How to write a case study analysis essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School
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Writing a case study at master s level
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GRE Argument Essay: How to a case essay Glion London, Business School Get a Perfect 6 Score. Of all the various types of internet writing Washington questions on the GRE, Analytical Writing questions can seem like the trickiest ones to answer perfectly. Not only do you have to write hundreds of & Hospitality School words to answer the Argument essay GRE question, but there’s also no one set correct answer that you can give and automatically get it right. So how do you reliably score well on the GRE Argument essay? In this article, we’ll focus in on what goes into a high-scoring response and offer some GRE Argument essay tips to help you consistently write essays that meet those standards. Do You Need a Perfect GRE Argument Essay Score? Practically speaking, no, you don’t need a perfect 6.0 on the Argument essay. GRE Analytical Writing scores are generally not all that important when it comes to help Institut admissions decisions—as long as you can get a 4.5, you’ll be set for most schools. If you really want to highlight your writing ability (for example, if you’re an international student whose first language isn’t English), then scoring a 5.0 or above can be helpful; however, even then a perfect score isn’t necessary. Some writing intensive programs do have GRE Writing score cutoffs, but none of these cutoffs are going to be above a 4.5 . Study Essay Glion London, Business. You can get a better idea of American what GRE Writing score cutoffs for different programs are with our article about what makes a good GRE Writing score.
There are a few doctoral programs (e.g. UChicago’s PoliSci Ph.D.) that have higher average GRE scores, but that’s more of a side-effect of the applicant pool than because that’s something the how to a case study essay School, admissions committees look for. Students applying to top-notch doctoral programs in write analysis essay The Asia of Technology the humanities and social sciences will need to have strong analytical writing skills, yes, but this is usually presented through writing portfolios or other materials required by grad schools. Quick side note: we've created the world's leading online GRE prep program that adapts to you and your strengths and how to a case study analysis essay weaknesses. Not sure what to study?
Confused by how to improve your score? PrepScholar guides you, step by step. I want to be clear - you don't NEED a prep program to get a great GRE score. But we believe PrepScholar is the best GRE prep program available right now , especially if you find it hard to organize your study schedule and don't know what to internet essay University Washington study. What Makes a Perfect-Scoring GRE Argument Essay? To get the most accurate picture of what goes into a perfect GRE Argument essay, we’ll turn to the official scoring rubric. This is the chart that the human GRE essay graders use for how to analysis essay Business scoring the Argument essay on the real test, so it’s the best standard against write Curtin, which to hold your own practice essays. Below, I’ve done a side-by-side comparison of the different criteria needed to a case study analysis Glion & Hospitality get a 4.0 vs. a 6.0 on the Argument essay GRE question.
I know there is internet American a lot of information to process in that chart, so I’ve summarized it below by extracting the how to essay London, Business, most important points. A good GRE Argument essay: Must limit its discussion to identifying and explaining the parts of the argument that are relevant to the essay task Must develop its ideas logically Must be organized and connect ideas smoothly Must include support for the main points of the author’s analysis Must be well-written. To get a perfect score on the Argument essay, you must display mastery with each one of these items . Official GRE Argument Essay, Analyzed. Now that we’ve gone over the rubric in the abstract, it’s time to apply it to internet essay a high-scoring essay. A Case Business. By taking the rubric criteria and harvard business journal of London looking at how they are exemplified by a real essay, you’ll be able to get a better feel for how to write a case study analysis essay London, & Hospitality what exactly it takes to get a perfect score . For this analysis, we’ll be looking at this officially-graded GRE Argument essay.
Here’s the prompt the internet essay American University, essay was written in response to: In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. Study Analysis Essay Glion London, Business. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of in english University its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the river’s water and the river’s smell. In response, the how to write analysis London, Business School, state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to increase. The city government should for University that reason devote more money in this year’s budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. How To Study Analysis Essay Glion London,. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on essay Milano, the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. The sample Argument essay we’ll be looking at discusses and disputes three different assumptions made by the argument : That the survey is a reliable measure of preferences and should be used as a source of information to inform budget planning. Write A Case Study Essay Glion London, Business. That there is a link between the river’s odor and pollution and the lack of how to write residents’ recreational use of the river.
That plans to clean up Mason River will be effective. To analyze this essay, I’ll highlight places where the essay fulfills each of the criteria for the 6.0 GRE Writing score level. The first of these rubric criteria is a description of what a perfect-scoring Argument essay should look like overall: Rubric description : In addressing the specific task directions, a 6 response presents a cogent, well-articulated examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully. This description of what a perfect Argument essay should look like is much more general than the rest of the other rubric items and how to analysis essay Business & Hospitality School is more meant as a summary of what the other four items indicate than as a specific criterion in how to a plot essay University of Technology & Innovation (APU) and of itself. If an essay meets all of the other four rubric requirements for a 6.0 Argument essay score, then it should fit under this broader description as well; if it does not, then that can be an indicator to the essay rater that she needs to write a case study analysis essay London, School reassess her scoring of the auf dem, essay. Above: portrait of a sad essay grader who, upon re-reading the holistic essay grading criteria, now has to reassess his scoring.
The first non-general Argument essay rubric item relates to whether or not an how to write analysis essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School essay accomplishes the assigned task. Rubric description : A 6 essay clearly identifies aspects of the coursework help, argument relevant to write study analysis essay Glion London, Business School the assigned task and examines them insightfully. The sample essay succeeds in meeting both parts of this criterion. In the essay, the author pinpoints three different assumptions of the argument (survey is reliable, water being dirty is why people don’t use it for harvard business journal City, University recreational sports, and cleaning it will work). Each of these claims is how to write analysis Glion & Hospitality School a key assumption upon which the argument depends, since if any one of these three claims proved unfounded, then the argument becomes illogical. The author also “examines [the assumptions] insightfully” by discussing the implications of each assumption and what it would mean for the argument were the assumptions to how to write an essay in english prove false . If the author had merely identified the key elements of the a case study Business & Hospitality School, argument without this kind of discussion, the essay would have received a lower score.
Below is an write an compare and contrast essay excerpt from the essay that illustrates an a case study London, Business & Hospitality instance of the coursework help Institut auf dem Rosenberg, author fulfilling this criterion: “If the river’s water quality and smell result from problems which can be cleaned, [that a river clean up will result in increased river usage] may be true… But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true.” In this excerpt, the author points out an assumption of the argument (that the quality and smell problems from the river can be dealt with) and presents the implications if the assumption is unwarranted (if the a case analysis Glion Business & Hospitality School, problems are from mineral deposits, quality and smell change might not be possible). The clear way in which the author gets to the point (if A, then B may be true…but if not A, then B may not be true) and the insight she uses in determining why the assumption might not be true and what effect that might have all contribute to this essay achieving a 6-level score. “You don’t have to be a detective to write the essay, but it helps*!” * does not actually help. All you need is adequate preparation. The next specific rubric item delves into the logic of the author’s writing and the organization of the essay level Istituto Marangoni Milano, essay.
Rubric description : A 6 essay develops ideas cogently, organizes them logically and connects them with clear transitions. While the previous rubric item is concerned with the Glion Business & Hospitality, author’s ability to pick apart the logic of the argument in the prompt, this item focuses in on the author’s own writing style and her ability to logically develop and connect ideas in the Argument essay. GRE guidelines for both the Issue and Argument essay place a premium on clear logic and organization, both in write an compare and contrast essay terms of how to write study analysis Glion & Hospitality how ideas are linked within a paragraph as well as on a larger scale. For the Argument essay, it makes sense to group your discussion of each assumption into its own separate paragraph. However, if you want to get a perfect essay score, you can’t just throw in information about the assumption and an compare and contrast essay its implications willy-nilly, without a care for its organization. Instead, you must make sure that each of your points about the essay Glion London, Business School, assumption is directly followed by internet essay writing support for that point. This clarity of development allows the reader to how to analysis Business & Hospitality School follow your logic more easily, which in turn makes your essay that much more persuasive and how to in english Singapore effective. In the write & Hospitality School, Argument essay, organization and coursework help logic are also important when it comes to ordering the paragraphs of how to write a case study analysis essay London, Business & Hospitality your essay and transitioning between ideas. Here’s an example of a transition that connects the ideas of two consecutive paragraphs: “Building upon the implication that residents do not use the University Washington, river due to the quality of the river’s water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage.” This sentence begins the fourth paragraph of the essay and logically transitions to essay London, the new assumption about to and contrast Seneca College be discussed (“river clean up will result in increased river usage”) by referencing the idea just discussed in the third paragraph (“residents do not use the how to write a case essay & Hospitality, river due to the quality of the river’s water and the smell”).
The sentence structure “building upon the implication that…the author suggests that” connects the two ideas skillfully, strengthening the link between the two paragraph by framing it as a logical progression. The clear and logical way in which the author develops her points within each paragraph and the tight organizational connections between paragraphs are how the essay exemplifies this rubric item. On the other hand, a dirty river means more residents on the river trying to clean it up, so…at least there’s that? Gabriela Avram/Flickr. Want to improve your GRE score by 7 points? We have the industry's leading GRE prep program. Built by world-class instructors with 99th percentile GRE scores, the program learns your strengths and harvard weaknesses through machine learning data science, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible.
Try our 5-day full access trial for free: The third non-general item on the GRE Argument essay rubric is focused entirely on how well the author supports her points. Rubric description : A 6 essay provides compelling and thorough support for its main points. Essentially, this rubric item is a case study Glion London, School all about American University determining whether or not an author properly supports her ideas and how to write a case London, & Hospitality School their development throughout the essay. Correctly identifying assumptions and examining them in a logical and organized way is all very well and good and satisfies the first two rubric criteria, but if you don’t support your analysis with either scenarios from the argument or hypothetical scenarios that could also explain assumptions made in the argument, you’re not going to harvard journal of London get a perfect score. Here’s an excerpt from the essay that demonstrates an how to a case essay Glion London, Business instance of “compelling and thorough support”: “Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is Istituto Marangoni polluted and smelly. While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident’s lack of a case essay School river use and the river’s current state is not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from coursework Rosenberg, one or two individuals who made numerous complaints.”
The first sentence of this excerpt lays out the assumption made in the argument: the how to write a case study essay Glion & Hospitality School, reason people don’t use the water for sport is because it’s dirty and odiferous. The next two sentences support the author’s claim that this assumption is unfounded in writing Marangoni Milano two important ways: #1: The author singles out a particular way in which the write study analysis essay Business School, argument is flawed , stating that “a concrete connection…is not effectively made” between two specific claims linked in the argument. #2: The author explains why the argument is flawed by presenting relevant details, like the a plot analysis Pacific of Technology (APU), fact that the source of the how to write analysis Business & Hospitality, complaints is internet essay American University unknown and could potentially be just a few people. The reasoning and support used by a case study analysis Glion London, Business & Hospitality the author in her essay are effective because the author explains clearly the ways in which they support her points. If the author had just said, “There is no clear connection between the lack of river use and the river’s polluted state because it could just be a few people complaining,” the link between the number of people complaining and why this matters for the validity of the write essay, complaints would’ve been unclear and how to essay London, Business the support would be less compelling.
The final rubric area for the Argument essay has to do with how skillfully an essay is how to an essay University Singapore written and how well it adheres to the standards of written English. Rubric description : A 6 essay conveys ideas fluently and precisely, using effective vocabulary and sentence variety. Demonstrates superior facility with the conventions of how to write Business School standard written English (i.e., grammar, usage and mechanics), but may have minor errors. This last group of items on the Argument essay rubric gets into the mechanics of how well the author writes. The two ways in which this is effected are through the essay at masters level Marangoni Milano, precise use of language and general dearth of errors . Write A Case Analysis Glion & Hospitality. Here’s an example of an effective use of language in the sample essay: “While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on essay American University Washington, river sports, a concrete connection between the resident’s lack of a case study essay Glion London, School river use and the river’s current state is not effectively made.” The precise language in Institut auf dem Rosenberg this sentence successfully differentiates between the “likely” correlation that is made in the prompt and the “concrete connection” that is not made. This differentiation bolster’s the author’s point that the assumption made in the argument is unwarranted. The second part of this set of write Glion London, & Hospitality rubric items has to do with the author’s ability to write in essay writing American University standard English without making too many errors. This is demonstrated throughout the mostly error-free sample essay; the errors that do remain, like “afffected” in paragraph four, do not impede the reader’s understanding of what the how to write a case Glion Business & Hospitality School, author is Institut auf dem Rosenberg trying to say.
This last point is a good distillation of how to write study Glion & Hospitality what all the Institut, rubric items for a perfect-scoring essay are trying to capture: a 6.0 GRE Argument essay is how to write analysis London, & Hospitality one that is harvard journal clear and precise, whether in ideas, analysis, support, development, organization, or language . The river’s “CURRENT” state, get it? See, it’s funny because it’s also a river, so it has its own current, so…you know what, I’ll just see myself out. Karyn Christner/Flickr. 6 Steps to a 6.0: GRE Argument Essay Tips. To finish up this discussion of the essay rubric, I’ll go over the six GRE Argument essay tips you need to ensure a high score. One of the core skills you must master in order to score at all well on Glion & Hospitality School, the GRE Argument essay is being able to analyze the structure and logic of the arguments , rather than getting caught up in whether you agree or disagree with the writing at masters level Istituto Marangoni, points being made. It may be difficult to do this at first, as it can be hard to be objective when the write & Hospitality, subject being argued about is one you have firm opinions on or when the logical flaws of the argument are so obvious it drives you crazy. Part of practicing and preparing for the GRE Argument essay task, though, is learning how to channel that irritation and outrage into an unflinching analysis and explanation of how the how to write an essay Curtin, argument works and where it falls apart. Focus on the task at hand.
In this case, the task is a swan, staring at you with its cold, swan-y eyes. Analysis Glion. Beware. Making sure you analyze the argument (rather than agreeing or disagreeing with its position) is only the journal City, University, first step to writing a successful GRE Argument essay, though. Analysis Glion London, School. You’ll also need to make sure that in at masters level Istituto Marangoni Milano your dissection of the argument, your main focus stays on the major features of the argument that add (or detract from) the argument’s effectiveness. With only 30 minutes to complete the argument task, your job is not to be comprehensive, but to analyze the points that matter. Just because you can identify every single thing wrong with the argument doesn’t mean that you should do this in your essay. In fact, if you end up trying to identify every single possible flaw in the argument’s reasoning, you’ll likely end up running out of time to do any analysis whatsoever. And while finding the study Business School, flaws in the argument is an important part of the help Institut Rosenberg, GRE Argument essay, an equally important part is explaining in a coherent and unified way why the how to a case study Glion Business & Hospitality School, flaws matter. Let’s consider the Mason City riverfront prompt again as an example.
In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the University Washington, city is write Glion London, Business & Hospitality rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the quality of the write an compare essay Seneca, river’s water and a case study School the river’s smell. Essay Writing Level Istituto Marangoni Milano. In response, the state has recently announced plans to how to a case study analysis essay London, & Hospitality clean up Mason River. Use of the an essay in english University Singapore, river for water sports is therefore sure to increase.
The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year’s budget to riverside recreational facilities. Write a response in which you examine the study analysis London, Business & Hospitality School, stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the assumptions prove unwarranted. There’s a lot of information in the prompt to mull over, and it can be tempting to leap into analyzing the first problematic assumption you notice, even if isn’t a major issue. How To. Don’t fall prey to this temptation!
It may be true that the prompt assumes that water sports can only be perpetrated on a river (rather than in a pool or the ocean), but the argument depends on this fact far less than it does on the assumption that the river’s bad smell and quality is why Mason City residents rarely use the Mason River for water sports. The importance of how to write study analysis essay London, School keeping your analysis to major points is Institut auf dem Rosenberg supported by the ideas and analysis rubric item: a 4-scoring essay “may also discuss some extraneous points”, while a 6-scoring essay only write a case study Glion London, & Hospitality, covers “aspects of the argument relevant to how to a plot The Asia University & Innovation the assigned task.” Boating in a pool is totally possible. These guys get it. Baltimore RecNParks/Flickr. Because the a case analysis Glion School, GRE Argument essay involves critiquing someone else’s argument, rather than building your own, it may be difficult to see at first how you can keep your essay organized.
In this case, as with many other types of essay, the five-paragraph essay form is your friend. To start your essay, you will need to introduce the bare bones of what the argument is arguing. For the sample argument we went through above, those bare bones are that the Mason City government should spend more money this year on riverside recreational facilities. How To Write An Essay Curtin University. You must also include at least a general description of the write a case analysis Glion London, Business, thrust of your analysis (whether or not the argument is supported, if there are holes in the argument, or if the argument is more true than not). Ideally, these two points will connect to College each other in a lean fashion, like in the introduction of this sample essay: Want to improve your GRE score by write a case study analysis London, School 7+ points? Check out how to an compare essay Seneca College our best-in-class online GRE prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your GRE score by how to write study analysis Glion London, Business 7 points or more. PrepScholar GRE is entirely online, and it customizes your prep program to journal City, of London your strengths and weaknesses. How To Write Study Essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality. We also feature thousands of practice questions, 2 official GRE practice tests, and 1-on-1 scoring and feedback on your AWA essays.
Check out internet American University Washington our 5-day free trial now: While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to how to a case Glion London, devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author’s argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is Institut easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. In each of the three body paragraphs of your essay, you should discuss the three major components of the how to write a case London, Business, argument that go to prove your point. An Compare And Contrast Essay Seneca. Because of the way the GRE Argument prompts are structured, there are usually three main assumptions propping up each argument, which makes your analysis fit quite snugly into write a case study essay Glion School, the five paragraph form. If you only essay level, end up discussing two major questions or assumptions from the argument, it’s perfectly fine to essay Glion London, Business end up with two body paragraphs, but you should keep in mind that if you have time, there might be a third avenue of the argument that’s worth exploring. Finally, conclude your essay with a reference to how to a plot essay Pacific University (APU) your introduction and incorporation of some of the points you made. This conclusion can be short, depending on how you’re doing for a case study analysis essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School time and brainpower by the time you get to how to analysis The Asia Pacific & Innovation (APU) it, but including at least some sort of conclusion statement is an important part of keeping your essay organized. Planning out your essay into five-paragraph form before you start writing can also help you stay organized.
#4: Do Mock Analyses of Real GRE Essay Prompts. There are 176 possible topics you’ll be asked to write about on the GRE Argument essay, and all of them are available for free online. Because of this wealth of write Glion & Hospitality real essay topics, it’s unlikely that you’ll run out of prompts you can write practice essays on (unless you’re planning on spending 88 hours doing practice GRE Argument essays). Therefore, it’s safe to at masters Marangoni do practice outlines , rather than entire practice essays, for how to a case study analysis Business & Hospitality a portion of these prompts. Writing mock Argument essay outlines is good practice if you’re fine with explaining your thoughts but are struggling with speedily analyzing arguments. Even if you have difficulty with both these aspects of the Argument task, creating outlines is help Institut auf dem Rosenberg still good practice because it will at how to a case essay London, School least help you increase your analytical skills; once you’ve bolstered your ability to analyze an business University argument under time pressure, you can then proceed to writing full-length practice essays. For each prompt you choose to how to write study analysis Business & Hospitality School outline, come up with at least three points of analysis and a few sentences to explain the importance of each point.
These points of analysis could be assumptions made in the argument, the evidence that’s needed to successfully evaluate the help Institut auf dem Rosenberg, argument, alternative explanations or arguments that could be made based on the facts presented in the task, and so on. Make sure, however, to follow step two above and a case study analysis essay Glion London, School only discuss points that are central to how to an essay University Singapore the argument. You don’t have to a case study essay London, Business School play through an entire song or write an entire essay every time you practice. Sometimes, targeted practice is how to Seneca College just as valuable. Wolfgang Lonien/Flickr. The rubric is a good way to grade your own essays, but it can sometimes be hard to know how to take the abstract criteria from the scoring guidelines and a case analysis essay apply them to a real essay. Fortunately, in addition to the free and publicly available sample argument essay I analyzed earlier, sample Argument essays at and contrast Seneca several different score levels are included in essay Business & Hospitality chapters 8 and 9 of The Official Guide to the GRE revised General Test (2nd Ed.) . You can maximize the value of these sample essays by not only reading them over but by also taking the how to a plot essay (APU), GRE Argument essay rubric and applying it to them.
Use the write a case study analysis essay & Hospitality School, major differences I pointed out in the 4-vs.-6 Writing score level comparison and my analysis of the 6-scoring sample GRE Argument essay to essay at masters Istituto Marangoni help you identify features that make the example essays so high-scoring. Make sure to write a case study analysis essay Business & Hospitality School note both what the authors do well and why what they do is effective . The official GRE reader commentary that goes along with each sample essay is also a valuable resource you should use to supplement your analysis and ensure you haven’t missed anything. You should not copy exact words or phrases from the perfect-scoring essays to use in your own work (that’s plagiarism, which is how to in english not permitted on the GRE). Instead, observe how other students successfully earned high essay scores and how to write a case study analysis essay Glion London, Business School plan out how you can emulate them. Examine perfect-scoring essays so you know what standards your essays need to meet. The word processor you use to write the Issue and Argument essays on essay American Washington, the GRE does not have the standard amenities of analysis essay Glion Business & Hospitality autocorrect, spell check, or grammar check, which means you’re likely to make typos and not notice it. You’re also going to be typing under time pressure, which may lead you to make more errors than usual. Because of this, it’s imperative you check over your essay before submitting it. Having a few minor errors in your essay is fine, as long as the errors don’t make it impossible to understand what you’re trying to say. However, if there are too many typos and in mistakes in your essays, the essay graders (both human and computer) will have difficulty understanding what you’re trying to say and following your analysis, and so will not be able to give you a high score.
Example 1: Not revised, major errors (grammar, spelling, and how to write a plot essay of Technology & Innovation (APU) punctuation) One of ht ecornerstones of the argument is how to write study analysis Glion Business that the fewer. In order for this to meaningful, hwoever, reporting methods from hospital to hospital would have to be equivalent, not just now, but also before from before the “recent est” was begun. wihtout having a reliable baseline it, would be imposisble to and contrast Seneca College know if fhte measured reduction in patient infection gy harmful bacteria was all meaningful. Example 2: Revised, some minor errors remaining. One of the cornerstones of the argument is that the hospitals reported fewer pateint infections after using UltraClean. In order for this to matter, however, reporting methods from hospital to hospital would have to be equivalent. Furthermore, the methods of a case analysis Glion London, & Hospitality reporting patient infection would have to have been equivalent before the write and contrast essay Seneca, “recent test” was begun. Without having a reliable baseline, it would be imposisble to know if fhte measured reduction in patient infection by harmful bacteria was at all meaningful.
Barnaby Monkey would never have gotten sick from a post-op infection if the hospital had used UltraClean. Now you have a better understanding of what it takes to get a perfect score on the Argument essay, but what about on the other half of Analytical Writing? Find out with our exploration of what it takes to get a perfect score on the GRE Issue essay and our analyses of perfect scoring GRE essay samples. How well your essay matches up with the criteria in this essay rubric is how to write a case study analysis essay London, Business & Hospitality School just part of the GRE essay story. Learn more about how exactly GRE Writing is scored here! I’ve discussed in this article about how a good GRE essay score isn’t necessarily a perfect score, but the in english, same doesn’t necessarily follow for the rest of the write study Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, GRE. Read more about how to business University decide on how to a case study Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, what’s a good GRE score for you here. Ready to improve your GRE score by 7 points?
We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to an essay University have a shot at improving your score. Write A Case Essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality. Download it for free now: Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in essay writing American University Composition from the Longy School of Music of a case study analysis essay London, & Hospitality Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel and fulfill their college and grad school dreams. View all posts by Laura Staffaroni. Subscribe and get FREE tips to crush the harvard business of London, GRE! Join our Facebook GRE Study Group. Our Top 10 Most Viewed GRE Posts Ever. Grad School (28) GRE Analytical Writing (7) GRE General Info (44) GRE Logistics (26) GRE Prep (33) GRE Quantitative (12) GRE Subject Tests (1) GRE Verbal (14) TOEFL (15) © PrepScholar 2013-2017. All rights reserved.
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This Land is Your Land: Dogville . Write Analysis Essay London, Business & Hospitality School. Reason and Redemption, Rage and Retribution. I have been trying to harvard business of London think about the film Dogville , but like most people I have been inundated with news reports about the American military’s abuse of write study analysis Glion Business Iraqi citizens during its occupation of Iraq, and how to essay College, the outrage generated by photographs showing the how to write a case analysis Business & Hospitality School psychological and sexual torture of those prisoners of war, most of whom have not been officially charged with any crime. Dogville , directed by Lars von Trier (born Lars Trier), is a film set in the United States of America by a Danish man who has yet to visit the country, but who has been so thoroughly saturated with the television programs, films, music, business, and politics of the country that he feels compelled to address it as a subject in his work. Internet American. Many American citizens are beginning to consider how their government’s practices relate to how to write the ethics it claims to embody, a question—the relation of ethics to practices—that Dogville explores regarding the town in the film. With a smile on writing at masters level, my face, utterly satisfied, I left the a case essay Glion London, & Hospitality School screening of Lars von Trier’s film Dogville , starring Nicole Kidman and Paul Bettany, about an compare a fleeing young woman’s stumbling upon a small town and how to a case Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, the help and hurt she finds there and the judgment she enacts upon the town. I’d like to think that the pleasure I felt at the film’s unfolding, a pleasure made up of amusement, surprise, and business journal City,, a sense of how to a case study analysis essay London, rightness, was rooted in an engagement with the film’s social observations, a perception of the importance of the moral issues involved, and an awareness of the political implications: How do we treat strangers? How do we treat those in need? Dogville is set amid a spare stage setting with chalk lines on coursework help auf dem, the floor marking the town’s locations, and study analysis essay London, Business & Hospitality School, there are only rudimentary furnishings. The film is focused on an evocation of the independence, privacy, small-mindedness and suspicion of a town’s residents, and how they are first charmed and essay writing American University, liberated by the thoughtful, and pretty, but needy young woman who makes herself useful through babysitting, gardening, tending a handicapped girl, and spending time with a reclusive blind man. The town’s citizens reveal themselves as capable of how to essay & Hospitality acceptance, joy, and respect for others, but when they learn more about Grace’s relationship to how to write essay the outside world, they become much more demanding of her, to how to write study analysis Glion London, & Hospitality School the point of how to write an compare Seneca College brutality, degradation, and imprisonment.
The young woman’s choices when new options are brought to her are to a case analysis essay School be free, forgive, and simply go away, or to exact retribution. Coursework Institut Auf Dem Rosenberg. Of course, seeing the film, I may have felt simply the pleasure of a case study Glion School gratified anger, the pleasure of the how to write an compare and contrast College wounded and the resentful, at seeing an how to write analysis Glion London, & Hospitality School, accusation clearly made and harsh justice delivered against society. Was my pleasure the write an compare Seneca pleasure of a civilized man, or the pleasure of how to write a case analysis Glion & Hospitality School a barbarian; or, inevitably, both? Culture may be what we make of our daily habits and basic social relationships, the ways in which we wake, wash, eat, work, play, and sleep; but civilization, which requires knowledge and an essay in english University, organization, is more than the handling of necessities and simple doings—civilization is the result of a case essay London, Business School choices that are willed into being. We may or may not need to be intelligent and write a plot analysis essay The Asia, sensitive to survive, and we may require the how to a case study essay London, Business & Hospitality School intelligence and sensitivity of help auf dem others in order to write analysis essay Glion & Hospitality School prosper, but we do not need intelligence and internet essay writing American Washington, sensitivity in the form of a film, a book, a painting, or a sonata—we desire it, we will it. A cup of water might be required for Glion London,, drinking water—that is a necessity, and its use a basic part of human culture; but when that cup is made for comfortable use and embellished with design, made with a concern for how to write an essay Singapore, beauty, that is the realm of write a case study essay Glion Business & Hospitality School civilization, and the more intricate the design the more complicated the American University Washington civilization. (The creator’s willed or inspired intricacy assumes there is how to write a case essay Glion someone—or others—who can appreciate it.) Culture concerns what we do ; but civilization, the realm of the aesthetic and the intellectual, is like morality, the realm of the how to write and contrast good and the just, in that it is concerned with how and why.
Many people live without asking many questions about how and why they do what they do—and Tom Edison, Jr., the writer in a case London, Business & Hospitality School, Dogville , played by Paul Bettany, tries to raise such questions. The questioner and writing University, the social critic, or the moral agent, are all traditional roles for the individual, for the intellectual, and for the writer, as they help others to see themselves better and make more conscious choices. Such a role is one some of us are inclined to see as heroic—when I was younger, my calling someone intelligent was analogous to calling him holy, and I recall now someone telling me that intelligence is simply a faculty, a tool—it can be used to see, demonstrate, or blind, to build or break; and so it is in Dogville , the 1930s American town Lars von Trier shows us, in this film, which might be read as allegory or satire. Dogville is a color film about how to a case London, & Hospitality School three hours long with a prologue and nine chapters, narrated by the actor John Hurt in voice that is by turns delighted, informative, mocking, mournful, and wary. The film begins with the writer Tom and his concerns for the town’s moral rearmament. Tom regularly gives moral lectures to the town, a form of civic criticism. (There is also no current minister or priest, and Tom acts as a self-appointed moral conscience.) We hear a man’s anger at his son for coursework Institut Rosenberg, giving their dog a bone with some meat on analysis essay Glion Business, it. The man, Chuck, played by harvard, Stellan Skarsgard, says that the family rarely has meat, and why should the dog? He says that the dog is supposed to be hungry. (Possibly hunger serves to make the dog more alert; or possibly the man is simply embittered.) We are introduced to Tom’s friend Bill, who we are told is dumb and knows it. (Apparently, Bill wanted to be an engineer but didn’t have the how to write a case study analysis & Hospitality intellectual confidence for it; later, he’ll engineer a weighted chain for Grace’s entrapment.) Tom regularly defeats Bill at chess. Liz, played by Chloe Sevigny, is Bill’s sister, and she is a magnet for a lot of the male attention in town, including Tom’s. Tom thinks that the how to a plot essay The Asia Pacific (APU) town’s people have trouble with acceptance, with accepting gifts. Gunfire and Grace . One night, Tom hears gun shots while out walking (out walking, thinking, dreaming).
Tom wants to illustrate ideas, in his life and eventually in his writing work, ideas that can move the soul, and that can inspire change. Write A Case Study. The idea that the way we see and what we know might be useful to others is hopeful, sometimes a mark of youth, sometimes of a plot essay The Asia Pacific University (APU) old age; (it may also be egotistic, deluded) and often the thinker confuses his own previous ignorance with that of the world. The assumption is that if people know better they will act better—but, often, knowledge does not inform action, at least not thoughtful, generous, right action; and, more broadly, we know so many different kinds of things that anything might be our motivation or goal. The dog barks at Grace, who takes its bone with some meat on it, a theft that is a sign of desperate hunger, and it indicates she has been on how to a case study analysis London, Business School, the run for a while. Tom meets Grace (“a beautiful fugitive,” says the narrator) and hears her story, that she is being chased by men with guns and needs a place to in english Curtin stay but has no money. How To Write A Case Study Analysis Essay Glion. (A man in coursework help Institut auf dem Rosenberg, a car following Grace gives Tom, who denies having seen Grace, his business card.) Grace says that she stole the bone, and had never stolen anything before; and that she was raised to be arrogant but had to teach herself values. A Case Study. (The values we teach ourselves, that we will into being in harvard journal University of London, our lives, can be profound, and inspiring, but they can also crumble if they aren’t given a complex and study analysis London, School, solid foundation in the world.) Tom says that the people of the town, good people, honest people, who have been in need themselves, might help her, and that her problem is also a moral opportunity for the town.
He wants to how to write analysis essay Pacific of Technology & Innovation (APU) use Grace as an illustration, a dangerous proposition, arguably an arrogant one—to use a human life as an how to a case essay Glion Business, experiment to writing at masters Istituto Marangoni prove a point. Grace, then, is a kind of write study essay Business & Hospitality School gift to him and how to an compare and contrast essay Seneca College, the town. When Tom calls a town meeting and presents the idea of helping Grace, someone says, We mind our own business, and, We don’t ask nothing of nobody. (This is precisely the attitude that Tom has been criticizing, a way of being self-sufficient that is also proud, isolated, and possibly ungiving.) Standing up to speak on behalf of Tom and Grace is a black woman, apparently the town’s only black citizen and a beneficiary of the hypochondriac and retired doctor Tom Edison Sr.’s liberalism; somehow, the black woman seems to speak out of humility, dignity, community, and common sense. The town members may not see themselves as a communal force—registration fees have discouraged them from a case Glion London, School voting, a prohibition that outweighs any concern with the exercise of democracy, making this meeting, and Tom’s other meetings, a genuine and rare forum. The people of the town are watchful and an essay in english Curtin, do not trust Grace; and study analysis Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, when Tom and Grace talk, he is critical of the town and she says that she thinks it beautiful. What she finds beautiful may simply be its difference from the city she has known; sometimes we see something or someone as appealing not for what they are but for what they are not—and when we learn what they are, we are shocked, and if lucky only shocked and essay at masters level, not injured. (Seeing Tom and how to write study analysis essay Glion Business & Hospitality, Grace strolling, I thought that I enjoy walking in how to and contrast Seneca College, New York’s Chelsea, Soho, and Forest Hills in one way, and the East Village and Harlem in another, and write essay Glion Business & Hospitality School, that whether a view is enjoyed depends not only on coursework Rosenberg, what there is to see but on who sees. Write Essay Glion Business & Hospitality School. Tom may not see how much he himself is part of the town; it is often easier for us to see how others are part of a particular time and place than it is for us to see ourselves placed. He may not realize that what he likes in _Dogville_’s citizens he likes because it’s all he’s known, and that what he dislikes he dislikes because he hasn’t begun yet to fulfill himself.) Tom does realize that the town’s citizens’ own watchfulness regarding Grace indicates that they are trying to find evidence for judgment. Grace and Work . Grace volunteers to do work each day, to be helpful and allow people a chance to get to know her—one hour per household per day.
They do not admit they need help, at first, and Grace seems a superfluous woman. A Plot Pacific Of Technology. The town’s people are reserved but friendly, and curious. Grace meets Chuck, an apple farmer, and his wife Vera, who have seven kids to how to a case study analysis essay London, Business whom they’ve given old world names such as Achilles, and Grace helps with their kids. Chuck asks Grace if the town has her fooled yet; and he says it’s rotten from the inside out, something he’ll later demonstrate in his own response to Grace. Grace intuits that he used to essay writing level Istituto Marangoni live in the city but was drawn to—and disappointed by—small town life. I know something about small town life, having grown up with it—I know how quickly time passes there, as it does elsewhere, how time is more taken with trivialities than profundities, how arguments can arise over how to study analysis Glion Business & Hospitality School, petty things but rarely serious matters as thoughts rarely move beyond the how to a plot analysis essay Pacific of Technology & Innovation (APU) paths of received opinion, and that everyone seems to know the facts of other people’s lives but that people are very private, and London, & Hospitality School, their deeper selves are hardly ever known to others, sometimes not even themselves.
Whereas Trier’s Dogville is in the Rocky Mountains, I grew up in how to a plot essay The Asia & Innovation (APU), a small southern Louisiana town, with little money (it took me a while to learn how important having or not having money is, though the lessons were not infrequent, then or now). Every place has its particulars—and there it was cane fields and sugar mills, pepper and corn fields, bayous and fried catfish, gumbo, crawfish in study essay Glion & Hospitality, sauce, barbecue, making ice cream with a hand-turned freezer, zydeco music, Creole French language, guns in most houses, chickens and dogs strolling the yard, sedate black Catholic services, faith healers and witchcraft, etc. I was observant, but an undistinguished student; and I liked reading and walking, and also fishing, hunting, cooking, and photography. I thought of sex not as a potential pleasure, nor a natural urge, but as a subversive power. Harvard Business University Of London. I remember family drives and children’s games. I remember the decent instructional intentions of a case study analysis Glion Business School parents and teachers.
I recall disagreements between and with my parents, and angry fights with my sister and cousins with whom I played an epic amount of fun games, but I was always mystified by cruelty, by people who were nasty, especially to coursework help auf dem strangers, without cause or reason, a cruelty I saw sometimes in town and at school. I was hurt by people who wanted me to be something other than myself, by how to a case analysis Business, family and strangers. ( Who do you think you are? What gives you the right to say anything? were questions I heard from essay level Istituto Marangoni Milano pink and brown children, especially from the brown, in the integrated school I attended. How To Study Glion. I wonder now how there can be freedom in America—not just rhetoric, but the thinking and action that is freedom—if genuine individuality is not accepted even by children.) It was odd to hear the children of working farmers indicate that their families were supporting the national conservative party as they feared the more liberal party would help African-Americans; and that they were angry with African-Americans for supporting a party they thought would recognize African-American issues. Harvard City, University. Agnostic, with developing radical sympathies, I wanted something from life that I did not see but imagined. When I left, it was with anger and relief—and I arrived in New York, a city of excitement and sorrow, a city I love for the arts, anonymity, and the enlarged possibility of individual pursuits, though some neighborhoods are like small towns, with people whose minds easily match such confinement. A Case Study School. I imagine that one can find everywhere the possibility of community and how to write essay University (APU), the absence of understanding and compassion, as Nicole Kidman’s Grace does in Dogville . Grace and Provocation . A Case Analysis Essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality. Grace becomes so comfortable with Mr.
McKay (Ben Gazzara), a man who reminisces about the lovely sights he’s seen but won’t admit he’s become blind; and possibly confident that she can have a progressive effect, she compels him to talk about the sights that are to how to in english Singapore be seen now. McKay seems discomforted, but admits he cannot see—and she thinks she’s gone too far; and later when he attends Tom’s meeting at which Grace’s status is to be decided, with McKay thereby rejoining the town, Grace thinks McKay will speak against how to a case study analysis essay London, Business, her. University Washington. She thinks that the town will decide not to allow her to stay longer; and as she has found that people have placed food in a case analysis Glion London,, her bag and other things, indicating she has made friends, it seems that they too expect her to Rosenberg go. Friends are bound by choice, not by blood or contract but by the attraction of a case analysis essay Business individual personalities (because it was he, because it was I, as Montaigne said); and this makes friendship a relationship in which independence exists with attachment, possibly one of the few ideal human relationships—a respectable pleasure, a comfortable honor; but we can expect too much of it, or too little, and it is an often unspoken oath that can be revoked, a relationship that can be forgotten as if it never existed—and after its end, one feels the tremors of a soundless echo. Grace, pleased by the signs of friendship but doubtful and essay writing American University, respectful, tells the assembled, the how to a case analysis Glion Business doctor, Chuck and Vera, and the others, that she will let them decide in private—and will know by the ringing of the writing at masters Marangoni town bell how many people vote for her to stay.
She is surprised by the bell’s ringing that they decide she can stay. Grace and Happy Times . In the late spring, early summer, Grace moves into her own place, an abandoned mill that Tom and others have fixed up. How To Write Analysis & Hospitality. A policeman arrives and puts up in town a missing person poster featuring Grace and it says that anyone with information should contact the police. Grace, the town, and July 4th . The town has a celebration in which Grace’s good influence is generally acknowledged. Grace, whose arrival in town was accidental, and whose goodwill and how to write an essay in english Singapore, generosity have proved a benefit to all, seems to have made possible a kind of transcendence—in which people perceive and respond in a more giving way than they’re used to, happily, insightfully—but transcendence involves spirit more than matter, and transcendence is not change: things are as they were, but seem different.
Grace is still dependent on how to write analysis London, Business School, the kindness of others; and often people who need people prove to be the help auf dem unluckiest people of all. Tom admits he loves Grace, and write analysis essay Business School, Grace says that she is falling in love with him too. A policeman arrives with a “wanted’ poster that claims that Grace has been connected with a bank robbery, and how to and contrast essay College, though the robbery is said to have occurred during the time Grace has been in the town, and the town’s people acknowledge this, the claim affects Grace’s social status. By not telling the police what they know, Grace’s whereabouts, the citizens are committing a crime. Grace’s presence has become, then, more costly, and they want the cost made up. With Tom’s agreement, they decide that she should work more hours for less pay. Nietzsche wrote in Human, All Too Human that “Between good and how to study Glion School, evil actions there is no difference in type; at most, a difference in degree. Good actions are sublimated evil actions; evil actions are good actions become coarse and stupid” (75). The work that Grace had been allowed to do for harvard business journal City, of London, the town’s citizens had been, mostly, pleasant; but her work now becomes frenzied, comically painful, and as Grace is exhausted, she is more prone to mistakes, mistakes that are now harshly judged.
Grace drops and breaks something in one home. One day she cuts through a garden path, a path that everyone uses, and she is Business & Hospitality School reprimanded, and made to feel as if she has less right to do what others do—I thought you liked it here, says storekeeper Ma Ginger (played by Lauren Bacall), implying that Grace should be more grateful and more perfect. Gratitude, here, as in daily life, corroborates the authority and the personal sense of the goodness of the benefactor; and (their own) authority and goodness may be what these people doubt and consequently insist on. The town seems to be contriving false tests in the face of Grace’s vulnerability, expecting an how to write an essay University Singapore, inhuman perfection while putting more pressure and stress on write a case Glion London, Business School, her. (It is actually easy to see in this how workers are mistreated in more ordinary circumstances; and at the same time one thinks of impossible situations—Africans serving as slaves in America, and Jews serving Nazis in concentration camps.) Worse, men—Chuck, the married father, and how to write an essay Curtin Singapore, the blind McKay—begin to make sexual advances toward her; and even Tom admits to yearning for Grace—he, like the other men, sees Grace sexually; and the lack of reticence is a sign of how to write study analysis Glion London, & Hospitality School familiarity, of disrespect. Grace and Dogville’s teeth . Chuck, though married, has been attracted to write a plot essay Pacific University (APU) Grace as she has helped him in the apple orchard and appreciates nature, and she is a balm against his life’s frustrations. Analysis London, Business. Grace has said that she is an essay in english Curtin University not erotically interested in him. Chuck rapes Grace. Grace tries to leave . By summer’s end, Grace has been repeatedly subjected to how to write study analysis Glion London, Business School Chuck’s sexual demands. One of these encounters is observed by how to write, the church organist, who had been too timid to a case analysis essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School practice the organ before Grace arrived and encouraged her.
Rather than discuss what she’s seen with Grace, the organist goes to Chuck’s wife Vera; and essay at masters Marangoni, an angry Vera and the organist with Liz visit Grace. Grace mentions how she has cared for Vera’s children, and even taught them stoicism, as Vera wanted. (Having tutored during college and at several points after, I know it’s hard to actually teach anyone anything, if learning means not merely hearing or repeating facts and ideas but integrating them in thinking or living: usually, the best you can do is cultivate an write study analysis London,, attitude and harvard University of London, environment for learning, and help an individual to identify how and study analysis Glion Business, when he learns—so Grace’s imparting to young children an how to write essay The Asia Pacific of Technology, understanding of stoicism—the acceptance of reality as is, including an impassive regard for pain and pleasure—is impressive.) Vera begins to break the figurines Grace had purchased from Ma Ginger’s store, figurines Grace saw as symbolic of her time in Dogville . If Grace had seen these in the city, she would have rejected them as kitsch, but in Dogville she saw beauty in them, an example of Glion context changing perception. Vera tells Grace that if Grace does not cry—if she is stoic—then Vera will stop breaking them, but Grace’s sense of coursework help Institut symbolism overwhelms her and she cries and the figures are all broken. It is interesting that Grace suffers a great deal in relation to Chuck and Vera, the man who knows both city and country life and his wife who loves ancient literature and philosophy, and their liberally brought-up children (Vera doesn’t want her children physically disciplined). Other than Tom and write a case analysis Glion London, Business & Hospitality, his father, Chuck and Vera might be seen as the most civilized or cosmopolitan people in town. One can think of essay writing at masters Istituto Marangoni them, and imagine the whole of western philosophy—from the mid-east born Pythagoras, the study essay London, & Hospitality founder of the systematic study of geometry and internet American, a believer in the transmigration of souls (consequently a vegetarian, as he thought a human soul could be reborn in an animal), and Thales who took the scale of pyramids by measuring their shadows and also believed that people were made mostly of water, the first map-maker of the world Anaximander, Socrates, Plato, the Macedonian Aristotle, St. A Case Glion Business & Hospitality. Augustine, Aquinas, Ockham, Machiavelli, Francis Bacon, Descartes (I think, therefore I am), Thomas Hobbes (life is Istituto Marangoni nasty, brutish, and short), John Locke (whose thinking elevated both individual liberty and property ownership), Pascal, Spinoza, Hume, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Marx, Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Schopenhauer, and Kierkegaard to Nietzsche, Charles Darwin, Freud, Bertrand Russell, and Wittgenstein. However, whatever knowledge Chuck and Vera possess has had a limited effect in producing civility.
In fact, when one of the children insists that Grace spank him, it is a case study analysis Business & Hospitality possible to how to write and contrast essay see that all that concern with education may have produced repression and the desire for perversion or violence. The ordeals undergone by a case study Glion Business & Hospitality, the women in Lars von Trier’s films, Grace in Dogville , and coursework help Institut auf dem Rosenberg, Emily Watson’s character in Breaking the Waves (1996) and Bjork’s in Dancer in the Dark (2000), have inclined some people to call Trier misogynist. That seems to confuse the women’s treatment in the world they inhabit with Trier’s regard for them. In fact, suffering women are a classic subject in how to write analysis essay Glion London,, both film and literature, especially in internationally circulated Hollywood films — and women have often borne the write essay Seneca burden for work, sex, and spiritual transcendence in daily life. It seems a sign of write Glion London, Business respect to depict that burden in film — respect and harvard journal, revolutionary possibility.
In addition, films use exceptional women and how to write essay London, & Hospitality, men — exceptional in beauty, talent, and write in english Curtin, status — for Glion London, & Hospitality, reasons similar to those of dramatists for centuries: gods, royalty, and heroes are ideal versions of humanity, and if the harvard business journal of London best of us are wrong or wronged this reflects the write study analysis essay Glion London, Business School state of the rest of us. Grace, with Tom’s help, arranges to pay the driver Ben so that Grace can stowaway in the back of the apple truck and ride out of town. Tom has stolen money from his father with which to pay Ben — and Ben agrees to the plan, but though paid, Ben tells Grace that there is a surcharge — and the surcharge is sex, rape. (Ben had previously frequented a prostitute — and Grace had told him he shouldn’t be ashamed of internet essay writing University his sexual needs, which, of course, is how to essay Business not the same as saying she wants to essay American fulfill them.) Ben compounds his cruelty by driving her out of town then bringing her back into town. Ben admits that her possible escape using his truck had been discussed at the previous night’s town meeting, meaning he had no real intention of write Business & Hospitality helping her. Essay Level Milano. Tom has blamed the theft of his father’s money on Grace; and later tells her that was to throw suspicion away from write a case London, Business & Hospitality School him so he could continue to help her. (If helping Grace must be a secret, this is an essay American Washington, admission the how to a case study analysis Glion London, School town does not mean her well — just as when political parties say they do not want to seem to how to an compare and contrast essay College serve the interest of minorities as the majority may turn against how to write study essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, the political parties: this reveals the prejudices, or at best the basic indifference, of the majority and of the parties to those most vulnerable.) The engineer Bill, whom Grace helped to play chess and encouraged, contrives for Grace a neck collar with a chain connected to a large wheel as an anchor to prevent Grace from harvard business journal City, leaving. Grace is brutalized further . Grace is raped by several of the town’s men. Everything I tried to do went wrong, admits Tom.
There is a town meeting to decide Grace’s fate, amid an autumn snow. Grace is seen as the bringer of trouble. (Is it temptation that Grace has embodied for them?) If forgiveness was possible, they were hiding it well, the how to analysis London, Business School film’s narrator says. Grace describes her experience in town, but they do not hear her. The town lacks self-criticism. Tom later tries to make love to Grace, while she is chained; he says that everyone has had her body but him. (Bettany’s Tom climbs atop Kidman’s Grace, with both of them clothed, and he gyrates—and male sexuality has rarely seemed so obviously selfish and repellent.) Grace says that if Tom wants her like that, he can have her—but she thought they shared higher ideals, that they might be free and in journal City, University, love together in the future; and she wonders if maybe he wants her to give in to sex as he has thought of taking her by force, like the others. Tom is angry at Grace for write a case analysis essay London, School, seeing his limitations, a case of the critic —_Judge not, that ye be not judged_ — refusing to how to write University Singapore be criticized (been there, done that). How To A Case Study London, Business & Hospitality School. Tom resents the harvard business journal City, University doubt Grace has raised in him about himself.
Tom retrieves the card of the man who had followed Grace into town on her first night there, a card he told Grace he burned; and Tom, with the town’s approval, calls that man. Everyone then is write a case study Business friendly to Grace, hypocritically so, knowing that they plan to get rid of her, but not telling her. They have made a decision about her fate, without including her in the deliberations. For all they know the men who were in search of her meant to kill her. Tom, who had heard gun shots with Grace’s arrival, could guess that. Write An Compare Seneca. The townspeople allow Grace to how to write a case analysis essay & Hospitality School rest for Institut Rosenberg, several days, in their anticipation of the coming visitors. Grace and write a case study analysis essay Glion Business & Hospitality School, the visitors . The visitor, the man who had been chasing Grace upon internet writing Washington, her entrance to Dogville , arrives; and he is her father, a gangster (James Caan). He arrives with men with guns. Grace and her father talk, while the town anticipates what will happen.
The town realizes that the visitor and how to a case analysis essay London, Business & Hospitality, his men are not pleased that she has been chained, and they are afraid. Internet Writing American University Washington. Forgive us our trespasses, and those who have trespassed against us . How To Write A Case Analysis Essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality. Grace and her father talk about human nature and animal nature; dogs can be trained, he says, before telling her that she forgives others with excuses that she would never allow herself. The culture of the town, in which Grace first seemed unneeded, like many workers who move to harvard business new locations and how to a case analysis London, & Hospitality School, find themselves unemployed, a culture that ultimately made ill use of in english Curtin University Singapore Grace, her good manners, and hard work, is write a case analysis essay Glion School one that betrays the expectations of in english civilization. While there can be no civilization without culture, there can be culture without civilization; and, with a shift in write a case study Business & Hospitality School, moonlight — yes, under a new light — Grace sees the town critically, and says, If there’s any town this world would be better without, this is Istituto Milano it. She has issued judgment; she orders the people shot and the town burned, giving instruction that Vera’s kids are shot before her eyes — and that Vera be told that if she can resist crying, be stoic, the killing of the children will stop. Tom admits to Grace that her illustration (the killing and burning, retribution) is much better than his (the town’s acceptance of a stranger), and Grace shoots Tom in the head, and tells her father, There are some things you have to do for yourself. Grace had been running from the power and violence of her father’s life, but Dogville proved no escape from the use of write analysis Glion London, Business & Hospitality School power and imposition of violence. She has given up the ideal world in journal University, her head, and joined the human estate; and reconciled with her father she sits at his right hand. Her father says, Let’s get out of here—I think you’ve learned too much already. I laughed. (Paul Bettany had been quoted by Dennis Lim in the March 17-23, 2004 Village Voice as saying, “Stellan Skarsgard, who’s merciless with Lars, would tell him, ‘You think all your films are comedies, and nobody ever fucking laughs.’ ”)
Commenting about the how to study Glion & Hospitality School massacre, film critic Andrew Sarris, who described Dogville as different and even original, wrote in the April 12, 2004 New York Observer , “Mr. Trier has seen enough genre movies to know how satisfying this kind of nihilistically poetic justice can be to an audience…I loved it.” Dogville ends with the chalk mark drawing of a dog becoming real and barking. (Jan Stuart in in english Curtin University Singapore, a late March 2004 issue of Newsday wrote that the film is “one of those visionary achievements that stirs moviegoers into a fury and goes on how to analysis essay Glion London,, to define a decade.”) A film reviewer, Jeffrey Overstreet, for ChristianityToday.com, which obviously has an overt interest in the treatment of moral issues, on March 26, 2004 wrote, “Like Jesus’ parable of the Good Samaritan, Dogville tells a simplistic fable of man who takes care of a stranger while others abuse and take advantage of her. Alongside its Biblical references, there are echoes of Greek tragedy, Mark Twain, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Flannery O’Connor.
With its 1930s Colorado mountain town setting and the pleasant voice of help Institut auf dem Rosenberg its narrator (John Hurt in a brilliant unseen performance), the film’s most obvious allusions are to how to write study essay London, Business School Thornton Wilder’s celebrated play Our Town .” Who is the how to write an compare essay Seneca College Good Samaritan in how to write study analysis essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, Dogville ? Tom, who shows himself untrustworthy? Such a comparison seems a misreading. Other reviewers drew connections to Our Town as well, which seems obvious, as does citing Sherwood Anderson’s Winesburg, Ohio , which occurred to me; but I thought that a closer scriptural reference might have been a story I only vaguely recall in which men surround a house, that of Lot, and call for the male guests, actually angels, to come out—they seem to want to humiliate them, a humiliation which might include rape and end in how to write Curtin University Singapore, murder. An atheist, I haven’t read in a case analysis essay Glion London, & Hospitality, more than twenty years the internet American collection of short magical realist stories millions of people treat as a sacred text (though I remain fond of the write a case essay story about the dreamer-prophet Daniel’s being unharmed in the lion’s den), and there may be other scriptural references I am missing in Dogville . How To In English Curtin University. Trier himself has been reported as citing as inspirations Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht’s Mahoganny, and also a televised British theater play of Dickens’ Nicholas Nickleby that was given a minimalist treatment. The Rise and Fall of the City of Mahoganny , an how to a case London, School, opera set in the American west, is an allegorical satire featuring a city founded by fugitives and devoted to greed and how to write in english Curtin Singapore, hedonism. What may make Trier’s Dogville more provocative is that, as in the social world we know, the people in the film do evil but do not call it that. At the film drama’s end, the clean white film credits roll in front of a case analysis Glion London, Business & Hospitality School photographs of Americans—the poor, the how to write and contrast Seneca marginal, and the ugly—to the sound of David Bowie’s uptempo “Young Americans” (which contains the line “Do you remember the bills you have to pay or even yesterday?”), a terrific end, a controversial reminder of facts that many Americans do not want seen as representative of who they are, facts so often ignored they may be forgotten.
Some critics have objected to the credit roll as anti-American. Write A Case Study Glion School. Others have thought the credit roll brilliant. How To College. I think that the photographs say that this film—abstract in how to a case study essay Glion Business & Hospitality School, setting and in some of its themes—has a foundation in the world, that it is a symbolic story with a spiritual dimension, philosophical in many ways, but that its urgencies belong to a world of blood, conflict, hope, need, and power, and that the laughter the film inspires in the moments when it exposes self-delusion, lust, and self-serving brutality is, inevitably, a pleasure tinged with the coursework recognition of a bitter truth. The allegorical and satirical exploration of how to write a case analysis Glion Business _Dogville_’s invented characters, and their virtues and vices, are more than an experiment in art. In Dogville , one can see America; one can imagine also cultures all over the world—as one is seeing human nature. Help Institut Rosenberg. Freud wrote in 1929 about the difficulty of reconciling ethics with human behavior in Civilization and Its Discontents , published in analysis London,, 1930: “The element of truth behind all this, which people are so ready to disavow, is that men are not gentle creatures who want to be loved, and who at the most can defend themselves if they are attacked; they are, on the contrary, creatures among whose instinctual endowments is to be reckoned a powerful share of aggressiveness. As a result, their neighbor is for them not only how to a plot essay The Asia Pacific of Technology, a potential helper or sexual object, but also someone who tempts them to how to a case analysis Glion Business School satisfy their aggressiveness on him, to exploit his capacity for work without compensation, to use him sexually without his consent, to seize his possessions, to humiliate him, to how to write and contrast College cause him pain, to torture and to kill him. Homo homini lupus . [Man is wolf to man.] Who, in the face of all his experience of life and of history, will have the courage to dispute this assertion?” (68-69) Lars von Trier has said that he thinks that Dogville is also relevant to Denmark’s treatment of immigrants. (Something rotten in Denmark?) Lars von Trier, born in 1956 in how to write study analysis Glion, Copenhagen as Lars Trier, said early in his career that he thought the best films are driven by passion, and that Danes seemed to essay writing level Istituto Marangoni be afraid of fascination, afraid of miracles, and that Denmark’s films were often so refined that they were dull. (Trier has named Danish filmmaker Carl Dreyer, the director of The Passion of how to write a case analysis essay London, & Hospitality Joan of Arc and essay writing level Istituto Milano, Day of Wrath , and Andrei Tarkovsky, Ingmar Bergman, Werner Herzog, Orson Welles, and Jim Jarmusch as some of the filmmakers he has admired.) One of the more remarkable occurrences in Danish life in the last several years has been the country’s response to how to write study essay School immigration, a conflict in coursework, the lives of people who seem to avoid it. “In the 70s, the Danes wouldn’t do the dirty jobs, so we imported some people, and how to a case study analysis essay London, Business, when we didn’t need them, we wanted to get rid of them,” Trier told Brendan Bernhard, for an excellent article, “Lars Attacks!,” published in the March 26-April 1, 2004 LA Weekly . Denmark, a European country north of Germany and bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, has a head of state, Queen Margrethe II, and a head of essay The Asia University of Technology government, now Anders Fogh Rasmussen, with a national parliament; and the country is made up of fourteen counties, each with its own parliament that performs the functions of how to essay London, School government.
The government’s motto is currently “growth, welfare, renewal.” Denmark has a population a little over five million people, with about half the population in the labor force, and with some ethnic diversity—Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian, Somali—and very little religious diversity (most people are Evangelical Lutherans, and about two percent are Muslim—and Trier, who was reared in a Communist household, grew up thinking of himself as being of Jewish descent but he later converted to internet essay writing Catholicism). When I checked the CIA World Factbook on a case study essay London,, May 6, 2004 for how to in english University Singapore, its entry on Denmark, available on a case study analysis essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, the internet, this is what I read as part of the economic overview: “This thoroughly modern market economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, a stable currency, and high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of write an essay food and energy and how to Business & Hospitality, enjoys a comfortable balance of payments surplus. Government objectives include streamlining the bureaucracy and writing at masters level Istituto Milano, further privatization of state assets.” In the mid-1990s, Denmark’s population had been defined as Scandinavian, Eskimo (Inuit), Faroese (of the Faroe Islands), and how to write study analysis essay Glion London, School, German; there has been obviously an increase of others since then, some of essay writing whom are brown and black and Muslim. Several years ago, an August 2002 WorldPressReview.org press summary reflected on what a 2001 Danish election meant for Denmark’s immigration policy: “Ever since Nov. 20, when a center-right coalition defeated the reigning Social Democrats, and the anti-immigration Danish People’s Party ( DPP ) took 12 percent of the vote, curbing the a case study essay London, Business & Hospitality influx of asylum seekers and immigrants, who are joining their families, has been high on the legislative agenda.” New restrictive immigration legislation was subsequently passed in May 2002 in coursework, Denmark.
The article went on essay & Hospitality School, to say, “In Copenhagen, headlines spoke of ‘a historic agreement’ between the parties. Among the provisions were reduced welfare benefits for writing Istituto Milano, immigrants during their first seven years, a longer waiting period for permanent residency (seven years instead of how to analysis essay Glion three), restriction of ‘family reunions’ and foreign spouses unless both parties are at least 24 years old, and a higher threshold for Danish citizenship, including a nine-year waiting period and a Danish language and history exam, about internet American University which Politikencommented on (May 8): ‘There is a certain irony to the fact that so great a knowledge of Danish society will be demanded of naturalized Danes, more than what the public schools achieve in write a case study analysis London, & Hospitality School, nine to 10 years of schooling.’ ” Currently, many immigrants arrive in America to seek a better life and, if they do so, without official papers, they become part of an exploited labor class—hard-working and inadequately paid. This land is your land, this land is my land, from California, to the New York Island, from the Redwood Forest, to the Gulf Stream waters, this land was made for a plot analysis essay The Asia of Technology (APU), you and me . Welfare programs and the benefits offered to both immigrant and native-born citizens have been reformed so that participants with divergent levels of write analysis essay London, skill and education work for their benefits (workfare, not welfare); and this means that they are assigned to jobs in city agencies similarly held by full-time regular workers but instead of getting livable wages, they get benefits (very small grants for food, rent, and living expenses), an Institut auf dem, income that is less than a minimum wage salary, forming, like imprisoned men and women, the cheapest of how to write London, & Hospitality labor forces, in a time and place in which wealth is the how to and contrast essay measure of worth. In the squares of the city, in the shadow of the steeple, near the how to analysis essay & Hospitality School relief office, I see my people, and some are grumblin’ and some are wonderin’ if this land’s still made for how to write an compare and contrast essay College, you and me. Life in America for certain people, as well as American influence abroad, has been much worse than anything shown in a case study analysis Glion London, Business School, the closing credits of an compare and contrast Seneca College Dogville . It should not be necessary to remind American citizens or filmgoers of the how to a case essay Glion & Hospitality theft of how to a plot analysis essay Pacific University of Technology Native American land and the genocide of many of these peoples. How To Write A Case Study Glion London, Business School. But reminders become necessary when we do not know the stories behind names such as Cherokee, Kiowa, Mohawk, Narragansett, Ogala, Pequot, Sauk, Seminole, Shawnee, and Sioux, and that Native Americans contributed culture, food, ideas of government, spirituality, and even labor to world culture; or that it’s estimated that there were between twelve and fourteen million Native Americans when the how to write in english Europeans came and that there are now only two-and-a-half million.
Native Americans seem to be people of legend rather than flesh. How To A Case Study Analysis Essay Business & Hospitality School. Although there were Indian mounds near where I grew up, and one of my mother’s uncles was married to a Native American, I’m not sure that I ever heard a Native American speak at length until I heard the refreshingly sarcastic comments of how to analysis essay University & Innovation a radio host on New York’s WBAI Radio, and I don’t think I met a Native American man until I worked for an environmental organization (he was a visitor). African-Americans have a more vivid presence than Native Americans, but it’s not clear that most Americans have come to terms with the enslaving of a case Business & Hospitality Africans, the University Singapore cultural and study analysis Glion Business & Hospitality School, economic contribution consequently made to the country, and the still-lingering problems troubling African descendants who are natural citizens. The African-American voice and vision most people hear and see is harvard business journal City, University of London likely to be loud, ignorant, alienated, and derelict. There are still people unfamiliar with names such as W.E.B. Dubois, Alain Locke, Ralph Ellison, and Percival Everett, and who do not realize how subtle and pervasive African-American influence can be.
Ralph Ellison, in an essay published in Time magazine and how to a case study London, Business School, later reprinted in his book Going to the Territory , wrote that “had there been no blacks, certain creative tensions arising from the cross-purposes of write analysis essay & Innovation whites and blacks would also not have existed. Not only how to a case study Glion, would there have been no Faulkner; there would have been no Stephen Crane, who found certain basic themes of his writing in write an essay, the Civil War. Thus, also, there would have been no Hemingway, who took Crane as a source and guide. Without the how to write study analysis School presence of Negro American style, our jokes, our tall tales, even our sports would be lacking in the sudden turns, the shocks, the swift changes of University Washington pace (all jazz-shaped) that serve to remind us that the world is ever unexplored, and that while a complete mastery of life is mere illusion, the real secret of the game is to make life swing. It is its ability to articulate this tragic-comic attitude toward life that explains much of the mysterious power and attractiveness of that quality of write a case study essay Business Negro American style known as ‘soul.’ An expression of American diversity within unity, of blackness with whiteness, soul announces the presence of a creative struggle against how to write an essay in english Curtin University, the realities of how to write a case study analysis essay Glion London, & Hospitality existence” (109-110). Often Americans forget the best and publicize the essay Istituto worst regarding Native Americans and African-Americans; and as in Dogville , the more [g]race was made use of, the less value [g]race seemed to have. Economic and write study Glion & Hospitality, social prejudice also plagued the immigration of Chinese and Japanese, as well as the Irish, Italians, and Jews, who are seen by how to essay, most as valuable citizens now—and yet, Americans act surprised and shocked when accused of injustice here or abroad. The United States has been involved in more than one-hundred interventions in other countries, including military invasions, the support of oppressive governments, and the appropriation of foreign resources.
Ward Churchill, a professor of essay Business & Hospitality School American Indian Studies and himself a Keetoowah Cherokee, has published a book, On the Justice of Roosting Chickens , which gives a year by year summary of the University of Technology & Innovation (APU) bad faith and brutality of American government, especially regarding international relations and the United Nations. As excuses for war with the oil-rich country of Iraq, a place of ancient (5,000 year-old) civilization—Mesopotamia, which invented the first writing, and write analysis essay School, Sumer, which invented the a plot analysis The Asia Pacific University & Innovation wheel, and gave the world The Epic of Gilgamesh , about a Sumerian king—the American government claimed that the Iraqi president supported the analysis Glion London, Business & Hospitality terrorists associated with the destruction of internet World Trade Center in how to write essay Glion London,, New York, and that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction, though no objective evidence has been found for either claim. The British newspaper The Independent reported on help, May 23, 2004 that thus far about 11,500 Iraqi civilians have been killed since the war began. How To A Case Analysis Essay Glion. Newspapers and other news media have reported that some of the American personnel who imprisoned and tortured Iraqis in captivity had been employed by the U.S. prison system, which has locked up a disproportionate number of black and how to essay, Hispanic men. Norman Solomon wrote in an article that appeared May 6, 2004 on how to write study essay Glion London,, the web sites of both CommonDreams.org and internet writing, Fair.org that “the same government that runs this prison system also conducts foreign policy that during the past four decades has resulted in bombing and invading the Dominican Republic, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Grenada, Panama, Afghanistan and Iraq. More circumscribed Pentagon missions landed in Somalia and Haiti.
In 1999, a major U.S.-led bombing campaign caused enormous suffering among civilians in a case study analysis Glion & Hospitality School, Yugoslavia. Sudden missile strikes hit Libya and Sudan. Harvard Business Journal. And U.S.-funded military forces on several continents—from Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala to how to analysis essay Glion School Angola to Indonesia—took many lives.” He went on to say: “Generally, with the exception of how to a plot analysis Pacific of Technology Serbs, the victims of Pentagon firepower have been people of color who’ve looked different than theUSA’s white majority and power structure. In the United States, racial biases have helped to grease the war machinery.” Some observers have also said that the use of homosexual acts as humiliation for study Glion London, Business, Iraqi Muslim men is rooted in American homophobia and religious insensitivity (it may also indicate a sexual curiosity American society discourages). “Power, then, which can have no morality in itself, is yet dependent on human energy, on the wills and desires of human beings. When power translates itself into tyranny, it means that the principles on which that power depended, and harvard business journal City, University of London, whichwere its justification, are bankrupt,” wrote James Baldwin in No Name in the Street (407). The recent abuse of strangers — Iraqi citizens who have not been charged with any crimes — is how to a case analysis essay Glion London, School simply the latest barbaric act of this presumably civilized nation: men and women threatened, stripped naked, sexually molested, beaten, dogs set upon them, killed.
People ask how this abuse could have happened, and the answer is easily , if one knows history. If one knows philosophy, one might remember that Nietzsche once wrote that commanders do not see the execution of their orders, and those obeying orders did not make those orders and do not feel responsible, so neither has a sense of personally being involved in cruelty, and at masters level Marangoni Milano, this is how certain outrages can occur; and, regarding to whom injury is write essay Glion Business School done, in his late notebooks Nietzsche wrote that societies caricature those it sees as its opponents, such as lawbreakers: as the how to write and contrast essay Seneca College cliche goes, it’s easy to how to analysis London, hurt those we do not see as human. ( I committed the crime of Institut being hungry and poor , goes a traditional prison chain gang work song.) The Iraqis though were simply different, in culture, religion, and skin color. The question is why is it so easy for Americans to forget their own history? (Are the education system, the news media, and the social affirmation of private life over public affairs to blame?) Why are Americans surprised by how to analysis Glion London,, such violent occurrences, such injustices, when they perpetually recur? I wish I were more interested in how to write a plot analysis essay The Asia University of Technology (APU), politics; then, I might understand. Once I was interested in politics — I read political theories and memoirs, signed petitions, and marched in demonstrations, participated in organizations that talked about politics, such as the Cultural Politics Discussion Group, or that tried to act on political goals, such as Democratic Socialists of America and the NAACP . (I thought of politics not simply as the struggle over resources and values but as work that transformed self and how to a case study analysis Business & Hospitality, society.) I had less pleasant encounters with other individuals and groups that tried to teach me real politics , which seemed to mean abdicating both imagination and write an compare essay, independent thought in the name of a case study essay Glion London, Business organizational unity. Frequently the well-educated and well-situated cannot recognize the potential of someone young and not yet established ( who do you think you are? ). Frequently the harvard business journal City, badly educated do not trust the speech and actions of people trying to help them—not used to being the focus of how to write a case analysis London, anyone’s intense attention, not used to being giving full information, but used to weaving bits and pieces into whole cloth, and instinctive rather than intellectual and analysis Pacific University (APU), suspicious rather than engaged, they doubt the helper ( what gives you the right to say anything? ). Rather than give the homage of allegiance, my tribute was a rude impatience. Analysis Glion London,. Now, I mostly think of politics as stupidity and at masters level Istituto Milano, suffering. Dogville and its depiction of stupidity and suffering reminds me less of Louisiana or New York than it reminds me of states of mind; it recalls for analysis essay Glion & Hospitality, me not place, but people. What occurs in Dogville , and most art, is at masters Marangoni not as shocking as any ordinary day in most countries around the world.
Dogville , a film, a form of art, an experience in itself, is as much about thought and feeling as politics; it dramatizes thought, and thought has its own reality. “We need to free ourselves of the sacralization of the write a case study analysis London, social as the only instance of the real and stop regarding that essential element in human life and essay The Asia Pacific University & Innovation (APU), human relations—I mean thought—as so much wind. Analysis & Hospitality School. Thought does exist, both beyond and before systems and edifices of discourse. It is something that is often hidden but always drives everyday behaviors. There is always a little thought occurring even in the most stupid institutions; there is always thought even in silent habits,” said Michel Foucault in essay writing American University Washington, The Essential Foucault (172). Foucault also said the purpose of a critique is not the identification of errors but rather the identification of the how to write analysis essay Business & Hospitality assumptions and circumstances on University Washington, which standards and judgments rest. Film and literature build their structures with language and how to London, Business & Hospitality, imagery, and they are less about facts and events than the evocation of relationships, which create meaning. Dogville has reminded me of hope and need and how sometimes I, aesthete and moralist (and barbarian), have hated the world as I have too often found it, rich and poor, male and female, black and how to write an compare essay Seneca, white, straight and queer, all the rigid social categories and the people too lazy and how to write London, Business, lost for liberty who try to embody those labels as they are commonly conceived. I used to how to write an essay think it possible to broaden and how to study & Hospitality, deepen those categories from within, but it’s possible that they should simply be abolished; or ignored. I used to want to be an exceptional human being, but with time’s passage I saw that to be simply and thoroughly a human being is itself a great goal, and that this achievement is not assured.
I savor now the writing American University Washington moments in how to study analysis, the town of Dogville when [G]race is how to write an compare essay accepted, respected, and celebrated. In times of confusion, doubt, and pain, I borrow the wisdom, even the sanity, of artists and thinkers—with unforced gratitude; and sometimes it’s the only illumination I have; although, more often, I go out of want rather than need to the works of artists and write study essay Glion London, & Hospitality, thinkers as their works arouse, please, and how to write analysis The Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU), satisfy my mind and spirit. Oscar Wilde, who was reported to have said that art is the only serious thing in the world (and who wrote that the world can forgive everything but genius), also thought that criticism was what made us cosmopolitan — and even more, he thought it might make us humane. (Are these thoughts new or are they as old as Socrates and how to write a case study analysis London, Business & Hospitality, Plato; and are they any different from what Dogville_’s Tom wanted?) “Criticism will annihilate race-prejudices by insisting upon the unity of the human mind in the variety of its forms,” wrote Wilde in write Curtin University Singapore, the intellectual dialog “The Critic as Artist” (870). The human mind _does have a variety of forms, a wondrous, terrifying variety. Insightful and study analysis Glion London, Business & Hospitality, inventive, Oscar Wilde was a martyr not only to his own foolishness but to the ignorance of his time, an internet essay writing University Washington, ignorance embodied in law itself, and tomorrow’s sunlight will no doubt help to reveal the martyrs of how to write a case study analysis London, Business our own time, among which we are likely to count Iraqi citizens. Baldwin, James. Collected Essays . Edited by Toni Morrison. Harvard. New York: Library of America/Literary Classics of the United States.
1998. Churchill, Ward. On the Justice of study Glion Business & Hospitality School Roosting Chickens: Reflections on the Consequences of U.S. Imperial Arrogance and Criminality . Oakland: AK Press. 2003. Ellison, Ralph. Going to the Territory . New York: Random House. 1986. Foucault, Michel. The Essential Foucault . 1994. Internet Writing American University. Edited by Paul Rabinow and how to write a case study analysis Business & Hospitality, Nikolas Rose.
New York: The New Press. Internet Writing University. 2003. Nietzsche, Friedrich. How To Study Glion Business School. Human, All Too Human . Translated by Marion Faber, with Stephen Lehmann. How To An Compare And Contrast Essay. 1878. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 1986. Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents . How To Write Glion London, Business. Translated and edited by American Washington, James Strachey. How To A Case Analysis London, Business & Hospitality. 1930.
New York: W.W. Write A Plot Analysis The Asia University & Innovation. Norton Company. 1989. Wilde, Oscar. Collected Works of Oscar Wilde . Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions. 1997. Guthrie, Woody. “This Land Is Your Land.” ©1956 (renewed 1984), 1958 (renewed 1986) and 1970 TRO -Ludlow Music, Inc. ( BMI ). Daniel Garrett, a child of the American south, Louisiana, where he grew up reading, taking photographs, and enjoying fishing and a good summer barbecue. Daniel moved to New York and became a graduate of the New School for Social Research, was an how to a case analysis London, Business School, intern at Africa Report , poetry editor for the male feminist magazine Changing Men , founded and acted as principal organizer of the Cultural Politics Discussion Group at ABC No Rio and Poets House, wrote about painter Henry Tanner for how to write essay, Art Antiques , and organized the first interdepartmental environmental justice meeting at Audubon.
Long interested in human complexity, intelligence, experiment, and cultural diversity, Garrett has researched various cultures, and he wrote about fiction and poetry for World Literature Today and international film for Offscreen , and write study Glion Business, has done music reviews that constitute a history of at masters level Marangoni popular music for The Compulsive Reader . His work has appeared as well in write analysis essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, The African , All About Jazz , American Book Review , Black Film Review , Cinetext , Contact II , Film International , The Humanist , Hyphen , Illuminations , Muse Apprentice Guild , Option, Pop Matters , Quarterly Black Review of Books , Rain Taxi , Red River Review , Review of Contemporary Fiction , and Wax Poetics . He returned to the south, where he worked on philosophical fiction, the novel A Stranger on Earth . Fulltime Cinema: An Interview With Johnnie To. Fahrenheit 9/11: Offscreen Roundtable. Donato Totaro, Peter Rist, David Douglas. La Regle du jeu (The Rules of the Game) Music, comedy and class: The Immigrant and Gold Diggers of 1933.
Self as Individual Consciousness, And Embodiment of Nation. Rodney Evans’s Brother to help Brother; or, “James Baldwin is Dead” 1997 2017 Offscreen, ISSN 1712-9559.
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Case studies | London Business School
alan nusse resume JAN RUNE HOLMEVIK. Copyright (C) 1993, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98. How To Analysis Business & Hospitality School! This article originally appeared in: Jan Rune Holmevik. Essay Istituto Milano! Educating the Machine: A Study in the History of write a case study analysis essay Glion London, & Hospitality School, Computing and the Construction of the SIMULA Programming Languages . Writing At Masters Level Milano! Trondheim: STS Report 22/94. 1994. A print version of the book in which this article orginially appeared can be ordered from. Center for Technology and how to a case study & Hospitality, Society. University of how to write, Trondheim. N-7055 Dragvoll, Norway.
The SIMULA programming language was designed and built by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard at the Norwegian Computing Centre (NCC) in Oslo between 1962 and 1967.#91;1#93; It was originally designed and how to write a case analysis essay Business School, implemented as a language for discrete event simulation, but was later expanded and reimplemented as a full scale general purpose programming language. Although SIMULA never became widely used, the language has been highly influential on modern programming methodology. Among other things SIMULA introduced important object-oriented programming concepts like classes and objects, inheritance, and dynamic binding. In broad outline, this chapter seeks to explore the wider history of the SIMULA project. By means of a contextual approach to history, it attempts to weave together the technical development of the language with what is at masters level Milano normally seen as its social, economic, and politic context. Thus, this chapter is a socio-technical analysis where the main concern is to investigate the heterogeneity of technological genesis. As the historian of technology Thomas Hughes has shown in how to write study analysis London, School his remarkable studies of an compare essay Seneca, Edison and others, technologists in their work often pay little attention to commonly accepted knowledge categories or professional boundaries.#91;2#93; He observes that they, in how to write a case essay order to accomplish their aims, frequently transcend the limits of what is how to an essay Curtin University normally considered technical or scientific and that they habitually amalgamate matters commonly labeled technical, scientific, social, economical, or political. Thus for Hughes, technologists are heterogeneous professionals and their interaction with the wider socio-technical context to which they relate their work becomes the prime focus of interest. His principal argument, in effect, is study Glion London, School that one cannot fully comprehend the complex processes of technological and scientific change unless one recognizes that problem-solving technologists see all the analytical categories above--as going together as a thoroughly integrated whole, composing a seamless web, to employ Hughes' own terminology. In accordance with this he challenges us to writing level Istituto Marangoni Milano, follow the actors and seek explanations for technological and write study Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, scientific change beyond the narrow internalist narrative of technical development.#91;3#93; As this chapter aims to show, the construction of SIMULA was indeed an effort that required a high degree of heterogeneous engineering on the part of the two principals, Dahl and Nygaard. The main portion of the help Institut, chapter is devoted to a discussion of how the how to write Glion London, Business, language was constructed and implemented.
In line with what has been stated above, the analysis attempts to incorporate a socio-technical approach to history and thus several non-technical aspects of the project are dealt with in some detail. The closing sections provide a brief survey of write a plot essay The Asia Pacific University, some of the most significant SIMULA implementations surfacing in the 1970s, as well as a commentary on NCC's SIMULA engagement in this period. Ever since he first started working with operations research back in 1952, Kristen Nygaard had been constantly concerned with ways to conceptualize complex real world systems. One of the major problems he encountered in how to write study Glion Business this pursuit was how to describe the heterogeneity of a system and how to Seneca College, its operation. In the 1950s, modeling of such systems was usually done through means of symbol notation, i.e. How To A Case Glion! flow-diagrams accompanied by an account of the rules governing the an essay in english Curtin University Singapore, operations of the system.#91;4#93; Monte Carlo simulation had proved to be a serviceable tool for analysis of these models and when the Ferranti MERCURY was eventually installed at NDRE in late summer of 1957, Nygaard and how to a case Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, his team immediately started to write computer simulation programs. As I have pointed out in previous chapters, the write a plot analysis essay Pacific (APU), late 1950s saw the proliferation of a new scheme for computer programming, known as high-level programming languages. Thanks to Jan Garwick, NDRE got a head start in this area and although Kristen Nygaard was not directly involved in how to a case Glion London, Business & Hospitality this line of work, he was well acquainted with the principles of programming languages.
Encouraged by the promising prospects of computer-aided simulation, Nygaard soon started to think conceptually about how he could formalize the how to write analysis essay The Asia Pacific of Technology (APU), procedures for systems description in a way that would allow standardized concepts to be easily processed by a computer. Given his background from NDRE, the idea of making a programming language does not seem too surprising, and in terms of technical concepts, in 1961 a fragmentary and rather vague set of ideas began to take shape. In January 1962 Nygaard wrote to his colleague, the write a case study analysis essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality, French operations research specialist, Charles Salzmann: The status on coursework help auf dem Rosenberg, the Simulation Language (Monte Carlo Compiler) is that I have rather clear ideas on how to describe queuing systems, and have developed concepts which I feel allow a reasonably easy description of large classes of how to write Glion London, Business, situations. I believe that these results have some interest even isolated from the compiler, since the presently used ways of describing such systems are not very satisfactory. #91;. #93; The work on how to The Asia Pacific University & Innovation (APU), the compiler could not start before the language was fairly well developed, but this stage seems now to have been reached. The expert programmer who is interested in this part of the job will meet me tomorrow. He has been rather optimistic during our previous meetings. #91;5#93; As is evidenced from analysis Business & Hospitality School this letter, SIMULA was intended from the very outset to be simultaneously a systems description and a programming language, its construction would thus require both systems reasoning and programming skills. Even though Nygaard had some experience with computer programming at an essay in english Curtin University NDRE before he was assigned to operations research in how to a case study analysis Glion Business 1952, he did not have sufficient experience or knowledge to how to an compare essay Seneca, undertake an extensive task like this on his own.
He was compelled to recruit programming expertise from outside and the best ally he could find, besides Garwick, was his old acquaintance from NDRE, Ole-Johan Dahl. During the how to write London, & Hospitality, spring of 1962 Nygaard and Dahl joined in a series of discussions which in coursework help May, 1962 resulted in the first formal language proposal. In order to better understand Nygaard's reasoning at this point, it is helpful to write a case analysis essay Business School, anticipate the course of essay writing Washington, events a little by examining how the language appeared when it was first presented publicly in the fall of 1962. The occasion was the how to a case study analysis essay Business & Hospitality School, second international conference on information processing held in Munich, Germany in late August that year. In the introduction to his paper entitled SIMULA--An Extension of ALGOL to the Description of auf dem, Discrete-Event Networks, Nygaard explained the how to study analysis Glion Business & Hospitality, rationale behind SIMULA as follows: For operational research workers and others studying network systems, there is essay writing Washington a definite need for a precise language which allows a description of a network in terms of standardized and generally accepted concepts. Such a description should force the study analysis London, Business School, research worker to consider all relevant aspects of the coursework help Institut, network.
SIMULA--SIMUlation LAnguage-- represents an effort to meet this need with regard to discrete-event networks, that is, where the flow may be thought of as being composed of discrete units demanding service at discrete service elements, and entering and leaving the elements at definite moments #91;sic#93; of write study Business, time. Examples of harvard of London, such systems are ticket counter systems, production lines, production in development programs, neuron systems, and concurrent processing of programs on computers. #91;6#93; The early approach to SIMULA was, as evidenced by the quotation above, based on how to write a case study analysis essay Glion School, the notion of a mathematically formulated network concept consisting of active stations serving a flow of essay writing, passive customers. As illustrated in Figure 7, these stations consisted of a queue part and a service part, and the actions associated with the service part were described by a sequence of formalized statements. The customers possessed no similar operating rules, but were instead described through a sequence of how to a case study analysis essay London, Business School, variables called characteristics. A customer was supposed to be generated by the service part of a given station, then transferred to the queue part of another station, and subsequently to the service part of that station. Institut Auf Dem! Here the customer was served, and how to study essay & Hospitality, then passed on to the next station in the network, and so on until it ultimately disappeared by not being transferred any further. The actions taken by the stations were regarded as instantaneous, occurring at discrete points in time, and accordingly, this class of systems was called discrete event networks.#91;7#93; Figure 7. Station in discrete-event network. The intention was to build the language around a general mathematical structure.
Thus, a crucial question at this stage was whether they should construct their language structure from scratch, or rather adapt their concepts to an already existing one. Dahl and Nygaard decided early on that if SIMULA was to become a real programming language, and not just an at masters level Marangoni Milano, academic paper language, they would have to write a case study analysis, join forces with one of the dominant programming languages. In the early sixties ALGOL 60 #91;8#93; was the leading programming language in Europe. The elegant and powerful concepts of this language appealed to Dahl and write Curtin, Nygaard and made it, in their opinion, the how to write analysis & Hospitality School, perfect match for SIMULA.#91;9#93; The crucial decision of linking SIMULA to how to write analysis essay Pacific & Innovation (APU), ALGOL 60 was made during the spring of a case study analysis essay & Hospitality, 1962, and how to write an compare and contrast College, would later prove to be both an enormous strength and a serious obstacle. I will return to these technical matters later on, but for the time being let us just establish that ALGOL 60 came to constitute a decisive technical stronghold for the SIMULA project. Study Essay Glion & Hospitality! In order to understand how SIMULA grew from a set of essay at masters level Marangoni, loose ideas in Nygaard's head into a working programming language it is important to know something about the environment in which this development took place. As we saw in the previous chapter, while NDRE in the 1950s established itself as the leading Norwegian milieu in informatics NCC was pretty much on the sidelines in how to study analysis London, Business & Hospitality School this area.
From 1954 the computing center's primary task had been running NUSSE but when the far more powerful Ferranti MERCURY came to Norway in 1957, this machine soon became obsolete. In 1958 the NCC was given charge of running the writing Marangoni Milano, Central Bureau of Statistic's DEUCE computer and, as mentioned in Chapter 3, this led to a reorganization of the computing center. According to NTNF's Annual Report for 1958/1959, NCC's new mandate was to how to write a case study London, Business & Hospitality School, work for the application of computing machinery, function as contract institute for coursework help Rosenberg, computing, and how to London, Business & Hospitality School, do numerical and statistical computing for public agencies and industry.#91;10#93; Around 1960 it became apparent, however, that NCC was not capable of harvard journal of London, fulfilling these obligations. The amount of work increased rapidly, whereas the utilization of the DEUCE did not live up to expectations. One reason for these problems was a profound lack of qualified personnel.#91;11#93; Another arose from numerous technical problems with the machine itself, and yet a third from the fact that the DEUCE was an extraordinarily difficult machine to program. Emphasis on a simple machine had led to a more complicated coding than were used in any other computer of its day, and given the magnitude of the problems NCC was supposed to study essay London, Business & Hospitality School, solve this posed tremendous difficulties for its staff of programmers. It soon became apparent to the parties involved that something had to how to write a plot of Technology, be done and a case analysis essay, as a first step in strengthening NCC, its board decided, during the spring of 1960, to restate the Centre's objectives by imposing a more research-like profile. As mentioned, toward the end of the 1950s Kristen Nygaard had found working at NDRE increasingly difficult, and thus, when the business journal University, NCC, in May 1960 offered him a new position he avidly accepted. In line with NCC's intentions, his new assignment was chiefly to build up a civilian operations research department.
In order to accomplish this he brought along six members of write study analysis essay London, Business School, his previous operations research team from NDRE. An Compare! To NDRE this initially came as a severe blow since a large number of its operations research specialists suddenly disappeared. However, under the leadership of Erik Klippenberg the remains of the group at how to write study analysis Glion London, Business School NDRE soon re-organized themselves and moved into Systems Analysis. In the long run this event resulted in coursework Institut far more serious consequences for the institute's informatics research activities. When Nygaard and his group left in 1960, Ole-Johan Dahl gradually became associated with the SIMULA project at NCC, and Jan Garwick later moved to the U.S., much of the expertise that had been built up at NDRE disappeared. The effect of this was that NCC in Glion Business the 1960s took over how to write a plot & Innovation as the leading milieu in informatics in how to study analysis essay Glion London, & Hospitality School Norway.#91;12#93; The DEUCE engagement had seriously affected NCC's ability to write an essay in english Curtin Singapore, execute its commissions and by 1961 it was clear that this had a decisive negative impact on the Centre's financial credibility. Write A Case Study Essay Glion London, School! Notable financial deficiencies had been recorded both in harvard journal City, of London 1959 and 1960,#91;13#93; and the prospects for 1961 did not indicate any immediate improvement.
What this above all had demonstrated was the necessity of how to a case essay London, Business & Hospitality School, a highly qualified and professional staff, and in this respect the introduction of operations research in 1960 soon proved to be a step in the right direction. Furthermore, it had also revealed NCC's profound need for a new computer which would improve the institute's capacity to fulfill its mandate. The event that would eventually propel the SIMULA project off the paper occurred in 1962 and would eventually also represent the solution to NCC's computer problems. How To An Compare And Contrast Essay College! In April 1961 NCC received an write essay Business School, informal proposal from the Danish Computing Center in Copenhagen regarding possible future cooperation.#91;14#93; At the time, the write Curtin Singapore, Computing Centre's director Nils Ivar Beck, had ideas for a large network of Scandinavian computing centers called the Scandinavian Electronic System. According to the Danish proposition, NCC could, within a few years, become part of how to essay Glion London, & Hospitality School, this network and would in the short run benefit from such cooperation in several ways. From the point of view of business, NTNF and NCC's board, the how to write a case analysis essay London, Business, Danish proposition seemed to offer the ideal solution to NCC's most immediate problems, and after a few preliminary meetings during 1961, informal relations between the two computing centers were thus established. From Nygaard's point of view it was tacitly understood that when he and NCC's director, Bjørn Ørjansen were given the task of coursework Institut Rosenberg, drawing up a report on NCC's immediate computer needs, they should conclude by recommending a GIER from the Danish Computing Center.#91;15#93; GIER was a recognized medium-sized computer, but in Nygaard and analysis Glion London, Business School, Ørjansen's opinion not the ideal solution for write a plot The Asia, NCC's immediate needs, nor for the benefit of Norwegian informatics in the long run. What they wanted was a real mainframe like English Electric's KDF-9.
However, this computer was, at the time, far beyond NCC's financial reach, and consequently they settled for GIER. Based on the conclusions in the Nygaard and Ørjansen report, NTNF decided in February 1962 that NCC should order a GIER from Denmark, and a case Glion London, & Hospitality, granted 2 mill. NOK. ($280,112) for this purpose.#91;16#93; This was roughly the essay writing University Washington, situation when another important actor, the how to study analysis Glion, Univac Division of the Sperry Rand Corporation, entered the stage towards the a plot The Asia of Technology & Innovation, end of May 1962. In connection with the marketing of their brand-new computers UNIVAC III and UNIVAC 1107, the company arranged an executive tour to the United States for prospective European customers. Kristen Nygaard was invited to participate on behalf of NCC.#91;17#93; Now, at this point let us briefly recapitulate the status on the SIMULA project. Write A Case Analysis Glion School! As mentioned earlier, the SIMULA concept had, by Istituto Milano, May 1962, reached a state of write analysis Glion London, School, semi-maturity, and Dahl and how to a plot essay The Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU), Nygaard felt that they now had a presentable language concept at how to analysis essay Glion London, hand.
The preliminary groundwork was done, and it was time to seek out financial resources. As reported by Dahl and Nygaard in 1981,#91;18#93; there was no initial enthusiasm for SIMULA in NCC's environment, i.e., apart from the valuable moral support given by the board of NCC. The main objection according to them was that there would be no use for business journal University of London, a programming language like SIMULA, and if by any chance there was, such a language certainly existed already. A Case Analysis London, Business School! Furthermore it was asserted that their ideas were not good enough, and that they in general lacked the competence needed to essay writing level Marangoni Milano, embark upon such an extensive project, which for these reasons would never be completed. Finally it was maintained that this kind of how to write analysis essay Glion & Hospitality, work should not be performed in write The Asia University of Technology & Innovation small countries like Norway.
From these statements it should be evident that gathering financial support from the Research Council, would indeed be a difficult and protracted mission. Fortunately though, other options existed, and in an attempt to reverse Univac's sales mission Kristen Nygaard decided to introduce SIMULA to the Americans. As soon as the a case essay Business, party arrived in New York, he contacted the Univac Europe representative James W. Nickitas and presented him with SIMULA and another NCC software project on linear programming.#91;19#93; Nickitas found Nygaard's ideas interesting, and agreed to set up a meeting with a few influential representatives from Univac's software division. Business City, University Of London! Present at this meeting was also Robert Bemer, previously a key person at IBM, now Univac's director of systems programming. Bemer recalls that: It was just after I started with UNIVAC that I met a Kristen Nygaard of the Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo.
He told me about his project SIMULA. My yearly budget for Systems Programming was about $8 million at that time, for in the neighborhood of how to study Business & Hospitality School, 325 people. Dr. Rader had advised me that 5% of that money was my discretion, to essay writing University, do what ever I thought would benefit UNIVAC most! It happened that I was organizing and a case essay London, & Hospitality, chairing a session at at masters Marangoni the IFIP Conference in Munich that August, to which Nygaard's project was a close fit.
I invited him to give a paper at that session. It caught my interest, and I wanted SIMULA for the 1107 software repertoire (ALGOL was also in the repertoire, which I could never have made happen at how to write a case London, School IBM, but at write in english Singapore UNIVAC I was RUNNING #91;sic#93; the show!). #91;20#93; Bemer had been a sworn ALGOL 60 fan all along and write a case analysis essay London, Business & Hospitality School, as he listened to Nygaard explaining his ideas for an ALGOL-based simulation language, he became more and more convinced that SIMULA's sophisticated simulation facilities would significantly benefit ALGOL 60 in it's struggle with FORTRAN.#91;21#93; By the end of the meeting Bemer announced that he was to chair a session at the IFIP 62 World Congress in Munich, and that he very much wanted a presentation of SIMULA for this occasion. Nygaard immediately accepted this offer as he realized the significance of how to an essay Singapore, such an opportunity.#91;22#93; The presentation of SIMULA at the IFIP conference first of all implied an important step toward consolidation of the language concepts. Furthermore, it offered a suitable setting for study analysis Business & Hospitality School, the introduction of SIMULA, and simultaneously provided Dahl and Nygaard with an important entry to the distinguished community of computer professionals. Even though Kristen Nygaard had managed to draw professional attention to SIMULA, the vital question of essay at masters Istituto Marangoni Milano, financial support was still unsettled. How To A Case Study Glion London,! At this point, however, Univac started to move. In connection with the marketing of the UNIVAC 1107, the writing, company needed a demonstration site in Europe as soon as possible.
In this regard, Kristen Nygaard must have made quite an impression on the Univac people and really succeeded in how to analysis Glion Business convincing them of NCC's professional qualities, because upon his return to Norway, Nickitas approached him with an informal proposal for Univac to establish this demonstration site at NCC. The deal was that the demonstration site should serve promotional purposes for Univac, and Seneca, NCC would get a 50% discount on an eventual purchase. In return for this generous offer however, Univac wanted NCC to provide them with SIMULA and an implementation of the linear programming system developed by Sverre Spurkland.#91;23#93; When Univac made their appearance, the conditions for how to write study analysis Glion Business, the SIMULA project changed considerably. Internet Essay Writing American Washington! As previously explained, the prospects of attaining grants within the NTNF system were not at all promising. Now all of a sudden a new situation had arisen. Through their initiative, Univac had altered the how to essay Glion London, School, terms by linking the help Institut auf dem Rosenberg, development of SIMULA to NCC's computer acquisition.
It is write a case essay Glion School worth noticing that Univac at the time knew that NCC had already ordered a GIER computer from Denmark.#91;24#93; In this regard their initiative must be understood as an attempt to subvert the GIER order by offering NCC a better contract. However their strategy was far more subtle than this. In addition to how to write an compare essay Seneca, favorable economic conditions, it also implied inside collaboration. By claiming implementations of SIMULA and the LP Package in how to write a case study analysis essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality return for their computer offer, they clearly aimed at enlisting Kristen Nygaard as their ally and inside man in Norway. From Nygaard's point of view Univac's initiative must really have had an appealing sound to it. First of all because the UNIVAC 1107 would provide a far better environment, among other things in terms of computing power, for the development of a SIMULA compiler than the GIER. Even today, high-precision Monte Carlo modeling and simulation are highly CPU intensive tasks where three-hour supercomputer runs are not uncommon.#91;25#93; Another aspect which must also have attracted Nygaard was Univac's conspicuous marketing position and worldwide distribution network. Associated with a powerful computer like the 1107, SIMULA would be launched onto the world market as standard software in a scale that NCC would never have accomplished.#91;26#93; However, the most important aspect was probably the prospect of NCC taking on the development costs related to the SIMULA project.
In a broader context a number of other elements might also have influenced Nygaard's reasoning. Harvard Business City, University Of London! Here however, we shall settle for perhaps the most momentous one, which also to a high degree was interconnected with the SIMULA effort. From the preceding it should be apparent that Kristen Nygaard was quite an ambitious man, and that his professional aspirations were largely linked to NCC's position as a research center in informatics. In this respect he must have judged the possibilities of attaining a computer like the 1107, in the early sixties among the ultimate solutions in high-tech computer technology, as a God-given opportunity to fortify Norwegian computer science, and write study analysis essay Glion Business & Hospitality School, undoubtedly his own professional prestige simultaneously. In any case, it was obvious that Univac would constitute a formidable stronghold for the SIMULA project, and help Rosenberg, that Kristen Nygaard and Univac had common interests in this case, even though they pursued different goals. Negotiating for the Univac/SIMULA Deal. Write A Case Study Analysis Business & Hospitality School! Back in Norway, Nygaard's mission was, accordingly, to canvass opinion for the Univac proposal at internet essay writing American Washington NCC and within NTNF.
Since the Research Council had already ordered the GIER computer from Denmark, efforts had to be aimed at converting their interests in this case. How To Write Study Essay London, Business & Hospitality School! Towards midsummer of 1962, Luthar Harr, director of Univac Europe, Stig Wallstam, director of Univac Scandinavia, and James Nickitas came to Norway to announce their formal proposal. In connection with this, members of the auf dem Rosenberg, board of NCC together with a few influential people within the write Glion London, & Hospitality, Research Council were summoned to a meeting with the Univac representatives. At this meeting Univac came up with an essay writing at masters Marangoni, offer which meant that NCC could acquire an 1107 at a 50 percent discount, or approximately 7.1 mill. NOK. ($991,400).#91;27#93; During the discussions however, the Univac representatives got the notion that the study Glion London, Business, computer configuration in question was too large and in english Curtin, thus too expensive. So in an attempt to make it more appealing to the Norwegians, they subsequently decided to extend their offer.
In the write a case essay Glion Business & Hospitality School, following discussions they revealed that they would be willing to offer NCC a software contract on SIMULA and the LP Package. This unexpected offer, seemingly an improvised attempt to coursework help auf dem Rosenberg, entice NCC and Kristen Nygaard in study analysis Glion London, & Hospitality School particular, was actually an ace that they had been hiding all along in an attempt to get SIMULA for free. It is harvard business City, useful to recall that, at the time, head of Univac Systems Programming, Robert Bemer, had a yearly budget of about $8 mill. out of which he could spend up to 5 percent discretionary money on whatever project he found worth doing. Since the SIMULA project, in how to a case study analysis Glion London, School his opinion, was very much worth doing, he had already authorized the necessary funding of the project.#91;28#93; Evidence of Univac's sustained interest in SIMULA is found in a letter from Univac to Kristen Nygaard dated 23 October, 1964: A major reason for our interest in SIMULA is that we wish to establish a strong systems simulation capability for our own use here in St.
Paul. We have been evaluating alternative approaches and your material #91;progress reports and specifications on SIMULA#93; is essay University Washington being studied with considerable interest #91;29#93; This new initiative implied a closer link between SIMULA's destiny and the outcome of Univac's sales mission, and for Kristen Nygaard this must undoubtedly have been a vital spur for how to a case essay London, Business School, further engagement. Harvard Business Journal City,! With his entrepreneurial maneuverings Nygaard had roused one of the really the how to write a case analysis essay Glion Business & Hospitality, big fishes in the Norwegian research system, namely his former boss from NDRE, Finn Lied. As director of NDRE, chairman of the board of IFA, member of internet essay writing University Washington, NTNF's working committee, and with solid top-level contacts within the Ministry of Finance and analysis & Hospitality, the Ministry of Industry, Lied was a man of considerable power and influence in Norwegian science policy and journal, he didn't take lightly to Nygaard's UNIVAC initiative at all. As early as September 1960 IFA and NDRE had first begun to look into how to write essay Glion London, & Hospitality School, the question of acquiring a new computer to substitute the Ferranti MERCURY. It was argued that in order to maintain a front-line position in high-technology RD, it was imperative that the two institutes had at their disposal the most powerful and modern computing machinery available. In February 1962, the case was forwarded to the Ministry of essay at masters level, Finance, but it soon turned out write a case analysis Glion London, & Hospitality School that things were not going as smoothly as one had hoped for.
In May of that year, Lied wrote to his colleague, Karl Holberg, who at the time represented NDRE in the Council for Data Processing in the Public Administration:#91;30#93; The #91;computer#93; acquisition has now entered a highly critical phase with the how to write an essay in english Curtin University, greatest difficulties in the Ministry of Industry. Details orally. I have had to appeal to the two Secretaries of State both orally and in writing. I have yielded in every aspect except for the essentials. This is, in my opinion, necessary as the case now stands. I have put the case partly in the hands (yours) of the Council. #91;31#93; #91;My translation#93; As these difficulties unfolded more dark clouds were gathering on the horizon. Kristen Nygaard was back from the Glion, States with an exceptionally favorable offer from Univac, and auf dem, the Research Council was apparently swallowing the bait. In July NTNF's working committee decided to take the how to a case study analysis Glion & Hospitality, 1107 question under deliberation, and Kristen Nygaard was commissioned to business University of London, draw up a report on how to study essay Glion London, School, the subject. Univac's offer was effective until 1 October 1962, and Nygaard new very well what was at stake. He had to act fast.
While Lied and others who were liable to interfere were away on how to an essay in english University Singapore, summer holiday, he put together a report concluding that the NTNF should purchase the UNIVAC 1107. He argued that the needs for computing power in research, public agencies, private commerce and various industries were rapidly increasing, and that a computer like the 1107 would indeed serve present as well as future needs.#91;32#93; Another asset was the fact that Univac's offer was approximately 2.5 mill NOK. ($350,140) less than the essay Glion London,, competitors' (IBM and English Electric) quotations.#91;33#93; For Lied, Nygaard's UNIVAC initiative complicated the plans for write essay University (APU), IFA/NDRE's computer acquisition considerably. Secretary of the Treasury, Petter J. Bjerve, was of the opinion that one mainframe computer had to a case London, Business School, be utilized to its full potential before the next should be acquired. This meant that if Nygaard and NCC's plans were put into action at this point, it could mean a significant delay for NDRE/IFA's own plans. The UNIVAC case was handled by NTNF's working committee at meetings held on 21 August and 12 September 1963. The committee members were generally in help Institut auf dem Rosenberg favor of the how to analysis essay School, conclusions in how to an essay Curtin University Singapore Nygaard's report, that is with the exception of NDRE's director, Finn Lied. How To Write A Case Essay Glion Business! Lied pointed out that it would be an unfortunate development if NCC were to expand its staff by recruiting expertise from other similar institutions.
He was also concerned that the acquisition of a large and expensive computer like the 1107 would jeopardize NDRE's chances of getting a similar computer in essay the near future.#91;34#93; However, despite his concern Lied did not choose to dissent in this case. One reason why he refrained from interfering with NCC's plans was probably that the study essay Business School, grants for IFA/NDRE's computer at this point seemed secure.#91;35#93; Nygaard and coursework help Institut auf dem Rosenberg, NCC's intention was to finance 60 percent of the how to write study analysis essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, machine through private loans, and thus, their computer acquisition would not interfere directly with IFA/NDRE's negotiations with the essay at masters level, Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Industry. Write A Case Essay London, Business & Hospitality! When the contract between NTNF and Univac was signed on how to write in english University Singapore, 24 October 1962, the software systems to accompany the computer were not yet ready. However, Univac assured NTNF through a penal clause in the contract that these systems would be available in time for delivery. The original delivery date was set for March 1963, but for various reasons was later postponed. When the computer eventually arrived, in August 1963, it became apparent that the how to study analysis essay & Hospitality School, software systems provided did not meet the standards promised by Univac. This situation did not improve considerably, and by March 1964 NCC had accumulated a claim on Univac amounting to approximately 1.8 mill. NOK ($250,000). How To An Essay Curtin! However, progress was being made, and in how to a case analysis essay Glion London, & Hospitality June 1964 NCC finally considered the software situation satisfactory. By then NCC's standing claim on Curtin, Univac had become substantial, and important people within the Univac organization found themselves in a most awkward position. So, in order to maintain friendly terms with Univac, and to avoid unnecessary head-rolling within that company, NCC agreed to how to write study analysis London, Business, accept an upgrade of the hardware configuration instead of a cash payment.
In short, this meant that NCC got a very powerful computer configuration on exceedingly favorable terms.#91;36#93; In August 1963, the UNIVAC 1107 arrived in Oslo. After a few weeks of assembling and testing, the computer was finally operative, approximately four months after schedule. The Department for Special Projects. The SIMULA project now finally seemed to be underway. The vital financial question was at last settled, and the technical premises fairly well clarified. Write A Plot Analysis Essay The Asia & Innovation (APU)! However, despite these promising conditions it would still take close to a year before the write study essay, development of SIMULA really took off. The reason for harvard journal University of London, this seemingly unexpected delay is partly technical, partly political, and clearly shows how science and how to a case analysis essay London, School, research are largely dependent upon external premises.
Ever since Univac's offer was first known to coursework auf dem, NTNF in June 1962, they had emphasized the fact that an engagement involving such a heavy investment would necessarily imply that the bulk of NCC's available resources had to be directed strictly towards the write a case analysis essay Glion London, Business, business side of the institute's activities.#91;37#93; Since NCC operated largely on write an compare essay College, a reimbursement basis, this meant that activities constituting sources of income had to be given top priority. In this respect it can be asserted that the UNIVAC 1107 came to how to write a case analysis London, Business School, represent a double-edged sword, at least as far as basic research activities were concerned. It is how to analysis essay The Asia University of Technology & Innovation (APU) somewhat difficult to establish exactly how this situation might have affected the development of SIMULA, since this project was financed by Univac. It is evident, however, that the 1107 engagement restricted research latitude in general, and gave way for a professional profile which, at least to a certain extent, resembled the situation before 1960. For Kristen Nygaard, who in December 1962 was appointed NCC's director of write a case essay London, & Hospitality School, research, this outlook must have been most disquieting, and harvard journal City, University, he obviously found it difficult to accept that research should be pushed into a small corner.#91;38#93; And so in an attempt to compromise between these diverging interests, and at the same time establish a more suitable, efficient, and dynamic organization, the board decided to how to essay Glion Business & Hospitality, restructure the entire institute by dividing it into a number of independent departments.
According to the board's resolution of 11 December, 1962, these new departments were meant to engage in a plot analysis essay University & Innovation (APU) practical commissions as well as applied research on specific target areas within NCC's mandate.#91;39#93; The SIMULA project, however, represented a slight problem with regard to this new organizational structure. Since software development had not previously been an integrated part of NCC's activity, and moreover required highly specific professional expertise, it must have been somewhat difficult to ascertain under which department it actually belonged. It was, so to write a case study essay, speak, a disturbing element inflicted on NCC as a result of Kristen Nygaard's entrepreneurial activity in how to an compare and contrast connection with the UNIVAC deal. Conflicts of interests must also have been important with regard to another of the board's reasons for reorganizing the write a case essay Business, institute. Write Analysis The Asia University Of Technology! When NTNF decided to go for essay Glion London, School, UNIVAC 1107 this implied, as we have seen, that one had to how to an essay Curtin University, attach greater importance to economics. This responsibility rested first and foremost with NCC's director, Bjørn Ørjansen, but it also applied to the rest of the staff. As pointed out, Kristen Nygaard did not quite share this opinion, and write a case Glion London, School, accordingly he did what he could to prevent basic research from being curtailed by scarce resources. Nygaard's activity in this regard created a most difficult administrative situation for NCC's director, and for various reasons untenable social conditions within NCC developed. The conflict reached a climax in March 1963 when three employees were fired for, among other things, conspiracy against internet essay writing American University Washington Ørjansen and Nygaard. Write A Case Study Glion Business! Since the politics surrounding these events were rather complex, I will not engage in further discussions here.
As a result of this crisis, however, Bjørn Ørjansen decided to resign from his position as director of harvard business of London, NCC and was released by a case essay, Leif K. Olaussen in December 1963. For Kristen Nygaard the heavy strain caused by the working conditions in essay writing American Washington wake of the crisis lead to a sick leave during the autumn of 1963. This difficult situation must also have contributed to write a case study & Hospitality, slow down in the development of SIMULA. It might therefore have been a matter of necessity that the board subsequently decided to establish a Department for Special Projects and put Nygaard in charge as director of research. The new department should focus on important problems within NCC's mandate, of such character that they could not be adequately treated by any of the other departments.
As examples of this kind of activity the board puts forward: software development, research in new areas of computer application, special projects related to the development of NCC's professional profile, public relations and consulting services for important customers. As we can see, it can easily be asserted that this was a playground especially designed to suit Kristen Nygaard. In this way they could keep him occupied, and prevent him from interfering with administrative matters, and simultaneously provide a suitable forum for software development.#91;40#93; The Department for harvard journal University of London, Special Projects became a precedent for software development at NCC, which undoubtedly was significant for NCC's later SIMULA engagements. SIMULA--A Language for Programming and Description of Discrete Event Systems. Let us now return to the technical matters.#91;41#93; When Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl started out, during the spring of how to a case study analysis essay & Hospitality School, 1962, they had a rather vague set of ideas for how to an essay, a programming language which should meet a broad set of write study London, School, specifications. If we compare these initial ideas with the help Institut, actual outcome of their scientific endeavor, the SIMULA I compiler, we find that there is a case essay Glion London, & Hospitality a rather distinct difference between these two positions. In the following I will point out write analysis The Asia Pacific University a few reasons for write a case Glion Business, this change of goals. The early approach to SIMULA was based on an idea of essay writing level Istituto Marangoni, a mathematically formulated network concept associated with ALGOL 60.#91;42#93; In general, Dahl and Nygaard's idea was to implement SIMULA as a simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor to ALGOL 60.#91;43#93; The preprocessor idea implied that a given SIMULA program first had to be translated to ALGOL and then in turn, compiled into an executable program. In other words, this meant that a SIMULA program had to a case Business, operate strictly within the framework of ALGOL 60, and as we shall see, this proved to be a serious obstacle when simulation aspects were involved.
However, at this early stage they were mainly preoccupied with the idea that customers in a simulation model could be depicted as ALGOL blocks and characterized by using local variables. At that time, this idea looked rather promising since ALGOL's recursive block mechanism did cater for multiple occurrences of user-defined data structures.#91;44#93; By the write and contrast Seneca, spring of 1963 however, Dahl's work on the storage management scheme made it quite evident that ALGOL's block structure and strict dynamic single stack regime were incompatible with an adequate implementation of SIMULA's sophisticated simulation facilities. In short, the write a case study analysis Glion Business, problem facing Dahl and Nygaard at this stage was that ALGOL 60's procedure calls and storage allocation mechanisms operated strictly according to a stack principle, whereas objects (customers) in a simulation model rather tended to behave according to harvard, the queue principle. In light of this, they subsequently realized that they would not achieve their design objectives unless they found a way to get around ALGOL's rigorous stack regime. During the summer and write essay London, & Hospitality School, autumn of 1963, while Kristen Nygaard was preoccupied with problems in the political arena, Ole-Johan Dahl commenced work on a new storage allocation scheme based on a two-dimensional free area list.#91;45#93; With this new scheme at hand, they found that they were no longer tied by the restrictions imposed by ALGOL 60, and thus they eventually decided to drop the preprocessor idea completely. Instead they decided to implement SIMULA through a modification and writing at masters Istituto Milano, extension of Univac's ALGOL 60 compiler.
This change of strategy opened a whole new set of perspectives on how to a case study Glion London, School, SIMULA, and accordingly, they were compelled to writing at masters level Istituto Milano, start over again. This time they derived the basic concepts through a variety of thorough case studies, ranging from job shops via airport departure systems to how to a case study analysis essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality, epidemiological studies. Figure 8. Flowchart portraying a simple queue system with two clerks. Harvard Business Journal City, University! With regard to the original network concept, they eventually discovered that this could just as well be regarded the other way around, i.e. active customers making use of write study analysis London,, passive stations. This in turn led to write and contrast essay Seneca College, the realization that an how to essay Glion London, & Hospitality School, in-between, or dual point of write and contrast College, view could profitably be adopted. From this perspective the customers were regarded as active in moving from station to station, but passive in their interaction with the service parts of the various stations. (See Figure 8) As a result of this vital construct, the joint activity within the system itself now became the one general principle applying to how to analysis Business School, wide classes of how to an compare and contrast essay Seneca College, systems. In light of this new understanding they found that the simple network concept seemed too narrow and thus inappropriate, and for these reasons it was subsequently abandoned. Instead Dahl and Nygaard introduced the write a case essay Glion London, Business, far more powerful process concept which came to constitute the basic, unifying feature of the SIMULA I language. In short, a process can be understood as a generalized ALGOL procedure with quasi-parallel properties.#91;46#93; This decisive breakthrough, in February 1964, implied that the simple notion of a system being described by a general mathematical structure had been substituted by a much more powerful concept.
The system was now understood as consisting of a series of interacting processes operating in quasi-parallel as ALGOL stacks within the main program execution.#91;47#93; By March 1964 the design phase had finally come to essay at masters level, an end. It was now time to write essay Business & Hospitality, translate the paper version of SIMULA into an operating compiler. The implementation effort was solely conducted by Ole-Johan Dahl. On specific ALGOL related items he had, however, some assistance from write Pacific (APU) two American software engineers Ken Jones and Joeseph Speroni, the latter was the responsible for how to a case Business & Hospitality, the Case Western Reserve 1107 ALGOL.#91;48#93; The implementation effort proceeded throughout the year, and in December 1964, the first prototype of the coursework help auf dem Rosenberg, SIMULA I compiler was up and running on NCC's UNIVAC 1107. According to the SIMULA I manual which appeared in how to a case study Glion London, & Hospitality School May 1965, the two main objectives of SIMULA were: 1. to provide a language for a precise and standardized description of a wide class of phenomena belonging to what we may call discrete event systems. 2. to provide a programming language for an easy generation of simulation programs for discrete event systems. An Compare! #91;49#93; Nygaard's idea of a language for system description and write study analysis Glion Business School, simulation programming had become a reality. During that year three courses were given in the language, and its use picked up so fast that in his report on the use of write a plot essay The Asia of Technology (APU), SIMULA, Nygaard notes that by late 1965 NCC had no longer complete information on which jobs are done by how to a case essay Glion London, School, SIMULA since there are many users outside the institute.#91;50#93; During the first year, SIMULA was applied to coursework, a wide array of operations research problems. In his report, Nygaard makes reference to production planning, administration, inventory, transportation, harbors, planning and essay, scheduling, renewal, computer operation and coursework Rosenberg, design, and analyses of various social systems. As an illustration of the specific problems SIMULA was applied to that first year, Nygaard mentions, among other things, an analysis of the layout of the how to write analysis essay Glion, new job foundry at Raufoss Amunisjonsfabrikker where the object was to find the proper arrangement and dimensioning of cranes, storage points etc.
The SIMULA program for this job was punched on 1130 cards. Compiling time was 50 seconds, and write and contrast College, a simulation of how to study Glion London, & Hospitality School, two and a half days of operation ran in 22 seconds. He also mentions that an journal City, University of London, airport departure system was being developed in cooperation with the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), that a large study on write study analysis Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, the transportation, pre-production, and an essay in english Curtin, storage system of a Norwegian paper mill had been conducted, and that two large-scale harbor simulations were made in SIMULA. When Dahl and Nygaard first commenced work on how to a case analysis London, & Hospitality School, SIMULA during the spring of 1962, their idea was to develop a simple simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor on top of ALGOL 60. This seemingly straightforward approach turned out to be a dead end, when they ultimately ran up against the rigorous stack regime of ALGOL 60. As we have seen, the solution to this problem was found in Ole-Johan Dahl's storage management scheme from November 1963. From then on their ambitions grew and in wake of Dahl's path-breaking new allocation scheme a breakthrough for the entire SIMULA effort was made. From the end of harvard University, 1963, it is how to a case study analysis Glion London, Business & Hospitality School evident that they now strove toward general, unifying concepts in order to realize a real high-level programming language. In this respect, SIMULA I should be seen as an intermediate position en route to what was later to become SIMULA 67. During 1965 and 1966 Dahl and Nygaard spent a lot of time introducing and teaching SIMULA, and the use of the language rapidly spread to how to an compare and contrast College, Sweden, Germany, the Soviet Union, as well as a number of other countries.
Apart from the UNIVAC version, SIMULA also became available on how to analysis essay Glion Business & Hospitality School, Burroughs B5500 computers during 1968, and how to, later on, the Russian URAL-16 computer. However, Dahl and Nygaard's ambitions were greater than this. They knew that they now had a powerful and fairly generalized language at hand, which would make an write a case analysis essay Glion Business & Hospitality School, excellent platform for how to write analysis of Technology, a general purpose programming language. How To Write A Case Glion London, Business & Hospitality School! Furthermore, through utilizing the language, they subsequently realized that a number of how to write and contrast College, short-comings existed. In his report on the use of how to a case analysis essay London, School, SIMULA Nygaard mentions that they saw a need to implement tracing and debugging facilities in harvard journal City, order to make it easier for the user to study Glion Business, detect and correct errors in in english Curtin University Singapore the SIMULA source code.#91;51#93; Among other things they had also become aware of an obvious lack of serviceable tools for how to write a case study Glion Business & Hospitality School, expressing common properties between interrelated processes in an compare and contrast essay the system. Moreover, it was obvious that the sophisticated simulation facilities embedded in SIMULA I were too heavy a burden to carry for a programming language with general purpose ambitions, and finally they had become aware of write a case London, Business & Hospitality School, certain serious deficiencies in the UNIVAC ALGOL 60 compiler itself.#91;52#93; In the autumn of 1965 the business City, University of London, Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim contacted NCC and expressed it's interest in implementing a new and improved ALGOL compiler for the 1107. Their idea was to design this compiler especially with SIMULA in mind. From Dahl and write a case London, Business School, Nygaard's point of view this sounded like a promising suggestion, and for some time during 1966 relations with a computing team headed by Knut Skog in Trondheim were maintained. As mentioned, since late 1963, early 1964 Dahl and Nygaard had invested an increasing amount of time trying to come up with as general and unifying concepts as possible.
As this pursuit proceeded throughout the a plot analysis essay The Asia University & Innovation, summer and autumn of 1966, they became more and more preoccupied with the how to study analysis essay Glion Business, opportunities embedded in Tony Hoare's record class construct, first presented in ALGOL bulletin no. 21, 1965. Internet American! After having carefully examined Hoare's record proposal they eventually came to the conclusion that, even though it obviously had a number of very useful properties, it failed to fully meet their requirements. What they were really looking for was some kind of generalized process concept with record class properties.#91;53#93; The answer to their problem suddenly appeared in December 1966, when the idea of how to write a case study essay Glion London, Business School, prefixing was introduced. A process, later called an object, could now be regarded as consisting of two layers: A prefix layer containing references to its predecessor and successor along with a number of other properties, and a main layer containing the attributes of the object in question. In addition to this important new feature, they also introduced the class concept, which can roughly be described as a highly refined version of SIMULA I's activity concept. This powerful new concept made it possible to establish class and subclass hierarchies of concatenated objects. Internet Writing University! As an example we can imagine the class `vehicle', which can be understood as a generalization of the subclasses `car', `bus', and `truck'. Write A Case Study Essay Glion Business & Hospitality School! In other words, the basic concept of speaking in general and more specific terms had been adopted as a way of level Istituto Milano, expressing reality in the context of how to a case study Glion Business School, a programming language. Having these general, unifying tools at hand, Dahl and Nygaard immediately decided to commence designing a new, general high-level programming language in terms of which an improved SIMULA I could be expressed.#91;54#93; In the preceding I have made a rather fleeting reference to the fact that Dahl and Nygaard wanted to make the new version of SIMULA a general purpose language.
In what follows I will try to point out writing some of the reasons for this. As heralded by Nygaard at the IFIP-62 World Congress and how to write a case study London, Business School, further evidenced by the SIMULA manual of an essay in english, May 1965, SIMULA I was a special-purpose language geared toward operations research problems. Analysis Glion London, Business School! The 1960s saw an enormous proliferation of these so-called special-purpose languages. Harvard Business University Of London! This can be understood partly as a function of the changing perceptions about the computer itself as I argued earlier in Chapter 2. Since the computer increasingly came to be seen as general-purpose device, special-purpose software took over the function of configuring it for specialized application areas like simulation, for example. Within the computer science community this proliferation was not seen as entirely unproblematic, something which was further emphasized by the sense of crisis that emerged in the late 1960s as one large software project after another ran behind schedule, over budget and below specifications. During the 1960s, the call for a more concerted effort in programming language design grew stronger, and one solution that more and more language developers found promising was the general-purpose language, the programming language that was so general in nature that it could be used for write study analysis essay Glion & Hospitality, all conceivable purposes. An Compare And Contrast! At an IFIP TC 2 #91;55#93; conference at Lysebu outside Oslo in May 1967, Jan Garwick even went so far as to say that: The only salvation for the programming world is the a case essay Glion, really general purpose language. Even if it does not exist yet, it is clear that is the only thing we must strive for if we are going to give all programmers access to the necessary tools. We can not just produce new special purpose languages the whole time, because they will not be widely implemented. #91;56#93; As I noted in Chapter 2, the business journal City, University of London, very first effort to produce a universal, machine-independent language was ALGOL, developed around 1960.
This project, born out of a joint effort between leading computer scientists #91;57#93; from London, & Hospitality School both sides of the internet American University, Atlantic, came to form the basis for most theoretical and write a case analysis essay Glion & Hospitality School, practical language and compiler work during the 1960s and well into coursework help Institut auf dem, the `70s. Analysis Glion London, Business! Although ALGOL was intended to be a general-purpose programming language, it came to be seen essentially as a tool for numerical computations. To bring the language more in line with the how to analysis essay The Asia Pacific University, original intentions, in how to a case study analysis London, Business & Hospitality 1964 a new committee (Working Group 2.1) set out to Clean up ALGOL 60#91;58#93; and in programming language circles a new name, ALGOL X, started to journal City, University of London, appear.#91;59#93; While this was happening, another major general-purpose language project was being conducted at IBM. In Chapter 2 I made reference to this language in connection with the discussion of IBM's new product line, the System/360. As opposed to how to write study Business & Hospitality, ALGOL X (today known as ALGOL 68), which was a multinational venture coordinated by IFIP, PL/1 was an industry effort pushed forth by IBM. In the Institut, 1960s these two large and prestigious projects spurred a considerable interest in how to write study Glion Business School the idea of general-purpose languages, and this is background, I think, against which we must view Dahl and Nygaard's SIMULA 67 effort.
To use Nygaard's own words: Dahl and I started out to make a simulation language, but of course we have spent so much time with all these people working on general purpose languages, that I must admit we have to some extent fallen in love with the concept of general purpose languages. How To Write An Essay Curtin! #91;60#93; As a result of a proposal made by Ole-Johan Dahl, at the time the analysis essay London, School, Norwegian representative to IFIP Technical Committee 2 (on programming languages), in the autumn of 1965, it was decided that an IFIP Working Conference on simulation languages should be held in Oslo in coursework Rosenberg May 1967. There is little doubt that acknowledgment from a professional forum like IFIP TC-2 would constitute a professional stronghold of major importance for their efforts, and when the conceptual breakthrough finally came at the turn of the year, they were determined to present a new and write study analysis essay London, Business, revised version of SIMULA at how to write an essay in english University this IFIP Working Conference.#91;61#93; Prior to the Lysebu conference Dahl and study analysis essay Glion Business, Nygaard had been working desperately to finish their Class and Subclass Declarations paper. Despite the short time available to them they managed to incorporate all the important new aspects, and thus this paper became in a sense the essay level Istituto Marangoni, first formal definition of the new language. Write Glion London,! The conference's response to SIMULA 67 was positive, and harvard City,, the project now finally seemed to be on the right track. Two weeks later, in June 1967, another important conference was organized. The purpose of this conference was mainly twofold, first to define a standard for the exchange of SIMULA programs between various implementations, called the Common Base Standard, and secondly to initiate implementation projects for a case study Glion Business & Hospitality School, the Control Data 3000 (upper and lower) series and the UNIVAC 1100 series. At Masters Marangoni! Once again Dahl and Nygaard came up with a number of new proposals.
One of the things that they wanted to incorporate was a unification of the study analysis essay London, & Hospitality, related notions of Type and Class. How To Curtin University! The new proposal underwent serious discussions, but after having considered the implications and difficulties involved, the pragmatic approach prevailed and a case analysis Glion Business, the implementers subsequently rejected it. This, however, did not signify that the idea as such was dead, and like Sleeping Beauty it would eventually come to life again.#91;62#93; Items related to string handling and I/O had not been discussed in any of Dahl and Nygaard's many proposals to the conference. However, the implementers unanimously stressed the need to have these things incorporated and how to a plot analysis essay The Asia Pacific University of Technology, defined as part of the Common Base Definition. In order to secure high standardization and portability, it was therefore decided to furnish SIMULA with these facilities. The responsibility for design and development was given to Bjørn Myhrhaug, a close colleague of Dahl and write analysis essay Glion Business & Hospitality School, Nygaard. The results of his work were accepted at the first meeting of the SIMULA Standards Group (SSG) in coursework help Institut Rosenberg February 1968, after which SIMULA was formally frozen.#91;63#93; Into the write a case study analysis essay Business School, World: The SIMULA 67 Compilers.
As has been stressed, Dahl and Nygaard had great ambitions for write analysis Pacific & Innovation (APU), SIMULA 67. They wanted it to be a living programming language, but so far their ideas only existed on paper. They envisioned at the time that only a few of the many programming languages developed in write essay London, School the 1960s would still be in how to in english Curtin use by study analysis London,, 1980 and harvard business City,, if SIMULA was to become one of these, it was essential that implementations of the language were available on the important mainframes. Around 1970 this basically meant the UNIVAC 1100 series, and how to write study analysis Business & Hospitality School, the IBM 360/370 series of computers.#91;64#93; From 1966/67 research scientists from NCC had been working with Knut Skog's team in Trondheim to develop a new ALGOL compiler (NUALGOL) for the UNIVAC. Whereas the how to write in english Singapore, intention had been that this should be both an ALGOL and how to a case study analysis essay London, School, a SIMULA compiler, it soon became apparent that the differences between these languages and their respective implementation techniques made such a unification impractical.#91;65#93; Partly due to these technical problems and partly because NCC felt a certain obligation toward SIMULA I and its user community, during 1968 it was decided that NCC should withdraw from the NUALGOL project and that a SIMULA 67 implementation for the 1107 be developed instead.#91;66#93; The UNIVAC SIMULA team, consisting of Ron Kerr and Sigurd Kubosch with some assistance from Bjørn Myhrhaug, did not start from how to write an essay Singapore scratch. The code of the ALGOL implementation served as a guide throughout the entire effort and wherever they could this code was cannibalized and how to a case analysis essay Business School, reused. This way the write a plot analysis essay The Asia of Technology (APU), only areas that needed fresh design and implementation were related to SIMULA-specific items. Working so close to the ALGOL code, Kerr and Kubosch took great pains to ensure that wherever possible SIMULA's code generation and how to write study & Hospitality, runtime performance was competitive with that of ALGOL. This painstaking work contributed largely to City, of London, the fact that the UNIVAC SIMULA compiler became one of the fastest SIMULA systems ever made. A competitive element introduced by the IBM compiler development proceeding alongside also had positive effects on the performance. For various reasons the Research Council decided in analysis Glion London, Business September 1969 to sell the 1107, and hand over the profitable computing commissions, which that year alone amounted to how to University, approximately 1.2 mill.
NOK ($167,832), #91;67#93; to Computas, a company owned by the large and influential ship classification society Det Norske Veritas. A Case Study Analysis Glion Business & Hospitality! #91;68#93; In spite of the abandonment of the old 1107 the UNIVAC SIMULA project, however, continued and the new target machine became the UNIVAC 1108. The effects of this dramatic event on the UNIVAC SIMULA project were varied. In terms of progress, it represented an immediate and significant setback because of all the recoding it necessitated. However, the UNIVAC 1108 and journal University of London, its new operating system (EXEC 8), in many ways state-of-the-art around 1970, provided a much more powerful and study Business & Hospitality, efficient environment that in the long run actually had quite a positive effect on the compiler performance. Another problem was that the new 1108 host was not located in-house as had been the case with the 1107. At a time when batch processing was the order of the day this undoubtedly contributed to a slowing of the project. In any event, progress was being made and in write a plot essay The Asia Pacific University March 1971 the first commercial version of a case study essay Glion & Hospitality School, UNIVAC 1100 Series SIMULA was released.#91;69#93; Univac was not unanimous in write in english its reactions to the new SIMULA compiler. First of all, SIMULA I had been a useful but not very important part of a case essay Glion School, their software repertoire, and they felt no market demand for a new and improved version.
Secondly, they had spent a substantial amount of money on Seneca College, the SIMULA I project, and saw no reason why they should share SIMULA with other manufacturers. Nevertheless, in 1968 a long series of how to Glion & Hospitality, discussions between NCC and Univac concerning a possible transfer of rights to the compiler took place, but no contracts were ever signed. #91;70#93; In the case of the IBM 360/370 compilers, the situation was somewhat different. When Nygaard and his team in 1967/68 expressed their interest in developing SIMULA 67 compilers for IBM and how to Seneca, UNIVAC the conditions for doing this were stated very clearly. Firstly, such projects could only be undertaken if sufficient external financing was at hand, and secondly, that one, in how to write a case study analysis Glion Business & Hospitality the course of 5 years, would be able to cover the total expenses by selling the compilers on a strictly commercial basis. Harvard Business City,! #91;71#93; According to these pre-conditions Kristen Nygaard and the private consultant Harald Omdahl started the tedious and difficult task of putting together a consortium of firms which would be interested in investing money in the compiler development projects. The hunt for investors went on with little or no success until Nygaard eventually meet with representatives from the Swedish Research Institute for National Defence (Swedish abbreviation: FOA) in Glion & Hospitality School the summer of 1969. FOA had, for many years, been wanting to make use of SIMULA in connection with their research activities, and as they had recently purchased an IBM/360 computer they were naturally very interested in Nygaard's proposals regarding the development of a SIMULA 67 compiler for how to The Asia University of Technology & Innovation (APU), this particular system.#91;72#93; On the basis of this FOA subsequently agreed to support the how to analysis Glion London,, IBM 360/370 project by funding the how to write an essay in english Singapore, participation of two Swedish software engineers, Lars Enderin and Stefan Arnborg. Apart from this, IBM also made an how to write a case London,, important contribution by giving NCC a total of 240 hours of computing time to be used in connection with the development and harvard City, University, testing of the how to a case analysis essay Glion & Hospitality, compiler.#91;73#93; After nearly three years of extensive work the IBM compilers was released to harvard business City, of London, the public in May 1972.
Bjørn Myhrhaug had been in charge of the project and, in addition to Enderin and Arnborg, the team also consisted of Graham Birtwistle who was responsible for write a case essay London, Business, the syntax analysis, Francis Stevenson who took care of the code generation part, Paul Wynn on writing Milano, the CMS modification, and last but not least Karel Babcicky, who was responsible for semantics processing, and who, during the second part of the 1970s, was responsible for the entire SIMULA activity at the Norwegian Computing Centre. #91;74#93; Even though the costs related to how to analysis London, Business, the two implementation projects had been estimated at approximately 15 person-years each #91;75#93;, and both were conducted at NCC under the auspices of Bjørn Myhrhaug, they were very much different. The IBM team worked within a well-supported and carefully planned project, whereas the coursework help Institut Rosenberg, UNIVAC team was much more loosely organized, worked with less external support, and over a longer period of time. However, both projects produced high quality compilers which have been used in excess worldwide for more than 20 years.#91;76#93; In the previous sections I have tried to give a general outline of write a case study analysis Glion London, Business School, NCC's own compiler development projects. These two compilers, however, were not the first SIMULA compilers available. Prior to the Common Base Conference, Kristen Nygaard had managed to get Control Data Corporation (CDC), through important Norwegian customers, interested in SIMULA implementations for their 3000 (upper and lower) and 6000 series of computers.#91;77#93; In May 1967 contracts were signed, and in Paris a team directed by Jacques Newey commenced work on a SIMULA 67 implementation for the CDC 6000. This compiler was later refined by SHAPE #91;78#93; Technical Center in the Netherlands, and a new version for the CDC Cyber 70 series was developed in 1973/74 by NDRE. In Norway, a team from the University of how to essay, Oslo, headed by Per Ofstad, carried out the CDC 3300 (lower series) implementation, while another Norwegian team from NDRE and the University of Oslo's Joint Computer Installation at Kjeller (KCIN), headed by Svein A. Øvergaard, handled the CDC 3600 (upper series) implementation. The two projects were organized as a joint enterprise under the auspices of Per Martin Kjeldsaas from KCIN, and how to a case analysis essay Glion London, Business School, both were completed during the spring of 1969.
Some financial support was provided by Control Data Europe, which in essay at masters Milano turn obtained marketing and distribution rights, whereas the maintenance responsibility for a case study analysis London, & Hospitality, the respective compilers remained with the University and coursework help auf dem Rosenberg, KCIN.#91;79#93; In addition to these projects, compilers for how to write study Business School, CII 10070 and IRIS 80 were implemented by the French company Compagnie Internationale pour l'Informatique (CII). Seneca! The two identical systems were released in how to write study analysis essay Glion Business School 1972, and were provided free of charge to CII's customers.#91;80#93; Another important SIMULA development took place in Sweden in the first half of the 1970s, this time the target machine was Digital Equipment's PDP-10.#91;81#93; Around 1970 the how to an compare and contrast Seneca College, Swedish Research Institute of National Defense (FOA) in Stockholm had decided to establish a laboratory for advanced military studies in operations research. In connection with this they intended to write a case study essay Glion, purchase a new computer, and Jacob Palme, the most prominent SIMULA actor in Sweden at the time, was appointed chairman of how to an essay in english Curtin, a committee whose purpose was to how to write a case analysis Business School, draw up an evaluation report on coursework auf dem Rosenberg, the subject. After having carefully examined four different computers, they eventually decided on the PDP-10. Since this computer at how to study analysis essay Business the time had no SIMULA compiler in its software library, such an implementation was immediately ordered from the Swedish software house ENEA Data. The first test version of the compiler was available to programmers at the QZ data center in Stockholm, and via communication networks from September 1974. The first public release took place in January 1975.
The DEC System-10 SIMULA was in many ways more comprehensive then it's predecessors. University! It contained, among other things, online debugging facilities which allowed setting and re-setting of break points during program execution.#91;82#93; Besides, the compiler was especially designed for a case essay, interactive use, and would soon set a new standard for the development of in english Curtin University Singapore, SIMULA compilers. Apart from FOA, Digital Equipment Corp. also contributed to the project under the condition that the compiler should be distributed free of charge. This condition was accepted, with the result that the how to write a case London, Business School, DEC System-10 compiler came to essay writing at masters Marangoni Milano, have a major impact on the dissemination of SIMULA, especially in the United States. In August 1975, eight months after it was released, the a case study analysis Business, compiler had been distributed to internet essay writing, 28 installations, 22 of which were located in the United States and Canada.#91;83#93; A Note on NCC's SIMULA Engagement in the 1970s. In the early days of the 1960s promotion and marketing of SIMULA was mainly done by the developers themselves whenever they attended a conference, or gave introductory courses to other research scientists, either at NCC or abroad. However, as the language rapidly spread to larger groups of users, and the amounts of money invested in a case analysis essay Glion School the project steadily grew, this situation had to be done in a more professional manner.
As mentioned in connection with the two NCC compiler development projects, UNIVAC and IBM, the a plot analysis essay Pacific of Technology, computing center felt no immediate responsibility for funding the write study essay Glion & Hospitality, accomplishment of these. As reported by Kristen Nygaard, this reluctance was especially articulated in the case of the IBM project.#91;84#93; The general opinion was that the lifetime for a programming language like SIMULA would not exceed five years. Furthermore, if one took into consideration the costs of developing a compiler, not to mention the great commercial risks involved, NCC was naturally very reserved. Nevertheless, when NCC eventually agreed to take responsibility for the two compiler development projects, their conditions for doing this were that sufficient external financing was at bay, and that the Centre as such would not incur expenses. Based on this mutual understanding the two projects were started (UNIVAC in 1967/68 and IBM in 1969), and Nygaard began his hunt for investors. As we know, however, his efforts proved unsuccessful, and journal of London, when this eventually became clear to the parties involved both projects had developed to write study essay London, Business & Hospitality, a point beyond no return, and NCC had to coursework auf dem Rosenberg, carry the financial burden alone.
Due to these circumstances, NCC found itself in the early 70s in a very difficult economic situation. The Centre operated largely on a reimbursement basis, and could not rely on government funding in this case. From the management's point of view it was therefore necessary for the SIMULA activity to be self-supporting, and for the compiler investments to show profits.#91;85#93; NCC has often been criticized for its pricing policy regarding its two SIMULA compilers. This critique has in some cases been justifiable, e.g. when Donald Knuth in 1973 was prevented from write a case study essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality introducing SIMULA at Stanford University, partly because of NCC's unwillingness to reduce prices, and give it away free of charge to universities.#91;86#93; When discussing these matters, however, one should bear in mind the fact that NCC was neither a conventional software house, nor a fully financed governmental institution. In addition to how to write an compare essay Seneca, the SIMULA operations, NCC was also committed to a number of other research activities which deserved equal attention and financial support. Nevertheless, by 1973 the use of SIMULA had spread to such an extent that NCC had lost track of how to a case study Glion London, & Hospitality School, it, and despite the fact that this dissemination could have gained even more momentum if NCC had lowered its prices, the language was estimated to at masters Istituto, be in regular use at more than 250 sites that year.#91;87#93; When talking about NCC's SIMULA commitment in a case study analysis Glion & Hospitality the 1970s, one must also mention the Centre's instrumental role in an compare and contrast the establishment of an Association of SIMULA Users (ASU). The construction of an organizational framework which could facilitate the exchange of ideas among SIMULA users was actually an old idea first proposed by Dahl and Nygaard back in 1967. However, at that time other and more pressing needs were given priority, but in 1972/73 the idea surfaced again and in September 1973 the Association of how to write a case Glion Business, SIMULA Users was formally founded.
Through annual conferences, workshops and newsletters the ASU came to how to write a plot The Asia University, constitute an a case study essay London, Business School, international forum for discussion and exchange of ideas within the SIMULA community. In this capacity the essay College, organization also represented an important channel for write analysis essay Business School, exchange of information and ideas between the SIMULA Standards Group#91;88#93; consisting of analysis The Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation, members from the various SIMULA implementation teams, and write a case study & Hospitality, the wider user community.#91;89#93; At the write a plot University & Innovation (APU), first ASU conference in Oslo the number of founding members were 43, one year later, in how to analysis Glion School August 1974, this number had increased to a total of internet essay University Washington, 172, and the SIMULA community now extended to more than 23 different countries around the world.#91;90#93; Photo 7. SIMULA Always First! Ole-Johan Dahl (left) and Kristen Nygaard, 1982. Courtesy of Rune Myhre, Dagbladet. Before concluding this chapter I want to how to study analysis essay & Hospitality School, dwell a bit on one interesting aspect of the harvard business journal City,, SIMULA project that clearly shows how scientific and technological activity is just as loaded with political interests as any other human enterprise.#91;91#93; During his work with operations research in the 1950s, Kristen Nygaard had become increasingly aware of what he saw as the a case study essay Business School, dangers of technocracy.#91;92#93; He was concerned that modern technology would become the business University, means by which a small, technically-informed elite could extend its power over the large masses which did not have access to the same knowledge base. Write! To illustrate how Nygaard's views on technocracy influenced the development of SIMULA, I want to reproduce a portion of a speech he made at the Lysebu Conference on Simulation Programming Languages in May of 1967. His concern surfaced in a dispute with Jan Garwick, the author of the how to write a plot analysis essay The Asia University of Technology & Innovation (APU), general-purpose language GPL, over the implications of technocracy in the programming community.
It is a common belief here that this Conference consists of people belonging to the 1% group--this is not true, since I am a representative of the 99% group and I think since we are so many and we are going to use these tools, we should have the right to say something here. A Case Study Analysis London, Business & Hospitality School! We are simple-minded men but we have complex problems and we are forced to face these complex problems. #91;. #93; When Garwick talked about his language, he said this was a super language which solved all problems. How To Write Seneca! Of course, even if it looked a little frightening still I was relieved. But then--what happened? He said that this is how to a case analysis essay London, & Hospitality just for the 1% group--but for the 99% we are going to provide a number of different languages which are defined in the general language so, therefore, we are forced to Rosenberg, learn all these languages instead. This is not what we want. What we want is to be given concepts so that we can handle complex problems in a manner which we are able to grasp. #91;93#93; Nygaard's noble defense for the layman is charming perhaps, but it reveals a deep concern about the power/knowledge relationship between the suppliers and write a case study Business & Hospitality School, the users of technology. He strongly opposed Garwick's idea about 1 percent high priests as suppliers of technology and called for a universal language that was simple and easy enough for ordinary programmers to essay Washington, learn and use efficiently.#91;94#93; There is little doubt that he wanted SIMULA 67 to be precisely that language. To use a well-known slogan, we may say that Nygaard's techno-political program was power to the people. This becomes even more clear if we look at his research engagements following in the wake of the SIMULA project.
As the how to a case essay Business, use of SIMULA I picked up during 1966 and 1967, Nygaard observed that the language--his language--was gradually becoming a tool in the hands of what he saw as the society's ruling elite. He says: I could see that SIMULA was being used to organize work for people and I could see that it would contribute to major changes in this area: More routine work, less demand for knowledge and a skilled labor force, less flexibility at the work place, more pressure. Internet Essay Writing American University Washington! I could see this because I was involved in many of the how to write analysis Glion London,, projects where SIMULA was being used. Harvard Business City, University! Against this dismal background I gradually came to face a moral dilemma. I won't say that it was as dramatic and heroic as the one the nuclear physicists experienced over the atomic bomb, but it was analogous. I realized that the technology I had helped to how to study analysis essay London, School, develop had serious consequences for other people, especially the business of London, people that I had come to how to write study analysis Glion London, & Hospitality School, identify with politically. The question was what to do about it? I had no desire to un-invent SIMULA #91;. #93; because I was convinced that in the society I wanted to help build, computers would come to play an immensely important role. #91;95#93; #91;My translation#93; Kristen Nygaard took his experiences, his knowledge and technical expertise to the labor movement. He wanted to warn them about what was coming their way,#91;96#93; so to speak, and he wanted to educate them and help them build up a knowledge base about the new computer technology. His contacts and cooperation with the Norwegian labor movement in the late 1960s lead to a plot analysis The Asia & Innovation (APU), a big research project#91;97#93; where Nygaard and his researchers at NCC collaborated with members of the labor movement to build up this knowledge base. This project was a pioneer effort on a worldwide scale and, as the first individual outside North-America, Kristen Nygaard was distinguished for his efforts by the American organization, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility.#91;98#93; This, however, is a different story that will have to remain beyond the scope of this study.
This chapter has been an how to write analysis London, Business & Hospitality, attempt to display and discuss how the SIMULA programming language came into existence. Employing a contextual or socio-technical perspective on history, the basic aim has been to coursework auf dem, explore the heterogeneity of technological genesis and change as demonstrated in the case of the development of a programming language. When reading traditional internalist accounts in write analysis Glion & Hospitality School the history of coursework Rosenberg, technology, one often gets the write a case analysis Glion & Hospitality School, mistaken impression that technologies, as it were, evolve in a technical or scientific vacuum. How To An Compare Essay! This flawed notion of the nature of technological change stems, as many writers have repeatedly criticized,#91;99#93; to a large extent from the absence of a wider context to which one can relate the technical narrative. As this chapter has aimed to show, the write study essay, construction of SIMULA was by no means a self-contained technical and scientific enterprise, and the outcome of how to an essay in english University, Dahl and study Glion London,, Nygaard's efforts was largely dependent on what is usually considered external or contextual premises. As examples one can but mention the UNIVAC 1107 which significantly improved the environment for the development of SIMULA, and the Department for Special Projects which in many ways came to constitute an ambiance of major importance for software engineering at NCC. Another, but nonetheless significant aspect of the problem addressed above is the parthenogenic myth that technologies, like Athena from Zeus' head, spring to life fully-grown in a sudden flash of insight by genius minds like Charles Babbage, Alan Turing or John von Neumann.
However, as should be fairly evident from the preceding, such was not the case with SIMULA. From a simple simulation procedure package associated with ALGOL 60, the language was painstakingly constructed, shaped, and transformed, via SIMULA I, into the SIMULA 67 high level programming language we know today. This genesis involved, as has been stressed, a high degree of write a plot essay The Asia University & Innovation, heterogeneous engineering on the part of Dahl and Nygaard. Apart from their constant strive toward ultimate technical solutions, their activities also had ramifications into areas not normally deemed technical or scientific. Kristen Nygaard's entrepreneurial role in connection with the write a case study analysis London,, Univac/SIMULA deal, and Ole-Johan Dahl's persistent work on help auf dem, language design and implementation as well as his instrumental role within IFIP TC-2 are representative examples of the how to write essay Glion & Hospitality School, kind of heterogeneous engineering I have been trying to illuminate in Curtin Singapore this chapter. #91;1#93; This chapter is revised from an article published in the Annals of the History of Computing . How To Write A Case Analysis Essay Glion Business! Vol. 16(4), 1994; pp. 25-37. I gratefully acknowledge the many helpful comments and suggestions on earlier drafts offered by Seneca College, among others William Aspray, Martin Campbell-Kelly, Paul Ceruzzi, Michael S. How To A Case Analysis Glion Business & Hospitality School! Mahoney, Arthur L. Norberg, Nils Roll-Hansen, Knut H. Sørensen, and the referees of the Annals of the History of Computing . #91;2#93; See for essay American University Washington, instance: Hughes (1983) and Hughes (1989). #91;3#93; See Hughes (1986) and Latour (1987). #91;4#93; A Status Report on SIMULA - A Language for the Description of Discrete Event Networks. 13 July, 1963. NCC. #91;5#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the how to study analysis essay London, Business & Hospitality, SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 441. #91;7#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit. #91;8#93; ALGOL 60 represents a milestone in the history of programming languages, and during the 60s and 70s this language was the write in english Curtin Singapore, prime source of most theoretical work related to how to write study analysis essay London, Business & Hospitality School, compiler design and development. #91;9#93; Interview with Ole Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991. #91;10#93; NTNF's Annual Report 1958/59, p.82. #91;11#93; Den fremtidige virksomhet ved Norsk Regnesentral, 3 May 1961.
NCC. #91;12#93; The preceding account is primarily based on interviews with Kristen Nygaard 28 November, 1992, Karl Holberg 5 March, 1992, and Finn Lied 6 March, 1992. Writing At Masters Istituto Milano! #91;13#93; NCC's Financial Accounts 1959, 1960. #91;14#93; Den fremtidige virksomhet ved Norsk Regnesentral, 3 May, 1961. NCC. #91;15#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;16#93; Forslag om anskaffelse av en elektronisk regnemaskin type UNIVAC-1107 til Norsk Regnesentral, innstilling fra rådets arbeidsutvalg. Fall 1962. NTNF. Please note that all US $figures in this chapter are based on US-Norwegian exchange rates listed in Historical Statistics 1978 , p. 513. #91;17#93; Note from how to analysis Glion Business & Hospitality NTNF's director Robert Major. Internet Essay American! 19 July, 1962. NTNF. #91;18#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. Study London, Business & Hospitality School! 442. #91;19#93; This project was based on a new and promising algorithm for linear programming, denoted parametric decent, developed by Curtin University Singapore, Sverre Spurkland at how to write study analysis essay London, Business School NCC. Even though the project was based on how to and contrast essay, a very powerful concept, and later on was to receive substantial financial support from Univac, it was never completed. #91;20#93; Letter from Robert W. Bemer to the author. How To Write Study Essay! 15 July, 1994. #91;21#93; Telephone interview with Robert W. Bemer, 14 April, 1992. #91;23#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 455. #91;25#93; Donald MacKenzie: The Influence of the Los Alamos and Livermore National Laboratories on a plot essay Pacific of Technology & Innovation (APU), the Development of Supercomputing Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.13(2), 1991. #91;26#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;27#93; Sperry Rand Univac's offer to NCC regarding UNIVAC 1107, 26 June, 1962, and Agreement made 1st. day of how to a case study Glion Business & Hospitality School, June by and between Sperry Rand Corporation (Univac) and the Royal Norwegian Council for scientific and industrial research . 1 June, 1963. NTNF. #91;28#93; Telephone interview with Robert Bemer, 14 April, 1992, and writing, letter from essay Glion London, & Hospitality Robert Bemer to the author, 29 July, 1992. #91;29#93; Letter from essay Washington A. A. Cohen, Staff Scientist of the how to essay London, School, Data Processing Division to Kristen Nygaard.
23 October, 1964. NCC. #91;30#93; Rådet for elektronisk databehanding i staten. My translation. #91;31#93; Memo from Finn Lied to Karl Holberg. How To Write A Plot University & Innovation! 11 May 1962. How To Write Analysis & Hospitality School! NDRE. #91;32#93; His conclusion was largely drawn from a survey of computing needs in the Oslo area. In this survey Nygaard contacted a number of write an essay Curtin, institutions that had previously benefited from his OR services and asked how they would make use of an eventual mainframe computer in the Oslo area.
These were Aftenposten, Det Norske Veritas, Direktoratet for Statens Skoger, H. EEG Henriksen A/S, Kontroautomasjon A/S, Norsk Produktivitetsinstitutt, Oslo Kommune/ kommunikasjons-rådmannen, Oslo Kommune/ Likningskontoret, M. Petterson Sønn A/S, Sentralinstituttet for Industriell Forskning, and Vegdirektoraet. Source: Forslag om anskaffelse av en stor elektronisk regnemaskin til Norsk Regnesentral. Write Study Business & Hospitality! September 1962. NTNF. #91;33#93; Forslag om anskaffelse av en elektronisk regnemaskin type UNIVAC-1107 til Norsk Regnesentral, innstilling fra rådets arbeidsutvalg. Fall 1962. NTNF. #91;34#93; Lied referred to a meeting with Secretary of State Gudmumd Harlem where Harlem had expressed that if the acquisition of two computers was proposed at essay writing at masters this stage this could lead to significant delays for both. Source: Minutes from the working committee's meeting 21 August 1962. NTNF. #91;35#93; Minutes from the working committee's meeting 21 August 1962.
NTNF. #91;36#93; Note from NCC's director Leif K. Olaussen: Oversikt over forholdet mellom Norsk Regnesentral og Univac angående levering av den elektroniske regnemaskinen UNIVAC 1107 og tilhørende programmeringssystemer, 15 January, 1965, and interview with Robert Major, 29 November, 1991. How To Write Study Analysis Essay Business School! #91;37#93; Letter from NTNF's director Robert Major to NCC's director Bjørn Ørjansen, 21 July, 1962. NTNF. Help Institut! #91;38#93; Note from Kristen Nygaard to the board of NCC, 22 January, 1964. NTNF. #91;39#93; Resolution from the board of NCC: Organisasjonsplan for Norsk Regnesentral, 11 December, 1962, and write a case essay Glion & Hospitality, interview with Karl Holberg, 5 March, 1992. Business! NTNF. #91;40#93; Resolution from the board of how to write a case Glion London, School, NCC: Organisasjonsplan for Norsk Regnesentral, 11 December, 1962, and interviews with: Bjørn Ørjansen 25 November, Sverre Spurkland 27 November, Robert Major 29 November, 1991, and Karl Holberg 5 March, 1992. NTNF. #91;41#93; The title for this subsection is taken from Dahl, Ole-Johan and Nygaard, Kristen. SIMULA: A Language for Programming and Description of Discrete Event Systems. Introduction and internet essay American University Washington, User's Manual. May 1965. NCC. How To A Case Analysis Essay London, Business School! #91;42#93; It should be added, that even though Dahl and Nygaard at this stage asserted that SIMULA should be ALGOL-based, they did not rule out a later version based on FORTRAN, using the how to a plot analysis The Asia of Technology (APU), same basic concepts. #91;43#93; Dahl O.-J. and Nygaard K: Preliminary presentation of the SIMULA Language (as of May 18th, 1963) and some examples of network descriptions.
NCC: May 1963. #91;44#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.-J: The Development of the write study analysis essay Glion London, Business School, SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. Writing At Masters Istituto Marangoni Milano! 447-448, and interview with Ole-Johan Dahl 7 November, 1991. #91;45#93; Dahl O.-J: The SIMULA Storage Allocation Scheme. NCC Document no. Write Study & Hospitality School! 162, November 1963, and an interview with Ole-Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991. #91;46#93; Interviews with Ole-Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991 and 4 March, 1992, and Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;47#93; Quasi-parallel process execution implied that a main program could switch control from how to write essay The Asia Pacific one process to another during a program run according to special sequencing statements. In SIMULA this sequencing was determined by a case analysis essay London,, the Hold statement, in addition to American University Washington, local reference variables in each inactive process, identifying where the control should resume operation the next time the process was activated. Write Essay Glion Business! (Source: Dahl O.-J: The SIMULA Data Structures, NCC Document, February/ March 1964). #91;48#93; Letter from Ole-Johan Dahl to the author, 10 April, 1992. Essay Writing American University! #91;49#93; Dahl and Nygaard (1965, p. 2).
#91;50#93; Nygaard, Kristen. Report on the Use of SIMULA up to December 1965. A Case Analysis Essay Glion London, & Hospitality! December 1965. NCC. #91;52#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 459-461. #91;53#93; Interview with Ole-Johan Dahl, 4 March, 1992. Harvard Business City, University! #91;54#93; Nygaard K. and write a case analysis essay Glion London, & Hospitality School, Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p 459-461. #91;55#93; International Federation for essay, Information Processing's Technical Committee 2 was a committee especially dedicated to how to write a case study essay Glion London, Business, programming languages. #91;57#93; I use that term even if didn't exist in the 1950s and early `60s. Back then these people were mathematicians and Istituto Marangoni Milano, the field they were working in was commonly referred to as applied mathematics. #91;58#93; F. G. Duncan and how to study essay Business & Hospitality School, A. van Wijngaarden. Cleaning up ALGOL 60. At Masters Level Milano! ALGOL Bulletin , AB16.3.3, May 1964. #91;59#93; For further reference, see: C. H. Lindsey. A History of Algol 68. How To Analysis Essay London,! ACM/SIGPLAN Notices , Vol.
28(3), March 1993; pp. 97-132. #91;61#93; Dahl O.-J., and Nygaard K: Class and subclass declarations. NCC Document, March 1967. #91;62#93; After having designed the systems descriptions language DELTA (1973-1975), in write analysis essay University of Technology (APU) the second half of the 1970s, Kristen Nygaard together with research scientists from the University of Århus and the University of Ålborg Denmark, embarked upon essay London, & Hospitality, yet another language development project called BETA. The basic idea behind this project was the essay at masters Marangoni Milano, very same that was turned down by the Common Base Conference ten years earlier. Very roughly, one can say that the BETA project was an attempt to write analysis essay, generalize and essay writing at masters, refine the related notion of classes, records, types and procedures into one basic construct upon which a new programming language could eventually be designed and a case analysis Glion London, & Hospitality School, implemented. The effort proved successful, and the BETA team came up with a new construct called Super Pattern. Based on coursework Institut auf dem, this highly general concept, a DELTA compiler was later developed at the University of Århus. A Case Study Analysis Essay Glion Business & Hospitality School! Source: Birger Møller-Pedersen: How did SIMULA make us Think of City,, BETA . Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: November 28, 1991. How To Write Study Analysis Glion London, Business! #91;63#93; Myhrhaug Bjørn: Proposal for string handling and input/output definition in SIMULA 67 Common Base. Internet Essay Writing University! Preliminary presentation January 1968. NCC publication No.
212. #91;64#93; Nygaard K. and essay Glion & Hospitality School, Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 471. #91;65#93; Letter from Ron Kerr to the author, 17 March 1993. #91;66#93; Interview Drude Berntsen, 6 November, 1991. #91;67#93; NTNF's annual review 1969, p. 69. Auf Dem! #91;68#93; The running of the UNIVAC 1107 was, in the second half of the 1960s, one of NCC's most important sources of income, and a cornerstone in the Centre's research activities. When the Research Council's decision was known this naturally gave rise to speculations concerning NCC's future, and rightfully so since there were strong reasons to believe that central forces within the how to write essay Glion Business School, Research Council wanted to coursework auf dem Rosenberg, shut down the entire Centre, and transfer it's operations to how to write a case essay Glion London, Business, other NTNF institutes. In a reaction to this, NCC employees organized themselves and coursework Institut auf dem, launched a counterattack on NTNF. The conflict reached its climax in write a case study analysis essay Business January/ February 1970, after which NCC was reorganized and the situation returned to normal. Source: Interview with Sverre Spurkland, 27 November, 1991. #91;69#93; The account of the development of UNIVAC SIMULA is based on essay writing at masters level Marangoni, an interview with Sigurd Kubosch, 5 March, 1992, correspondence with Ron Kerr 1993 and SIMULA Newsletter: Vol.
1, No. 1, May 1973. #91;70#93; Interview with Drude Berntsen, 6 November 1991, and Draft outline for a SIMULA 67 agreement between UNIVAC and the Norwegian Computing Centre, September 1969. #91;71#93; Nygaard K. and how to a case analysis essay Glion London, & Hospitality, Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 470. #91;72#93; Interview with Jacob Palme, 19 August, 1992, and how to a plot The Asia Pacific University of Technology & Innovation, Jacob Palme: Are Simulation Languages Convenient for Military Simulations?. Research Institute for National Defence, Operations Research Centre Sweden, April 1968. #91;73#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the a case analysis essay Glion, SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 475. #91;74#93; Karel Babcicky: The Stone Age SIMULA. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March, 1992. Essay Pacific University Of Technology & Innovation (APU)! #91;75#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 475. #91;76#93; Karel Babcicky: The Stone Age SIMULA. Write Study Analysis London, Business & Hospitality School! Talk presented at; SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March. 1992. #91;77#93; Agreement on implementation of the SIMULA 67 language between Control Data A/S Norway and essay Seneca College, the Norwegian Computing Centre. Oslo 23 May, 1967. NCC.
#91;78#93; SHAPE is an abbreviation for: Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. #91;79#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 473 - 474. #91;80#93; Drude Berntsen: Welcoming Speech, in Proceedings of the I. SIMULA Users' Conference . Oslo, September 24 - 25, 1973. How To Analysis Essay Glion London, & Hospitality School! #91;81#93; The following account, describing the Istituto Milano, development of the Swedish DEC-10 SIMULA compiler, is based upon an interview with Jacob Palme, 19 August 1992. #91;82#93; SIMULA Newsletter , Vol. Study Essay Glion London, Business School! 2, No. At Masters Milano! 3, August 1974. #91;83#93; DEC System-10 SIMULA Gazette , Vol. 1, No. 2, August 1975. #91;84#93; Kristen Nygaard: Constructing SIMULA - Cooperation and write a case study analysis Glion Business & Hospitality School, War. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, March 31, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: 28 November, 1991. Level Marangoni! #91;85#93; Interview with Drude Berntsen: 6 November, 1991. #91;86#93; Kristen Nygaard: Constructing SIMULA - Cooperation and War. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, March 31, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: 28 November, 1991. #91;87#93; Drude Berntsen: Welcoming Speech, in how to analysis essay London, & Hospitality School Proceedings of the I. SIMULA Users' Conference . Oslo, 24-25 September 1973. How To Write A Plot Essay Of Technology! Among the largest users known in 1973 we find: The Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, the Swedish Research Institute of National Defence, the how to London, Business & Hospitality School, Finnish State Computing Center and Broken Hill Proprietary Co., Ltd. in Australia.
In addition to these major institutions, a number of European universities were also known to use the language for educational purposes. #91;88#93; The SIMULA Standards Group was formed after the Common Base Conference in writing Istituto 1967. It consisted of one representative from each of the SIMULA implementation teams, plus two representatives from the Norwegian Computing Centre. An important part of their task was to guard the study analysis essay London, & Hospitality School, SIMULA 67 standard against the undesirable flourishing of dialects experienced in coursework Institut auf dem so many other languages. In this respect their efforts must be regarded as quite successful since the SIMULA 67 standard remained very much on track throughout the how to study London, & Hospitality, period and indeed up to coursework help, the very present. #91;89#93; When talking about the ASU it would be wrong not to mention the Simulady herself, Mrs. Eileen Schreiner. As secretary of the ASU from 1973 to how to a case study analysis London, Business School, 1989, and treasurer and Newsletter editor to the present (1993), Mrs. Schreiner has been a thread of continuity in the SIMULA community and in many respects SIMULA's staunchest champion. #91;90#93; SIMULA Newsletter: Vol. 2, No. 3, August 1974, p. A Plot University & Innovation! 3. Write Study Analysis Glion London,! As of August 1974 the following countries were represented in ASU; Australia, Austria, Belgium, Britain, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. In addition to this one must also take into account the SIMULA activity in the then Soviet Union, which in many ways constituted an ambiance of its own, isolated from the organizational framework of the ASU. #91;91#93; For interested readers I refer to Langdon Winner. Do artifacts have politics in Donald MacKenzie and Judy Wajcman (eds.) The Social Shaping of Technology . Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1985. #91;92#93; The following draws on an interview with Kristen Nygaard 28 November 1991. #91;94#93; In spite of these good intentions, however, it is interesting to note that SIMULA never became an essay level Marangoni Milano, easy language to learn and use.
Most people found it extremely difficult to adapt to the SIMULA way of thinking and Bjarne Stroustrup, author of C++ by far the most popular SIMULA-like language in the 1990s, claims that for people who were not familiar with the key concepts, SIMULA was incomprehensible. In his opinion, this also, to a large extent, explains why the language never became wide-spread in use. Source: Interview with Bjarne Stroustrup, 22 April 1993. #91;95#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November 1991. #91;97#93; In Norwegian: Jern- og metallprosjektet. Study Essay London, Business & Hospitality School! #91;98#93; The Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility is an organization of computer professionals concentrating on certain areas of the impact of computer technology on society. Essay Writing University! The alliance dates back to the fall of 1981 when several researchers in Palo Alto, California decided to do something about their concern regarding the close connection between computing and the nuclear arms race. #91;99#93; John M. Staudenmaier, S. J.: Technology's Storytellers - Reweaving the Human Fabric . A Case Essay! Cambridge, Ma: The Society for the History of Technology and MIT Press, 1985. See also Wiebe E. Bijker, Thomas Hughes and essay writing Istituto Marangoni Milano, Trevor Pinch (eds.): The Social Construction of Technological Systems - New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology . How To Write Study Essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School! Cambridge, Ma: MIT Press, 1987.
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rating system to inform the public about the content of a movie or television show would certainly help with making decisions about what your children view. As it stands today, there are relatively few television shows, and even fewer movies, that are suitable for coursework help auf dem, adults or children to view. Even television today is filled with nearly pornographic sex and gratuitous violence. While there is how to analysis essay Business, not really any harm in watching some television, there can be great. Therefore, someone had rightly said, When Television is good, nothing is better, but remember, when it is bad, nothing is worse! It is, indeed, an anesthetic pain of the modern world.
It has been successful in Pacific University of Technology & Innovation (APU) destroying the how to a case study analysis essay London, Business & Hospitality peace and harmony in Milano many homes. Also, its influence on children has been very bad. It has made a child from an irresistible force to an immovable object. Not to forget, how it takes away the privacy out of the lives of some. Write Study Essay Glion London, & Hospitality. The sex, violence, rapes, murders, cheap dances and obscene. Essay about The Effects of Television on Society.
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it, why not me?’ Much of essay at masters Istituto Marangoni Milano, this type of how to a case study analysis Business School, thinking evolves into the thought process of children. One must take into write and contrast Seneca, consideration the age differences in which research is being done as well as what they think as younger or older children that watch television. As a seventeen year old, if I were to start watching a Jackie Chan film, or anything along the lines of Kill Bill, it would not affect me so much. For one, I am old enough to know that these movies are unrealistic and mature enough to how to a case study essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality realize. that violence is often presented in ways that could harm viewers. An Compare And Contrast. Perpetrators go unpunished in 73% of all violent scenes. This should be of great concern because when violence is presented without punishment, and oftentimes with rewards, viewers are more likely to learn that violence is successful. In addition to the perpetrators going unpunished, in 47% of violent scenes no harm is actually shown to the victim.
In 58% of write study essay Business & Hospitality, scenes no pain is shown. In only 16% of programs that portray violence the. There are many surveys and commissions have explored the amount of violence in films and the effect it has on the audience. However, these efforts have generally failed to come up with evidence establishing a causal link between cinematic and real violence. For example, Stuart Hall and Paddy Whannel quote various reports on the effects of television violence and conclude that the child who is emotionally disturbed will learn violence from brutal images in TV programs but they virtually dismissed the. Michigan supports this claim that North American children are indeed affected by the violence they watch on television. Journal University. The Toronto Star states that the five year-old boy who did the shooting admittedly enjoyed watching “violent movies and TV shows” (14). In addition to mimicking hostile behaviour they view on television, the sheer number of violent acts seen by a case study Glion London, & Hospitality School young people is responsible for desensitizing them to write an compare and contrast Seneca violence (Landau 38). Consequently, juveniles are at a high predisposition to how to write a case analysis essay Business committing. E: everyone all the help auf dem Rosenberg way to A: adults. Games with violence usually get T: teens or an M: mature.
This form of write Glion Business, rating is the equivalent to the rating systems used for motion pictures and television. Today this rating system is how to an compare and contrast essay Seneca, a standard across all platform of home video gaming. It is study Glion School, used for all video games including games for the home PC. In December 2001, Surgeon General of the United States David Satcher, M.D., Ph.D., led a study on violence in youth and determined that while the how to write The Asia & Innovation impact of. Television shows for write a case study Glion London, & Hospitality, of all ages of people are more often than not a fantasy world, but younger children do not understand that their favorite character is not real and internet writing Washington does not exist in the real world. Because children one to how to write a case study analysis four do not understand between fantasy and reality, one may find children crawling down storm drains looking for them [Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles] (Minow LaMay, 1995: 33).
This is an example that clearly represents that children do not understand that their favorite characters. Effects of Excessive Television Viewing Essay. kids to become more aggressive or desensitized to violence. Many times, TV forgets to put the consequences that happen if there is violence. By this drama and by the violence that is shown on the news, many kids are scared of the world and tend to coursework Rosenberg have nightmares. Excessive television viewing can lead the kid to drugs, alcohol and cigarettes because they see people doing these things. How To Write A Case Analysis London, & Hospitality School. Statistics show that kids who watch five or more hours of television a day are significantly more likely to start smoking.
Violence in how to write an compare essay Seneca College Public Schools Essays. Because children are “…bombarded daily by a broad array of violent messages in the media” (including shootings at study analysis essay London, Business, schools and internet Washington crime dramas on television), they are in fact receiving “mixed messages” and how to a case analysis Glion London, & Hospitality hence are left to decide “…what is accurate, what is real, and what it all means” (Chapin, 2008, 461). Chapin discovered (through “multiple studies”) that many students have an “optimistic bias” – they believe they are “less vulnerable” than others are to “health risks” – and they operate intellectually. The Growth of the Television and Television Networks Essay example. the 3rd meeting under the conference champions agreement which still exists today as part of the Bowl Championship Series and how to a plot analysis essay Pacific & Innovation (APU) the conferences now known as the Big Ten and write study & Hospitality Pac 12. Write College. The National Football League, long known as the darling of how to a case study analysis essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, sports television, would broadcast its first game as well in 1939. Institut. On October 22, an 8 man crew led by play-by-play announcer Skip Waltz would transmit that day’s game from Ebbets Field in Brooklyn, NY which featured the Philadelphia Eagles losing to the Brooklyn. Essay on how to analysis Glion Business School Television Associated with Childhood Obesity. varies based on age and gender.” Generally speaking, the television itself does not cause obesity in children; it is how television viewing affects your child.
According to the AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics) children who view more than four hours of television each day are likelier to be overweight. Children who view violence on television tend to be more aggressive and at the same time the child fears the outside world. Write A Plot Analysis Essay University Of Technology (APU). Characters on a case essay Glion Business television also portray smoking, drinking, risky behaviors, and. Argumentative Essay -Media Violence. hours of TV weekly, seeing as many as 8,000 murders by the time he or she finishes elementary school at how to write and contrast Seneca, age 11, and how to write study analysis essay London, Business worse, the killers are depicted as getting away with the murders 75% of the time while showing no remorse or accountability.
Such TV violence socialization may make children immune to brutality and aggression, while others become fearful of living in coursework auf dem such a dangerous society. With the research clearly showing that watching violent TV programs can lead to aggressive behaviour. Constant. Relationship Between Children and Television Essay. Programs featuring intense violence and subject matter tailored for adult viewers occasionally fall into children’s view, causing a potentially negative influence or bad role model for the child. Even silly and outlandish humor found in cartoons can prove to be a negative influence on children’s perception of physics and natural law. According to Kyla Boyse from the University of Michigan Health Center, parents can take several steps in protecting and supervising their children. One way is for parents. Media and Youth Violence Essay example. particular artist is doing in the music video.
There are quite a few negative effect of television on children. How To A Case Study Analysis Essay London, Business & Hospitality. That crime on your television may be the writing level Istituto Milano reason children think it is all right for violence acts to take place. Write A Case Analysis Glion Business. Most people think that violence is a natural part of life, but what effect is it having on children? The effect of violence shown on television may vary depending on age, length of essay at masters Istituto, television watching, and what they have been. Media Violence and the Effects on Youth Essays. it revealed that teens with heavy television- viewing were linked with bullying (“Media Violence”).
Also, a study of 130,296 participants, found that higher levels of write a case study essay School, aggressive behavior were considerably related to exposure to violent video games (Anderson et. al 160). Internet Essay Washington. Routine exposure to media violence in how to study analysis essay London, Business School the middle of childhood is known to predict increased aggressiveness later on. Essay At Masters Level Istituto Marangoni. In a study of children, when both boys and girls watched more television violence, there was found to be increasing. influenced by violence in the media. How To Study Analysis Essay London, & Hospitality. (Miller 58) In 1991, a teenager shot a Texas highway patrolman dead at point blank range. He testified at his trial that the music of Tupac Shakur made him do it.
Another incident was after the opening of the movie Boyz in the Hood. The violence ranged from Chicago, where a man was fatally shot, to at masters Istituto Marangoni a theater in Alabama, where three teens were shot in a gang fight. (Miller 61) The majority of research done on television focuses on the viewing of write study analysis London, Business & Hospitality School, violence and how it. A lot of teens think that it will never happen to them even though 40% of teenage girls (14 to 17) know someone their age that has suffered from dating violence. And 80% of all girls who have been physically abused in their relationship continue to date their partner. There are a few different reasons for write, this one is there abuser won’t let them leave the relationship and mentally destroys the victims mind and makes them think that they cannot do any better. Also some victims are deeply in love with. Essay on Crime Drama on British Television. to bring challenging, intelligent television to how to a case essay School a wide audience. Write An Compare Seneca. Ambition and innovation are BBC Two’s key values, and the channel aims to write a case analysis London, create programmes that inspire and excite audiences.
This to me would seem as good a choice as any to distribute dramas such as ours, however the BBC is self-regulatory and does not take risks especially risks which may be morally reprehensible or show deplorable acts of how to a plot essay Pacific University of Technology, violence, bad language, etc. The. The Harmful Effect of Television on Children and Teen-agers Essay. the black homicide rate didn't show any such increase until four years later.(Kristol) Children watch and a case study analysis Business School enjoy the violence they see. They want to see as much as possible according a thirteen-year-old boy in one of the surveys.
These surveys give proof that violent behavior is learned from television and movies, and improved with time and exposure to extreme amounts of violence. Then, the American public seem to cling to reality shows like Desperate Housewives, World's Scariest Police. Also, not only is their proof that the lack of non-violent television is getting to our kids, but the media has, (whether intentionally or not), shown in University a sense, what the write a case Business School violence on television has done to children. A Plot Of Technology. Just look at little Mikey from the hit movie “Willy Wonka the Chocolate Factory”. Mikey is portrayed to live for how to Glion London,, 2 things: television and candy. If you’ve noticed however, he’s also pretty darn fond of his two toy pistols, and “shooting” them, and such, and he thinks it’s a fine and. Violent Programs on business journal City, University Television Lead to Aggressive Behavior by Children. radio to television, and now with internet media, researchers have tried to explain the correlation between media and violence. This association has been easy to how to write a case analysis & Hospitality support and is substantiated in every major scientific report released in the last twenty years.
It has become general knowledge to City, of London professional counselors and educators that excessive and unsupervised exposure to television violence increases the how to write a case analysis essay Glion & Hospitality use of violence to resolve conflict, while it desensitizes these youth to acts of violence. Internet American Washington. This. America: Freedom And Violence Essay. less power. Media, whether it is the newspaper, television, movies, music, or the Internet has been a way to express and entertain ourselves. Our freedom of speech is regulated in how to a case study analysis London, Business & Hospitality School some means because of profanity, pornography, and other extreme cases.
We can still display a variety of an essay Singapore, violence through media. Studies show that in the past few decades the interest in media violence has increased dramatically in our nation. In essence, we produce more violence in media to create profit and attract an audience. Essay about How Television Affects Children. Television programming can help a child feel more confident with themselves. When children see appropriate behavior displayed, it can teach them how to react the right way when a difficult situation comes up.
This is why it is important for parents to monitor their children’s viewing habits. A child’s brain is like a sponge. It can soak up everything that it sees and hears. While some people believe that there are positive effects from watching TV, there have been many studies conducted that show. The Negative Effects of Television Essay. that television helped them forget about how to study essay London, School their busy lives. Some people found television relaxing because it helped them forget about the world. Others who used the essay University Washington terms “brainwashed” or “addicted,” felt that television provided them with good information and entertainment. However, no one thought that television lived up to his or her expectations. In chapter 16 of For Arguments for the Elimination of Television, the chapter shows how people form poor judgments when watching television. Some.
Media: Source of Today#x27;s Violence? Essays. Although people may not want to admit it, we all enjoy violence, and television, movies, and video games offer a way to see the how to write study analysis London, Business & Hospitality School violence without actually hurting anyone. If we censor or ban it, we will be forced to find our violence elsewhere. Ever since the introduction of motion pictures about 100 years ago, people have been arguing over the content of how to and contrast essay, what we see. With the mass introduction of television in the 50s, this issue was being raised again and again and when video games invaded. Effects of Television on Children: A Chain Indicating Their Behavior. Information that children know about television influences what they acquire from it. “TV gives children an analysis essay & Hospitality School unreal perception of the world of material goods.
Like the lesson of violence, the lifestyle of harvard journal University of London, consumption is not “taught” by television. It is how to study analysis essay Glion Business & Hospitality, simply picked up and how to Curtin absorbed by the viewer” (Moody 50). Moreover, TV is full of programs and commercials that depict risky behaviors such as sex and substance abuse as cool, fun, and write a case & Hospitality School exciting (Gavin). A Plot Analysis The Asia Pacific University & Innovation. Jersey Shore and Bad Girls’ Club both display. The Reality of Reality Television Essay. This just seems to prove that it doesn’t really matter all that much to people if what they are watching is one hundred percent real or true as long as it is interesting to them.
Reality television seems to be very appealing to people, although much of the content remains negative to a certain extent. Different reality shows seem to have different appealing attributes. Such as the appeal of “American Idol” is the audience interaction. The people who watch it like the feeling that they. Single Parents on Television Essay.
Single parent families are the contemporary families in the land of television. When sitcoms were first aired, the divorce rate was much lower than it is today. Now, about half of my friends come from write a case Glion Business & Hospitality a split-up family. Television is an ever-changing form of media. For instance, many shows can have their episode deal with controversies that have happened over the week. So when writers realize that the typical American family is no longer a husband, a wife, and internet writing American Washington two kids, they change their style. Essay on The Violence of Youth in American Society. Some of the American public believes that another cause of this recent level of write study analysis London, Business & Hospitality School, violence is the increasing level of violence depicted on the television.
The majority of kids are big fans of cartoons, or they like watching daytime programming right after they get out of school. But for some reason American television programmers have began to cloud the adolescent mind by polluting it with scenes of violence, murder, and death. There is only so much a child should be allowed to see. But with.
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How would the candidates skills benefit the business? Will the candidate simply fill a hole in the business or would they significantly contribute to the company? Depending on what it is important to you, you should think about the things that you have learned from the at masters level candidate’s curriculum vitae to how to write a case study analysis Business School decide whether or not they would be an asset to your company. What makes them unique? Though many candidates have a long list of similar skills and an essay in english Curtin Singapore, work experiences, you should try to study essay Business discover what sets them apart from the other candidates.
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