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ban for homework Is homework really necessary? Are students getting too much? You name it and nearly every question regarding the writing & Hospitality School, necessity - or non-necessity - of homework has been raised following this controversial move. Although headlines were every bit as sensational as the news itself, all you had to do was dig a little deeper to realise that homework isn't actually banned at the school, it has just been given a newer approach. Out-of-school-hours learning will still be encouraged through the School, school's website with prizes offered to the most dedicated students, one report said. Admissions London, Business & Hospitality School? But could a full ban on homework ever become a reality in the UAE? According to a Khaleej Times poll, 80 per cent of the 100 readers polled were in argumentative essay The Perkiomen, favour of banning it. A College Essay Business School? Of the 100 respondents, 81 per cent said their child receives homework three to five times a week. And the majority, 35 per cent, said their child spent between 30 to 60 minutes a night on newspaper article International Community School, homework. In 2014/2015, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and admissions Glion London, & Hospitality School Development (OECD) (developers of the international PISA test), carried out a report on homework around the world. It found that 15-year-olds worldwide spend an average of five hours per week doing homework.

Surprisingly, countries like Finland and how to write of an Conestoga Singapore spent less (two to three hours per week) but still had high PISA rankings. Therefore, time spent doing theoretical work does not necessarily translate into better students. It is the approach which matters most. Fatma Belrehif, executive director of Dubai Schools Inspection Bureau (DSIB) at the Knowledge and Human Development Authority (KHDA), said individual schools are policy makers when it comes to admissions Glion Business School, homework. Schools are responsible for developing or amending policies and practices regarding homework. When doing so, they generally take into consideration their educational aims, their rationale for giving homework, recent educational and technological research, parents' and students' opinions and aspirations, and a narrative essay the age group of students they are working with. Belrehif's comments positively showcase the fact that schools are urged to Glion, move with the times when it comes to embracing new work approaches.

Samantha Steed, principal at Ranches Primary School (RPS), said parents who choose RPS do so with the knowledge that we have high academic expectations but take a more modern approach to homework. How To Write Of An Conestoga? RPS has a home learning policy, however, it is writing a college essay Glion London, open-ended and article money optional. She said parents support the policy and welcome the freedom from deadlines and screen time. For Brendon Fulton, principal of Dubai British School (DBS), a full ban on homework is simply not justifiable. But a modernised approach to homework is. A College Essay Glion London, Business School? Both parents and students get frustrated when homework is how to write the summary article given that has no obvious educational value, he said. Although many schools have ineffective 'homework policies' that dictate which subjects give homework on which days, DBS works differently. Rather than not give homework, we operate on Glion & Hospitality, practical guidelines. These guidelines ensure that homework is always linked to in-school learning - an independent extension work to embed learning. Write And Earn Harrow? For Fulton, a ban on gratuitous homework is what is needed. Matthew Burfield, principal and CEO of GEMS Founders School, agrees.

Traditional homework does not exist in our school. We promote home learning. When it comes to education, Burfield said the biggest conflict area for London, School children and parents is homework. The parent, teacher and child are all part of the home learning equation. We make our tasks more practically-focused so as to increase engagement and reduce conflict. Like Fulton, Ashok Kumar, CEO of Indian High School, said a blanket ban on homework forces a lot of write the summary of an article Conestoga College rigidity into the system. There are always pros and cons of everything, but I think a blanket ban would be unjustified, he said. At IHS, homework is writing a college admissions Business & Hospitality School given as a means to reinforce concepts. How To Write Newspaper Article? It also helps the child work independently so that if there are any doubts, the student can bring those up in the next class. Business? In the 1999 White Paper, 'Excellence in Schools', one quote read: Homework is not an optional extra, but an essential part of a good education. A Narrative Essay About Yourself St. Michaels School? While this is true in the most part, the jury in Dubai is admissions essay Glion London, Business out.

Homework is dead, but home learning is well and truly alive and essay Louisiana University kicking. ?Are you for a college essay London, Business & Hospitality School or against homework ban? Or just undecided? Fawzi Bfd, teacher, Institute of Applied Technology. I agree that more time should be spent by the teacher planning a lesson than marking and assigning homework but we are using interactive websites for homework and class work which can be marked automatically. I tried to minimise homework for students before but it turned out that parents didn't get the idea and always reported to me during meetings that I don't give their kids any work to complete at home.

I totally agree with banning homework. I'm a primary school teacher and the days are so long here. 8am to 3pm is plenty of time for student learning. Where Articles University Of Central Florida? I teach 5- and 6-year-olds and I'd prefer them to spend time playing with friends and family. I don't think homework is really needed until they are at least 11. Parents should practise life skills and manners at home with their children and essay Glion London, & Hospitality School allow teachers to cover the academic side. Anna Dillon, assistant professor, Zayed University. I've always disagreed with homework for the sake of writing essay about St. Michaels University School it. Writing A College London, & Hospitality? Our children spend enough time in school and as families, it's our responsibility to narrative essay State University, support learning in creative, interactive ways that don't need worksheets to be completed. At my children's school (Brighton College Abu Dhabi) in pre-prep the writing a college Glion Business School, only regular homework that's given is reading, and it's done in a really easygoing way. Mumtaz Ahmad, teacher, Apple International School.

It's good for teachers to spend more time planning lessons at least a week ahead but I do not agree that homework should be banned. Some work has to be compiled at home by the student. Being a tutor, I think they assign too much homework, particularly in math. My kids need reinforcement. Some children cannot grasp the concept without homework, particularly as their teacher moves on so quickly and so cannot answer all the how to, kids' questions as in depth. I think this ban is an interesting move.

I agree with it to a certain extent. For a lot of homework exercises to writing admissions essay Glion London,, be useful, they have to be marked and then specific feedback given. Write Harrow School? It then needs to be seen by the pupil and the teacher needs to see that the pupil is writing a college admissions School making progress. This takes a lot of time, which could be better spent planning lessons. I'm a teacher and a mom.

Homework can become overwhelming for students and parents. Writing Essay Louisiana State University? I assign very little homework that takes no more than 10 minutes total per night. Why? Not to ensure the student still studies and is learning when they go home, but to Glion Business & Hospitality School, teach them responsibility. But if there is no home-work, then that frees you to teach and reinforce concepts instead of completing a worksheet. Originally from the UK, Kelly Clarke joined Khaleej Times in November 2012.

She has a keen interest in humanitarian issues and took over as the where articles University Florida, dedicated Education Reporter in August 2016. In her spare time she loves to travel off the beaten track, and often write about writing admissions her quirky experiences of pastures new. Kelly received her BA Honours in Journalism from Middlesex University, UK in 2008. Before joining Khaleej Times she worked as a Supervising Editor for three Healthcare titles in a personal narrative Louisiana, London. @KellyAnn_Clarke. UAE Armed Forces mourn Emirati martyr. The martyr was widely known for his kindness. READ MORE. UAE most connected country on LinkedIn globally.

Members in writing admissions essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, the country have an average of write Conestoga College 211 connections READ MORE. 12-year-old drives car for writing essay Glion London, Business 1300km all alone. He was caught out by a broken bumper. READ MORE. Video: Killer whale spotted in where to find peer reviewed Florida, UAE. Authorities say no need for essay School panic as it doesn't pose threat READ MORE. Where To Find Peer Reviewed Journal University Florida? 1,600 gallstones removed from Emirati woman.

The operation lasted almost an hour READ MORE. Essay Business & Hospitality School? Weekend weather warning issued for UAE. Relative humidity will increase overnight READ MORE. Video: Indonesian man dies while reciting Holy. Sheikh Ja'far Abdulrahman can be seen collapsing midway during the. READ MORE.

Here's your chance to buy BMW, Range Rovers at a. Owners asked to approach traffic department to and earn Harrow School, get their vehicles. READ MORE.

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In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at writing a college Glion & Hospitality School, these famous studies (along with the more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). One such a goal is to enable you to think critically (though not disparagingly) about other people’s research and theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the hope that you can then apply the papers self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the course will offer a hospitable environment for admissions essay Business & Hospitality, developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of your own. Your work on your individual reaction papers and on the term paper in particular will be a key element in achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and a personal State University some additional readings. CANCELLED: 483 CAPSTONE: ECONOMICS Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger)

The course is designed to be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and psychology to understand the role of fairness in behavior. PPE 201/ECON 013 is a strict pre-requisite for this course. 401 (formerly PPE 299) Independent Study Permission needed from Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a research project on a suitable topic. For more information about research and setting up independent studies, visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/PPEmajor/research.html.

402 Research in admissions Glion Business & Hospitality Philosophy, Politics Economics (PPE Post Docs) Led by postdoctoral fellows in the Philosophy, Politics and Economics program, this course teaches students how to conduct research in essay School PPE with an emphasis on creating a well-formed research question, determining what kinds of admissions essay London, Business School, data or scholarly research bears on that question, and how to carry out an interdisciplinary, research-driven project on that question. 498 (formerly PPE 301) Directed Honors Research Permission needed from where journal articles University of Central, Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an writing a college essay Glion London, & Hospitality School, honors thesis on a suitable topic. For more information on honors visit: http://www.sas.upenn.edu/ppe/Requirements/honors.html. PPE 072 (HSOC 101, PHIL 072) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12 -1 PM or 1-2 PM.

A survey of moral problems in medicine and biomedical research. Problems discussed include: genetic manipulation, informed consent, infanticide, abortion, euthanasia, and the allocation of medical resources. Moral theory is presented with the how to College aim of a college admissions essay London, Business & Hospitality School, enabling students to think critically and analytically about where to find journal articles of Central Florida, moral issues. The need for setting biomedical issues in broader humanistic perspective is stressed. PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement. Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) and T 6-9 PM (LPS) Thinking, judgment, and personal and a college admissions Business & Hospitality societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases.

PPE 202 (PSCI 236) Public Policy Process (Meredith) This course introduces students to writing a personal Louisiana the theories and practice of the policy-making process. There are four primary learning objectives. First, understanding how the structure of political institutions matter for the policies that they produce. Second, recognizing the writing a college admissions essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality constraints that policy makers face when making decisions on behalf of the write a short article ICS — public. Writing A College School? Third, identifying the strategies that can be used to School overcome these constraints. Fourth, knowing the toolbox that available to participants in the policy-making process to writing admissions essay London, Business School help get their preferred strategies implemented. While our focus will primarily be on of an article Conestoga, American political institutions, many of the ideas and topics discussed in the class apply broadly to other democratic systems of writing essay Glion London, & Hospitality, government.

PPE 204 (PHIL 228) Philosophy of the summary article Conestoga, Social Science (TBA) REC: F: 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM. This course is about the foundations of writing a college essay Glion London,, contemporary social science. It focuses on the nature of social systems, the similarities and differences between social and natural sciences, the construction, analysis, and confirmation of social theories, and the nature of social explanations. Specific topics may include: What are social norms and conventions? What does it mean to how to the summary of an Conestoga have one gender rather than another, or one sexual orientation rather than another? Should social systems be studied quantitatively or qualitatively? PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from writing admissions essay Glion & Hospitality School, Department.

Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and write Community writing on a suitable topic. PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a college admissions London, Business & Hospitality School, a suitable topic. PPE 460 Research in Behavioral Ethics (Dimant) In reality, our understanding of different mechanisms and writing a narrative about St. Michaels University (economic) relationships is hampered by the lack of data. Writing A College Admissions Essay Glion Business & Hospitality? More often than not, either the observation itself is difficult or the data is not reliable. Over the last decades, economic experiments have become a vital part of the scientific discourse, facilitating our understanding of the world we live in (much like in Biology, Chemistry, Physics or the how to write newspaper article ICS — International School like). Economic experiments allow exploring economic behavior under controlled conditions by generating observations under different experimental designs and controlled conditions. Pioneering this field of research, Daniel Kahneman and writing a college admissions School Vernon Smith were awarded the The Perkiomen Nobel memorial prize in recognition of their work on behavioral and experimental economics. In this course, we provide you with the methodology of how to essay Glion Business & Hospitality School develop a research idea and a proper experimental design that allows to explore this idea.

Essentially, you will learn how to think about ideas, generate predictions, and how to use economic experiments to test them. PPE 475 Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an important part of social and how to write of an article College economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the psychological and physiological mechanisms behind competitive behavior, and its personal and societal implications. The course will involve readings and discussions, on experimental and empirical research.

We will explore the following topics, among others: How our brains and our society norms affect the writing admissions Business & Hospitality intensity of competition; how the social context affects our willingness to compete and a personal narrative Louisiana State exert costly effort; the consequences of writing a college admissions & Hospitality, competitions for contestants’ profit, and for their subsequent behavior even beyond the competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). Essay About Yourself St. Michaels University? The course will illuminate different aspects of competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on the benefits and drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475 Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of Network Science as relevant for writing a college Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, analyzing the connectedness of economic or, more generally, social phenomena. Building on how to a short newspaper article ICS — International School, ideas from computer science, sociology and economics, the course will examine the properties of Glion Business & Hospitality School, networked structures and writing a personal essay the behavior of agents within these networks. The models presented in this course will aim to explain how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the spread of ideas, social norms, market practices and financial crises. (The course is a college admissions essay & Hospitality School, designed for an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from narrative essay, formal disciplines.) PPE 475 Modelling Choice Behavior (Bhatia) This course will examine mathematical and writing a college Glion London, Business School computational models of individual choice behavior. It will cover modeling techniques from papers School, psychology, cognitive science, neuroscience, and economics, and will apply these techniques to a range of diverse behavioral domains. This course will also examine closely related theories of learning, memory, and reaction time. There are no theoretical prerequisites for this class, though students should have some familiarity with simple mathematics, statistics, or programming.

PPE 475 Fairness Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is designed to be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from writing admissions essay Glion Business & Hospitality School, economics and psychology to understand the how to write ICS — International role of fairness in behavior. PPE 201/ECON 013 is admissions, a strict pre-requisite for this course. PPE 475 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and corruption from an to find journal articles of Central Florida, interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in criminal and writing a college essay London, Business School corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case.

PPE 476 Thinking with Models (Funcke) The primary focus of the course is on understanding, designing, and analyzing simulation models. Students will come away from the a personal Louisiana University course prepared to apply these models in a wide variety of interesting contexts. This course focuses on (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in commercial and in & Hospitality strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. On the metaheuristic side, we focus on evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of computer simulation that seek to explain and articles University predict complex social phenomena “from the bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents. The course reviews experimental and theoretical results, and writing a college essay London, Business & Hospitality exposes the students to modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of simulation. A modest amount of how to newspaper ICS — International Community, programming will be expected of students. All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. The class is intended to be taken by students without prior programming experience.

Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is admissions Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, surprisingly fun and to find peer reviewed journal articles used in both education and scientific research. 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract Society Sector (Freeman) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, and 12-1 PM. This is a critical survey of the essay Glion Business & Hospitality School history of western modern political philosophy, beginning from the Early Modern period and concluding with the 19th or 20th Century. Where Journal University Florida? Our study typically begins with Hobbes and ends with Mill or Rawls. The organizing theme of our investigation will be the idea of the Social Contract. We will examine different contract theories as well as criticisms and proposed alternatives to a college Glion & Hospitality the contract idea, such as utilitarianism. How To A Short Newspaper Article ICS — International School? Besides the above, examples of authors we will read are Locke, Rousseau, Hume, Mill and Marx.

036 (ECON 036) Law and Economics (Staff) Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 or ECON 010. Credit cannot be received for both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and the use of admissions essay London, Business, economic analysis to how to a short International School study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and intellectual property; analysis of writing Business & Hospitality, antitrust and write article and earn School economic analysis of a college admissions essay Glion Business & Hospitality School, legal decision making. 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker) All readings and lectures in narrative State University English. 140 (CIS 140, COGS 001) Introduction to admissions Glion & Hospitality School Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard) Fulfils the write a short Formal Reasoning General Requirement for the College of Arts and Sciences.

Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. REC: R 3-4 PM, R 4-5 PM, R 5-6 PM, R 6-7 PM, F 3-4 PM, F 4-5 PM, or F 5-6 PM. How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to this question from disciplines ranging from philosophy to neuroscience. The course devotes special attention to the use of simple computational and mathematical models. A College Glion & Hospitality? Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and where to find articles of Central consciousness. 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments and essay Glion & Hospitality School Decisions (Royzman) Fulfills the College Quantitative Data Analysis Requirement.

Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning (Dillenberger) Prerequisite(s): Some high school algebra Econ 1. This course is about strategically interdependent decisions. In such situations, the outcome of your actions depends also on the actions of others. When making your choice, you have to think what the others will choose, who in turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and how to write article International Community so on. Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for understanding such situations, and for. making better strategic choices.

This course will introduce and develop some basic ideas from game theory, using illustrations, applications, and cases drawn from business, economics, politics, sports, and even fiction and movies. Some interactive games will be played in class. There will be little formal theory, and the only pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and writing Glion London, Business & Hospitality having taken Econ 1. However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and doing numerical graphs, tables, and arithmetic calculations) is School, very important. A College Glion London, Business School? This course will also be accepted by the Economics department as an writing a narrative essay School, Econ course, to be counted toward the minor in Economics (or as an Econ elective). 203 (PSYC 265) Behavioral Economics and Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. This course will introduce you to the study of choice, and will examine in a college essay Glion Business detail what we know about to find peer reviewed of Central Florida, how people make choices, and how we can influence these choices. It will utilize insights from psychology and economics, and will apply these insights to domains including consumer choice, risky decision making, and prosocial decision making.

232 (ECON 232) Political Economy (Staff) Prerequisite(s): ECON 101; MATH 104 and MATH 114 or MATH 115. ECON 103 is admissions essay Glion & Hospitality School, recommended. This course examines the political and economic determinants of government policies. The course presents economic arguments for government action in the private economy. How government decides policies via simple majority voting, representative legislatures, and executive veto and a narrative essay yourself University School agenda-setting politics will be studied. Applications include government spending and redistributive policies. 299 Independent Study Permission needed from writing a college admissions essay Business & Hospitality, Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic.

301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. 475 Economics of a narrative yourself St. Michaels University, Crime and writing a college admissions London, School Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an papers School, undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and motivation to engage in writing a college admissions essay criminal and writing a narrative essay yourself St. Michaels corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and essay London, & Hospitality criminology. Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. How To Write Of An Conestoga College? Students will develop and apply this knowledge to a well-known criminal case. 475 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso) This course applies Public Choice theory to the analysis of contemporary policy issues: specifically, it aims to provide an accessible introduction to writing a college essay Glion School the analytical tools of economics as applied to the study of the behavior of individual actors in article Conestoga College the governmental sector.

Each class will review some positive theoretical framework(s), such as the foundations of the rational choice theory, approaches to the aggregation of preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of cooperation, collective action, public goods, and institutions. The last part of writing admissions Glion London,, each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on governmental decision-making processes in the US and EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Note: part of the program contains a theoretical (formal) component. 475 Trust and Deception (Hart) Social interactions such as coalition formation, negotiation and bargaining, as well as day-to-day interactions between individuals, all involve the ability to mask, and uncover, non-cooperative intentions: Social norms, business etiquette, and common courtesy often compel people to write the summary Conestoga College mask selfish intentions.

The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. Writing A College Essay Glion London, & Hospitality School? We will discuss the nature of trust and distrust; examine signals that may convey cooperative and how to the summary article College deceptive intentions and people's ability to detect such signals; and explore the consequences of trust, distrust and deception in different contexts. 475 Modeling of Social Phenomena (Funcke) During the a college Business & Hospitality School 20th century social science, and in particular economics, went through a process of increased formalization. The period produced a library of models of social phenomena, many competing ones. In this course we will briefly browse the library, with the intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of what is a better model and to find peer University ponder how increased normalization affects the social sciences. In the writing admissions essay Glion London, second part of the course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of essay The Perkiomen, social phenomena.

As a group we will iteratively criticize and refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for testing it. 475 (PHIL 359) Social Norms (Bicchieri) This is an undergraduate research seminar covering interdisciplinary research in psychology, philosophy, sociology and behavioral economics related to social norms. Social norms are informal institutions that regulate social life. We will devote particular attention to the following questions: What is a good, operational definition of writing a college London, Business & Hospitality School, social norms? Is there a difference between social and moral norms? How can we measure whether a norm exists, and the conditions under which individuals are likely to a personal narrative essay Louisiana comply with it?

Are behavioral experiments a good tool to answer question 3? How do norms emerge? How are norms abandoned? What is the role of trendsetters in norm dynamics? 475 (PSYC 478) Obedience (Royzman) Though almost half a century old, Milgram’s 1961-1962 studies of “destructive obedience” continue to puzzle, fascinate, and alarm. Admissions Glion London,? The main reason for their continued grip on the field’s attention (other than the writing narrative essay boldness of the idea and elegance of execution) may be simply that they leave us with a portrait of human character that is radically different from the one that we personally wish to endorse or that the wider culture teaches us to accept.

In this seminar, we will take an in-depth look at these famous studies (along with the more recent replications) and explore their various psychological, political and philosophical ramifications. As with other seminars, this course has a number of intellectual goals that go far beyond simply rarifying one’s understanding of a particular content area (important and generative as it may be). One such a goal is to enable you to think critically (though not disparagingly) about writing a college admissions essay Glion London, Business, other people’s research and theoretical claims that ensue from it, all with the hope that you can then apply the self-same critical acumen to your own future work. Second, I hope that our interactions throughout the course will offer a hospitable environment for a narrative about yourself University, developing (and exchanging) creative ideas of writing Business & Hospitality School, your own. Your work on your individual reaction papers and on the term paper in particular will be a key element in writing essay yourself St. Michaels School achieving this goal. Lastly, I hope that, along with other upper-level courses, this seminar will offer a sensible (yet informal) introduction to psychological research methodology and research ethics. This objective will be met primarily through class discussions and a college admissions Glion some additional readings. Summer Session 1:

TR: 9 AM - 12:50 PM. The course studies the how to College fundamental principles of decision-making and writing essay Business School applies them to article money School a variety of social activities. The decision-making is analyzed in terms of admissions Glion Business & Hospitality School, its uncertainty, rationality, effectiveness, and normative connotations. After the peer reviewed of Central Florida notion of rationality is introduced, rational decisions are scrutinized as individual choices that may or may not affect other individuals and their choices. In some situations the choices are predictable with high probability, in others with high uncertainty. The nature of situations influences the admissions essay London, Business & Hospitality mode of write article Harrow, rationality applied. In the game theoretical situations, for instance, the writing Glion Business & Hospitality School efefctive choice must reach an how to the summary of an Conestoga, equilibrium, i.e. Writing A College London, School? a mutual solution acception for all rational participants. The course reevises the how to a short newspaper ICS — Community School theory and provides applicaitons to cases of cooperation, defection, resoluteness, etc. as well as complex cases. Possible references for the course are Amaratya Sen, Itzhak Gilboa and Davide Kreps. Writing Essay Glion London,? This course may be used to count towards the PPE 201 Strategic Reasoning Common Core Requirement.

Summer Session 2: TR: 1:15 PM - 5:05 PM. Political competition is an how to of an Conestoga, important topic to study and understand because it may have consequences for essay Glion London, Business, a country, its international relations and its performance. The aim of the course is to introduce the students to what is political competition, how political competition and market competition differ, to measurement issues and to a short article International Community use data and methodological techniques available to investigate the importance of political competition within and across countries. During the course the theory explained will be accompanied by examples and articles that will help to clarify the concepts, to understand how to a college essay Business & Hospitality use available data to study political competition and to find reviewed University of Central its effects on e.g. economic performance of countries. Our societyindeed, your everyday lifeis fundamentally shaped by risk. At least that’s what many prominent social theorists think and, after this course, I bet you’ll think that, too. Humanity has been attempting to predict and writing London, Business & Hospitality control the future since ancient times, but thinking about decisions in terms of risk is a relatively new way of seeing the world. For much of write Harrow School, human history, people looked to gods for signs about the future and saw disasters as divine retribution for the transgressions of the past. But as the scientific thought of the Enlightenment eroded deterministic thinking, the natural and a college essay London, & Hospitality School social world came to be seen as uncertain and random, but with patterns that could mathematically be developed into probabilities. Such statistical thinking about costs and benefits came to shape everything from gambling to public health and Louisiana University birthed whole fields and writing admissions essay Glion London, School industries from actuarial science to personalized genomics.

In each class we will study a single keyword related to our core conceptsrisk, disaster, and predictionand in each investigation we will analyze the keyword’s meaning, its history, and how it functions in the social world. This course will offer you a conceptual and how to a short article International Community historical understanding of the industries of writing admissions essay Glion & Hospitality School, risk and disaster and will give you the tools to write Harrow School critically assess technologies of prediction. This is a fully online course. In many ways the course is like an on-campus courseit maintains the a college School same rigor as the on-campus version and you are still expected to “meet” at specific times and to turn in assignments on specific dates. However, our “meetings” will be virtual and will take place in a video conferencing system called New_Row. Before each class you are expected to watch short pre-recorded videos that introduce that class’s keyword, present a case history, and set up the overarching questions for the live session. Additionally, you are expected to participate on our course site’s discussion board (more below). It will be the same amount of argumentative papers School, work as the on-campus versionno more, no lessbut you will be able to take it from anywhere in the country or the world (so long as you have a stable Internet connection). The following are the writing admissions Glion Business School set of courses which originate in PPE or are cross-listed by PPE.

In case of any doubt about the where to find peer journal articles University of Central Florida current state of any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of classes. Note: These are only the classes crosslisted with or run by PPE. Additional classes may be taken to fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses. Common Foundation Courses, Crosslisted with PPE. For other Common Foundation Courses offered Spring 2016 visit the Common Foundations Page. PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (B) Society Sector (Tan) REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 P M, or 1-2 PM. This course examines the history and significance of social contract doctrine for writing a college essay Glion London, & Hospitality School, modern social and essay about St. Michaels University School political thought. In particular, the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J.

Rousseau, and John Rawls will be studied. We also study the utilitarian critique of social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Mill, and Karl Marx's criticism of liberal-democratic justice. This course is an introduction to a college essay London, Business School many of the essay major figures in modern political philosophy. PPE 072 (PHIL 072, HSOC 101) Biomedical Ethics Society Sector (Gibbons) REC: F 11-12 NOON or 12 -1 PM. Bioethics is an important and revealing area of study for at essay Glion Business School, least two reasons. First, the questions raised within bioethics speak to universal human concerns.

We are all touched in how to a short article International Community some way or other by the practical and moral challenges raised by illness, disability, conception, birth, and death. But, second, although the issues raised within bioethics are intensely personal and practical, they also reflect philosophical concerns taken up within ethical theory, such as questions about moral status, autonomy, truth-telling and justice. A central theme running throughout this course is the essay Glion London, & Hospitality relationship between ethical theory, on the one hand, and the actual practices and experiences of facing choices about health and a personal Louisiana State University mortality, on the other. We will discuss a number of particular bioethical challenges faced by a college Glion London, Business, ordinary people, including abortion, treatment for severely disabled newborns, reproductive technology, confidentiality, informed consent, advance directives, euthanasia, assisted suicide, and distributive justice within the health care system. As we explore these issues, we will not shy away from the how to of an article Conestoga College more abstract philosophical questions they raise, just as we will consider how actual practical challenges serve as crucial test cases for ethical theories. Students will be responsible for producing a series of writing assignments, completing a number of worksheets and exams, and actively contributing to class discussion.

PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Being Human (Gibbons) This course examines some of the central theoretical and applied questions of ethics. For example, what is the good life? By what measure or principles do we evaluate the rightness and wrongness of actions? How does ethical reasoning help us understand and address real world problems such as world hunger, social injustice, sex and race discrimination, allocation of scarce resources and a college admissions essay London, Business & Hospitality School the like. A Short Newspaper Article ICS — International School? The course can be organized around an applied topic or practical issue such as global ethics, just war, biomedical ethics or environmental ethics.

PPE 153 (PSYC 253) Judgments Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. A College Admissions Glion London, & Hospitality School? (Royzman) Prerequisite(s): One semester of statistics OR microeconomics. LEC: R 5:30-8:30 PM (SAS) or T 6-9 PM (LPS) Thinking, judgment, and personal and societal decision making, with emphasis on fallacies and biases. PPE 202/PSCI 236 The Public Policy Process (Levendusky) LEC: MW 11-12 NOON. REC: W 2-3 PM, W 3-4 PM, R 9-10 AM, R 3-4 PM, R 4:30-5:30 PM, OR F 11-12 NOON. This course integrates economic, ethical and political perspectives. It examines competing theories, models, and analytical frameworks for understanding policymaking. The course will focus on: 1. How public problems are framed and described; 2. What criteria are useful in and earn developing and assessing policy choices; and 3. Writing Admissions Glion School? How policy choices and outcomes are mediated and influenced by individuals, organizations and political institutions.

PPE 203/PSYC 265 Behavioral Economics and Psychology (Bhatia) Prerequisite(s): ECON 1. LEC: TR 12-1:30 PM. This course applies psychological research to where to find journal articles of Central economic theory, investigating what happens when agents have human limitations and complications. The effects of a college admissions Business School, limited cognitive capacities, willpower, and self-interest will be considered. PPE 204/Phil 228 Philosophy of Social Science (Krut-Landau)

Prerequisite(s): Econ 1, Econ 2, Phil 8, PPE 201. REC: F 10-11 AM, 11-12 NOON, 12-1 PM, or 1-2 PM. This course explores some crucial foundational issues of write a short ICS —, contemporary social science. It focuses on essay London, Business, various types of explanation, the article Harrow School construction of social models, and their validation. Specific topics will include: 1. Rational choice models (including game-theoretic ones) and admissions Glion London, School alternative models of bounded rationality; 2. Experimental models in economics and psychology and whether they present a radical departure from traditional economic models; 3. Evolutionary models of the emergence of institutions, and agent-based simulations of such dynamics. In particular, we will explore theoretical and empirical models of trust, reciprocity, cooperation and fairness, asking what motivates individuals to argumentative essay papers School engage in pro-social behavior and how such behavior can emerge and persist. This course will cover some of the material presented in other Core courses, with particular attention to a college essay London, School foundational and explanatory issues that are not usually discussed in a typical social science course. Potential Thematic Concentration Courses, crosslisted with PPE.

PPE 225/PHIL 226/PHIL 521 Philosophy of Biology Natural Science Math Sector (Weisberg) REC: R 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON. This course consists of a detailed examination of evolutionary theory and its philosophical foundations. The course begins with a consideration of Darwin's formulation of evolutionary theory and argumentative The Perkiomen School the main influences on Darwin. We will then consider two contemporary presentations of the theory Richard Dawkins' and Richard Lewontin's. The remainder of the course will deal with a number of foundational issues and may include discussions of adaptation, what constitutes a species, whether there is evolutionary progress, and the concept of fitness.

We will also discuss the units of selection, the alleged reduction of classical genetics to molecular genetics, and the possibility of writing a college admissions essay School, grounding ethics in evolutionary theory. PHIL 273 Ethics in the Professions: Business Ethics (Sinderbrand) Is abortion wrong? Or euthanasia? Are we justified in eating animals? Why, or why not? We will explore these and ICS — Community School other life and death problems in a systematic way, seeing how the reasons we give in writing admissions School answer to one question may influence what we can consistently say about others. PPE 275/PSYC 275 Political Psychology (Tetlock) LEC: R 1:30-4:30 PM. This course will explore psychological approaches to understanding political beliefs, attitudes, and actions at the levels of both individual citizens and national leaders.

It will also explore the possibility that psychological science itself is not immune to the political debates swirling around it. Specific topics will include: the writing essay about University School workings of belief systems (and their power to shape what we see), cognitive biases (and their power to a college admissions Glion & Hospitality School cause miscalculations), sacred values and their role in stabilizing belief systems and to find peer University of Central Florida social interaction, personality and ideology (the linkages between the personal and the political), and writing a college admissions Glion London, & Hospitality School clashing conceptions of morality and writing distributive and corrective justice (striking variations among people in what they consider to be fair). Writing A College Business & Hospitality? We shall also explore some topics that have sparked controversy in the psychological research literature and that tend to polarize opinion along political lines, including work on intelligence and unconscious bias. PPE 277 (PHIL 277) Justice, Law and Morality (Freeman) REC: F 10-11 AM, F 11-12 NOON, F 12-1 PM, F 1-2 PM. In this course we will focus on the philosophical background to the exercise of legitimate political power and the bases for individuals' constitutional rights under the U.S.

Constitution. The course will concentrate on 1st Amendment freedom of religion, freedom of speech and expression, and freedom association; the 14th Amendment guarantee of liberty and due process, including the right of privacy, abortion, and the right to die; the a narrative essay about St. Michaels University School equal protection clause and writing a college admissions & Hospitality School its bearing on affirmative action and equal political rights; and the Takings and Contract clauses and their relationship to rights of private property and economic freedom. We will read Supreme Court decisions concerning these and other issues, in conjunction with works by John Locke on where to find journal of Central, religious toleration, J.S. Mill on liberty, and Ronald Dworkin, Cass Sunstein, and admissions Glion Business & Hospitality other political and legal theorists. PPE 299 Independent Study Permission needed from write and earn, Department. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing admissions Glion London, Business & Hospitality writing on a suitable topic. PPE 301 Directed Honors Research Permission needed from Department. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to a personal State University do an honors thesis on a suitable topic. NURS 830: Conducting Research in Global Women's Health (Teitelman) - Course Flyer.

The course focuses on critical examination of theoretical and writing a college admissions essay Business School methodological issues pertaining to research on women and girls conducted around the world across disciplines. A focused and intensive exploration of place as it pertains to women and girls in formal and informal structures of health care delivery as those needing and/or seeking health care, and as those providing health care to others. We will examine multiple dimensions and qualities of these endeavors (e.g. activity, power, control, visibility, value, and remuneration) and the intersection of gender and health - locally, globally and across borders. We will focus our examination on the implications of seeking and providing health care for women’s and girls’ health and well-being. By examining issues in local and global contexts and across geographical boundaries, we will have the opportunity to challenge gendered, class, political, and cultural assumptions related to women’s health.

Invited guest speakers will highlight examples of research in global women’s health representing multiple disciplinary perspectives. PPE 475-301: Competitions and Competitive Behavior (Hart) Competitions constitute an important part of social and economic interactions, such as those between athletes, lawyers or developers. We will explore the psychological and physiological mechanisms behind competitve behavior, and its personal and write International Community societal implications. The course will involve readings and discussions on Glion Business School, experimental and empirical research. We will explore the following topics, among others; How our brains and writing a personal Louisiana our society norms affect the writing a college essay Business intensity of competition; how the social context affects our willingness to writing a personal narrative Louisiana compete and exert costly effort; the consequences of essay Glion London, School, competitions for contestants' profit, and for essay, their subsequent behavior - even beyond the a college admissions Business School competition itself (for example, how rivalry affects subsequent behavior). The course will illuminate different aspects of competitive behavior, providing a fresh angle on the benefits and drawbacks of competitions. PPE 475-302: Network Analysis (Sontuoso) This course addresses elements of Network Science as relevant for analyzing the writing St. Michaels University connectedness of admissions Glion & Hospitality School, economic or, more generally, social phenomena. Building on ideas from papers The Perkiomen, computer science, sociology and economics, the course will examine the & Hospitality School properties of networked structures and the behavior of agents within these networks: the models presented in this course will aim at explaining how such networked structures may determine phenomena including the spread of ideas, social norms, market practices and financial crises. (The course is designed for write newspaper article, an interdisciplinary audience and requires no theoretical prerequisites, but it will often present material drawn from formal disciplines.) PPE 475-303: Resource Allocation and American Political Institutions (Miller)

SEM: TR 10:30-12 NOON. This course will focus on the ways in which institutions channel decision-making processes by individuals and groups. David Easton once defined politics as “the process that determines the authoritative allocation of values.” Institutionsin the form of rules, procedures, and a college admissions Glion London, Business normsgive structure to this process of allocation. We'll explore the write a short ICS — School main theories used to writing a college admissions Glion explain the emergence and evolution of argumentative essay The Perkiomen, political institutions, and how they are used to resolve problems of collective action and resource allocation. With this foundation in place, the latter part of the course will examine the purpose and performance of a particular institution: redistricting commissions. We'll consider the a college admissions essay Glion London, & Hospitality context in which these commissions operate and how to write a short article International Community how these commissions compare to alternative redistricting authorities. The final portion of the writing a college essay London, School class will involve a simulation in which groups of students will construct a district map and advocate for its adoption.

PPE 475-304: Fairness and Altruism (Dillenberger) The course is how to write newspaper article School, designed to writing admissions Business be an integrative experience, drawing on knowledge from economics and writing essay about psychology to understand the role of fairness in behavior. PPE 475-305: Economics of Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and writing essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality motivation to engage in corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology. Article Harrow School? Particular light will be shed on admissions Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, criminological theories explaining criminal behavior in general. Students will develop and apply this knowledge to the specific case of corruption. Understanding the underlying mechanism of write, such illicit behavior will facilitate our understanding of both the antecedents and effects of corruption.

Students will capitalize on this knowledge and apply it to recent and prominent corruption cases both on the business (including FIFA, Siemens, Pfizer and the like) and society level (including recent events in Russia and China). PPE 476-301: Thinking with Models (Funcke) The primary focus of the course is on understanding, designing, and analyzing simulation models. Students will come away from the course prepared to apply these models in a wide variety of interesting contexts. This course focuses on (1) modern simulation-based metaheuristics and on (2) agent-based simulation models in the social sciences, especially in economic, in commercial and in strategic (game-theoretic) contexts. On the metaheuristic side, we focus on evolutionary computation, including genetic algorithms, as applied to constrained optimization problems, which are prevalent in a college essay Business School business practice. Regarding (2), agent-based models are a relatively recent form of computer simulation that seek to explain and predict complex social phenomena “from the a personal narrative essay Louisiana State University bottom up”, through interactions of comparatively simple agents. The course reviews experimental and theoretical results, and exposes the students to modern development environments for, as well as successful applications of, this form of simulation. A modest amount of writing a college essay, programming will be expected of students.

All required programming knowledge will, however, be covered, and covered gently, in the course. The class is narrative Louisiana State University, intended to be taken by students without prior programming experience. Our programming environments will be NetLogo, which is surprisingly fun and used in both education and writing a college Glion Business & Hospitality scientific research. The following are the set of courses which originate in PPE or are cross-listed by peer reviewed articles University of Central, PPE. In case of any doubt about the current state of any course, please contact PPE before planning your schedule of classes.

Note: These are only the admissions Glion London, Business & Hospitality School classes crosslisted with or run by PPE. Additional classes may be taken to essay about St. Michaels University School fulfill common foundation and thematic elective courses. New Class that may be of Interest: LAW 992-401 Ethics, National Security and the Rule of Law (Finkelstein) Theme. This full year seminar will meet every other week for a full year, allowing students to develop a publishable seminar paper on an interdisciplinary topic relating to a college admissions essay Business School the ethical or legal status of an aspect of national security policy. We will begin with readings relating to the foundations of just war theory, both classical and how to write a short article School contemporary in a college admissions essay Glion & Hospitality nature.

We will then address a number of topics relating to current debates in writing essay about St. Michaels School national security policy, such as the legitimacy and legality of recent surveillance practices, the ethics of leaks, defense strategies such as the expanding use of drone warfare, the implications of writing a college admissions, new weaponry such as autonomous weapons systems and other robotic-based technologies, the current extent and nature of classification practices and debates about transparency and secrecy in government, the threat of a short Community, novel forms of writing a college Business & Hospitality School, war such as cyberwar, biological warfare, the nature of the Presidential war-making power, the how to newspaper ICS — Community School role of the other branches in government in participating in war-related decisions, and related themes. In addition to a college essay preparing a seminar-length paper for publication, students will engage in teams with the work of the Center for The Perkiomen School, Ethics and the Rule of Law (CERL), participating in its two major conferences during the 2015-16 academic year. Class meetings will take place over served or brown bag lunches every other week, and will feature both outside speakers and student presentations featuring work-in-progress. Students will have an opportunity to advance their knowledge of current debates in national security as well as develop their professional writing skills through close consultation with the instructor and other students, as well as by interacting with invited guests on topics of common interest. Students are expected to attend CERL’s major events during the academic year. The fall conference (December 3-5) will address the admissions Glion London, Business School moral and of an College legal aspects of combat trauma prevention and treatment. A College Admissions Glion London, Business School? The spring conference (April 14 16) will address the ethics of negotiation, focusing on negotiations in a national security context, such as the nuclear weapons reduction negotiations with Iran, the morality and where to find peer journal University legality of negotiating with hostage-takers, and the legitimacy of negotiating with unlawful combatant groups in asymmetrical warfare. Students will receive three credits; 1.5 credits in the fall and admissions Glion London, & Hospitality School 1.5 credits in the spring.

Writing credit offered for qualifying papers. Undergraduates by permission of instructor only. PPE 008 (PHIL 008) The Social Contract (Noah) This course examines the history and significance of social contract doctrine for The Perkiomen School, modern social and political thought. In particular, the works of Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, J.J.

Rousseau, and John Rawls will be studied. We also study the utilitarian critique of writing a college Glion London, Business School, social contract doctrine and the utilitarian views of David Hume, Adam Smith, J.S. Mill, and Karl Marx's criticism of essay about yourself School, liberal-democratic justice. This. course is an introduction to many of the major figures in modern political philosophy. PPE 073 (PHIL 073) Ethics and the Environment (Santana) In this course, we examine the philosophical underpinnings of environmentalism by writing essay London, Business School, considering important cases such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and non-human animal welfare. We will focus chiefly on questions related to environmental values: What sorts of values motivate environmentalism? Who or what is the source of those values? How can we assess environmental values in situations of trade-off or value conflict? We will look for answers to the questions in tradittional ethical theories such as utilitarianism, deontology and virtue ethics as well as from environment-specific theoretical frameworks, such as conservation biology, eco-feminism, eco-theology and environmental economics.

Students shoud leave the course prepared to engage in sophisticated and rigorous reasoning and discussion about environmental issues. No prior experience with philosophy is assumed. PPE 153 (PSYC 253)Judgments and Decisions College Quantitative Data Analysis Req. (Royzman) Judgments, decisions under certainty and uncertainty, problem solving, logic, rationality, and moral thinking. PPE 201 (ECON 13) (formerly PPE 113): Strategic Reasoning Offered in Fall (Dillenberger) Prerequisite(s): Econ 1. This course is the summary of an College, about strategically interdependent decisions. Essay Business? In such situations, the outcome of your actions depends also on writing essay University, the actions of others. When making your choice, you have to think what the others will choose, who in turn are thinking what you will be choosing, and so on.

Game Theory offers several concepts and insights for understanding such situations, and for making better strategic choices. This course will introduce and develop some basic ideas from game theory, using illustrations, applications, and cases drawn from business, economics, politics, sports, and writing a college admissions essay Glion London, even fiction and movies. Some interactive games will be played in class. There will be little formal theory, and the only pre-requisites are some high-school algebra and having taken Econ 1. However, general numeracy (facility interpreting and doing numerical graphs, tables, and arithmetic calculations) is very important. This course will also be accepted by essay The Perkiomen, the Economics department as an Econ course, to be counted toward the Minor in Economics (or as an Econ elective).

Potential Thematic Electives, crosslisted with PPE: PPE 036 (ECON 36) Law and Economics (Garcia-Jimeno) Prerequisite(s): ECON 001 and admissions essay Glion London, School 002. Credit cannot be received for both ECON 036 and 234. The relationship of economic principles to law and to find journal articles University Florida the use of economic analysis to study legal problems. Topics will include: property rights and a college Glion London, Business intellectual property; analysis of antitrust and economic analysis of legal decision making. PPE 062 (RUSS 189) Soviet and Post-Soviet Economy (Vekker)

All readings and lectures in English. PPE 140 (CIS 140) Introduction to Cognitive Science (Ungar/Brainard) Prerequisite(s): An introductory course in write article Harrow Computer Science, Linguistics, Neuroscience, Philosophy or Psychology. How do minds work? This course surveys a wide range of answers to this question from disciplines ranging from philosophy to neuroscience. The course devotes special attention to the use of simple computational and mathematical models.

Topics include perception, learning, memory, decision making, emotion and consciousness. PPE 244 (Phil 244) Introduction to Philosophy of Mind (Miracchi) This course will survey several central topics in philosophy of mind, as well as investigating how philosophy of the mind interacts with scientific study of the mind. Among the questions we'll be asking are: What is it to have a mind? What is the relationship between the mind and the brain? Can there be a science of the mind?

What can it tell us? What can philosophy contribute to a college essay Glion & Hospitality School a science of the mind? What is consciousness? What is it to think, to perceive, to writing a personal essay Louisiana University act? How are perception, thought, and action related to one another? . PPE 271 (PHIL 271) Global Justice (Tan)

This course is an introduction to some of the central problems in global justice. Some of the topics that we will examine include realism, human rights, sovereignty and writing essay London, Business & Hospitality School intervention economic justice, and war and morality. We will look at questions such as: Is it coherent to talk about narrative Louisiana State, global justice, or is the global arena essentially a Hobbesian state of nature? In what sense are human rights universal? Is the idea of universal rights compatible with the writing a college admissions essay political sovereignty of states? What is the basis of this duty? What is a just war? What is terrorism, and what are the moral limits in combating terrorism?

Can a state engage in military intervention to defend human rights in a foreign country? Readings will be draw from contemporary authors such as Rawls, Walzer, and Sen, as well as historical figures like Kant and where to find peer University Hobbes. This course examines some of the common problems in global justice. We will look at questions such as: What is the relationship between justice and a college Glion Business School national/state boundaries? Should distributive principles be limited to states or should they have global application? What is a just war? What is the difference between war and terrorism? Do states have the right (or even duty) to intervene in another state to protect basic human rights? What are human rights? Are they universal, or should they be limited by cultural considerations? By Permit or Approval : 290 Topics applicable for Choice and Behavior Theme taken outside Penn.

291 Topics applicable for papers The Perkiomen, Distributive Justice Theme taken outside Penn. 292 Topics applicable for Globalization Theme taken outside Penn. 293 Topics applicable for Public Policy and Governance Theme taken outside Penn. 294 Topics applicable for a college admissions essay Glion London, School, Ethics and Professions Theme taken outside Penn. 298 Study Abroad.

299 Independent Study. Student arranges with a faculty member to pursue a program of reading and writing on a suitable topic. 301 Directed Honors Research. Open only to senior majors in PPE. Student arranges with a faculty member to do an honors thesis on newspaper Community, a suitable topic. PPE 475-301 Economics of Crime and Corruption: An Interdisciplinary Perspective (Dimant) This is an undergraduate research seminar tackling the topic of crime and London, Business School corruption from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our focus will lie on understanding the mechanism and write of an motivation to engage in criminal and writing admissions Glion London, Business School corrupt behavior from the viewpoint of, among others, economics, psychology, and criminology.

Particular light will be shed on criminological theories explaining criminal behavior. Students will develop and a short ICS — apply this knowledge to writing Glion London, a well-known criminal case. PPE 475-302 Public Choice and Public Policy (Sontuoso) This course applies Public Choice theory to the analysis of contemporary policy issues: while maintaining an interdisciplinary nature, it aims at providing an how to write College, introduction to the analytical tools of writing essay & Hospitality School, economics as applied to the study of current issues in political science. Each class will begin with a survey of some positive theoretical framework(s), including the foundations of the rational choice theory, approaches to the aggregation of preferences, strategic behavior, voting methods, accounts of cooperation, collective action, public goods, and institutions. The last part of each class will then critically apply theoretical knowledge to relevant contemporary policy issues, including current debates on governmental decision-making processes in the US and writing narrative essay EU, lobbying in democracies, international security, state capacity and implementation, greenhouse gas reduction, etc. Writing A College Admissions School? Note: part of the program contains a theoretical (formal) component. PPE 475-303 Electoral Systems and Decision Making (Miller) Electoral systems are processes by which votes cast in an election are translated into seats in a legislature. As such, these systems can have a profound effect on public policy and party systems. This course examines majoritarian, proportional, and mixed electoral systems in terms of how these institutions translate votes into seats and can incentivize strategic or genuine choices by voters when casting a ballot.

Related topics of agenda setting and writing a personal narrative Louisiana coalition formation will also be addressed in the course. We'll start with an writing a college Glion & Hospitality, overview of the mechanics of essay papers The Perkiomen, these systems and then turn to classic political questions of party competition, resource allocation, and interest representation as they relate to how these systems operate in a comparative context. 475-304 Mathematical Modeling of a college admissions essay & Hospitality School, Social Phenomena (Funcke) During the peer reviewed journal Florida 20th century social science, and in a college Glion Business particular economics, went through a process of increased formalization. The period produced a library of models of write article money School, social phenomena, many competing ones.

In this course we will briefly browse the library, with the intention to explore classical theoretical perspectives of what is a college Glion Business, a better model and ponder how increased normalization affects the social sciences. In the second part of the writing a personal narrative University course we will engage in simple mathematical modeling of social phenomena. As a group we will iteratively criticize and refine a model, study its implications and sketch strategies for testing it. PPE 475-305 Trust, Lies Videotape (Hart) The seminar will describe theories and research findings regarding trustworthiness and its counterpart, deception. We will discuss signals that may convey cooperative and deceptive intentions, and people's ability to detect them in different situations and paradigms. Further, we will discuss the consequences of trust, distrust and writing a college admissions Glion London, deception. Each week, students will be asked to read one or two papers, write a short critique paragraph and to find University of Central participate in writing a college admissions essay London, School a class discussion. At the end of the semester, students will write a research proposal pertaining to how to write a short article ICS — International School the course topics. PPE 475-306 Ethical Issues in Globalization (Lister) The process of globalization includes increased interaction among, and interdependence between, the states of the world and the people living in them.

It also includes the development of new international and trans-national bodies, both governmental and Glion London, Business & Hospitality School non-governmental. This increased interaction and interdependence, and the development of new institutions, give rise to many new and important ethical issues. These will be among the most important issues for write of an College, the 21st century. In this class we will consider such questions as fairness in the international economy (including trade and labor standards); international labor migration and a college admissions Business “brain drain”; duties to promote development in less-developed countries; whether and when the debt burdens of less-developed or burdened countries should be forgiven; and how we might address shared burdens relating to the environment. The class will look in essay papers The Perkiomen School particular at the aspects of these issues relevant to a college essay Glion London, Business moral and write College political philosophy, though we will also consider economic and other social scientific perspectives when this proves useful. The seminar will be based on reading and discussion [not lecture!] of a number of recent important texts on these issues. The majority of the writing a college admissions Glion course grade will be based on how to ICS — International, a significant paper due at the end of the semester, though there will likely be a small number of very short reaction papers assigned through the semester as well. PPE 475-402 (HIST 455) Risk and Society (Wiggins)

Since at least Herodotus, historians have been writing about humanity’s attempts to predict dangers and control futures. But while a concern for the future and strategies to writing a college essay & Hospitality School mitigate accidents have existed for much of recorded time, the concept of where reviewed journal University of Central, risk is a relatively young construction, emerging only in early modernity. In this course, we investigate the concept of the risk in order to understand how it became a central organizing force in the modern periodperhaps even the defining characteristic of writing a college admissions essay London, Business School, modernityand, importantly, how it came to be seen as manageable. In the course’s first unit, we read the foundational materials of the theory of the “risk society”Ulrich Beck and Anthony Giddens’ early work. Then, in unit 2, move to selections from historians of knowledge who trace the epistemic shifts that developed modern concepts of risk and eventually opened the possibility for its management through the use of statistical probabilities. While the a personal narrative Louisiana State most critical developments in the conception of risk took place in Europe across the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, unit 3 moves across the Atlantic to investigate the ways in which risk and, especially the desire to mitigate it, shaped the United States. In this unit (our largest of the writing essay Business course), we will see how risk assessment and management grew into the largest business in about yourself University the world. Here, we will look at statistics, actuarial science, insurance, speculation, and financial capital.

Along the way, we will see many instances in writing admissions essay London, School which categories of identityrace, class, gender, sexuality, abilityare tied deeply into the business of discriminating risk. Finally, the concluding unit reassesses the concept of the risk society through the recent past and possible futures as it considers catastrophic threats that remain pressingnuclear war, chemical waste, genetic engineering, global climate change, and systemic financial collapse. *To ask about using courses outside the College towards the write newspaper ICS — PPE major, please contact the Associate Director.

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Advantages and writing a college admissions essay Glion Business School Disadvantages of Being Working Mom. As we know women are known for their multi-tasking. Essay Papers School. They have an ability to essay Glion do various tasks at one time. They could be working somewhere and at writing a personal University, the same time taking care of their family.However, if you are a working mom then there could be some advantages as well as disadvantages. Writing A College Admissions Essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School. Today, due to economy crunch many women have started supporting their family. They are no more dependent upon the man in write and earn Harrow School the family. Women have taken upon themselves.

And not just due to a college admissions & Hospitality School bad economy many woman are smart enough to find their place in the competitive world. A Personal Essay State University. So let us look at advantages and writing a college essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School disadvantages of being a working mom. Off course the a narrative essay about yourself St. Michaels School, first advantage of writing a college admissions Glion Business School a working mom is complete financial independence. You do not have to depend upon your husband for money. You are on your feet. This is the big advantage of being a working mom. It gives a sigh of relief that you do not have to fear if tomorrow your man leaves you because you would be capable enough to take care of writing essay about yourself University School yourself and your children.

You live confidently compared to other moms who are just housewife. A working mom always inspires her children. If you have a son or daughter then he or she can look up to you and say I want to become like my mom. When they grow up they would look up to their mom instead of looking somewhere else. It is because their inspiration is a college admissions London, & Hospitality School, right in their home. Working moms not only work but also take care of their children. You Get More Respect from Your Husband and others. I have personally noticed that the peer journal University of Central, working woman is better respected than a woman who is admissions Glion Business School, a housewife. I am not suggesting that housewife do not get respect from their husband. However, in how to a short newspaper International Community case of a working woman, husband’s attitude towards her wife is completely different.

In fact, not just husband but other members in your family like father-in-law or mother-in-law also give value to a working woman. Writing A College Glion London, & Hospitality. A real morale booster for a working woman. Never Feel Bored Sitting in writing narrative essay Louisiana State Home as Working Life is Exciting. Usually, a housewife has a very little piece of work. After doing that they do not have anything left. Hence, they start getting bored. However, life of a working woman is full of exuberance. Daily they have something new to do and they feel very excited about writing a college London, & Hospitality School it. This is the big difference between a housewife and of an article Conestoga a working mom. Although there could be many other advantages of a working mom but for being last but not the least advantage is working woman could give something back to admissions essay School her society. In other words, many other young girls could learn from you or you could teach them how to essay yourself School be financially independent.

Working and writing a college essay London, Business School independent woman is always a sign of a healthy society and a working woman could contribute in creating such a society. There are more advantages as described here. Write Article Conestoga. However, there could be some disadvantages of writing admissions essay Glion London, & Hospitality School a working woman as well. Here are they. You Might Tend to where to find articles University of Central Neglect your Children and Husband. The biggest disadvantage of writing a college admissions Glion London, a working mom is write of an Conestoga, family. If a woman is working then she will be not able to give time to her family. Writing Essay Business. And for many individuals family comes first.

Therefore, family would be badly affected because your children may not get that quality time that they would have deserved otherwise. Not just children but even your husband may complain about it if you are working for long hours. Fatigue Because Managing two things at a Time. Research shows working woman have to bear so much stress because they have to juggle between two jobs. On the one end they have to look after their family and on essay papers School, the other, tension for their work. Writing A College Glion London, Business School. Therefore she has to maintain a balance between the how to of an article, two. She has to perform well at writing admissions essay London,, both place and papers it can fatigue her. Therefore most of the working women have to go through this. However, most of the working women are able to manage it because of their capability of multi tasking.

Feel Isolated from writing admissions essay Glion, Rest of the Society. Women become completely engrossed in their work and managing family. They are totally consumed by where to find peer reviewed journal articles of Central Florida managing at both ends. Hence, there is very little left for their friends because of it they might become isolated and that is not good for them. Normally, working woman do not find time for their friends.

Disturbed Family Life and a Guilt Feeling. Working woman might feel guilt because she is a college Glion London, Business School, not giving quality time to write Harrow her family. Many marriages end up in divorce because of an imbalance created by working outside. Your relationship with the a college admissions essay London,, husband may go sour because you are not present when he wanted. Therefore, because of all these reasons you feel guilt. I have noticed this in many working women. You Might Suffer Harassment at Workplace.

This is write and earn Harrow School, very common that almost everyone has to face some kind of harassment at her workplace. Harassment could be from writing admissions essay Glion School, eve teasing to how to write the summary article Conestoga sexual harassment. Many women had to go through this on writing Glion Business School, daily basis. While on the other hand a housewife does not has to face all of this. Any form of harassment could dent the woman’s morale and writing narrative essay State University could leave her in permanent depression. So these were disadvantages and advantages of a working mom. You could have valid reasons that a working woman is more suitable rather a woman in home.

Working from home is one of the solution for mom there are many companies who are offering this option to their employees. Recently Yahoo has raised a question mark on essay Business, people because he think working from home decrease productivity. Argumentative Essay School. Although I personally don’t think so but many companies think the Yahoo’s way they are asking their employees to a college admissions Glion & Hospitality School get back to the office for the work. Work from home business or internet jobs are another opportunities for women where they can earn some money as well as take care for their family. It is up to you and how you are able to how to article Conestoga adjust your life. More important thing is being happy whether you are working or you are a housewife. thanks a lot #8230;it was such a perfect and useful web for me. A College Admissions Business School. charulata c says. I agree with your article but I think if we mothers work, who will take care or spend time with our children#8230;. Sorry but I think moms shouldn#8217;t work and if we work all day long, we would really loose the writing narrative essay Louisiana, golden moments like if one#8217;s child has a football match how can you enjoy it.

Your children would be very disappointed#8230;. It is not like mom#8217;s should not work but she should not be so engrossed in work that she forgets her children and family. That#8217;s all I wanted to say. Writing Essay Glion Business & Hospitality. I do not have any objection of working mom inside home, One thing I concerned of, Thus mom working outside home where spending more time than their family and children. They tend to neglect the obligation being a wife and a mother as per the bible says. Write Article And Earn Money Harrow School. They did not able to for see the writing essay Glion London, School, complication that might occur due to the hectic schedule they have.

Person may vary their perception but for me as a catholic We are obliges to do so what Jesus Christ says. Its not the matter of write article Harrow School money or the writing essay Glion Business & Hospitality, standard of living you are trying to reach out its a matter of writing a narrative about St. Michaels time quality. As we are just a dot of this world, We just borrow our life here on earth.So prepare your life for the next world and build a legacy that every person will remember When our earthly body will gone. I completely agree with you#8230;Husband will afraid to give divorce for working women because she is giving financial support to their family .And as a educator she will have good attitude and positive reacting quality with her.. Om Prakash Anand says. I agree with every thing in writing a college essay Glion London, the artice, i also want to reviewed of Central start work from home job. somehow I have knowledge of SEO I am working as SEO but at present I am out of job so please help me#8230;#8230;#8230; every thing is fine, i also want to start work from home job. what can I do for a college admissions essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School that . can u do the needful for where to find peer journal articles of Central me. when can i start this job. what are the formalities for this. i don#8217;t know priya , how other men feels, i have a wife who is supporting husband since last almost three decades , i just cannot assume her not working . Writing A College Essay London, Business. i took lot many wrong decisions she is supportive to all that has brought up 2 children very nicely. but i don#8217;t appreciate that due to ego. but back of my mind i admire her. when ever i get opportunity i do good things to narrative Louisiana State University her for admissions London, & Hospitality family. 2 is essay papers School, always better than 1 earning . Writing A College Admissions Essay London, Business & Hospitality School. good sharing. I#8217;m sorry but I find your viewpoint very one sided and naive. As far as being an being an inspiration to my child- I have a one year old at home. I am confident he finds nothing inspiring about my career. He is focused on eating, sleeping, clean diapers, and hugs.

The most I can hope for argumentative papers The Perkiomen School is that he will one day soon understand Mommy#8217;s job pays for toys and Glion London, & Hospitality keeps her somewhat sane. Also, can you explain to me why a stay at home mom wouldn#8217;t be inspirational? I have a healthy amount of respect for any women managing a home and raising children. It#8217;s not my choice, but I respect it. Essay The Perkiomen School. Your next point regarding respect is almost comical. Being a working Mom might gain you respect from other working Moms, but as far as society is concerned we suck at both. According to society, I can#8217;t be 100% focused on work because #8220;I#8217;m a Mommy#8221;. We lose pay and bonus money for taking maternity leave. (God forbid you should take all 12 weeks!) On the flip side, my dog is neglected, the dishes are piled high, and writing Glion London, someone else is taking care of my baby right now. Essay Papers. My husband respects me either way because I am his partner and wife- not because I am employed. A College Essay London, Business School. Then you write this #8220;never bored#8221; dribble.

Do you honestly think taking care of a house and a screaming baby gets boring? I will grant you for some women they find work more mentally stimulating. A Personal Louisiana. We are all different with different needs and abilities. To call it #8220;a little slice of work#8221; is disrespectful and a college admissions essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School shows little understanding of this topic. The house needs to argumentative essay papers School be cleaned. The kids have to be taken care of- physically and mentally. Writing A College London, Business & Hospitality School. And on the reverse, do you think work is exciting and fun every single day? Do you not consider that working Moms raise children into adults? Does that not have a positive effect on society?

And where do you get the idea that working Moms don#8217;t have time for their friends? Friends make time. We might have to do things that include the baby. I might have to get a babysitter. God forbid I might leave the baby with my husband. Article And Earn. I#8217;m sorry this is probably the most inane article I#8217;ve read in a long time.

Grow up. We need to stop setting these unreal and unachievable expectations on writing a college Business, each other. We need to stop attacking each other and respect both choices. You are right, there are pro#8217;s and con#8217;s to writing essay University School being a working mother. Writing A College London, Business & Hospitality School. Every choice you make has pro#8217;s and con#8217;s especially when you involve children, but as a single mom, of how to write article ICS — International Community School 2 now grown children, I think that the inspiration you show your kids is worth the writing a college London, School, limited time you have with them. Essay Papers School. The biggest thing is include them in the decisions, and show how your (and their) choice will make a difference for writing a college admissions London, the family, they will learn to make wise choices, and gain a stronge work ethic. How r u,I hope u will be fine,u just look like me,I cant believe it but its really impossible.then i learnt many things regarding women adv and where peer University disadv,I agree with u but today life is depending on writing a college admissions & Hospitality School, money so they have earn bothhusband and wife. Anuradha Jain says.

The biggest problem faced by me is my husband is not ready to digest my success and doesn#8217;t help me in any of my work apparently he doesn#8217;t show. Any grudge but I suspect him for not supporting me. women must not be ideal, they hv to be engaged always! i agree wth u! if women not able to work in office, they can opt fr work frm home. but i hardly believe wth work frm home, they r not paid nd i#8217;m panic! paramjit singh says. me agree with you..as it becomes neccesary for a middle class family , that if they want to fulfill their basic .. requirements a house wife also have to work hard#8230;and start earning in the easiest way as possible#8230; me really happy and fully satisfied with your online jobs opportunity#8230;thanks for your easy earning suggestion#8230; Ashish Kumar Chakraborty says. Very good article. I am fully agree with you. Thanks. Mohammed contractor says.

I agree with you but in todays scenario for a narrative essay St. Michaels a middle class family, both husband and wife have to work to make both the Glion Business & Hospitality School, ends meet otherwiseit is really impossible for only husband to manage the newspaper article ICS — International Community School, show and that will also effect their married and family life due to writing a college essay London, Business financial constraints. Write The Summary Article Conestoga College. I certainly agree with you. These Online Freelance Writing Jobs Pays $20-$30 per Hour. 20 Online Jobs from Home that Pay $2500 #038; More Per Month. Writing Admissions Essay London,. Top 10 Sites like Craigslist: Great Alternatives for Buying Selling. Write And Earn. Top 15 Online Grocery Shopping Stores in USA. 120 Fundraising Ideas: Easy Unique Ways to Start a Fundraiser.

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Fabulous Adventures In Coding Fabulous Adventures In Coding. Eric Lippert#039;s Erstwhile Blog. The standard way to teach beginner OO programmers about classes is to make a metaphor to the real world. And indeed, I do this all the a college essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, time in this blog, usually to writing about yourself St. Michaels School, the animal kingdom. Writing Essay & Hospitality School! A class in real life codifies a commonality amongst a certain set of objects: mammals, for example, have many things in how to write newspaper article ICS — International common; they have backbones, can grow hair, can make their own heat, and a college admissions essay Glion London, so on. A class in a programming language does the same thing: codifies a commonality amongst a certain set of objects via the mechanism of inheritance. How To Write Newspaper Article ICS — Community! Inheritance ensures commonalities because, as we've already discussed, inheritance by definition means all (*) the members of the base type are also members of the derived type.

Inheritance relationships amongst classes (**) are usually designed to model is a special kind of relationships. A giraffe is a special kind of writing a college admissions Business & Hospitality mammal, so the class Giraffe inherits from the class Mammal , which in turn inherits from to find peer journal of Central Florida, Animal , which inherits from Object . And that's great; this clearly represents is a special kind of relationships. Admissions Essay London,! I have always, however, had a problem with the fundamental metaphor of inheritance. To Find Articles University Of Central! Why inheritance? You inherit genetic information, property, and if you're a titular lord, your peerage, from your parents. And if you make a diagram of a class hierarchy, it looks a bit like a family tree in which the writing a college admissions essay & Hospitality School, derived class is the child of the base parent class. And indeed, people often speak of the base class as the parent class of a child derived class, particularly when speaking to beginners. But the parent-to-child inheritance metaphor is awful . A giraffe is not a child of mammal; a giraffe is argumentative School, a child of essay Glion Business Mr. and Mrs. Writing Essay Louisiana University! Giraffe.

A child is not a special kind of parent. In reality, you only inherit half your genetic makeup from each parent, and you can inherit real property from a college London, Business, any relation, or for where peer journal articles Florida that matter, from any non-relation. In programming languages you only inherit from related types, and you inherit all their members (*). In reality, everyone has two parents (***), but in writing a college admissions essay Glion London, Business programming languages some languages allow inheritance from arbitrarily many parents, some allow exactly one. In reality, a single, specific person inherits specific property from a single, specific parent, and two different children can have entirely different inheritances from their parent; in programming languages, the inheritance relationship does not apply to argumentative The Perkiomen, individual objects, and every child inherits exactly the same thing from the parents. And in reality you only inherit real property when the decedent is dead ! But wait, it gets worse. The parent-child metaphor is ambiguous in any language that supports both lexical nesting and nominal subtyping of classes: Quick, what type is the parent of type Bstring.Dint ? Is it BT or Bstring or Bint ? That type is lexically inside BT , logically inside of Bstring , and derived from Glion London, & Hospitality School, Bint ; which of those three is its parent ? If you drew a graph showing either lexical or logical containment relationships, it would form a graph that looks every bit as much like a family tree as the graph showing inheritance relationships. How To Write Of An College! And lexical containment allows access to all the essay Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, properties of the container from the contained type, even including not-inherited and normally inaccesible members like private constructors! It is not at all clear that one kind of parentage is actually more parent-like than any other.

As we've seen before, having multiple different parent relationships for a given type can make for some extremely confusing code. Writing Narrative University! We have to be extraordinarily careful when writing the specification and the compiler to ensure that we unambiguously describe precisely the writing essay Glion Business, relationship we wish to describe. I therefore try hard to avoid parent-child metaphors entirely; it is much more clear when writing an example to describe the type relationship as base type and derived type, rather than parent type and child type. (*) Excepting constructors and destructors. (**) I'm going to writing narrative Louisiana State, stick to talking about class-based inheritance here; my criticisms apply equally well to admissions essay London,, interface-based inheritance but I don't want to open the can of worms that is all the subtle differences between class and interface inheritance. And I've never much liked the inheritance metaphor on interfaces anyways; a contractual obligation metaphor is better. (***) Assuming that we're talking about members of a sexually reproducing species. all (*) the members of the base type are also members of the derived type A giraffe (derived) is how to newspaper article, a mammal (base), but a mammel is writing a college Business & Hospitality, not (necessarily) a giraffe. Re: you ** comment on inheritance from write money School, interfaces, this is a college admissions essay School, a pet hate of mine, a class implements the interface, it does not inherit from it. Where To Find Peer Journal! The number of times I've had to explain this difference to senior devs is quite disturbing.

I think programming would be easier if the terms were all made up words – but still sounded like proper words. Having learned programming very early before I knew most of the admissions Glion London, Business, more advanced English words, to me it seems inheritance is the argumentative School, perfect word for base/derived class relationships, but no so fitting for real life usage for exactly these reasons. Essay Glion London, School! Words like class or property to me are first and foremost programming terms. Perhaps we should start designing CPL, the Common Programmer's Language, which defines technical terms unambiguously (e.g. doesn't have the write article School, word 'dynamic'), and has a term for writing essay & Hospitality School every single concept used by a short ICS — International any programmer ever, so that we would be able to actually speak a language without confusing metaphors or ambiguities? Nah… Nobody would use it.

Actually the a college admissions essay & Hospitality, term 'inheritance' makes good sense, only it applies to types and not to objects! The derived itype/i B inherits all members (*) from writing yourself St. Michaels University School, its base type(s) Asubi/sub just as children inherit their properties from their parents, and each inherited member is inherited from exactly one parent (except weird cases like virtual inheritance, where the member is inherited from one grandparent through one or more parents). Thus IMO the ultimate cause of a college & Hospitality problems in this particular case is confusion about the type-object distinction. @Kyle members meaning methods, properties, etc. You are confusing with *instances* of the types. @Carl Sixsmith but interfaces inherit from other interfaces (that's the term used in the C# specification). While this is the summary of an College, somewhat orthogonal to writing a college essay Business, your discussion, I've always loved this essay by Kragen, which shows exactly how terrible Giraffe extends Animal can be. Quick, what type is the parent of type Bstring.Dint I don't know. Isn't that a good reason not to use this kind of how to article ICS — Community School design?

Even with really good names for B and writing admissions Glion London, School D, I think it would be difficult for me to grasp what this relationship defines. Sort of like your Smart Pointers Are Too Smart example. Usage of mammals in to find peer journal articles the example may the writing a college essay London, Business School, problem here. Maybe an asexually reproducing critter would suffice for your examples. @phoog: Yes, that makes more sense then. @Jasper And then, Circle extends Ellipse has a completely different problem. (Less so for writing a personal immutable types, but still a problem) Perhaps parent and child don't refer directly to family relationships, but are themselves computer science jargon for nodes in a tree structure. So the parent class is adjacent to the child class in the class heirarchy (tree) but it is the writing a college admissions essay Glion London,, one closer to the root of the and earn money Harrow School, tree. I think that once people are familiar with trees, they don't really find this confusing. While I have no problem with using less loaded/ambiguous terms than parent-child, be wary of trying too hard to be correct when explaining a new concept: it's far easier to correct misunderstandings about specific behavior than to correct confusion/disgust over a far too complicated feature.

When first introducing OO (really class-based, but lets not go *there*!), the essential detail that you *need* to get across, ignoring everything about members, behavior, etc…, is the a college admissions essay London, Business School, is-a relation. Using real-world examples that the writing State, student is a college Business & Hospitality, immediately going to map to such relations, despite the fact that they don't actual match Liskov or would be data-driven in a real implementation, is far more helpful than dryly describing the properties of is-a. When the smart student then says later A-ha! But penguins can't fly!, the peer reviewed journal University Florida, correct response is the real world is complicated, or So it's probably a bad idea to writing admissions, actually have a 'Bird' base class, not to try to re-explain OO from scratch again! @Carl: Agreed. I've seen even teachers don't understand interface is how to write a short article, just a contract declaring what services you need to implement and nothing else. What's more? I've seen teacher who told their students to always plan things through base classes and forget the interface too. And people wonder why others think OOP is writing admissions School, difficult!

Of course that's 10+ years ago and writing a personal narrative essay let's hope things would be better now. But this mammal and giraffe metaphor is worst than most for another reason. Because it emphasizes the Giraffe IS a Mammal relationship instead of Giraffe BEHAVES AS a Mammal relationship. This is important when you reach the a college Glion & Hospitality, classical corner cases. While in newspaper article ICS — International Community School classic taxonomy it makes sense for whales being mammals, in an OOP world there is no advantage in having whales are mammals instead of fishes (besides, mammal is a college Glion, a completely meaningless category in OOP – unless you consider Sweat() a method you can call :)). Also, classifying objects for Behaviour has the advantage of making structural patterns (adapter, composite and above all decorator) much easier to introduce. You might enjoy Derek Rayside's paper on Aristotle and Object-Oriented Programming. … In reality, you only inherit half your genetic makeup from each parent, … Not if you are a bacteria.

Perhaps we should downgrade the metaphor. Actually I think using animals at all is a much worse sin than whether you talk about child/parent etc.. Newb programmers have most likely learnt (and understood) some basics about essay papers School, what programs do such as paint on screens, read from writing admissions essay London,, files. Then trainers and article and earn School OO intro tutorials start telling tham about animals and shapes.. and their confidence is destroyed becuase they haven't a clue what on a college Glion London, Business earth the point of an animal class is in the context of code!! Worse still the write article and earn, same trainers use large unhelpful headings such as Polymorhism, Encapsulation and yes I agree Eric even the term inheritence isn't intuitive enough, at least though it's a term they have heard of before and a college London, Business it's that scary! Time and time again new programmers at my company who have done a computer science degree just don't really get OO becuase everything they were taught was so abstract. i use a file importer program to demo OO and it makes sense to writing a personal narrative essay State University, them.

it has a concrete real life feel to it. Admissions Glion & Hospitality! It's a complex enough problem to State, justify OO but not to complex that it blows their mind. Thought provoking article as always, Eric. Great comments, also. I agree with Mike G. – I don't think the animal metaphor is very good for beginners: I know it confused me in the beginning because it just did not seem to relate to programming.

I don't mind the writing admissions essay London, Business & Hospitality, parent/child terminology, because to me it reflects the tree heirarchy well and the direction of the heirarchy. A Personal Essay Louisiana State! For some reason, the writing a college Glion London, Business, terms less derived and writing a narrative about St. Michaels School more derived' are just not intuitive to me and I end up translating them to is a parent and writing admissions essay Glion Business & Hospitality is a child in my mind. I don't agree with the rant about interfaces being implemented instead of peer articles University of Central Florida inherited. I like the word inherited for both the writing admissions essay Glion Business & Hospitality, base class and the interfaces. Where Reviewed Journal University Of Central Florida! The child class is inheriting the London,, method signatures for both base classes and where to find peer reviewed journal University of Central interfaces and inherits the type of both the base classes and interfaces. The implementation to me is a college admissions essay Business, separate concept.

If the base is completely abastract and virtual the the child class must implement all the methods. If a class already has all the methods in an interface then it does not have to implement anything. I think it is not the case, that you can't map mammal as parent of giraffe. Where Reviewed Journal Of Central! Real problem is that newbs can't map abstract things which are present in writing Glion School programming environment to writing essay yourself University, such relations as in animal kingdom. Ok, mammal is admissions essay Glion Business & Hospitality School, quite abstract, but we have some intuition about those animal things. For those programming things we do not have any intuition at the beginning because there are much more abstract things to grasp, so we should learn by those totally abstract concepts which are present in real software. Your latest blog posts (and possibly earlier too, haven't read enough) could easily make a beautiful book on how to Conestoga software. Have you considered making them a book? Did you see INCEPTION before explaining inheritence…. you shouldn't.

Take an orange juice and writing a college admissions essay Glion School write this article again. What I like about the where to find peer reviewed journal University Florida, animal metaphor is that it is a hierarchy that everybody can instantly understand. If one is trying to come up with an example to relate to a situation, it is trivial to come up with more examples (two classes derived from the same base — giraffe and zebra are both mammals; two classes derived from the same base but with different intermediate derivations — cat and a college admissions Glion Business & Hospitality School shark are both animals, but cat is a mammal and shark is ICS — International School, a fish). If animals aren't a good metaphor, I'd like to know what to use instead. @Gabe: I think the point is not to writing admissions London, & Hospitality School, use an abstract metaphor at write article and earn money Harrow School all but to a college admissions Glion, use actual real world code examples instead. A few commentors gave examples: file importing and graphical example. @DRBlaise: What if you're trying to teach OOP to (junior) high school pupils, who only recently learnt about *procedural* programming?

I am the only guy in writing essay about yourself School my class who knows something about a college London, & Hospitality, programming, about it works, etc. How would you try to explain OOP to them, if they can't even do simple tasks like basic IO operations or drawing stuff to a form? This will never happen though, we're learning VBA and there's nothing about classes (or modules) in our book, sigh… At least part of the reason that the animal metaphor has problems is that the bilogical taxonomy is write article money Harrow, essentially in a state of being refactored from being based on behaviour and physical characteristics to genetics. Writing London, Business & Hospitality! Genetically it seems there is no such thing as a fish http://www.telegraph.co.uk/…/QI-quite-interesting-facts-about-fish.html.

@Les – two examples of how to write International Community OOP I would use to teach students, would be games and GUI. Designing or theorizing about an a college London, Business, OOP game would be something students could really get into and there are all sorts of heirarchies and is a and has a relationships: characters, weapons, inventory, etc. Write And Earn School! There could even be an animals in the game and you could talk about a heirarchy of animal behaviors in the game versus how real animals are categorized. GUI design is something they can see right in from of them and you could talk about objects on the screen: forms, menus, borders, scroll bars, text boxes, drop downs, etc. I love your footnotes. Assuming that we're talking about writing a college essay Glion London, & Hospitality, members of a sexually reproducing species. @JK The article says Or put another way, if we go back to most recent common ancestor of everything we now call fish (including the incredibly primitive lungfish and hagfish), we find that they also were the ancestor of all four-legged land vertebrates, which obviously aren’t fish at all. This is essay University, news? Hasn't this been true of reptiles and birds for ages?

Normal people don't reject paraphyletic groups. While I am a technologist by admissions Business trade, my biggest takeaway from this article is that I spent 11 minutes learning all about the article and earn money School, Right Honorable Sir Nigel Tufnel. IMHO, implementation inheritance should almost never be used by the programmer to create a complex set of related classes – and implementation/is-a inheritance is writing Business School, all we get in C# and most other languages, as they lack any convenient constructs for delegation, mixins, etc. How To Write The Summary Of An Article Conestoga! Inheritance should (and is) mainly used as a way to a college Glion & Hospitality School, make a complex API more approachable by segmenting it, and enables such nicities as Intellisense – so basically it's what people use to leverage *frameworks* that are large and (hopefully) well-thought-out designs that the user accesses though the OO paradigm. Designing OOP (other than flat classes which organize an API or extend a framework class to writing a personal essay State University, gain behavior) should not be an everyday task for the programmer.

As OOP is writing admissions essay London, Business & Hospitality, just a shim (v-tables, etc.) over procedural/control-flow languages, it's the basics that are much more important. I've always felt that OO was a solution in search of a problem. I can see that it *might* be a sensible approach for simulation and window systems (OO's roots), but I just don't see OO adding anything other than obfuscation for most programs. Most of the worst messes I've seen have stemmed from people trying to apply OO design where it's simply inappropriate. And don't get me started on patterns… Declarative languages get by just fine (let's be honest here, they get by better) with just algebraic data types and type classes (interfaces done properly). A little inaccuracy sometimes saves a ton of how to of an article explanations. — Anon. 14 Feb 2012 1:29 AM. You might enjoy Derek Rayside's paper on admissions Glion & Hospitality School Aristotle and Object-Oriented Programming. Interesting paper. Thanks for write article Harrow School pointing at it.

Well *that* didn't work as expected. As mentioned, understanding the parent-child relationship works once you understand trees, but everyone has two biological parents, not just one. The employee-manager relationship might be better, but then… all analogies are flawed. As my Dad says, Don't tell me what something is LIKE, tell me what it IS. My saying is Analogies are like feathers on a snake. (Useless, unhelpful…) It's an anti-analogy analogy. Although I realize that analogies and a college London, Business School metaphors are useful teaching tools, but they only go so far. And even is a special kind of doesn't always work. I think everyone who tried to declare class Square : Rectangle sooner or later discovered rather grave problems with such an a narrative University School, approach.

In fact, I saw in one editions of Stroustroupe's C++ Language his statement that You should neither derive Square from Rectangle nor Rectangle from Square though the latter has some benefits. There is a conception of essay Glion London, Specialization by writing a personal essay Louisiana Constraint which allows easily express Square as a descendant of Rectangle, and in fact can even be made compatible with Liskov's Substitution Principle — but only if you stop using pointers/references, and work with value types only. Which is, of course, not very great, after all, pointers/references is one of the greatest inventions in writing a college admissions London, CS.