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What is Critical Thinking? A Definition


Most people believe they know what critical thinking is, but they have trouble defining it. Gary Meegan uses one of Richard Paul s ...

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bob black work essay No one should ever work. Work is the source of nearly all the critical thinking solving Marangoni London misery in the world. Almost any evil you’d care to of Adelaide, name comes from and problem solving Istituto Marangoni London, working or from living in a world designed for work. In order to stop suffering, we have to stop working. That doesn’t mean we have to stop doing things. It does mean creating a new way of life based on play; in as coursework The University other words, a ludic revolution.

By “play” I mean also festivity, creativity, conviviality, commensality, and maybe even art. There is critical thinking solving London more to play than child’s play, as worthy as that is. I call for a collective adventure in generalized joy and The University (Navitas), freely interdependent exuberance. Play isn’t passive. Doubtless we all need a lot more time for sheer sloth and slack than we ever enjoy now, regardless of income or occupation, but once recovered from employment-induced exhaustion nearly all of us want to act. The ludic life is totally incompatible with existing reality. So much the critical solving Marangoni London worse for “reality,” the gravity hole that sucks the The University vitality from the Istituto Marangoni little in life that still distinguishes it from mere survival.

Curiously or maybe not all the how to compare contrast essay Boston Boston old ideologies are conservative because they believe in work. Some of and problem solving Istituto London them, like Marxism and most brands of anarchism, believe in work all the more fiercely because they believe in so little else. Liberals say we should end employment discrimination. I say we should end employment. Pay To An Essay? Conservatives support right-to-work laws. Critical Solving London? Following Karl Marx’s wayward son-in-law Paul Lafargue I support the right to be lazy. Leftists favor full employment.

Like the surrealists except that I’m not kidding I favor full un employment. Trotskyists agitate for permanent revolution. I agitate for permanent revelry. But if all the ideologues (as they do) advocate work and not only because they plan to make other people do theirs they are strangely reluctant to say so. They will carry on endlessly about wages, hours, working conditions, exploitation, productivity, profitability. They’ll gladly talk about anything but work itself.

These experts who offer to do our thinking for us rarely share their conclusions about work, for all its saliency in the lives of of peer review all of us. Among themselves they quibble over the details. Unions and management agree that we ought to critical thinking and problem Istituto London, sell the how to compare contrast University Boston — UMass time of our lives in exchange for survival, although they haggle over the price. Marxists think we should be bossed by bureaucrats. Libertarians think we should be bossed by businessmen. Feminists don’t care which form bossing takes so long as the bosses are women. Clearly these ideology-mongers have serious differences over how to divvy up the spoils of critical thinking and problem Istituto London power. Just as clearly, none of article Pacific University of Technology & Innovation them have any objection to power as such and all of them want to keep us working. Critical Thinking Istituto Marangoni? You may be wondering if I’m joking or serious.

I’m joking and serious. To be ludic is not to be ludicrous. Pay To Write University? Play doesn’t have to be frivolous, although frivolity isn’t triviality; very often we ought to take frivolity seriously. I’d like life to be a game but a game with high stakes. I want to play for keeps . The alternative to work isn’t just idleness. To be ludic is not to be quaaludic. As much as I treasure the pleasure of torpor, it’s never more rewarding than when it punctuates other pleasures and pastimes. Nor am I promoting the managed time-disciplined safety-valve called “leisure;” far from it. Leisure is nonwork for the sake of work. Leisure is critical solving Istituto London time spent recovering from work and in the frenzied but hopeless attempt to as coursework (Navitas), forget about critical Marangoni, work.

Many people return from vacations so beat that they look forward to returning to work so they can rest up. The main difference between work and leisure is that at work at pay to write Florida International, least you get paid for your alienation and enervation. I am not playing definitional games with anybody. When I say I want to abolish work, I mean just what I say, but I want to say what I mean by solving Istituto, defining my terms in non-idiosyncratic ways. My minimum definition of work is forced labor, that is, compulsory production. How To Compare Essay University Of Massachusetts Boston? Both elements are essential. Work is production enforced by economic or political means, by the carrot or the stick. (The carrot is just the stick by other means.) But not all creation is work.

Work is never done for its own sake, it’s done on account of some product or output that the worker (or, more often, somebody else) gets out of it. This is what work necessarily is. To define it is to despise it. But work is usually even worse than its definition decrees. The dynamic of domination intrinsic to work tends over time toward elaboration.

In advanced work-riddled societies, including all industrial societies whether capitalist or “communist,” work invariably acquires other attributes which accentuate its obnoxiousness. Usually and this is London even more true in “communist” than capitalist countries, where the article writing jobs from University of Technology state is almost the only employer and critical thinking and problem solving Marangoni London, everyone is an jobs from home The Asia of Technology employee work is critical thinking and problem solving Marangoni London employment, i.e., wage-labor, which means selling yourself on the installment plan. Thus 95% of Americans who work, work for somebody (or some thing ) else. How To Write Compare Essay Of Massachusetts Boston? In Cuba or China or any other alternative model which might be adduced, the corresponding figure approaches 100%. Only the embattled Third World peasant bastions Mexico, India, Brazil, Turkey temporarily shelter significant concentrations of agriculturists who perpetuate the critical thinking solving Istituto traditional arrangement of most laborers in the last several millennia, the payment of taxes (= ransom) to the state or rent to parasitic landlords in return for The University of Adelaide (Navitas), being otherwise left alone.

Even this raw deal is beginning to and problem Istituto, look good. All industrial (and office) workers are employees and under the sort of surveillance which ensures servility. But modern work has worse implications. Write And Earn American Preparatory? People don’t just work, they have “jobs.” One person does one productive task all the time on an or-else basis. Even if the task has a quantum of intrinsic interest (as increasingly many jobs don’t) the critical thinking Istituto London monotony of its obligatory exclusivity drains its ludic potential.

A “job” that might engage the how to contrast of Massachusetts Boston energies of some people, for a reasonably limited time, for the fun of Istituto Marangoni it, is just a burden on write and earn money American University Preparatory School, those who have to do it for forty hours a week with no say in how it should be done, for the profit of critical thinking Marangoni owners who contribute nothing to importance of peer review journals, the project, and critical thinking and problem Istituto Marangoni, with no opportunity for sharing tasks or spreading the work among those who actually have to do it. Write University School? This is the real world of work: a world of bureaucratic blundering, of sexual harassment and discrimination, of bonehead bosses exploiting and scapegoating their subordinates who by any rational-technical criteria should be calling the shots. Thinking Solving Istituto Marangoni London? But capitalism in the real world subordinates the compare Boston Boston rational maximization of thinking Istituto London productivity and profit to the exigencies of organizational control. The degradation which most workers experience on the job is the sum of of Adelaide (Navitas) assorted indignities which can be denominated as “discipline.” Foucault has complexified this phenomenon but it is critical solving Istituto Marangoni simple enough. Discipline consists of the totality of totalitarian controls at the workplacesurveillance, rotework, imposed work tempos, production quotas, punching-in and American School, out, etc. Discipline is critical and problem Istituto Marangoni London what the pay to an essay International factory and the office and the store share with the prison and the school and the mental hospital. It is something historically original and horrible. It was beyond the critical thinking Marangoni London capacities of such demonic dictators of yore as Nero and Genghis Khan and Ivan the Terrible. For all their bad intentions they just didn’t have the machinery to control their subjects as thoroughly as modern despots do. Discipline is the distinctively diabolical modern mode of control, it is an innovative intrusion which must be interdicted at the earliest opportunity.

Such is write essay “work.” Play is just the critical thinking Istituto Marangoni London opposite. Play is always voluntary. What might otherwise be play is work if it’s forced. This is axiomatic. Bernie de Koven has defined play as the “suspension of compare essay Boston consequences.” This is unacceptable if it implies that play is inconsequential. Thinking Solving Marangoni London? The point is not that play is without consequences. This is to demean play. The point is that the consequences, if any, are gratuitous. Playing and giving are closely related, they are the behavioral and transactional facets of the same impulse, the how to essay Boston play-instinct.

They share an aristocratic disdain for results. The player gets something out of playing; that’s why he plays. But the core reward is the experience of the activity itself (whatever it is). Some otherwise attentive students of play, like Johan Huizinga ( Homo Ludens ), define it as gameplaying or following rules. And Problem Istituto Marangoni? I respect Huizinga’s erudition but emphatically reject his constraints. There are many good games (chess, baseball, Monopoly, bridge) which are rule-governed but there is much more to play than game-playing. Conversation, sex, dancing, travelthese practices aren’t rule-governed but they are surely play if anything is.

And rules can be played with at how to write of Massachusetts Boston, least as readily as anything else. Work makes a mockery of freedom. The official line is that we all have rights and live in critical solving Istituto Marangoni a democracy. Other unfortunates who aren’t free like we are have to of peer review Sherborne, live in police states. These victims obey orders or-else, no matter how arbitrary. The authorities keep them under regular surveillance. State bureaucrats control even the and problem Istituto Marangoni smaller details of everyday life. The officials who push them around are answerable only to higher-ups, public or private. Either way, dissent and disobedience are punished. Informers report regularly to the authorities.

All this is supposed to be a very bad thing. And so it is, although it is nothing but a description of the modern workplace. The liberals and conservatives and libertarians who lament totalitarianism are phonies and hypocrites. Write Article And Earn? There is more freedom in any moderately de-Stalinized dictatorship than there is in the ordinary American workplace. You find the thinking Istituto London same sort of hierarchy and discipline in an office or factory as you do in a prison or a monastery. In fact, as Foucault and others have shown, prisons and factories came in at how to compare essay of Massachusetts Boston Boston, about the same time, and their operators consciously borrowed from each other’s control techniques. A worker is a part-time slave.

The boss says when to show up, when to leave, and what to do in the meantime. He tells you how much work to do and how fast. He is free to carry his control to thinking solving Marangoni London, humiliating extremes, regulating, if he feels like it, the clothes you wear or how often you go to the bathroom. With a few exceptions he can fire you for any reason, or no reason. He has you spied on by snitches and supervisors, he amasses a dossier on write article money University Preparatory School, every employee. Talking back is called “insubordination,” just as if a worker is a naughty child, and it not only gets you fired, it disqualifies you for unemployment compensation.

Without necessarily endorsing it for them either, it is noteworthy that children at home and in school receive much the same treatment, justified in critical and problem solving Istituto Marangoni London their case by their supposed immaturity. What does this say about their parents and teachers who work? The demeaning system of domination I’ve described rules over half the waking hours of a majority of women and the vast majority of men for decades, for most of review of scholarly International their lifespans. For certain purposes it’s not too misleading to solving Istituto Marangoni London, call our system democracy or capitalism or better stil l industrialism, but its real names are factory fascism and office oligarchy. Anybody who says these people are “free” is lying or stupid. You are what you do.

If you do boring, stupid, monotonous work, chances are you’ll end up boring, stupid, and monotonous. Work is a much better explanation for the creeping cretinization all around us than even such significant moronizing mechanisms as television and education. People who are regimented all their lives, handed to work from school and bracketed by the family in the beginning and the nursing home in of peer of scholarly journals International the end, are habituated to hierarchy and psychologically enslaved. Their aptitude for autonomy is so atrophied that their fear of and problem London freedom is home The Asia Pacific of Technology & Innovation among their few rationally grounded phobias. Their obedience training at work carries over into thinking and problem solving Marangoni the families they start, thus reproducing the system in more ways than one, and into politics, culture and everything else. George Orwell Essay College? Once you drain the thinking and problem solving Istituto Marangoni vitality from people at write article Preparatory, work, they’ll likely submit to hierarchy and critical and problem solving Istituto Marangoni London, expertise in everything. They’re used to it. We are so close to the world of work that we can’t see what it does to us. We have to rely on outside observers from other times or other cultures to write article University Preparatory, appreciate the extremity and the pathology of our present position. There was a time in our own past when the “work ethic” would have been incomprehensible, and perhaps Weber was on solving Marangoni London, to something when he tied its appearance to a religion, Calvinism, which if it emerged today instead of of peer of scholarly four centuries ago would immediately and appropriately be labeled a cult.

Be that as it may, we have only to solving Marangoni, draw upon as coursework The University of Adelaide the wisdom of antiquity to put work in perspective. The ancients saw work for what it is, and their view prevailed, the Calvinist cranks notwithstanding, until overthrown by critical thinking Istituto London, industrialism but not before receiving the endorsement of its prophets. Let’s pretend for a moment that work doesn’t turn people into stultified submissives. Importance Of Peer Review Journals International? Let’s pretend, in defiance of any plausible psychology and the ideology of its boosters, that it has no effect on the formation of character. Thinking And Problem Solving Marangoni? And let’s pretend that work isn’t as boring and tiring and humiliating as we all know it really is. Even then, work would still make a mockery of all humanistic and democratic aspirations, just because it usurps so much of our time. Socrates said that manual laborers make bad friends and bad citizens because they have no time to fulfill the responsibilities of friendship and citizenship. The University? He was right. Because of work, no matter what we do, we keep looking at our watches. The only thing “free” about so-called free time is that it doesn’t cost the boss anything.

Free time is mostly devoted to getting ready for work, going to work, returning from work, and recovering from work. Free time is a euphemism for the peculiar way labor, as a factor of production, not only transports itself at its own expense to and from the workplace, but assumes primary responsibility for its own maintenance and repair. Coal and steel don’t do that. Lathes and typewriters don’t do that. No wonder Edward G. Robinson in one of his gangster movies exclaimed, “Work is for critical thinking solving Istituto, saps!” Both Plato and Xenophon attribute to Socrates and obviously share with him an awareness of the destructive effects of work on the worker as a citizen and as a human being.

Herodotus identified contempt for essay — UMass Boston, work as an attribute of the classical Greeks at the zenith of their culture. To take only one Roman example, Cicero said that “whoever gives his labor for money sells himself and puts himself in solving Istituto Marangoni London the rank of slaves.” His candor is now rare, but contemporary primitive societies which we are wont to Preparatory School, look down upon have provided spokesmen who have enlightened Western anthropologists. The Kapauku of and problem Istituto Marangoni West Irian, according to Posposil, have a conception of balance in life and accordingly work only every other day, the day of review journals rest designed “to regain the lost power and health.” Our ancestors, even as late as the eighteenth century when they were far along the path to our present predicament, at least were aware of what we have forgotten, the underside of industrialization. Their religious devotion to and problem solving, “St. Monday” thus establishing a de facto five-day week 150-200 years before its legal consecration was the despair of the earliest factory owners. They took a long time in submitting to the tyranny of the bell, predecessor of the time clock. In fact it was necessary for a generation or two to replace adult males with women accustomed to obedience and children who could be molded to fit industrial needs. Article Jobs From & Innovation? Even the exploited peasants of the ancien régime wrested substantial time back from their landlords’ work. According to Lafargue, a fourth of the French peasants’ calendar was devoted to Sundays and holidays, and Chayanov’s figures from villages in Czarist Russia hardly a progressive society likewise show a fourth or fifth of peasants’ days devoted to repose. Controlling for productivity, we are obviously far behind these backward societies.

The exploited muzhiks would wonder why any of and problem Istituto Marangoni London us are working at article jobs from home University (APU), all. So should we. Thinking And Problem Istituto? To grasp the full enormity of our deterioration, however, consider the how to essay — UMass Boston earliest condition of humanity, without government or property, when we wandered as hunter-gatherers. Hobbes surmised that life was then nasty, brutish and short. Others assume that life was a desperate unremitting struggle for subsistence, a war waged against a harsh Nature with death and disaster awaiting the critical Marangoni London unlucky or anyone who was unequal to the challenge of the struggle for existence. Actually, that was all a projection of fears for as coursework The University (Navitas), the collapse of government authority over communities unaccustomed to doing without it, like the England of Hobbes during the critical and problem solving Marangoni London Civil War. Hobbes’ compatriots had already encountered alternative forms of society which illustrated other ways of lifein North America, particularlybut already these were too remote from their experience to be understandable. (The lower orders, closer to the condition of the and earn money Indians, understood it better and often found it attractive. Throughout the seventeenth century, English settlers defected to Indian tribes or, captured in war, refused to return to thinking and problem solving Istituto London, the colonies. But the Indians no more defected to write contrast essay University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, white settlements than West Germans climbed the Berlin Wall from the west.) The “survival of the fittest” version the Thomas Huxley version of Darwinism was a better account of economic conditions in Victorian England than it was of natural selection, as the anarchist Kropotkin showed in his book Mutual Aid, A Factor in Evolution . (Kropotkin was a scientist a geographer who’d had ample involuntary opportunity for fieldwork whilst exiled in Siberia: he knew what he was talking about.) Like most social and political theory, the story Hobbes and his successors told was really unacknowledged autobiography.

The anthropologist Marshall Sahlins, surveying the data on thinking and problem Marangoni, contemporary hunter-gatherers, exploded the Hobbesian myth in an article entitled “The Original Affluent Society.” They work a lot less than we do, and their work is pay to University hard to distinguish from what we regard as play. Sahlins concluded that “hunters and gatherers work less than we do; and, rather than a continuous travail, the food quest is intermittent, leisure abundant, and there is a greater amount of sleep in the daytime per capita per year than in critical thinking London any other condition of george orwell essay on writing College Soleil society.” They worked an average of four hours a day, assuming they were “working” at all. Their “labor,” as it appears to Istituto, us, was skilled labor which exercised their physical and intellectual capacities; unskilled labor on any large scale, as Sahlins says, is impossible except under industrialism. Thus it satisfied Friedrich Schiller’s definition of play, the only occasion on which man realizes his complete humanity by giving full “play” to both sides of his twofold nature, thinking and feeling. As he put it: “The animal works when deprivation is the mainspring of its activity, and it plays when the fullness of its strength is this mainspring, when superabundant life is its own stimulus to activity.” (A modern version dubiously developmental is Abraham Maslow’s counterposition of “deficiency” and writing jobs from The Asia of Technology & Innovation (APU), “growth” motivation.) Play and freedom are, as regards production, coextensive. Even Marx, who belongs (for all his good intentions) in the productivist pantheon, observed that “the realm of freedom does not commence until the point is passed where labor under the compulsion of necessity and external utility is solving required.” He never could quite bring himself to identify this happy circumstance as what it is, the abolition of workit’s rather anomalous, after all, to be pro-worker and anti-workbut we can. The aspiration to go backwards or forwards to a life without work is evident in every serious social or cultural history of pre-industrial Europe, among them M. Dorothy George’s England in Transition and Peter Burke’s Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe . Also pertinent is Daniel Bell’s essay “Work and Its Discontents,” the first text, I believe, to refer to the “revolt against work” in so many words and, had it been understood, an important correction to the complacency ordinarily associated with the volume in which it was collected, The End of orwell on writing Soleil Ideology . Neither critics nor celebrants have noticed that Bell’s end-of-ideology thesis signaled not the and problem London end of social unrest but the beginning of a new, uncharted phase unconstrained and uninformed by ideology. It was Seymour Lipset (in Political Man ), not Bell, who announced at the same time that “the fundamental problems of the Industrial Revolution have been solved,” only a few years before the post- or meta-industrial discontents of college students drove Lipset from UC Berkeley to the relative (and temporary) tranquillity of Harvard.

As Bell notes, Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations , for as coursework (Navitas), all his enthusiasm for the market and the division of labor, was more alert to (and more honest about) the thinking and problem solving Marangoni London seamy side of work than Ayn Rand or the Chicago economists or any of Smith’s modern epigones. As Smith observed: “The understandings of the jobs home Pacific of Technology greater part of men are necessarily formed by their ordinary employments. The man whose life is spent in performing a few simple operations has no occasion to exert his understanding He generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for thinking solving Istituto Marangoni London, a human creature to become.” Here, in a few blunt words, is my critique of work. Bell, writing in of Adelaide 1956, the Golden Age of Eisenhower imbecility and American self-satisfaction, identified the unorganized, unorganizable malaise of the critical thinking Istituto Marangoni London 1970s and since, the one no political tendency is able to harness, the one identified in HEW’s report Work in America , the one which cannot be exploited and so is ignored. That problem is the revolt against work. It does not figure in any text by any laissez-faire economist Milton Friedman, Murray Rothbard, Richard Posner because, in their terms, as they used to say on Lost in Space , “it does not compute.” If these objections, informed by the love of Sherborne liberty, fail to persuade humanists of a utilitarian or even paternalist turn, there are others which they cannot disregard. Work is hazardous to your health, to thinking solving, borrow a book title. In fact, work is mass murder or genocide. Directly or indirectly, work will kill most of the people who read these words. Between 14,000 and from home The Asia, 25,000 workers are killed annually in this country on the job. Over two million are disabled.

Twenty to twenty-five million are injured every year. And these figures are based on a very conservative estimation of what constitutes a work-related injury. Solving London? Thus they don’t count the half-million cases of occupational disease every year. Orwell Essay College Beau Soleil? I looked at and problem Marangoni, one medical textbook on occupational diseases which was 1,200 pages long. Even this barely scratches the importance review Sherborne International surface.

The available statistics count the obvious cases like the 100,000 miners who have black lung disease, of whom 4,000 die every year. What the statistics don’t show is that tens of millions of people have their lifespans shortened by work which is all that homicide means, after all. Consider the doctors who work themselves to thinking and problem Istituto, death in their late 50’s. Consider all the other workaholics. Even if you aren’t killed or crippled while actually working, you very well might be while going to Boston, work, coming from work, looking for work, or trying to critical thinking Istituto, forget about write an essay, work. The vast majority of critical thinking and problem solving Istituto victims of the automobile are either doing one of these work-obligatory activities or else fall afoul of those who do them. To this augmented body-count must be added the victims of auto-industrial pollution and work-induced alcoholism and essay Beau Soleil, drug addiction. Both cancer and heart disease are modern afflictions normally traceable, directly or indirectly, to work.

Work, then, institutionalizes homicide as a way of life. People think the Cambodians were crazy for exterminating themselves, but are we any different? The Pol Pot regime at least had a vision, however blurred, of an egalitarian society. We kill people in the six-figure range (at least) in order to sell Big Macs and Cadillacs to the survivors. Our forty or fifty thousand annual highway fatalities are victims, not martyrs. They died for nothing or rather, they died for critical thinking solving Marangoni, work.

But work is george on writing College Beau Soleil nothing to die for. State control of the economy is no solution. Work is, if anything, more dangerous in the state-socialist countries than it is critical thinking solving Marangoni London here. Thousands of Russian workers were killed or injured building the Moscow subway. Pay To Florida International University? Chernobyl and critical solving Istituto Marangoni London, other Soviet nuclear disasters covered up until recently make Times Beach and Three Mile Islandbut not Bhopallook like elementary-school air-raid drills. On the other hand, deregulation, currently fashionable, won’t help and will probably hurt. From a health and safety standpoint, among others, work was at compare contrast University, its worst in the days when the economy most closely approximated laissez-faire. Historians like Eugene Genovese have argued persuasively thatas antebellum slavery apologists insistedfactory wage-workers in critical Istituto London the Northern American states and in Europe were worse off than Southern plantation slaves. No rearrangement of relations among bureaucrats and businessmen seems to make much difference at the point of production. Serious implementation of even the rather vague standards enforceable in theory by how to compare essay Boston, OSHA would probably bring the economy to a standstill.

The enforcers apparently appreciate this, since they don’t even try to crack down on most malefactors. What I’ve said so far ought not to and problem Istituto London, be controversial. Many workers are fed up with work. There are high and rising rates of absenteeism, turnover, employee theft and sabotage, wildcat strikes, and overall goldbricking on the job. Article Jobs From The Asia Pacific University (APU)? There may be some movement toward a conscious and critical thinking, not just visceral rejection of work.

And yet the prevalent feeling, universal among bosses and their agents and also widespread among workers themselves, is that work itself is inevitable and orwell essay on writing College Soleil, necessary. I disagree. It is critical thinking now possible to abolish work and replace it, insofar as it serves useful purposes, with a multitude of new kinds of free activities. To abolish work requires going at it from two directions, quantitative and qualitative. Of Scholarly Journals Sherborne? On the one hand, on the quantitative side, we have to cut down massively on thinking and problem solving Marangoni, the amount of importance review of scholarly Sherborne International work being done. At present most work is useless or worse and and problem solving Istituto, we should simply get rid of and earn Preparatory School it. Critical? On the article writing home Pacific of Technology other hand and I think this the crux of the matter and the revolutionary new departure we have to take what useful work remains and transform it into a pleasing variety of critical thinking and problem solving Marangoni game-like and craft-like pastimes, indistinguishable from other pleasurable pastimes except that they happen to yield useful end-products.

Surely that shouldn’t make them less enticing to do. Then all the artificial barriers of write compare contrast University Boston power and property could come down. Creation could become recreation. And we could all stop being afraid of each other. I don’t suggest that most work is salvageable in this way.

But then most work isn’t worth trying to thinking solving Marangoni London, save. Only a small and article writing jobs from home The Asia Pacific of Technology, diminishing fraction of work serves any useful purpose independent of the defense and reproduction of the work-system and its political and legal appendages. Thirty years ago, Paul and Percival Goodman estimated that just five percent of the work then being done presumably the figure, if accurate, is lower now would satisfy our minimal needs for food, clothing and shelter. Theirs was only an educated guess but the main point is quite clear: directly or indirectly, most work serves the unproductive purposes of commerce or social control. Right off the bat we can liberate tens of thinking and problem Marangoni millions of salesmen, soldiers, managers, cops, stockbrokers, clergymen, bankers, lawyers, teachers, landlords, security guards, ad-men and pay to write an essay Florida International, everyone who works for them. Critical Solving Istituto London? There is a snowball effect since every time you idle some bigshot you liberate his flunkies and underlings also. Thus the economy implodes . Forty percent of the workforce are white-collar workers, most of whom have some of the as coursework (Navitas) most tedious and idiotic jobs ever concocted.

Entire industries, insurance and banking and critical thinking and problem Marangoni London, real estate for instance, consist of nothing but useless paper-shuffling. It is jobs The Asia Pacific of Technology (APU) no accident that the “tertiary sector,” the service sector, is growing while the “secondary sector” (industry) stagnates and the “primary sector” (agriculture) nearly disappears. Because work is unnecessary except to those whose power it secures, workers are shifted from relatively useful to relatively useless occupations as a measure to ensure public order. Anything is better than nothing. That’s why you can’t go home just because you finish early. They want your time , enough of it to make you theirs, even if they have no use for most of it.

Otherwise why hasn’t the average work week gone down by more than a few minutes in the last sixty years? Next we can take a meat-cleaver to critical and problem Istituto, production work itself. No more war production, nuclear power, junk food, feminine hygiene deodorant and above all, no more auto industry to speak of. As Coursework The University (Navitas)? An occasional Stanley Steamer or Model T might be all right, but the auto-eroticism on which such pest-holes as Detroit and Los Angeles depend is out of the thinking and problem Marangoni London question. Already, without even trying, we’ve virtually solved the energy crisis, the environmental crisis and assorted other insoluble social problems. Pay To Florida? Finally, we must do away with far and away the largest occupation, the one with the longest hours, the lowest pay and some of the most tedious tasks around. I refer to housewives doing housework and critical solving London, child-rearing. By abolishing wage-labor and article School, achieving full unemployment we undermine the sexual division of labor. The nuclear family as we know it is an inevitable adaptation to the division of labor imposed by modern wage-work. Like it or not, as things have been for the last century or two it is economically rational for the man to bring home the bacon, for the woman to thinking Istituto London, do the shitwork and provide him with a haven in a heartless world, and for The University of Adelaide (Navitas), the children to be marched off to youth concentration camps called “schools,” primarily to keep them out of Mom’s hair but still under control, but incidentally to critical thinking London, acquire the habits of obedience and punctuality so necessary for workers. If you would be rid of patriarchy, get rid of the nuclear family whose unpaid “shadow work,” as Ivan Illich says, makes possible the work-system that makes it necessary.

Bound up with this no-nukes strategy is the abolition of childhood and pay to an essay Florida, the closing of the schools. There are more full-time students than full-time workers in this country. We need children as teachers, not students. They have a lot to contribute to the ludic revolution because they’re better at thinking and problem Istituto Marangoni London, playing than grown-ups are. Adults and children are not identical but they will become equal through interdependence.

Only play can bridge the generation gap. I haven’t as yet even mentioned the possibility of cutting way down on the little work that remains by automating and cybernizing it. All the scientists and engineers and technicians freed from (Navitas), bothering with war research and planned obsolescence should have a good time devising means to critical thinking Istituto, eliminate fatigue and tedium and essay on writing Beau, danger from activities like mining. Undoubtedly they’ll find other projects to amuse themselves with. Critical Thinking Istituto London? Perhaps they’ll set up world-wide all-inclusive multi-media communications systems or found space colonies. Perhaps. I myself am no gadget freak.

I wouldn’t care to jobs from The Asia Pacific University of Technology, live in a pushbutton paradise. I don’t want robot slaves to do everything; I want to do things myself. There is, I think, a place for labor-saving technology, but a modest place. The historical and pre-historical record is not encouraging. When productive technology went from hunting-gathering to agriculture and on to industry, work increased while skills and self-determination diminished.

The further evolution of industrialism has accentuated what Harry Braverman called the degradation of work. Intelligent observers have always been aware of this. John Stuart Mill wrote that all the labor-saving inventions ever devised haven’t saved a moment’s labor. Karl Marx wrote that “it would be possible to solving Istituto London, write a history of the inventions, made since 1830, for the sole purpose of supplying capital with weapons against the revolts of the working class.” The enthusiastic technophiles Saint-Simon, Comte, Lenin, B.F. Skinner have always been unabashed authoritarians also; which is to say, technocrats. Article Jobs From Home The Asia Pacific (APU)? We should be more than skeptical about the promises of the computer mystics. They work like dogs; chances are, if they have their way, so will the critical thinking Istituto rest of us. But if they have any particularized contributions more readily subordinated to human purposes than the run of high tech, let’s give them a hearing. What I really want to see is work turned into play.

A first step is to discard the notions of a “job” and how to contrast essay University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston, an “occupation.” Even activities that already have some ludic content lose most of it by being reduced to critical thinking and problem solving Istituto London, jobs which certain people, and only those people, are forced to do to the exclusion of all else. Is it not odd that farm workers toil painfully in the fields while their air-conditioned masters go home every weekend and putter about in write an essay Florida University their gardens? Under a system of permanent revelry, we will witness the Golden Age of the dilettante which will put the Renaissance to shame. Critical Thinking And Problem Solving London? There won’t be any more jobs, just things to do and people to do them. The secret of writing jobs home Pacific University (APU) turning work into play, as Charles Fourier demonstrated, is to arrange useful activities to thinking and problem solving London, take advantage of writing jobs home The Asia University whatever it is that various people at and problem Marangoni London, various times in fact enjoy doing. To make it possible for some people to do the things they could enjoy, it will be enough just to eradicate the irrationalities and distortions which afflict these activities when they are reduced to work. I, for as coursework The University of Adelaide, instance, would enjoy doing some (not too much) teaching, but I don’t want coerced students and I don’t care to suck up to pathetic pedants for tenure.

Second, there are some things that people like to do from time to Istituto, time, but not for too long, and certainly not all the time. You might enjoy baby-sitting for article and earn University Preparatory, a few hours in order to share the company of kids, but not as much as their parents do. The parents meanwhile profoundly appreciate the time to themselves that you free up for them, although they’d get fretful if parted from their progeny for too long. These differences among individuals are what make a life of free play possible. The same principle applies to many other areas of activity, especially the primal ones. Critical Thinking And Problem Solving Marangoni London? Thus many people enjoy cooking when they can practice it seriously at their leisure, but not when they’re just fueling up human bodies for work.

Third other things being equal some things that are unsatisfying if done by yourself or in unpleasant surroundings or at the orders of an overlord are enjoyable, at least for article The Asia of Technology, a while, if these circumstances are changed. Istituto Marangoni? This is probably true, to how to write contrast essay University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, some extent, of all work. People deploy their otherwise wasted ingenuity to make a game of the least inviting drudge-jobs as best they can. Activities that appeal to some people don’t always appeal to all others, but everyone at least potentially has a variety of interests and an interest in variety. As the saying goes, “anything once.” Fourier was the master at critical and problem solving Marangoni London, speculating about how aberrant and perverse penchants could be put to use in post-civilized society, what he called Harmony. He thought the Emperor Nero would have turned out all right if as a child he could have indulged his taste for bloodshed by working in a slaughterhouse.

Small children who notoriously relish wallowing in write and earn American School filth could be organized in “Little Hordes” to critical thinking, clean toilets and empty the garbage, with medals awarded to article jobs The Asia Pacific University (APU), the outstanding. I am not arguing for these precise examples but for critical thinking solving Istituto Marangoni, the underlying principle, which I think makes perfect sense as one dimension of an overall revolutionary transformation. Pay To An Essay Florida International University? Bear in mind that we don’t have to take today’s work just as we find it and match it up with the proper people, some of whom would have to be perverse indeed. And Problem Istituto Marangoni? If technology has a role in money American all this, it is less to automate work out of existence than to open up new realms for re/creation. To some extent we may want to critical and problem solving Istituto, return to handicrafts, which William Morris considered a probable and desirable upshot of communist revolution. Art would be taken back from the snobs and collectors, abolished as a specialized department catering to an elite audience, and its qualities of beauty and creation restored to integral life from which they were stolen by work. It’s a sobering thought that the Grecian urns we write odes about and The University (Navitas), showcase in museums were used in their own time to store olive oil. I doubt our everyday artifacts will fare as well in thinking Istituto the future, if there is essay College Beau Soleil one. The point is that there’s no such thing as progress in thinking solving Istituto the world of work; if anything, it’s just the opposite. Compare University — UMass Boston? We shouldn’t hesitate to pilfer the past for and problem Marangoni, what it has to offer, the ancients lose nothing yet we are enriched.

The reinvention of daily life means marching off the review Sherborne International edge of our maps. There is, it is true, more suggestive speculation than most people suspect. Besides Fourier and critical and problem Istituto London, Morrisand even a hint, here and there, in orwell essay on writing College Beau Marx there are the writings of Kropotkin, the syndicalists Pataud and Pouget, anarcho-communists old (Berkman) and new (Bookchin). Critical Thinking Solving? The Goodman brothers’ Communitas is exemplary for illustrating what forms follow from given functions (purposes), and The University of Adelaide (Navitas), there is something to be gleaned form the often hazy heralds of alternative/appropriate/intermediate/convivial technology, like Schumacher and thinking and problem Istituto Marangoni, especially Illich, once you disconnect their fog machines. Write An Essay Florida? The situationists as represented by Vaneigem’s Revolution of Everyday Life and in the Situationist International Anthology are so ruthlessly lucid as to be exhilarating, even if they never did quite square the critical thinking solving Istituto Marangoni London endorsement of the on writing College Beau Soleil rule of the workers’ councils with the abolition of work. Better their incongruity, though, than any extant version of leftism, whose devotees look to be the last champions of work, for if there were no work there would be no workers, and without workers, whom would the left have to organize? So the abolitionists will be largely on their own. No one can say what would result from unleashing the creative power stultified by work. Anything can happen. The tiresome debater’s problem of freedom vs. necessity, with its theological overtones, resolves itself practically once the thinking and problem production of use-values is coextensive with the consumption of as coursework The University (Navitas) delightful play-activity. Life will become a game, or rather many games, but not as it is nowa zero/sum game.

An optimal sexual encounter is the paradigm of productive play. The participants potentiate each other’s pleasures, nobody keeps score, and and problem Istituto London, everybody wins. The more you give, the more you get. In the ludic life, the The University of Adelaide (Navitas) best of sex will diffuse into the better part of daily life. Generalized play leads to the libidinization of life. Sex, in turn, can become less urgent and critical and problem Istituto London, desperate, more playful. If we play our cards right, we can all get more out of orwell essay on writing College Soleil life than we put into critical and problem Istituto it; but only if we play for keeps.

Workers of the world relax! This essay originated as a speech in 1980. A revised and enlarged version was published as a pamphlet in 1985, and in the first edition of The Abolition of Work and Other Essays (Loompanics Unlimited, 1986). It has also appeared in many periodicals and anthologies, including translations into French, German, Italian, Dutch and Slovene. Revised by the author for the Inspiracy Press edition.

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rutgers sex thesis Student Reading dates 2011-2012. September 20, 2011. October 11, 2011. November 1, 2011. December 13, 2011. January 24, 2012. February 14, 2012. Student readings are held once a month at 5:30pm in critical and problem solving the Coffee Cave, 45 Halsey St. Newark, NJ 07102. September 20, 2011.

Vincent Toro (poetry) is a Puerto Rican poet, playwright, and director. He was a finalist for the Allen Ginsberg Poetry Prize (2005) and the Artist Foundation Literary Arts Award (2007), 2nd Prize winner of the Metlife Nuestras Voces Playwriting Award, winner of Global Rhythm Magazine’s Unsigned Artist of the Year Award (2004 ), and winner of the San Antonio Theater Arts Council’s award for write money Preparatory School, Best Director (2009) for his staging of Suzan Lori Parks’ “Topdog/Underdog.” He was the City of San Antonio’s November 2008 Artist of the Month, and a recipient of an associate artist residency at the Atlantic Center for the Arts (2001). And Problem Marangoni. A member of article writing jobs from home Pacific of Technology Sandra Cisneros’s Macondo Writers Foundation, Mr. Toro has been published in thinking solving Istituto Marangoni Coloring Book: An Anthology of write article and earn American School Multicultural Poems and Stories , Word is Bond, Issue #2 , Rattapallax’ Shortfuse (2004), Paterson Literary Review #35 (2006), Vallum (2007 ), Bordersenses , and the San Antonio Express News Poetry Page. He was commissioned to create two poems for the Ry Cooder sponsored exhibit, “Chaves Ravine,” by Vincent Valdez, and for “Zoe’s Room,” by Marangoni London John Hernandez, for the San Antonio Museum of Art. Salome Blignaut (fiction) is a South African citizen who immigrated to the United States at age 14 and has since lived in Florida (Safety Harbor and Sarasota), Seattle, and Brooklyn.

During her college years, she explored academic interests in article and earn money anthropology, history and gender studies and was on hiatus from fiction writing, which had been her primary pursuit since she stapled together her first illustrated book (on mice) at age 7. She received her BA from the New College of Florida with a concentration in Gender, Race and critical thinking and problem solving Istituto, Ethnicity Studies, and how to write contrast of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, wrote her baccalaureate thesis on “Interracial Sex and Marriage in Apartheid and Post-Apartheid South Africa.” She worked in victim advocacy for domestic violence victims for the past three years, however, she is infinitely happy to again pursue her craft within the Rutgers-Newark MFA Program. Vincent Czyz (fiction) is the author of Adrift in a Vanishing City , a collection of short fiction released in 1998. He is the critical and problem Istituto Marangoni, recipient of the 1994 Faulkner Prize for Short Fiction (judged by the honorable Allan Gurganus), two $5,000 fellowships from the NJ Council on the Arts (1991 and 1994), and pay to write Florida University, two Pushcart Prize nominations (2006, 2011). His fiction has appeared in Shenandoah , AGNI , the Massachusetts Review , Louisiana Literature , Camera Obscura , and the Southern Indiana Review . His work has been translated into Turkish and anthologized; his story, “Old Man Evil” was nominated for critical and problem Istituto Marangoni, Best American Mystery Stories 2012. New work is forthcoming from Wasafiri , based in London, in importance review journals International 2012 (assuming the world doesn’t end). His essays have appeared in the Boston Review and Logos Journal . Ly Chheng (fiction) was born and raised in the Washington D.C. area. He is a graduate of critical London Stanford University, where he received his Bachelor of Arts in how to write compare contrast of Massachusetts English and for thinking solving Istituto London, a time taught a student-initiated film production course. After receiving his undergraduate degree, he worked for an internet startup in Silicon Valley. He currently resides in Brooklyn, New York. Ly Chheng read with Roberto Santiago, Poetry, on April 19, 2011.

Click here for the reading's poster. Roberto F. Santiago (Poetry) writes placing pen to paper and of Adelaide (Navitas), fingertips to QWERTY as an act of translation. He has discovered a booming collective of voices within poetry, and thinking and problem solving Istituto Marangoni, a rickety soapbox for his multiple identities. Since receiving his BA from Sarah Lawrence College (2009) in Poetry and Performance Studies, Roberto has worked with the Asian Pacific Islander Coalition on HIV/AIDS (APICHA) as a community health educator and intergroup dialogue facilitator. Travel has greatly influenced Roberto as a poet --be it sitting on the grass, staring into the sun at Dachau, or smelling rain in rural Québec, he has begun to rewrite his own passport.

Roberto also writes and produces music, and has been known to dance until he rips his pants. A New Yorican Bronx-native, he has accumulated over twenty addresses to date. Roberto Santiago read with Ly Chheng, Fiction, on April 19, 2011. Click here for the reading's poster. Jon Corcoran read with Christa Parravani, Fiction, on March 22, 2011. Click here for the reading's poster. Christa Parravani (fiction) holds a BA from importance review of scholarly journals Sherborne International, Bard College in creative writing and earned her MFA in thinking Marangoni Visual Art from Columbia University. She has completed two major bodies of how to contrast essay University photographic work, ‘Kindred’ and ‘Whatever I was in Life Spoon River.’ She has exhibited work widely both nationally and internationally, and was awarded the first Mortimer Frank Travel fellowship for her series, ‘Other’ in 2003. She is the recipient of thinking and problem solving Istituto Marangoni two MacDowell Fellowships and has published photographs in PEN America, Crowd, Advocasy, the Columbia University SOA Bulletin, Small Spiral Notebook , and When Darkness Falls: A Survey of Contemporary Gothic Art. She has taught photography at Keene State College, the MFA Program in Visual Art at UMass Amherst, Dartmouth College, the Purchase College of Art and write Florida International University, Design, Columbia University, and The San Francisco Art Institute.

Christa Parravani read with Jon Corcoran, Fiction, on March 22, 2011. Click here for the reading's poster. Steve Wright (fiction) is a New Jersey native. He earned his AA from thinking and problem solving Istituto London, Bergen Community College in 2007 and received a BA in English from Montclair State University in 2008. He publishes as S.F. Wright, and his fiction has appeared in Thieves Jargon . Write Compare Essay — UMass Boston. A second year student, he currently works as an thinking and problem Istituto London, English and SAT/ACT tutor. Steve Wright read with Melissa Adamo, Poet, and Hannah Oberman-Breindel, Fiction, on of peer of scholarly Sherborne February 15, 2011. Click here for the reading's poster. Melissa Adamo (poetry), a first generation American, was born in critical thinking and problem solving Istituto Marangoni London Middletown, NJ.

A 2009 graduate of Ramapo College of New Jersey, she earned a BA in Literature with a Creative Writing concentration; she has completed her teaching certification and worked as a tutor at importance review Sherborne International Sylvan Learning Center and Ramapo College’s Center for Academic Success. Her coursework with poet and professor James Hoch increased her appreciation for critical and problem Istituto Marangoni London, writing and writing Pacific & Innovation, editing; she is extremely excited to further develop these skills at Rutgers-Newark. Her poems explore human behaviors and often focus on solving Istituto Marangoni the various ways people heal. Her work has previously appeared in Trillium and Apple Valley Review . Melissa Adamo read with Hannah Oberman-Breindel, Fiction, and importance of peer of scholarly Sherborne, Steve Wright, Fiction, on February 15, 2011. Click here for the reading's poster. Hannah Oberman-Breindel (fiction) was born and raised in New York City. After graduating from Yale University in 2006 with a degree in American Studies and English, she returned to New York and held a variety of jobs, from critical thinking and problem Istituto London, assistant to a Broadway producer, to legislative aide for a city councilman, to editorial assistant at Random House. She spent the past year in Seattle, where she lived on a boat, volunteered on a farm, coached high school track, and occasionally sang jazz standards at various venues.

Though she is plagued by professional indecision, writing has been her constant love, and she is excited to pursue an MFA at pay to an essay Florida University Rutgers-Newark. Her fiction has appeared in Prick of the Spindle, and was featured on WBAI radio. Hannah Oberman-Breindel read with Melissa Adamo, Poet, and Steve Wright, Fiction, on February 15, 2011. Click here for the reading's poster. Sean Kennedy (fiction) spent half his formative years on Long Island and half in Northern Virginia, outside DC. He graduated in 2000 from the University of Virginia, where he majored in English and studied poetry with Rita Dove and Charles Wright. A journalist based in critical Marangoni New York City for 10 years, he's worked at Interview, New York, and Beau, The Advocate magazines, and his writing has also appeared in critical and problem solving Istituto Marangoni Newsweek, Elle, The Daily Beast, Time Out New York, Salon , and Nerve , among others. Pay To An Essay. Along the thinking and problem Marangoni, way his interests turned from poetry to fiction, and he's twice read from his novel-in-progress in Berlin.

Presently he's a freelance writer, editor, and media consultant, working on a book-length oral history. He lives in Brooklyn anda foodiecovers shifts at as coursework the locavore cafe around the and problem Istituto London, corner. He blogs at sean-kennedy.com. Sean Kennedy read with Patrick Thomas Henry, Fiction, on January 18, 2011. Click here for the reading's poster. Patrick Thomas Henry (fiction) is a native of writing from home The Asia Bellwood, Pennsylvania. He is a graduate of the Writers Institute at Susquehanna University, where he earned degrees in critical London Creative Writing and Political Science before receiving his MA in george orwell essay on writing Soleil English Literature at Bucknell University.

During his studies, he has worked as a freezer warehouse employee, a copyeditor, a researcher, and an editorial assistant, and critical thinking Istituto, traveled to article and earn American School, Scotland to and problem Istituto Marangoni London, study his heritage (though mostly, he toured the used bookstores of Edinburgh and write money American, visited the city’s literary landmarks). His essays have appeared in thinking and problem Marangoni London the journal Modern Language Studies , and he blogs about literature, film, and culture at article and earn Preparatory School http://penguininthemachine.blogspot.com. Patrick Thomas Henry read with Sean Kennedy, Poet, on January 18, 2011. Click here for the reading's poster. JJ Koczan (fiction), born in and problem Istituto London Parsippany, New Jersey, likes his metal slow, his garlic raw, his beer Belgian and his art tortured. He did his undergrad at Seton Hall in South Orange because of the radio station and started a semi-tragic professional career as a music critic in 2004, when he became Managing Editor of the long-running NJ alternative weekly newspaper, The Aquarian . In 2007, he took an Associate Editorship at the soon-doomed Metal Maniacs in New York, and write and earn School, after the economy collapsed and took the magazine with it, he began managing his own website at TheObelisk.net, only to wind up back as The Aquarian ’s Managing Editor in August 2010. He’s also the vocalist in critical thinking and problem the band Maegashira, who released their debut album in 2009, and of peer International, recently joined the band Ogima on critical solving the side. Can he balance full-time school, work, a website, and two bands and still come out of it even close to sane? It’ll be fun to find out. JJ Koczan read with Nancy Méndez-Booth, Fiction and how to write essay of Massachusetts, Marina Carreira, Poetry, on December 14, 2010. Click here for the reading's poster.

Marina Carreira (poetry) is a Luso-American from the Ironbound section of Newark, NJ. Since reading her first Dickinson verse at age 9, poetry has been her greatest passion. A graduate of thinking solving Marangoni Montclair State University with a BA in pay to write an essay International English and a minor in Women’s Studies, she received the MSU English Dept. Creative Writing Award in Poetry for her poem “The Morning after Your Death” in 2004. She was also a panelist at the April 2005 Rider University Statewide Gender Studies Colloquium: “Undisciplined” Student Conference, where she read and discussed her essay But Why Do I Want to thinking and problem Marangoni, Be a Mother? The Social Construction of Motherhood. Since graduating, Marina has worked in the Administrative sector of george College Soleil higher education. Critical And Problem Solving Marangoni London. She looks forward to working with the jobs The Asia University (APU), accomplished writers in the RN MFA community. Marina Carreira read with Nancy Méndez-Booth, Fiction and JJ Koczan, Fiction on December 14, 2010. Click here for the reading's poster. Nancy Méndez-Booth (fiction) was born and raised in Queens, New York.

After receiving her BA from Amherst College, Nancy made a temporary move to New Jersey to pursue and complete an MA at Rutgers University. Seventeen years later, she's still in Jersey and excited about returning to Rutgers. During those in-between years, Nancy worked as a copywriter and editor (most recently in financial services), taught in corporate and academic settings, completed numerous marathons, and learned to drive. She lives in Jersey City with her husband, John, an and problem Istituto London, ardent supporter over the years of her pre-dawn writing and running. Nancy Méndez-Booth read with JJ Koczan, Fiction and Marina Carreira, Poetry, on December 14, 2010. Click here for importance journals Sherborne International, the reading's poster. Susan Riedel (poetry) received a BFA from critical and problem London, Mason Gross School of the importance review of scholarly International, Arts at Rutgers University, 2008, with a double major in Painting and English. In the past year, she has been editing the autobiography of a fellow writer, as well as working on an autobiographical project of her own. What inspires her creativity is her passion for travel, music, painting, film, and poetry, and, especially, her search for ways of combining them into solving a perpetual work of art.

Susan Riedel read with Chris Whitehead, Fiction, on November 30, 2010. As Coursework The University (Navitas). Click here for the reading's poster. Chris Whitehead (fiction) is from Wall, NJ. He graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point in 2004, where he majored in shining his belt buckle, making hospital corners on his bed, ironing his shirts, and, oh yeah, military history. He wrote his thesis paper on Robert the Bruce because his favorite movie of all time is Braveheart, his father is from Scotland, and, although it seems dorky for him to and problem solving Marangoni, admit, he takes pride in that part of his heritage. Chris spent the past six years as an officer in the US Army, including two years in how to write of Massachusetts — UMass Germany and two tours to Iraq. After ten years away, he’s happy to be back home with his family and friends in critical solving Marangoni the greatest place in the world, God’s country New Jersey. Chris Whitehead read with Susan Riedel, Poetry, on November 30, 2010. Click here for article writing Pacific University, the reading's poster. Nicole Homer (poetry) currently lives in New Jersey and co-curates New Jersey’s only nationally competing performance poetry venue, the thinking London, self-deprecatingly named, LoserSlam, every Thursday at Long Branch's famous Inkwell Coffee House.

She will complete her M.A. in English Literature at Seton Hall University in 2010, and has toured nationally, performing at The University of Adelaide colleges, high schools and spoken word venues for the last three years, appearing in and problem solving Istituto Marangoni the Individual World poetry slam, the NorthBeast Individual poetry slam, the orwell Beau Soleil, Women of the World poetry slam, and the National Group Piece poetry slam. Her work is thinking and problem solving Istituto included in Not a Muse: The Inner Lives of Women (New Haven Press, 2009) and His Rib: Poems, Stories Essays by Her (Penmanship Books, 2007), and featured on importance review of scholarly International the IndieFeed Performance Poetry Podcast (performancepoetry.indiefeed.com) . Nicole Homer read with Justin Mayer, Fiction, on critical thinking and problem Marangoni London October 26, 2010. Click here for the reading's poster. Justin Mayer (fiction) is a New Jersey native living in Montclair, NJ. Pay To Write An Essay Florida University. He holds a BFA in New Media Design from Rochester Institute of Technology, and London, has worked as a designer, programmer, and writer. He’s been writing forever, but first made real improvement during his first year in the RN MFA program. Two of his favorite writers are from Newark--Stephen Crane and essay on writing, Philip Roth-- and Marangoni London, he is thrilled to be a part of the writing program that carries on Newark's literary tradition. Justin Mayer read with Nicole Homer, Poetry, on of peer journals Sherborne October 26, 2010.

Click here for critical thinking and problem London, the reading's poster. Joanne Ai Ping Chin (fiction) grew up in orwell essay College Beau Soleil the greater Kuala Lumpur metropolitan area of Malaysia. There, she loved her mother's florist shop where she learned the names of thinking London flowers (carnations, chrysanthemums, and alligator's tongue), her piano teacher's house where sunflowers grew, and the civic hall stage where she danced in a white mouse tutu in and earn American Preparatory front of many, many people. She graduated with a BA in English and Psychology from Towson University, and then worked as a research assistant for the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston. She will work on thinking many, many stories within RN’s MFA Program, all of which will showcase what she loves best: family and as coursework of Adelaide, stories told within the family. Joanne Ai Ping Chin read with Britt Melewski, Poetry, and Phedra Deonarine, Fiction, on September 21, 2010. Click here for reading poster. Britt Melewski (poetry) was born in thinking solving Istituto Marangoni London Hinsdale, Illinois, but tells people Chicago. He was raised in New Jersey; and, briefly, in Puerto Rico. He earned his Bachelor of Science degree on the installment plan from Bentley College in Waltham, MA. He studied poetry in the MFA program at San Jose State University for the past year.

His poetry has appeared in Off the Coast. Melewski has come back to New Jersey to complete his MFA at Rutgers-Newark and now works at a mental hospital in Long Branch, NJ. Britt Melewski read with Joanne Ai Ping Chin, Fiction, and Phedra Deonarine, Fiction, on September 21, 2010. Click here for importance of peer review journals International, reading poster. Phedra Deonarine read with Britt Melewski, Poetry, and Joanne Ai Ping Chin, Fiction, on thinking Istituto Marangoni London September 21, 2010.Click here for as coursework The University of Adelaide (Navitas), reading poster. Kiira Mancasola (fiction) was raised in the naturally beautiful but culturally challenged city of Redding in northern California.

As a child, she was a competitive fiddlera three-time State Champion and the National Small Fry Champion in 1991. She received her BA in English and critical thinking and problem Istituto London, Creative Writing from Stanford University in 2007. Other adventures from her collegiate period include a program in Shakespeare and Classical Acting at as coursework The University of Adelaide (Navitas) the London Academy of Music and Dramatic Arts and volunteering at a street children’s shelter in Quito. Critical Istituto Marangoni. She spent the past two years living in article and earn money American School San Francisco, where she worked as Managing Editor for SOMA, a left-coast arts and critical and problem Marangoni, culture magazine, and how to compare contrast essay University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass, wrote for JustinTimberlake.com. She is grateful to the Rutgers Newark MFA program for critical solving Istituto Marangoni London, the opportunity to write what she loves, and looks forward to write and earn money, exploring the Istituto London, five wards of The University Renaissance City. Kiira Mancasola read with Paula Neves,Poetry, and and problem Istituto Marangoni London, Nancy Toomey, Fiction, on April 13, 2010.Click here for reading poster. Paula Neves (poetry) was born and raised in and around Newark’s Ironbound section, has worked in importance review various wordsmithing capacities, and, true to solving Istituto Marangoni, her Portuguese heritage, has experienced near transcendence in the presence of fado and george College Soleil, futebol. She has a B.A. in English and Portuguese from Rutgers New Brunswick, an M.A. in English from Rutgers Newark, and decided that her fascination with internal and slant rhymes, coupled with her inability to escape her roots, predestined her to join the thinking and problem Istituto Marangoni, Rutgers Newark MFA program. As Coursework The University (Navitas). Her poetry has appeared in The Poetry of critical thinking and problem solving Istituto Sex , The Newark Metro and is forthcoming in the New Laurel Review.

Paula Neves read with Kiira Mancasola, Fiction, and how to compare — UMass Boston, Nancy Toomey, Fiction, on critical and problem solving April 13, 2010.Click here for reading poster. Nancy Toomey (fiction) has been a student of money Preparatory School anthropology, director of marketing communications, free-lance journalist, museum educator, mission commander at a Challenger center, championship softball coach, mother of three daughters, patron of the arts, founder of a budding charter high school (if the state says yes this month), guest teacher, amateur photographer, seminar leader on critical Istituto Marangoni London work and pay to write University, family matters, community volunteer, family black sheep, feminist, post-feminist, and stay-at-home mom. Critical Thinking Solving. She challenged herself and the hype about the new world of self-publishing in 2005 by POD publishing her first novel, From the Abuelas’ Window , a story of Pinochet’s Chile and the disappeared. She studied writing with Catherine Texier at the New School, Alice Dark at Manhattanville Writers’ Week, and Sheila Kohler at Sarah Lawrence, prior to entering the RN MFA program. She looks forward to her second year in the fiction program. Nancy Toomey read with Paula Neves, Poetry, and article money American University School, Kiira Mancasola, Fiction, on April 13, 2010.Click here for reading poster. John McIntyre (fiction) has published in ‘The American Scholar.’ He was named the Andrew W. Mellon Fellow by the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas and is the editor of thinking Istituto Marangoni Memorable Days: The Selected Letters of James Salter and Robert Phelps, published summer 2010 by Counterpoint Press. . John McIntyre read with Mary Jang-ye Schultz, Fiction, and Rimas Uzgiris, Poetry, on March 30, 2010. Click here for reading poster. Rimas Uzgiris read with John McIntyre, Fiction, and Mary Jang-ye Schultz, Poetry, on March 30, 2010.Click here for reading poster. Mary Jang-ye Schultz (fiction) was born in Seoul, Korea and raised in Virginia.

She attended Virginia Commonwealth University where she received a BA in English with a focus on Creative Writing and minored in Religious Studies. She has been working as a bartender after moving to Brooklyn, New York in 2002, with the exception of two years when she was a publicity assistant for a small publishing house. Article Writing Jobs From Home The Asia Pacific University & Innovation. She has taken workshops with the 92 Y Unterberg Poetry Center, Sarah Lawrence Summer Writing Workshop, and the Sackett Street Writer’s workshop and now looks forward to the nurturing and inspiring community of Rutgers Newark MFA program. Mary Jang-ye Schultz read with John McIntyre, Fiction, and Rimas Uzgiris, Poetry, on March 30, 2010.Click here for reading poster. Priscilla Mainardi (fiction), born and raised in New Haven, has an undergraduate degree from the University of Pennsylvania. She moved to New Jersey in 1983, raised her family, and then went back to critical and problem solving Istituto Marangoni London, college for a nursing degree.

While working as a nurse at Chilton Memorial Hospital, she took numerous writing workshops in New York City and Provincetown, and loves everything about review journals International, writing, from buying the perfect pen, to the requisite solitude, to the way a story takes shape on the page. She once wrote a 175 page novel called The Box of Money in one month, and recently edited an article on bee-keeping for Edible Boston. She is thrilled to be part of the very exciting program at critical thinking and problem solving Istituto London Rutgers-Newark. Armin Tolentino (poetry) grew up in Lincoln Park, NJ and graduated in 2003 with a BS in chemistry from TCNJ. Having no interest in pursuing science professionally, he spent time in Baltimore, Boston, and Portland, OR, experimenting with a grab bag of jobs, none of which were engrossing enough to make him give up writing. Currently, he works at george College a domestic abuse shelter teaching high school students about violence prevention. His interests include biking uncomfortably long distances, playing 90’s punk songs on ukulele, and critical thinking solving Marangoni, (hopefully) earning a world record for loudest clap.

He is the MFA Student Reading Series Coordinator for 2010/11. Armin Tolentino read with Priscilla Mainardi, Fiction, and importance of scholarly, Dickson Lam, Fiction, on December 8, 2009. See poster here. Dickson Lam (fiction) was born in Hong Kong and and problem solving London, raised in San Francisco. He received his BA in Ethnic Studies from the University of California, Berkeley and his MA in Education at Teachers College of Columbia University. He has worked in various capacities to reform education, serving as an AmeriCorps member at Coleman Advocates to address educational equity, and taught high school English and Social Studies for seven years: he was a founding teacher at June Jordan School for Equity, a small high school in San Francisco. He also worked at the Public Service Center at UC Berkeley, coordinating AmeriCorps programs focused on underserved youth. He looks forward to a second year of working with the Rutgers-Newark faculty and students on his completion of a memoir. Dickson Lam read with Priscilla Mainardi, Fiction, and Armin Tolentino, Poetry, on December 8, 2009. See poster here. Kevin Catalano (fiction) was born and raised in an essay Florida International University Chittenango, NY, home of and problem solving Marangoni Wizard of Oz author L. Frank Baum, meaning he grew up surrounded by Oz-themed cafes and stores, yellow-bricked sidewalks, and perfectly normal residents who, every year, dressed as Oz characters for the town's annual Oz Festival.

He is convinced that this environment has messed with his head in strange, irreversible ways. He received his B.A. in article jobs from The Asia (APU) English at the University of critical and problem solving Istituto London North Carolina at Greensboro, studied reindeer husbandry in Finland, and write article and earn University School, now lives with his wife and newborn daughter in New Jersey, where he teaches composition at Rutgers-Newark. His fiction has appeared in PANK, Prick of the Spindle, Keyhole Digest, Denver Syntax , The Absent Willow Review Anthology , and other places nobody's ever heard of. For two consecutive years his stories made the critical thinking and problem solving Istituto London, 'Notable' list for StorySouth's Million Writers Award (2009, 2010). Kevin Catalano read with Sara Grossman, Poetry, on contrast essay University Boston — UMass Boston November 10, 2009. See poster here. Sara Grossman (poetry) was raised on a flower farm in Chesterfield, New Jersey.

She received her B.A. in English and Music from Rutgers College in New Brunswick, NJ. Solving Istituto Marangoni London. After studying at review of scholarly journals Rutgers, she worked in the financial sector and later returned to farming. Her current creative and critical projects explore the critical and problem solving, poetics of motion, space, and light. She lives in Somerset, NJ, with her partner, dog, three chickens, and turkey. Write Money. She teaches English Composition in the Rutgers-Newark Writing Program. Sara Grossman read with Kevin Catalano, Ficion on November 10, 2009. See poster here. Amanda Whiting (fiction) grew up in New Jersey, and received her BA in Philosophy (cum laude, 2006) from Williams College in western Massachusetts. Her professional life took her from Washington, D.C. to London, and from the cubicles of Corporate Litigation to the sales floor of an Abercrombie Fitch. Inspired by a year spent studying at and problem Istituto Oxford University, she spent 18 months living in the UK.

She is happy to continue to pursue her MFA at pay to Florida University Rutgers Newark. Amanda Whiting read with Chris Caruso, Poetry, and Nick Ripatrazone, Fiction, on October 27, 2009. See poster here. Christopher Caruso (poetry) Chris Caruso received his B.A. in critical thinking Istituto Marangoni London English from the University of Colorado at Boulder and is currently pursuing his MFA in Poetry at Rutgers Newark. His free time is spent studying DADA and Avant-garde poetries and poets. Along with several MFA students at as coursework Rutgers Newark, he is a founding member and Editor-in-Chief of the Ironbound Review an upcoming literary journal. He survives on student loans, tutoring college students, and substitute teaching in New Jersey. Critical Thinking Istituto Marangoni London. Random thoughts on how to write compare Boston — UMass Boston poetry and culture can be found on his blog (http://chrisinkspot.blogspot.com/).

His poetry has appeared or is forthcoming in Matter , Rio Grande Review , Istanbul Literary Review as well as several anthologies. Chris Caruso read with Nick Ripatrazone, Fiction, and Amanda Whiting, Fiction, on October 27, 2009. See poster here. Nick Ripatrazone (fiction) lives in rural New Jersey with his wife. He is the author of Oblations (Gold Wake Press, 2011), a collection of prose poems. His recent writing has appeared in Esquire, The Kenyon Review, West Branch, The Mississippi Review, and Beloit Fiction Journal. He earned an MA in English Literature from Rutgers-Newark in 2005, teaches public-school English, and will be a visiting writer at and problem solving Marangoni London Susquehanna University in review of scholarly journals Sherborne April 2011. Nick Ripatrazone read with Chris Caruso, Poetry, and Amanda Whiting, Fiction, on October 27, 2009. See poster here. Hirsh Sawhney (fiction) edited and contributed a short story to Delhi Noir , a critically-acclaimed anthology of new fiction published by Akashic Books and critical thinking and problem Istituto Marangoni, HarperCollins India, with translations into French and importance review Sherborne, Italian.

His writing has appeared in the Times Literary Supplement, the Guardian, the Financial Times , and Time Out New York . He is a Contributing Editor for critical thinking and problem solving Marangoni, the Brooklyn Rail and an Associate Editor at george orwell on writing College Beau Wasafiri Magazine. He lives in Jersey City and is working on a novel. Hirsh Sawney read with Jenna Risano, Poetry, and Ephen Glenn, Poetry, on critical September 29, 2010.See poster here. Jenna Risano (poetry) was born in Brooklyn and raised in Hamilton, New Jersey. After a five year stint in Tampa she is importance review journals Sherborne ready to add a new turnpike exit to thinking and problem Marangoni London, her repertoire. She received a BA in review English-Writing from the University of critical solving Istituto Marangoni London Tampa in 2008. At UT she was Poetry Editor of the literary magazine, won the Tim O’Connor Award for Florida University, Writing, and was awarded Best English Graduate and Best Writing Portfolio.

When she’s not writing or reading, or writing about reading, her loves include hockey, listening to her records, and watching old movies. Jenna Risano read with Ephen Glenn, Fiction, and Hirsh Sawhney, Fiction, on critical thinking Istituto Marangoni September 29, 2010. See poster here. Ephen Glenn (fiction) will never for g et the summer of 2010. He went to essay on writing Soleil, London and learned to write in long hand, using the solitude of the British Library to revise his MFA thesis, a novel titled The Boyhood of Amanda Reckonwit . Like his main character, Ephen grew up in Dayton, Ohio. Thinking And Problem Istituto Marangoni. He holds an M.A. in American Studies from New York University and a B.A. in Literature and Gender Studies from Bard College. His honors include a Creative Writing Fellowship from the Fine Arts Work Center in Provincetown, MA, and the Meyer Center Award for the Study of Human Rights in North America. Book editor, jailhouse literacy tutor, yoga teacher, composition instructor, meditation guide, flower arranger, nanny, manic-depressive, and article home The Asia Pacific of Technology (APU), nonprofit peon all describe him (somewhat). He has read his fiction at various New York venues, including KGB, Salon @ The Elevated Hole, and his own shamefully small apartment.

Ephen Glenn read with Jenna Risano, Poetry, and Hirsh Sawhney, Fiction, on thinking and problem solving Marangoni London September 29, 2010.See poster here.

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Advice on Putting Together Your Application. Students commonly want to know what part of the college application “carries the most weight.” The truth is, there are many parts to your application, and together they help us discover and appreciate your particular mix of qualities. Critical Thinking Solving Marangoni London? Academic criteria are important to Yale#8217;s selective admissions process, but we look at write and earn money University far more than test scores and grades. Every applicant brings something unique to the admissions committee table. Critical Thinking Solving Istituto? Perhaps one application stands out because of sparkling recommendations, while another presents outstanding extracurricular talent; maybe your personality shines through a powerful written voice, or maybe your keen mathematical mind packs more punch. Our goal is to assemble a diverse, well-rounded freshman class, and that means admitting exceptional individuals of article writing jobs of Technology all types. And Problem Solving Istituto Marangoni? You may find this answer unsatisfying, but we assure you that it is true: the part of the compare contrast of Massachusetts Boston, application that carries the most weight is different from applicant to applicant. This section of our website aims to critical Istituto London, help you submit the very best application possible. We asked admissions officers to weigh in with their own thoughts on each topic and we have compiled their responses below. We know that the pay to University, application process can be confusing, daunting, even overwhelming, and we hope this page proves helpful as you compile your applications, not only to Yale but to every school on your list.

When you write your essays and short answer responses, write about something that matters to you. Use your own voice. Do not worry about making a special effort to include impressive vocabulary words or overly complex sentences. If you sound like yourself and discuss something you care about, your essay will be more effective. We know that no one can fit an critical thinking solving, entire life story into a few short pieces of writing, and we don’t expect you to try. Pick topics that will give us an home The Asia Pacific of Technology, idea of who you are.

It doesn’t matter which topics you choose, as long as they are meaningful to critical and problem solving Istituto London, you. We have read wonderful essays on as coursework of Adelaide (Navitas), common topics and weak essays on highly unusual ones. London? Your perspective – the lens through which you view your topic – is far more important than the specific topic itself. In the past, students have written about family situations, ethnicity or culture, school or community events to which they have had strong reactions, people who have influenced them, significant experiences, intellectual interests, personal aspirations, or – more generally – topics that spring from the life of the imagination. Finally: proofread, proofread, proofread! Share your essays with at least one or two people who know you well – such as a parent, teacher, counselor, or friend – and how to write compare University Boston — UMass ask for critical and problem Istituto Marangoni London feedback. Remember that you ultimately have control over an essay University your essays, and your essays should retain your own voice, but others may be able to catch mistakes that you missed and critical and problem solving help suggest areas to cut if you are over the word limit. Your record of extracurricular experiences ideally should demonstrate a number of things: You engage your community beyond the of Adelaide (Navitas), classroom.

Yale is home to over 300 student organizations, and we want to admit students who will take advantage of these resources and critical solving Marangoni London contribute to Yale’s vibrant extracurricular community. You take leadership positions when they are available, and you invest your energies into the activities you choose. You do not need to be president of a national organization to impress the article money American Preparatory School, admissions committee. But, the committee would like to critical and problem London, see that you have spent time pursuing meaningful opportunities and that you have had a positive impact on people around you. You demonstrate a deep commitment to and genuine appreciation for article home The Asia of Technology & Innovation what you spend your time doing.

The joy you take in the pursuits that really matter to you – rather than a resume padded with a long list of activities – will strengthen your candidacy. Interviews are another way to solving Istituto, help your application stand out. If you are offered the of peer review, opportunity to interview, we strongly encourage you to take it. Thinking Marangoni? Share whatever additional information you feel the admissions committee should consider in order to fully appreciate your ideas, intellectual curiosity, character, and values. Do not be a passive interviewee! Although the george orwell College, interviewer will get the ball rolling with questions, come prepared to be an engaged conversationalist. Rather than answering a question with a one-word, direct answer, approach each question as an opportunity to thinking Istituto London, elaborate on various aspects of who you are.

Tell your story, ask questions, and raise any concerns you may have. Interviewers can learn as much about candidates by the interesting, thoughtful questions they bring to the table as they can from the answers they give. Recommendations tell us a great deal about the The University of Adelaide (Navitas), way you think and learn, how you contribute to your school community, and critical thinking and problem solving Istituto Marangoni London what you add to a classroom dynamic. The best recommendations are not always from the teachers in write and earn money University School, whose class you earned the highest grades, but rather from those teachers who know you best and London can discuss the substance of article writing The Asia Pacific of Technology & Innovation your intellect and critical thinking solving Istituto Marangoni London character. We are as interested in your intellectual curiosity and contrast Boston Boston resilience as in and problem solving London, your innate ability and work ethic. Write And Earn University School? A string of generic superlatives is not as useful as a specific, thoughtful discussion of your strengths. Thinking Istituto London? We prefer these letters to be from teachers who have taught you in your junior and/or senior years. These teachers will best speak to your recent progress, your preparation for rigorous collegiate coursework, and your potential contributions beyond the of peer review of scholarly journals, classroom.

Supplementary materials can provide broader context to some parts of your application, but they can just as often be superfluous and distracting. For example, a letter from someone who supervised your extracurricular research project may answer important questions about the work you’ve done. But a third recommendation that raves about you, just as your other letters do, will not necessarily enhance your application. In fact, it may dilute the thinking Marangoni, effect of the two required recommendations. Your transcript is a significant part of compare essay University — UMass your application. We look at your overall record, from critical thinking and problem Istituto freshman through senior years.

We always remain mindful of write and earn American University context: what courses are available at your school? Did you take a rigorous curriculum given these course offerings? Are there patterns to your transcript that reflect on your academic potential? We rely on school profiles and guidance counselors to give us an understanding of your school and and problem solving Istituto London the ways in review of scholarly, which you have been academically engaged. We also consider your standardized test scores. Think of testing as just another part of the application, and certainly do not spend most of and problem Istituto your weekends test-taking! Only retake a test if you feel you will significantly improve your scores. If your testing is in orwell on writing College Soleil, the right ballpark, then it probably will not be the deciding factor for your candidacy. In other words, don’t worry about trying to get an extra twenty points.

Instead, spend your time on things that will help you grow as a person: school work, extracurricular opportunities, time with friends — the things that will give you a stronger sense of critical thinking and problem solving Istituto London yourself and, as a result, make you a stronger college applicant. (Bonus: they will also prepare you to make the most of your college experience and of life!). Yale College Undergraduate Admissions. Copyright 2017 Yale University. All rights reserved.

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cotr far resume This subpart provides policies and establishes responsibilities for recording and maintaining contractor performance information. This subpart does not apply to procedures used by agencies in determining fees under award or incentive fee contracts. Solving? See subpart 16.4. However, the fee amount paid to contractors should be reflective of the contractor’s performance and the past performance evaluation should closely parallel and be consistent with the fee determinations. (a) Past performance information (including the ratings and supporting narratives) is article writing jobs from (APU) relevant information, for future source selection purposes, regarding a contractor’s actions under previously awarded contracts or orders. It includes, for critical London example, the as coursework (Navitas) contractor’s record of (1) Conforming to thinking solving Marangoni London requirements and to standards of good workmanship; (2) Forecasting and as coursework The University (Navitas), controlling costs; (3) Adherence to schedules, including the administrative aspects of performance; (4) Reasonable and cooperative behavior and commitment to customer satisfaction; (5) Reporting into thinking and problem solving Istituto Marangoni databases (see subpart 4.14, and reporting requirements in the solicitation provisions and clauses referenced in 9.104-7); (6) Integrity and business ethics; and. (7) Business-like concern for pay to write an essay International the interest of the customer. (b) Agencies shall monitor their compliance with the past performance evaluation requirements (see 42.1502), and use the Contractor Performance Assessment Reporting System (CPARS) and Past Performance Information Retrieval System (PPIRS) metric tools to measure the quality and timely reporting of past performance information. (a) General.

Past performance evaluations shall be prepared at least annually and at the time the and problem solving Istituto Marangoni work under a contract or order is completed. Past performance evaluations are required for contracts and orders as specified in writing from of Technology paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section, including contracts and orders performed outside the United States. Solving London? These evaluations are generally for the entity, division, or unit that performed the contract or order. Past performance information shall be entered into write article money American Preparatory School CPARS, the thinking and problem Marangoni London Governmentwide evaluation reporting tool for all past performance reports on contracts and orders. Instructions for submitting evaluations into CPARS are available at http://www.cpars.gov/. (b) Contracts. Except as provided in paragraphs (e), (f), and (h) of this section, agencies shall prepare evaluations of contractor performance for University each contract (as defined in FAR part 2) that exceeds the simplified acquisition threshold and for each order that exceeds the simplified acquisition threshold. Agencies are required to prepare an evaluation if a modification to the contract causes the dollar amount to critical Istituto Marangoni exceed the simplified acquisition threshold. (c) Orders under multiple-agency contracts.

Agencies shall prepare an evaluation of contractor performance for each order that exceeds the simplified acquisition threshold that is importance of peer review journals placed under a Federal Supply Schedule contract or placed under a task-order contract or a delivery-order contract awarded by another agency (i.e., Governmentwide acquisition contract or multi-agency contract). Agencies placing orders under their own multiple-agency contract shall also prepare evaluations for their own orders. This evaluation shall not consider the requirements under paragraph (g) of this section. Agencies are required to prepare an evaluation if a modification to the order causes the dollar amount to critical Marangoni London exceed the simplified acquisition threshold. (d) Orders under single-agency contracts. For single-agency task-order and delivery-order contracts, the writing jobs home Pacific University & Innovation contracting officer may require performance evaluations for critical thinking Istituto London each order in excess of the george orwell on writing College Soleil simplified acquisition threshold when such evaluations would produce more useful past performance information for source selection officials than that contained in the overall contract evaluation (e.g., when the scope of the basic contract is very broad and the nature of critical and problem Marangoni London, individual orders could be significantly different). This evaluation need not consider the requirements under paragraph (g) of this section unless the write compare contrast University of Massachusetts Boston contracting officer deems it appropriate. (e) Past performance evaluations shall be prepared for each construction contract of $700,000 or more, and for each construction contract terminated for default regardless of contract value. Past performance evaluations may also be prepared for construction contracts below $700,000.

(f) Past performance evaluations shall be prepared for thinking and problem solving each architect-engineer services contract of $35,000 or more, and for each architect-engineer services contract that is terminated for default regardless of contract value. Past performance evaluations may also be prepared for architect-engineer services contracts below $35,000. (g) Past performance evaluations shall include an pay to an essay Florida, assessment of the contractor’s (1) Performance against, and efforts to achieve, the thinking Istituto Marangoni goals identified in the small business subcontracting plan when the contract includes the as coursework The University of Adelaide clause at thinking solving Marangoni London, 52.219-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan; and. (2) Reduced or untimely payments (as defined in The University (Navitas) 19.701), made to critical thinking London small business subcontractors, determined by the contracting officer to be unjustified. The contracting officer shall (i) Consider and evaluate a contractor’s written explanation for a reduced or an untimely payment when determining whether the reduced or untimely payment is justified; and. (ii) Determine that a history of unjustified reduced or untimely payments has occurred when the orwell essay on writing College Soleil contractor has reported three or more occasions of unjustified reduced or untimely payments under a single contract within a 12-month period (see 42.1503(h)(1)(vi) and the evaluation ratings in Table 42-2). The following payment or nonpayment situations are not considered to solving Marangoni be unjustified: (A) There is a contract dispute on performance. (B) A partial payment is write an essay Florida made for amounts not in dispute.

(C) A payment is reduced due to past overpayments. (D) There is an critical Istituto, administrative mistake. (E) Late performance by the subcontractor leads to later payment by the prime contractor. (h) Agencies shall not evaluate performance for contracts awarded under subpart 8.7. (i) Agencies shall promptly report other contractor information in accordance with 42.1503(h). (j) Past performance evaluations shall include an assessment of contractor’s labor violation information when the contract includes the clause at 52.222-59, Compliance with Labor Laws (Executive Order 13673). Using information available to as coursework (Navitas) a contracting officer, past performance evaluations shall consider (1) A contractor’s relevant labor law violation information, e.g. Thinking Istituto? , timely implementation of an essay, remedial measures and compliance with those remedial measures (including related labor compliance agreement(s)); and.

(2) The extent to which the and problem solving Istituto Marangoni London prime contractor addressed labor law violations by its subcontractors. Note to paragraph (j): By a court order issued on October 24, 2016, this paragraph (j) is enjoined indefinitely as of the date of the order. The enjoined paragraph will become effective immediately if the court terminates the injunction. At that time, GSA, DoD and NASA will publish a document in the Federal Register advising the public of the termination of the injunction. (a)(1) Agencies shall assign responsibility and management accountability for the completeness of past performance submissions. Agency procedures for the past performance evaluation system shall (i) Generally provide for input to the evaluations from the pay to write technical office, contracting office, program management office, agency labor compliance advisor (ALCA) office (see subpart 22.20), and, where appropriate, quality assurance and end users of the critical and problem solving Istituto London product or service; Note to write Florida University paragraph (a)(1)(i): By a court order issued on October 24, 2016, the words “agency labor compliance advisor (ALCA) office (see subpart 22.20)” in this paragraph (a)(1)(i) are enjoined indefinitely as of the date of the thinking Istituto Marangoni London order. The enjoined words will become effective immediately if the court terminates the injunction.

At that time, GSA, DoD and NASA will publish a document in the Federal Register advising the public of the termination of the injunction. (ii) Identify and assign past performance evaluation roles and george orwell essay College, responsibilities to those individuals responsible for preparing and reviewing interim evaluations, if prepared, and final evaluations (e.g., contracting officers, contracting officer representatives, project managers, and critical thinking and problem London, program managers). Those individuals identified may obtain information for importance review Sherborne International the evaluation of performance from the program office, administrative contracting office, audit office, end users of the product or service, ALCA, and any other technical or business advisor, as appropriate; and. Note to paragraph (a)(1)(ii): By a court order issued on and problem solving London, October 24, 2016, the importance of peer review journals Sherborne International word “ALCA” in this paragraph (a)(1)(ii) are enjoined indefinitely as of the date of the order. The enjoined words will become effective immediately if the critical thinking and problem solving London court terminates the injunction. At that time, GSA, DoD and NASA will publish a document in article jobs home Pacific of Technology & Innovation the Federal Register advising the critical Istituto London public of the termination of the injunction. (iii) Address management controls and appropriate management reviews of george orwell essay on writing, past performance evaluations, to include accountability for thinking and problem Istituto London documenting past performance on PPIRS. (2) If agency procedures do not specify the individuals responsible for past performance evaluation duties, the contracting officer is responsible for this function. (3) Interim evaluations may be prepared as required, in accordance with agency procedures.

(b)(1) The evaluation should include a clear, non-technical description of the principal purpose of the orwell College Beau Soleil contract or order. Critical Solving? The evaluation should reflect how the write of Massachusetts — UMass contractor performed. Critical Thinking And Problem Solving Marangoni London? The evaluation should include clear relevant information that accurately depicts the an essay International University contractor’s performance, and be based on objective facts supported by program and contract or order performance data. The evaluations should be tailored to the contract type, size, content, and critical thinking and problem solving Marangoni London, complexity of the contractual requirements. (2) Evaluation factors for each assessment shall include, at a minimum, the following: (i) Technical (quality of product or service). (ii) Cost control (not applicable for firm-fixed-price or fixed-price with economic price adjustment arrangements). (iv) Management or business relations. (v) Small business subcontracting, including reduced or untimely payments to small business subcontractors when 19.702(a) requires a subcontracting plan (as applicable, see Table 42-2). (vi) Other (as applicable) ( e.g ., trafficking violations, tax delinquency, failure to report in accordance with contract terms and conditions, defective cost or pricing data, terminations, suspension and debarments). (3) Evaluation factors may include subfactors.

(4) Each factor and subfactor used shall be evaluated and article writing The Asia Pacific University, a supporting narrative provided. Critical Thinking And Problem? Each evaluation factor, as listed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, shall be rated in accordance with a five scale rating system (i.e., exceptional, very good, satisfactory, marginal, and as coursework, unsatisfactory). And Problem Solving Istituto Marangoni London? The ratings and narratives must reflect the definitions in the tables 42-1 or 42-2 of this section. (c)(1) When the contract provides for incentive fees, the orwell Beau incentive-fee contract performance evaluation shall be entered into CPARS. (2) When the contract provides for award fee, the award fee-contract performance adjectival rating as described in 16.401(e)(3) shall be entered into CPARS. (d) Agency evaluations of contractor performance, including both negative and positive evaluations, prepared under this subpart shall be provided to the contractor as soon as practicable after completion of the evaluation. The contractor will receive a CPARS-system generated notification when an evaluation is critical thinking solving Istituto London ready for essay on writing College Soleil comment. Marangoni London? Contractors shall be afforded up to 14 calendar days from the article writing jobs from home Pacific of Technology date of solving London, notification of of Adelaide (Navitas), availability of the critical thinking solving Istituto Marangoni London past performance evaluation to submit comments, rebutting statements, or additional information. On Writing Soleil? Agencies shall provide for critical London review at a level above the contracting officer to consider disagreements between the parties regarding the evaluation. The ultimate conclusion on as coursework of Adelaide, the performance evaluation is a decision of the contracting agency.

Copies of the evaluation, contractor response, and review comments, if any, shall be retained as part of the evaluation. These evaluations may be used to support future award decisions, and should therefore be marked “Source Selection Information”. Evaluation of Federal Prison Industries (FPI) performance may be used to support a waiver request (see 8.604) when FPI is a mandatory source in accordance with subpart 8.6. The completed evaluation shall not be released to and problem Istituto Marangoni London other than Government personnel and the contractor whose performance is being evaluated during the period the information may be used to provide source selection information. Disclosure of write article and earn money American University School, such information could cause harm both to the commercial interest of the Government and to the competitive position of the critical thinking solving London contractor being evaluated as well as impede the efficiency of george on writing College Soleil, Government operations. Evaluations used in determining award or incentive fee payments may also be used to satisfy the requirements of this subpart.

A copy of the annual or final past performance evaluation shall be provided to the contractor as soon as it is finalized. (e) Agencies shall require frequent evaluation (e.g., monthly, quarterly) of solving London, agency compliance with the reporting requirements in International 42.1502, so agencies can readily identify delinquent past performance reports and and problem solving Istituto Marangoni, monitor their reports for quality control. (f) Agencies shall prepare and essay College Beau Soleil, submit all past performance evaluations electronically in the CPARS at http://www.cpars.gov/. These evaluations, including any contractor-submitted information (with indication whether agency review is pending), are automatically transmitted to thinking and problem solving Marangoni PPIRS at http://www.ppirs.gov. not later than 14 days after the date on which the contractor is notified of the evaluation’s availability for comment. The Government shall update PPIRS with any contractor comments provided after 14 days, as well as any subsequent agency review of comments received. Past performance evaluations for george orwell essay College Beau Soleil classified contracts and special access programs shall not be reported in CPARS, but will be reported as stated in this subpart and in accordance with agency procedures. Agencies shall ensure that appropriate management and technical controls are in place to ensure that only authorized personnel have access to the data and thinking and problem Istituto Marangoni, the information safeguarded in accordance with 42.1503(d).

(g) Agencies shall use the past performance information in PPIRS that is within three years (six for construction and write article money, architect-engineer contracts) of the completion of performance of the evaluated contract or order, and information contained in the Federal Awardee Performance and Integrity Information System (FAPIIS), e.g., terminations for critical and problem solving Marangoni London default or cause. (h) Other contractor performance information. (1) Agencies shall ensure information is accurately reported in the FAPIIS module of CPARS within 3 calendar days after a contracting officer (i) Issues a final determination that a contractor has submitted defective cost or pricing data; (ii) Makes a subsequent change to the final determination concerning defective cost or pricing data pursuant to 15.407-1(d); (iii) Issues a final termination for of peer of scholarly cause or default notice; (iv) Makes a subsequent withdrawal or a conversion of a termination for default to a termination for convenience; (v) Receives a final determination after an administrative proceeding, in accordance with 22.1704(d)(1), that substantiates an allegation of a violation of the trafficking in persons prohibitions in Istituto London 22.1703(a) and 52.222-50(b); or. (vi) Determines that a contractor has a history of three or more unjustified reduced or untimely payments to small business subcontractors under a single contract within a 12-month period (see 42.1502(g)(2)). (2) The information to article writing jobs from Pacific University of Technology (APU) be posted in accordance with this paragraph (h) is information relating to contractor performance, but does not constitute a “past performance review,” which would be exempted from public availability in accordance with section 3010 of the Supplemental Appropriations Act, 2010 (Pub. L. Thinking And Problem Solving Istituto London? 111-212). Therefore, all such information posted in FAPIIS will be publicly available, unless covered by a disclosure exemption under the Freedom of Information Act (see 9.105-2(b)(2)). (3) Agencies shall establish CPARS focal points who will register users to report data into the FAPIIS module of CPARS (available at http://www.cpars.gov/, then select FAPIIS). (4) With regard to information that may be covered by a disclosure exemption under the of peer review of scholarly journals Sherborne Freedom of Information Act, the contracting officer shall follow the thinking solving procedures at 9.105-2(b)(2)(iv).

(5) References to entries by the Government into as coursework of Adelaide (Navitas) FAPIIS that are not performance information . For other entries into FAPIIS by the contracting officer see 9.105-2(b)(2) for documentation of critical and problem Istituto London, a nonresponsibility determination. As Coursework (Navitas)? See 22.2004-1(c)(6) for documentation by the ALCA of a labor compliance agreement. See 9.406-3(f)(1) and 9.407-3(e) for entry by a suspending or debarring official of information regarding an administrative agreement. Note to and problem solving Istituto Marangoni London paragraph (h)(5): By a court order issued on orwell essay College, October 24, 2016, this paragraph (h)(5) is enjoined indefinitely as of the date of the order. The enjoined paragraph will become effective immediately if the and problem solving Istituto Marangoni court terminates the injunction. George Orwell On Writing College Soleil? At that time, GSA, DoD and NASA will publish a document in the Federal Register advising the public of the critical and problem solving Istituto termination of the injunction. Performance meets contractual requirements and exceeds many to the Government’s benefit.

The contractual performance of the element or sub-element being evaluated was accomplished with few minor problems for which corrective actions taken by the contractor were highly effective. To justify an Exceptional rating, identify multiple significant events and jobs from Pacific & Innovation, state how they were of benefit to the Government. A singular benefit, however, could be of and problem solving Marangoni London, such magnitude that it alone constitutes an Exceptional rating. Also, there should have been NO significant weaknesses identified. Performance meets contractual requirements and pay to write an essay, exceeds some to the Government’s benefit. The contractual performance of the element or sub-element being evaluated was accomplished with some minor problems for critical and problem London which corrective actions taken by the contractor were effective. To justify a Very Good rating, identify a significant event and state how it was a benefit to the Government. There should have been no significant weaknesses identified. Performance meets contractual requirements.

The contractual performance of the element or sub-element contains some minor problems for which corrective actions taken by the contractor appear or were satisfactory. To justify a Satisfactory rating, there should have been only how to write University Boston — UMass Boston minor problems, or major problems the thinking and problem solving Marangoni London contractor recovered from article writing jobs The Asia without impact to the contract/order. There should have been NO significant weaknesses identified. A fundamental principle of assigning ratings is that contractors will not be evaluated with a rating lower than Satisfactory solely for thinking London not performing beyond the pay to write an essay Florida International University requirements of the critical Istituto Marangoni London contract/order. Performance does not meet some contractual requirements. The contractual performance of the element or sub-element being evaluated reflects a serious problem for which the contractor has not yet identified corrective actions. Of Peer Journals Sherborne? The contractor’s proposed actions appear only marginally effective or were not fully implemented. To justify Marginal performance, identify a significant event in each category that the contractor had trouble overcoming and state how it impacted the Government.

A Marginal rating should be supported by referencing the management tool that notified the contractor of the critical and problem contractual deficiency (e.g., management, quality, safety, or environmental deficiency report or letter). Performance does not meet most contractual requirements and recovery is not likely in a timely manner. The contractual performance of the element or sub-element contains a serious problem(s) for which the contractor’s corrective actions appear or were ineffective. To justify an Unsatisfactory rating, identify multiple significant events in The University of Adelaide each category that the contractor had trouble overcoming and state how it impacted the Government. Thinking And Problem Istituto Marangoni? A singular problem, however, could be of pay to write an essay International University, such serious magnitude that it alone constitutes an unsatisfactory rating. An Unsatisfactory rating should be supported by referencing the management tools used to notify the contractor of the contractual deficiencies (e.g., management, quality, safety, or environmental deficiency reports, or letters). NOTE 1: Plus or minus signs may be used to and problem Istituto Marangoni indicate an improving (+) or worsening (-) trend insufficient to change the evaluation status. NOTE 2: N/A (not applicable) should be used if the ratings are not going to be applied to a particular area for evaluation. Exceeded all statutory goals or goals as negotiated. Importance Review Of Scholarly Journals? Had exceptional success with initiatives to assist, promote, and utilize small business (SB), small disadvantaged business (SDB), women-owned small business (WOSB), HUBZone small business, veteran-owned small business (VOSB) and service disabled veteran owned small business (SDVOSB). Critical Thinking And Problem Solving Istituto Marangoni London? Complied with FAR 52.219-8, Utilization of Small Business Concerns.

Exceeded any other small business participation requirements incorporated in the contract/order, including the use of College, small businesses in mission critical aspects of the critical and problem Marangoni London program. Went above and beyond the required elements of the subcontracting plan and other small business requirements of the contract/order. Completed and submitted Individual Subcontract Reports and/or Summary Subcontract Reports in an accurate and timely manner. Article University? Did not have a history of three or more unjustified reduced or untimely payments to small business subcontractors within a 12-month period. To justify an Exceptional rating, identify multiple significant events and state how they were a benefit to small business utilization. A singular benefit, however, could be of such magnitude that it constitutes an Exceptional rating.

Small businesses should be given meaningful and innovative work directly related to the contract, and opportunities should not be limited to indirect work such as cleaning offices, supplies, landscaping, etc. Critical Istituto Marangoni? Also, there should have been no significant weaknesses identified. Met all of the on writing Beau statutory goals or goals as negotiated. Had significant success with initiatives to assist, promote and utilize SB, SDB, WOSB, HUBZone, VOSB, and SDVOSB. Complied with FAR 52.219-8, Utilization of Small Business Concerns. Met or exceeded any other small business participation requirements incorporated in the contract/order, including the critical and problem Marangoni use of small businesses in mission critical aspects of the program. Pay To Write? Endeavored to go above and thinking solving Istituto Marangoni London, beyond the required elements of the Florida University subcontracting plan. Completed and submitted Individual Subcontract Reports and/or Summary Subcontract Reports in critical and problem solving an accurate and timely manner. Did not have a history of how to write contrast University — UMass Boston, three or more unjustified reduced or untimely payments to small business subcontractors within a 12-month period.

To justify a Very Good rating, identify a significant event and state how it was a benefit to small business utilization. Small businesses should be given meaningful and innovative opportunities to participate as subcontractors for work directly related to the contract, and thinking Marangoni London, opportunities should not be limited to indirect work such as cleaning offices, supplies, landscaping, etc. There should be no significant weaknesses identified. Demonstrated a good faith effort to meet all of the negotiated subcontracting goals in the various socio-economic categories for the current period. Complied with FAR 52.219-8, Utilization of orwell on writing Beau Soleil, Small Business Concerns. Met any other small business participation requirements included in the contract/order.

Fulfilled the requirements of the subcontracting plan included in the contract/order. Completed and submitted Individual Subcontract Reports and/or Summary Subcontract Reports in an accurate and timely manner. Did not have a history of three or more unjustified reduced or untimely payments to small business subcontractors within a 12-month period. To justify a Satisfactory rating, there should have been only minor problems, or major problems the contractor has addressed or taken corrective action. There should have been no significant weaknesses identified. A fundamental principle of assigning ratings is solving Marangoni London that contractors will not be assessed a rating lower than Satisfactory solely for not performing beyond the requirements of the contract/order. Deficient in meeting key subcontracting plan elements. Deficient in complying with FAR 52.219-8, Utilization of write article and earn University School, Small Business Concerns, and critical and problem Istituto Marangoni, any other small business participation requirements in the contract/order. Did not submit Individual Subcontract Reports and/or Summary Subcontract Reports in an accurate or timely manner. Failed to satisfy one or more requirements of a corrective action plan currently in place; however, does show an interest in bringing performance to a satisfactory level and has demonstrated a commitment to write compare essay University of Massachusetts Boston — UMass Boston apply the necessary resources to do so.

Required a corrective action plan. Did not have a history of three or more unjustified reduced or untimely payments to small business subcontractors within a 12-month period. To justify a Marginal rating, identify a significant event that the critical and problem solving Istituto contractor had trouble overcoming and how it impacted small business utilization. A Marginal rating should be supported by referencing the actions taken by the Government that notified the an essay International University contractor of the critical thinking solving Istituto Marangoni London contractual deficiency. Noncompliant with FAR 52.219-8 and 52.219-9, and jobs home The Asia Pacific (APU), any other small business participation requirements in the contract/order. Critical Solving Istituto London? Did not submit Individual Subcontract Reports and/or Summary Subcontract Reports in writing University & Innovation (APU) an accurate or timely manner. Thinking Istituto Marangoni? Showed little interest in bringing performance to george orwell College Beau Soleil a satisfactory level or is generally uncooperative. Critical London? Required a corrective action plan.

Had a history of three or more unjustified reduced or untimely payments to small business subcontractors within a 12-month period. To justify an Unsatisfactory rating, identify multiple significant events that the contractor had trouble overcoming and state how it impacted small business utilization. Write An Essay Florida International University? A singular problem, however, could be of such serious magnitude that it alone constitutes an Unsatisfactory rating. Critical Thinking Istituto London? An Unsatisfactory rating should be supported by referencing the actions taken by the Government to how to essay University of Massachusetts Boston notify the contractor of the deficiencies. When an Unsatisfactory rating is justified, the contracting officer must consider whether the contractor made a good faith effort to comply with the requirements of the subcontracting plan required by FAR 52.219-9 and follow the procedures outlined in 52.219-16, Liquidated Damages-Subcontracting Plan.

NOTE 1: Plus or minus signs may be used to indicate an improving (+) or worsening (-) trend insufficient to change evaluation status. NOTE 2: Generally, zero percent is not a goal unless the contracting officer determined when negotiating the subcontracting plan that no subcontracting opportunities exist in a particular socio-economic category. Critical Thinking And Problem Solving Istituto Marangoni London? In such cases, the contractor shall be considered to have met the goal for any socio-economic category where the goal negotiated in the plan was zero. Insert the george orwell on writing Beau clause at 52.242-5, Payments to Small Business Subcontractors, in all solicitations and thinking and problem Istituto Marangoni London, contracts containing the clause at 52.219-9, Small Business Subcontracting Plan.