24284-7. Mit UNIMARC knnen die zur Zeit in writing, Bibliotheken gngigen Materialien katalogisiert werden, also auch Karten, Musikalien, Tontrger, Graphika, AV-Materialien. Writing For Essays The University Of Canberra (Navitas)? Felder fr Computerfiles sind vorgesehen. Academic Writing Articles Colorado State University (INTO)? Das Format ist fr viele Regelwerke anwendbar, setzt allerdings die Anwendung der verschiedenen ISBD's voraus. Writing Essay Istituto London? UNIMARC schreibt aber nicht die Form der Ansetzung vor (die Kpfe), weil in academic articles, diesem Punkt die nationalen Regelwerke weit auseinandergehen. Damit man aber auch z.B. For Writing A Persuasive? Namensansetzungen austauschen kann, sollte zusammen mit UNIMARC das UNIMARC format for writing University (INTO) authorities angewendet werden. Essay School? Dieses ist erst 1991 fertig gestellt worden. Die neueste Ausgabe: UNIMARC manual : authorities format / ed. by Mirna Willer. - 3. Academic Articles State University (INTO)? ed. Essay Website Bodwell High School? - Mnchen : Saur, 2009. Writing Colorado State? - 309 S. Writing Online Marangoni? - (IFLA series on bibliographic control ; 38) - ISBN 978-3-598-24286-1 [Eingearbeitet sind Konzepte des FRAD-Modells ( Functional requirements for authority data) und des Statement of International Cataloguing Principles. Academic Colorado State University? ] [Die folgenden Aussagen zu UNIMARC beziehen sich auf den Stand von 1996:] Um auch fr kleinere Institutionen flexibel in is peer reviewed journal, der Anwendung zu bleiben, hat UNIMARC nur wenige Pflichtfelder.

Mindestens muss im bibliografischen Teil folgendes belegt sein: 001 Identifikationsnummer (record identifier) 100 Erfassungsdatum, Zeichensatz, Schrift (general processing data) 101 Sprachbezeichnung (language of the work) 200 Titel (title) 801 Herkunft (originating source field) Das Format ist gem ISO 2709 (Format for articles University Bibliographic Information Interchange) strukturiert: In jeder Titelaufnahme werden 4 Teile unterschieden: leader, Satzkennung (record label) Inhaltsverzeichnis (directory) variable Kontrollfelder (variable control fields), z.B. What Is Peer Reviewed Journal? die Identifikationsnr. Academic Articles (INTO)? variable Datenfelder (variable data fields): 141 Felder, die jeweils Unterfelder haben knnen. Beispiel fr ein variables Datenfeld in writing essay Bodwell High School, UNIMARC. Das Format ist in academic articles Colorado State (INTO), Segmente -- die sogenannten Blcke -- aufgegliedert. Writing Istituto Marangoni? Jeweils in einem 100er-Block werden inhaltlich zusammengehrige Dinge zusammengefasst.

Z.B. Academic State University (INTO)? sind im 700er-Block alle beteiligten Personen und Krperschaften vermerkt. Die generelle Blockstruktur ist folgende: 0-- Identifikation (identification block) (z.B. Writing Online? ISBN, Nationalbibliographie-Nummer usw.) 1-- Codierte Information (coded information) (z.B.

Sprachbezeichnung, Land der Publikation, bibliographische Materialien (Monographien, Serials, AV-Material usw.) 2-- Deskriptive Information (descriptive information) (Einzelelemente der ISBD's) 3-- Funoten (notes) 4-- Verknpfungen (linking entry) 5-- Weitere Titelangaben (related title) (z.B. Articles Colorado University (INTO)? EST, Zitiertitel) 6-- Sacherschlieung (subject analysis) (z.B. PRECIS, UDC, DDC, LoC Classification) 7-- Verfasserangaben (intellectual responsibility) (Haupt- und Nebeneintragungen) 8-- Katalogisierende Stelle und ISDS Center (international use) 9-- Lokale Daten (national use) Es ist zu fragen, wie weit UNIMARC sich neben MARC 21 durchsetzen kann. Von der IFLA wird das Format immer noch untersttzt (es ist eine zentrale Aufgabe der IFLA [IFLA Core activity UNIMARC]). Immerhin hatten sich die EG-Bibliotheken 1991 in steps for writing a persuasive essay, Florenz entschlossen, UNIMARC zum gemeinsamen Austauschformat zu nehmen. Writing Colorado State University? Auerdem ist eine auf UNIMARC basierende CD-ROM erschienen, die gemeinsame Daten der sieben Nationalbibliotheken von Dnemark, Deutschland, Frankreich, Grobritannien, Italien, Niederlande und Portugal enthlt. Im Jahr 2000 haben 22 Institutionen UNIMARC als Austauschformat eingesetzt, 10 als Internformat und 17 werden als sonstige Anwender bezeichnet.

In der UNIMARC community wird zur Zeit die Anwendung des Formats fr das neue Regelwerk, die bertragung in Webanwendungen und das Zusammenwirken mit anderen Datenstandards diskutiert, auch wird dem Permanent UNIMARC Committee empfohlen, dass sie die IFLA auffordert die Entwicklung einer UNIMARC-Darstellung in Dulwich College, RDF zu untersttzen : Das Maschinelle Austauschformat fr Bibliotheken hat seine Anfnge in der Deutschen Bibliothek ab 1973. Seit 1996 - nach einer durchgreifenden Revision - wird MAB als MAB2 verbreitet. Academic Writing Articles State University? Zur Zeit wird MAB2 durch MARC 21 abgelst. Da aber vor allem nicht zu Verbnden gehrende Bibliotheken noch auf MAB2 angewiesen sind, hatte die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek versprochen, MAB2 noch bis 2015 zu pflegen. Writing Website High? Der MAB-Dienst wird zum 30. Academic Writing Articles Colorado State University? Juni 2013 eingestellt.

MAB ermglicht den Austausch von bibliographischen Daten, Norm- und Lokaldaten. MAB2 war u.a. ntig geworden, um den Tausch in Online-Umgebungen zu ermglichen. School? Der MAB2-Datensatz besteht nur noch aus der Satzkennung (allgemeine Verarbeitungsinformationen z.B. Academic Colorado University (INTO)? Satzlnge und allgemeine Angaben zum Inhalt des Datensatzes z.B. ob es sich um eine neue Aufnahme handelt) und den variablen Datenfeldern. Die variablen Datenfelder bestehen aus der Feldkennung, einem Indikator, den variablen Daten und dem Feldendezeichen. Writing? Je nach dem Inhalt des Feldes knnen diese Felder wiederholbar sein, Unterfelder (wie in Colorado State University, den MARC-Formaten) und Teilfelder haben und obligatorisch sein. MAB2 besteht aus fnf Formaten: Dazu kommen die provisorischen Teile: MAB-ADRESS (Adressen und Bibliotheksdaten) und MAB-NOTAT (Klassifikation und Notation). Die fnf Formate findet man in einer Online-Kurzreferenz-Version mit Stand November 2001 unter URL: ftp://ftp.ddb.de/pub/mab/titelmab.txt . For Writing A Persuasive Essay Dulwich College? - Zugriff vom 2016-03-27. Diese Version bietet eine inhaltliche bersicht einschlielich der jeweiligen Indikatoren und Kodierungen. Als Besonderheit bei MAB sind die unterschiedlichen Satzarten zu nennen.

In MAB 2 handelt es sich um den Hauptsatz (=h), den Untersatz (=u) und den Exemplarsatz (=e; Lokaldaten fr ein Werk). Ein Hauptsatz ist ein selbstndiger Datensatz oder der oberste Datensatz in einer Hierarchie. Whrend der Hauptsatz sich auf die Titelaufnahme einbndiger Werke, auf Stcktitel und Gesamtaufnahmen bezieht, ist der Untersatz fr die Bandauffhrung mehrbndiger Werke und fortlaufender Sammelwerke zu nehmen. Articles State University (INTO)? Namensdatenstze, Schlagwortdatenstze, Lokaldaten und Pauschalverweisungsdatenstze sind ebenfalls Hauptstze. Gegenber MARC 21 zeichnet sich MAB durch die schon im Format gegebenen Verknpfungsmglichkeiten aus, wodurch die Anforderungen der FRBR leichter erfllt werden knnten: es knnen Beziehungen innerhalb einer MAB-Datei dargestellt werden: knnen mit Haupt- und Unterstzen bibliographische hierarchische Strukturen abgebildet und verknpft werden (z.B. Writing Website Bodwell High? mehrbndige begrenzte Werke mit Bandauffhrung, fortlaufende Sammelwerke mit Bandauffhrung) knnen in MAB-Titel weitere Beziehungen unterschiedlicher Datenstze durch Verknpfung hergestellt werden (Stcktitel - Gesamttitel; unselbstndig erschienenes Werk - selbstndig erschienenes Werk; reziproke/nichtreziproke Beziehungen zwischen Werken z.B. Articles? bei Parallelausgaben) es knnen Beziehungen zwischen Datenstzen unterschiedlicher MAB-Dateien hergestellt werden; z.B. Reviewed Journal Articles College? Personennamensdatensatz zu dem entsprechenden Titeldatensatz. Bibframe (Bibliographic Framework) ist das neue Model, das die bisherigen Formate ersetzen soll. Academic University (INTO)? Das Model soll nicht auf ein bestimmtes Regelwerk ausgerichtet sein. Begrndung fr den neuen Ansatz:

Mit dem 50 jhrigen MARC-Format knnen zwar die Bibliothekskataloge weltweit ihre Daten austauschen, aber es ist ein Sonderweg. Das neue Regelwerk RDA kann nicht vollstndig in online London, MARC dargestellt werden, insbesondere knnen nicht alle Anforderungen der FRBR erfllt werden. State University? Die Beobachtung, dass das Web sich von einem Netzwerk verknpfter Dokumente zu einem Netzwerk verknpfter Daten entwickelt. Bibliotheksdaten sollen ein Teil des Webs werden, d.h. sie sollen in die allgemeine Informationswelt integriert werden. Writing For Essays The University? D.h. Academic Colorado State University (INTO)? es mssen die Bibliotheksdaten in what is peer reviewed journal articles College, einer Form angeboten werden, die blicherweise von Suchmaschinen verstanden wird die Beziehungen der Bibliotheksdaten zu Daten auerhalb von Bibliotheken sollen betont werden die Beschreibung von Ressourcen auerhalb der Bibliothekswelt sollen ermglicht werden (Ressourcen aus Archiven, Museen usw.) traditionelle Aufgaben mssen ebenso erfllt werden: Datenaustausch zwischen Bibliotheken und bernahme der alten MARC-Daten Ermglichung von maschineller Interpretation von Entitten. Dazu ist eine eindeutige Identifizierung von Entitten und das Nutzen von maschinenfreundlichen Identifiern ntig. Linked Open Data RDF [Resource Description Framework], Standard des World Wide Web Consortiums zur Beschreibung von Metadaten. Academic (INTO)? Wichtig dabei: RDF/XML. Verantwortliche Organisationen u.a.:

Library of for writing a persuasive Dulwich Congress. Academic Writing Colorado? Von der LoC ging im Mai 2011 die Initiative fr ein neues Model aus. Website Bodwell High? OCLC Deutsche Nationalbibliothek. Besonders herausgearbeitet werden drei Forderungen: Es soll klar unterschieden werden zwischen dem begrifflichen Inhalt und seiner physikalischen Erscheinung (also zwischen der abstrakt gedachten Entitt Werk und seiner Manifestation (!Bibframe verwendet instance statt manifestation). Der Schwerpunkt soll auf eindeutig zu identifizierenden Informations-Entitten liegen (z.B.

Verfasser). State? Die Beziehungen zwischen und innerhalb der Entitten sollen hervorgehoben werden. In einer vernetzten Welt ist es wichtig, dass man Bibliotheksdaten so zitiert, dass nicht nur zwischen dem gedanklichen Werk (Titel und Verfasser) und seinen physikalischen Details seiner Manifestation unterschieden wird, sondern auch dass die Entitten, die am Verfassen einer Ressource beteiligt sind, und die Begriffe, die mit der Ressource verbunden sind, mitgefhrt werden. What Articles Epsom College? Die bisherige Praxis, dass Katalogeintrge unabhngig von anderen Eintrgen zu verstehen sind, wird aufgehoben. Academic Writing Articles Colorado State (INTO)? Insgesamt wird der Schwerpunkt bei der Beschreibung vom Erfassen beschreibender Details zum Erfassen von Beziehungen verschoben. Istituto Firenze? Wichtig sind dabei die Beziehungen, die man auerhalb der traditionellen Bibliotheken findet.

Als Beispiel werden die Hinweise von Amazon auf hnliche Bcher, fr die ein Kunde sich interessieren knnte, genannt. Academic Articles Colorado? [Die Darstellung von bibframe ist entnommen aus: http://www.loc.gov/bibframe/ - Zugriff 2016-03-27. Das Model besteht aus den folgenden Hauptklassen: BIBFRAME Work - entspricht der Entitt Werk der FRBR, enthlt wohl auch Anforderungen der Entitt Expression BIBFRAME Instance - entspricht der Entitt Manifestation der FRBR BIBFRAME Authority - identifiziert ein Ding oder einen Begriff, der mit Werk oder Instanz verbunden ist BIBFRAME Annotation - ermglicht eine Erweiterung in der Beschreibung der drei vorhergehenden Hauptklassen also zustzliche Informationen. Fr die Beschreibung von Ressourcen ist das BIBFRAME-Vokabular entscheidend. Writing? Das Vokabular hat einen festgelegten Satz von Klassen und Eigenschaften (properties). Beispiel aus dem Text: L ibrary of academic Colorado Congress: Bibliographic framework as a web of writing online Istituto London data : Linked Data Model and academic writing Colorado, Supporting Services. - Washington, DC, November 21, 2012. What Is Peer Reviewed Journal Articles Epsom? - http://www.loc.gov/marc/transition/pdf/marcld-report-11-21-2012.pdf -- Zugriff am 2016-03-27] Serializing the writing Colorado State, BIBFRAME model.

There can be several serializations of the writing introductions for essays The University of Canberra, BIBFRAME Linked Data model. The following XML serialization (of the academic articles Colorado University (INTO), RDF data model), while subject to change, is online Istituto Marangoni London provided as a concrete example. This example is academic writing articles Colorado State University (INTO) designed to for essays The University of Canberra (Navitas) provide a serialized encoding of Colorado a particular Work, its corresponding Instances and essay online, associated Authority information. Articles Colorado University? The Work in question is the ‘Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report’. The original BIBFRAME record associated with item is Rugby School available here http://lccn.loc.gov/2001433363.

Three Instances (one physical, one PDF, and one HTML web site) along with the academic, associated Authority information (subjects, authors, publishers, etc.) are included in this example. Writing A Tok Essay Istituto? The following example does not reflect a full MARC 21 to writing (INTO) BIBFRAME mapping. Links in the following examples are included to writing introductions for essays The University of Canberra (Navitas) illustrate the academic writing State University (INTO), use of College using URLs for defining BIBFRAME resources, the academic writing articles Colorado (INTO), URLs themselves are not valid. Die Beschreibung beginnt mit der Entitt Werk: Report id = http://bibframe/work/frbr-report titleFunctional requirements for writing essay online Istituto Marangoni bibliographic records :/title titleRemainderfinal report / IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records ; approved by academic Colorado State (INTO) the Standing Committee of the IFLA Section on Cataloguing./titleRemainder creator resource = http://bibframe/auth/org/ifla / subject resource = http://bibframe/auth/topic/cataloging / subject resource = http://bibframe/auth/topic/bibliography / subject resource = http://bibframe/auth/topic/frbr / abstractThe purpose of writing School this study is to articles Colorado University (INTO) delineate in writing essay Istituto London, clearly defined terms the functions performed by the bibliographic record with respect to various media, various applications, and writing articles Colorado University, various user needs. Is Peer Articles? The study is to academic writing Colorado University (INTO) cover the full range of a persuasive essay functions for writing articles State University (INTO) the bibliographic record in its widest sense- i.e., a record that encompasses not only writing online Marangoni London descriptive elements, but access points (name, title, subject, etc.), other 'organizing' elements (classification, etc.), and articles Colorado (INTO), annotations. Teachers.com School? /abstract Dieses Werk hat 3 Manifestationen = Instances: 1. Academic Articles State (INTO)? Buch, 2. digitaler Text (PDF), 3. digitaler Text (html) Das Werk hat 3 Themen: Topics.

labelFRBR (Conceptual model)/label Das Werk hat eine Beziehung zum Verfasser: Organization. labelIFLA Study Group on essay website Bodwell, the Functional Requirements for writing articles University (INTO) Bibliographic Records/label Eine der Instances hat eine Beziehung zum Verleger: Organization. Die Beziehung zum Verleger ist der Verlagsort Mnchen: Place. A high level RDF model reflecting the relationship between the what is peer reviewed journal articles Epsom College, Work and academic State, the corresponding Instances as defined by essay Dulwich College this XML serialization is writing articles Colorado State shown in Istituto Firenze, Figure 5. Die Instance Buch hat die folgende Signatur (callNumber):

Holdings id=http://bibframe/annot/holdings/frbr-1997-09-01:0 annotates resource=”http://bibframe/inst/frbr-1997-09-01:0” / institution resource=” http://bibframe/auth/org/ohio.university.alden” / callNumber025.3 F979 1998/callNumber Das Buch gehrt folgender Bibliothek: Beziehung zur Organisation. labelOhio University, Alden Library/label Beispiel Ende s. a.a.O S. Articles University? 16 - 20. Kritische Stimmen zu Bibframe. FRBR kann damit (noch?) nicht voll erfllt werden es werden teilweise andere Begriffe verwendet - andere als in FRBR und RDA.

Vorteil oder Nachteil: Bibframe lsst zu, dass man auf die hierarchischen Beziehungen von FRBR verzichtet zugunsten grafischer Darstellung, damit man die Technik mglichst einfach machen kann. Dazu sollte ein RDA-lite set der Katalogisierungsregeln erstellt werden [a.a.O. Is Peer College? S. Academic Writing Articles? 15] Seit 2014 werden in der LoC Aufnahmen nach Bibframe getestet. Writing Firenze? Das ntige Standard-Vokabular wird zur Diskussion gestellt, soll 2015 revidiert werden und benutzt werden um zu testen, wie damit katalogisiert werden kann.

Diese Tests sollen den Bibframe Editor nutzen.

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How to write the perfect SAP CV: Top 10 tips and SAP CV sample template. Writing an effective SAP CV is an essential foundation for academic writing State, building a successful SAP career. What Journal? When being considered for a new SAP employment opportunity your curriculum vitae is normally the first thing an employer uses to decide if you are suitable for the SAP position on offer, so it is no surprise that the candidates who write the best SAP CVs are those who are invited for interviews and who ultimately get hired. Writing a great SAP CV is the first step in the race for academic State University (INTO), an SAP job; those with a poor CV will rarely even make it past the a persuasive essay Dulwich College first hurdle. With the SAP market becoming saturated and academic writing State, competition increasing, having an SAP resume that stands out is drawing teachers.com Rugby now more important than ever. When writing anything, the most important thing to keep in mind is the writing articles Colorado (INTO) audience you are writing for. Writing Istituto? With an SAP resume, the chances are high that the person who reads your CV at the start of most recruitment processes will be an SAP recruiter. As an academic writing State (INTO) SAP recruitment agent with over a tok essay Istituto, 10 years’ experience, who has personally placed over writing articles Colorado University, 700 SAP Consultants in writing essay online London, SAP roles, I’d estimate that I have probably read over 100,000 SAP CVs in my time, so I have a pretty good idea of what makes a top SAP CV.

I’m going to offer an honest insider’s perspective into Colorado State University (INTO), how most SAP recruiters actually read your SAP CV…let’s consider that on a busy day an SAP recruiter might have to recruit for three SAP vacancies, and may receive up to 50 applications for each position. Will they read 150 CVs word for word, end to end? Of course not. The honest reality is that most recruiters (myself included) probably spend 30 seconds skim reading each CV and perhaps another 30 seconds crudely using the CTRL-F feature to articles Epsom, search the CV for some other keywords. Bearing this in mind, along with other SAP recruiter insiders’ perspectives, I’m going to provide my advice on how to write the perfect SAP CV. Below are my top 10 tips for academic writing State University (INTO), a successful SAP CV and an SAP CV example / SAP CV sample template: 1 – Optimise your SAP CV so that it can be quickly and clearly digested when skim-read.

It is Marangoni very likely that the writing Colorado University first round of writing essay online Istituto screening (often by an SAP recruiter) will involve someone quickly glancing over your CV. Colorado State University? Therefore the best tip I can give you when writing your SAP CV is to steps Dulwich, make sure that it is optimised to be read in this way. Writing Colorado? To do this you need to ensure that the key information in your SAP CV stands out. In my opinion the thing that should stand out the most in your SAP CV is a persuasive essay Dulwich your job title. At the academic writing State University very beginning of writing introductions The University of Canberra your CV, your job title should be clearly and boldly mentioned e.g. SAP HANA Consultant, so that it obvious at a glance what you do; it should leap off the page. Your job title should then be mentioned as a clear and bold heading at the top of every job position / SAP project description that you mention throughout your CV. By doing this simple thing, the writing University (INTO) reader will be able to quickly and clearly understand what you do, where you have done it, and drawing Rugby, how many projects you have done it on. You’d be surprised at how many SAP consultants there are who don’t do this in academic, their CVs. This same principle should also be applied to other key information from your CV. Reviewed Epsom College? Underlining, bullet points, bold text, coloured text and articles Colorado University (INTO), header text can all be used to writing essay online Istituto Marangoni, emphasise key information within your CV.

2 – Make the first impression count. The first impression is always the most important one. Writing (INTO)? Therefore, the first page on your CV is the most important page. Reviewed Journal Articles Epsom College? It should be the page that you spend the most time perfecting. I have read many SAP CVs where the first page has been so poor and given off such bad signals that I have rejected the writing articles State (INTO) candidate without even making it to the second page! The first page should contain a summarised version of writing of Canberra (Navitas) all key information that you are trying to get across to the reader; it should be perfectly presented and engage the academic writing articles reader. Think carefully about the opening sentence, is that really the most important thing you want to drawing Rugby, say to a potential employer? Because it should be!

Think of the writing (INTO) first page of your CV as the writing essay Istituto shop window, people are much more likely to articles Colorado University, come into your shop and buy if they like the look of what you have displayed in your window. 3 – Ensure your SAP CV has the right structure and order. A logical and effective structure is essential for writing a good SAP CV. Whilst people have different opinions and personal preferences, in what reviewed Epsom College, my opinion an SAP CV should be set out with the following sections in academic writing Colorado, the following order: Document Title: Curriculum Vitae, CV, Resume, Profile etc. are all fine (this is down to regional and personal preference). Basic details: Full Name, job title, nationality (plus details of any other working permissions held), Date of birth (optional), marital status (optional), address, photo (optional), contact number, email address, languages spoken (and proficiency). Profile Summary: This should be a concise section that briefly tells the writing Marangoni reader who you are and what you do. It should mention information such as your job title / preferred position and give an overview of your key SAP skills.

For an SAP CV, it is good to mention things like the SAP modules / SAP submodules that you specialise in, for example: “SAP CO Consultant specialised in SAP CO-PC (Product Costing)”. You should also mention details such as the academic writing articles Colorado State number of full end-to-end SAP implementation lifecycles you have been involved in and how many SAP roll out projects you have participated in drawing teachers.com Rugby School, etc. to Colorado State University, give the reader an instant indication of your level of experience. Steps A Persuasive Essay? You should talk about personal strengths and unique selling points, and a summary of your key results and articles Colorado University (INTO), achievements. This is the first opportunity to differentiate yourself and inject a personal touch to your CV. Keep it short and sharp, almost like a bullet point list of your profile highlights.

Skills Summary: This could be a table or a bullet-pointed list of your key skills including details of all SAP modules and sub-modules that you have, SAP configuration (customising) experience in: SAP FI-GL, SAP FI-AP, SAP FI-AR, SAP CO-PA, SAP CO-PC for essay, example, together with an indication of academic writing State your level of experience or years of experience in each area. Rugby School? It should also include details of other useful SAP-related experience that you may have e.g. LSWM, IDoc etc. and details related to project management or SAP Implementation methodology experience e.g. Prince 2, Agile, ASAP, SAP Solution Manager. It is also good to indicate your relevant certifications here. Work Experience: You should always list your work experience in chronological order (most recent SAP project first). Writing Articles University (INTO)? Each work experience segment should clearly display the writing introductions for essays basic key details: Start Date, End Date, Job title, Client Name, Brief Project Description, Key Activities and Results achieved. Education / Training Courses / Certifications: For a senior SAP Consultant, this section just needs to be brief and contain a list of the basic key details. In addition to mentioning your SAP certifications here, it is also good to Colorado State, mention them within the skills summary section on the first page too. For a junior consultant / intern looking to for writing, enhance their SAP career, this section is writing articles University more important and writing essay Istituto Marangoni, more detail can be given to describe experiences within your education / training which are relevant to academic Colorado State, your intended SAP career. References: Again this is a matter of opinion, but personally I think that including two short written references in your SAP CV can certainly add something; a 3-4 line reference quotation, followed by the name, job title and drawing teachers.com Rugby School, company of the referee (only do so with prior consent from the referee).

Having a good written reference already included in your CV can help you stand out, especially if it is from someone senior at a large, well-known SAP client. I wouldn’t include their contact details in the CV however, I recommend holding this back just for those who you want to contact them. Alternatively, you could include a URL / link to your LinkedIn references section here instead. Writing “references available upon writing State University (INTO) request” is really just a waste of space in writing Istituto Firenze, my opinion and academic writing, it is better not to for writing a persuasive essay, even have this section if you choose to do that. Interests: Providing details of academic writing University (INTO) your personal interests isn’t the most important component of a CV, but it could still contribute to the reader’s overall opinion/decision on writing Marangoni London, your CV. A word of warning, what you choose to reveal here could possibly count against you without you ever realising, for example: innocently revealing that you are an active and articles Colorado, passionate member of Greenpeace or an Animal rights charity may count against you if applying for Istituto London, a position with a Pharmaceutical or cosmetics company (where animal testing is involved), as they may deem this as a security risk. Mentioning that you love extensive, extended travel and take five holidays every single year might put off an employer who has a busy SAP project with tight deadlines and now assumes you’ll want to go away for 6 weeks in the summer, right in academic writing articles, the middle of a busy project milestone. On the other hand, describing your interests could also work in your favour: talking about SAP-related interests may add to your CV: being an active member of an for writing a persuasive essay Dulwich SAP user group, writing SAP blogs, articles or books for writing Colorado State University (INTO), example. Mentioning personal interests that the person who is hiring also happens to share by coincidence might also count in your favour. Writing Marangoni Firenze? Revealing a rare or interesting hobby may add to academic writing Colorado University (INTO), the perception of website Bodwell your personality that comes across from the CV, not too rare or interesting though… mentioning taxidermy might creep some people out.

4 – Make sure you mention the SAP Key Words throughout the academic writing articles Colorado University (INTO) CV. As mentioned above, most SAP recruiters will only skim-read your CV and writing essay London, quickly search it for keywords. Writing Articles Colorado? You therefore need to think carefully about which keywords are most important in for writing essay, relation to the SAP jobs you are applying for and ensure that as well as making them stand out, you also mention these keywords as often as possible. State (INTO)? If I am searching for an SAP SuccessFactors Learning Management System specialist for drawing Rugby School, example, I would normally check the document for some specific keywords using the Ctrl-F search function. I would check for academic, “SuccessFactors” and “Learning Management System” and see how many times each of these was mentioned. The important thing to note here is to writing essay Istituto Firenze, also mention synonyms of these keywords in your CV as much as possible too, for writing Colorado State, example SuccessFactors is also referred to as SFSF (in its abbreviated form), as is Learning Management System to LMS. It is therefore important to have these variations well-represented in your CV.

A lazy SAP recruiter, or perhaps one not familiar with the variations of names/abbreviations etc., could even dismiss your CV, simply because they don’t find the a tok Marangoni Firenze keywords they think they should be looking for! i.e. you might have LMS mentioned 100 times in your CV, but you haven’t mentioned “Learning Management System” once, a recruiter who doesn’t think/know to check for this could accidentally rule you out, so it is academic Colorado University (INTO) best to ensure all critical keywords, as well as possible variations of essay online London these, are well-represented in your CV. It is similar to SEO (search engine optimisation), but for your CV and the lazy readers, rather than Google. 5 – Be prepared to adjust your CV slightly for each specific SAP vacancy. If your SAP recruitment agent asks you to adjust or tweak your CV for a particular position, be open to this. State? You don’t have to re-write the steps essay Dulwich College entire CV, but simply making a few changes to tailor the CV for the specific position you are applying for academic writing articles Colorado State, could make a huge difference. Writing Essay Online Istituto London? Never lie or exaggerate on academic writing State, your CV, what I am referring to here is more about emphasising certain specific experiences that are particularly relevant for writing Bodwell School, the SAP job you are applying for at the time.

6 – Make sure your CV is the academic writing articles State right length. There is no fixed rule about the correct length for a CV as the length will depend on many factors. In general your CV should be as short and to-the-point as possible, whilst being long enough to for essays The University of Canberra (Navitas), contain all of the articles Colorado University (INTO) important information a potential employer may want to know. Writing For Essays (Navitas)? You’ll read a lot of generic articles telling you that your CV should only be 1-2 pages long, but in my opinion this does not apply to writing Colorado University (INTO), an SAP CV, an SAP CV is different as you need to go into more technical detail and clearly outline the exact SAP modules, SAP submodule, SAP-related tools, methodologies etc. that you have experience with. You also need to go into enough detail about the nature of the SAP projects you have been involved in for essays of Canberra (Navitas), and your specific responsibilities within these projects. Keep in mind that your SAP profile should be an overview and not a lengthy memoir. If you are someone who can’t control the volume of writing articles State University text when writing in online Istituto Marangoni London, prose, then perhaps consider using concise bullet-pointed text wherever possible, to help you keep control of the overall length. Academic Articles Colorado State (INTO)? An SAP CV is there to form the London basis for guiding an interview conversation and not there to replace it. 7-Make sure your CV has a professional look. The content is of course the most important factor when writing an SAP resume, however you’d be surprised at how many SAP CVs I’ve seen with decent content which have been ruined by the aesthetic presentation. Choose a sensible and professional font.

Its fine to articles Colorado State, go with something slightly different, but Times New Roman is certainly overused. Fonts such as Arial, Calibri, Candara, Georgia, Tahoma, Trebuchet MS or Verdana would be fine. I would avoid fonts like Berlin Sans FB, Comic Sans, Courier new and Vijaya. In my opinion a fairly conservative colour scheme is best, classic black text is tried and tested, so I’m always bewildered when SAP Consultants send me rainbow coloured CVs. If you want to emphasise or differentiate certain areas or headers using different colour text, using one or two additional colours is more than enough. Personally, I prefer conservative options such as blue or grey for these parts, but it is a matter of what is peer journal articles Epsom College personal taste. Subtly and sparingly using some brighter coloured text for headers/titles can also work, especially if you’re trying to academic State, integrate the main colour from your company logo/branding into the CV. 8- Make sure your CV is saved in the right format!

I would recommend providing your CV to SAP recruiters in MS Word (.doc or .docx) format where possible, making sure the file isn’t password protected or locked for editing. As an alternative you could provide your CV as a PDF file, however PDFs cannot be edited unless the recruiter has the essay website Bodwell High School Adobe Acrobat MS Word converter (which many don’t). Articles Colorado? Even in cases where PDF is converted to MS Word, it is often troublesome to edit or reformat. You might be thinking to yourself that you’d prefer for your CV not to be changed by anyone else so this is a good thing, but in most cases this will do you more harm than good: An SAP recruiter should never change the real content of what is peer reviewed Epsom College your CV without asking your permission, and any decent recruiter would never do this. However, a recruiter may want to make some superficial changes to your CV to improve the presentation for example and having a non-editable file prevents this. The recruiter might need to convert CVs into a certain format, or insert a client-specific coversheet on the front page of the Colorado University CV (which is a mandatory requirement for some client’s recruitment processes). The recruiter may be required by the client to submit CVs without logos only, or they may wish to steps, remove your direct contact details from the academic Colorado State (INTO) CV before submitting it to a client.

Preventing the recruiter from having the CV the way they need it will ultimately slow down your application and may even mean you miss out on an opportunity because of it. For those who are limited to PDF files, I would suggest removing any logo and contact details from your CV when sending it to a recruiter (ensure you provide your contact details within the email you send them though, so they can still reach you!). Occasionally I receive SAP CVs in Powerpoint or other even stranger CV file formats. I don’t understand why people do this, and certainly wouldn’t recommend doing so! 9- Always have an drawing teachers.com Rugby School updated SAP CV ready – Speed is University (INTO) key! Writing the perfect SAP CV is of no use if you don’t have it with you when it is needed.

Make sure you have access to a copy of your CV at all times, you never know where or when you might need it. Similarly, you need to make sure that you constantly keep it updated. Being away on what reviewed Epsom, holiday and articles University (INTO), only having a copy of your CV on your home desktop could cause you to miss out on the SAP career opportunity of a lifetime, or having to delay your application by writing website Bodwell, 24 hours while you update your CV may also cause you to academic writing articles Colorado State, miss out. 10- Get someone else to check over writing online Istituto, your CV! Your Curriculum Vitae is a reflection of you, it should be logically ordered, consistent, well presented and without errors. Nothing would put me off more than an ABAP developer who’s CV was full of typos!

No matter how perfect you think your SAP CV is, always get a fresh pair of eyes to look over it. Have it proofread for spelling errors and grammar by a fellow SAP colleague, a professional proof-reader or perhaps your favourite SAP recruiter. So now you’ve read my top ten tips, giving my best, most honest advice, you’re ready to writing, write the perfect SAP CV. I wish you the best of luck with writing it and writing for essays The University (Navitas), hope to place you in academic writing State (INTO), your next SAP position myself when your new CV is ready.