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Death , Description , Descriptive technique 447 Words | 2 Pages. University/Fraser College - NAVITAS! Many elements such as angles, peeping holes, and fingers are portrayed in the film. They are particularly emphasized in the pageant. The pageant scene . A Compare And Contrast & Management! embodies a story within a story. It contains a great deal of imagery and write Fraser University/Fraser foreshadowing .The Bluebeard performance emphasis the key concepts of essay Cardiff Form, female fatality and female strength in this film. At the start of the performance the actors catch a glimpse of the audience by peeking through various holes in the curtains.
There is a focus on the seemingly. A Story , Audience , Finger 623 Words | 2 Pages. Blackberry Picking - Seamus Heaney. tale of greed and murder. Seamus Heaney, through clever diction, ghastly imagery, misguided metaphors and abruptly changing forms, ingeniously tells the . tale that is understood and rarely spoken aloud. Seamus Heaney refers to Bluebeard at howto write an essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser International College the end of writing Cardiff, stanza one. Bluebeard , according to the footnote, is howto write an essay University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS a character in a fairy tale who murders his wives. Why on earth would there be a reference to a murderous pirate in i write essay Braemar, a poem about blackberries? The exact metaphor is Our hands were peppered With. Mind , Murder , Reader 986 Words | 3 Pages.
How Does Carol Ann Duffy Challenge the “Familiar Cultural Stereotypes” of Women in ‘Mrs Beast’?? shows the write an essay Simon University/Fraser International College false image, shown by men who seem perfect. In the fairytale Bluebeard marries again, after a numerous times before, to a beautiful . woman who in the ends find out that Bluebeards has killed his previous wife’s and hung them up in a room, she informs others and has him killed. Duffy refers to this fairytale because it negatively implies that men are destroyers of women and only seek to harm/manipulate them like Bluebeard who kills his wife’s and strings them up like trophies/ prizes of his. Gender , Gender role , Male 1466 Words | 4 Pages. science.
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Ironically, Rochester plays this role when he assumes the howto an essay University/Fraser College - NAVITAS disguise of i write Braemar, a gypsy fortune-teller”. Byronic hero , Charlotte Bronte , Fairy tale 1391 Words | 4 Pages. English 102 Essay 2 Female Serial Killers. Howto Write An Essay College - NAVITAS! lady I’m going to write about is the female serial killer Lady Bluebeard . A man named William C. Anderson decided to write a true story on the . life of Lady Bluebeard . Sixth Form! This book has the complete story of her life and the crimes she committed. Anderson. (1994). Lady Bluebeard was someone that is close to our city of Twin Falls Idaho. An Essay Simon International College! She lived most of her life here and is buried in the Twin Falls cemetery.
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The castle is an example of an isolated setting this shows the write a case analysis essay Glion London, & Hospitality School distant away from . Howto An Essay University/Fraser - NAVITAS! humanity therefore evoking sense of horror. The ‘Bloody Chamber’ is a reworked fairytale from the bluebeard which has moral of women not over step their mark in society. They are also written as short stories which creates more of an impact. A 5 Paragraph Essay University! Carter uses language devices such as juxtaposition “lascivious tenderness” and metaphor for the Marquis being described. An Essay College! Fairy tale , Female , Fiction 640 Words | 1 Pages. cultural texts ? Flair for expression SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER Time: 2Hours Full Marks: 100 Answers exceeding the stipulated word limit will be penalized 1. . Read the following poem and critically evaluate it in not more than 300 words.
We die, Welcoming Bluebeards to our darkening closets, Stranglers to our outstretched necks, Stranglers, who neither care nor care to know that DEATH IS INTERNAL. We pray, Savoring sweet the teethed lies, Bellying the grounds before alien gods, Gods, who neither know nor wish. Essay Cardiff Sixth College! Chetan Bhagat , Christopher Nolan , Don Quixote 345 Words | 2 Pages. An Essay University/Fraser International - NAVITAS! blackberries, their palms [are] sticky as Bluebeard's. Bluebeard was a character who murderedkilled his wives. By comparing the pickers and . Bluebeard , the reader feels as if the blackberry picking was not so innocent as it appearedpicks up on the maturity of the summertime affair.
The reader cany see the connection because both have greedyful qualities in both. This starts to point towards the theme of the poem, showing how everyone, from Bluebeard the murderer, to a simple person picking blackberries. Berry , Blackberry , English-language films 794 Words | 3 Pages. Hunger as a Theme in Black Boy by how to write essay Taunton School Richard Wright. aching stomach. A second type of hunger that Richard encounters is an educational hunger. This really starts off after a schoolteacher named Ella, one of . the only people who encourages Richard throughout the howto an essay Fraser University/Fraser - NAVITAS book, reads him the book the tale of Bluebeard and His Seven Wives.
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The Making of the Writer, Richard Wright. How To Thesis IUBH School Of Business & Management! Black Boy. society understands why he wants to become a writer. It sounds like it is the stupidest thing they ever heard. When Wright gets Ella to reads him a story . An Essay International College - NAVITAS! from the book she is carrying, it is like a new reality to how to a english him. Howto Write Fraser! “She whispered to me the story of how can i write essay College, Bluebeard and His Seven Wives and I ceased to see the howto write Simon Fraser International porch, the sunshine, her face, everything. As her words fell upon my new ears, I endowed them with a reality that welled up from somewhere within me”. Type Of Essay! The story is so intriguing to him that he vows to himself.
A Story , Black Boy , Black people 1306 Words | 3 Pages. Fairy Tales The Ugly Duckling Snow White Sleeping Beauty Beauty and the Beast Rumpelstiltskin The Princess and Simon Fraser University/Fraser College the Pea The Pied Piper of how can, Hamelin . Little Red Riding Hood Hansel and howto write Fraser University/Fraser College Gretel The Frog Prince The Fisherman and His Wife Cinderella Bluebeard Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves Aladdin Examples and Non-Examples Effective Example: Cinderella Background Information: Cinderella is the name of the fairy tale where a young girl lives in how to write a english, unfortunate circumstances. Cinderella is in a lowly position. Diomedes , Fairy tale , Greek mythology 961 Words | 3 Pages. Indo European Folktales Study guide. spoke to a contemporary New England audience New issues/theme – she spoke to a contemporary audience, she tells her tales in modern form applying them to . today’s society Angela Carter The Bloody Chamber and howto Simon Fraser Other Stories Rewrote some of the Bluebeard tales She wanted to focus on the desires/thoughts of women Believed women could show they had power Not romantic (as opposed to Anne Sexton who was more romantic) Wrote “Tiger’s Bride” based on the Beauty and the Beast and Tigers Bride (merged. Brothers Grimm , Fable , Fairy 3091 Words | 14 Pages. Death of a Naturalist: a Study of i write College, Seamus Heaney's First Book of howto write Simon International - NAVITAS, Poems. territory. Associating the blackberry juice that covered him and his friends hands with a morbid fairy tale, Heaney describes how his hands were peppered / . With thorn pricks, our palms sticky as Bluebeard's. How To Essay Taunton School! (Heaney 10). The renowned folk tale of Bluebeard is a legend about a terrible man who murders his wives, and whose hands are caked in their sticky blood. Heaney's correlation between his hands and Bluebeard's is a morbid example of the howto University/Fraser - NAVITAS link between a natural occurrence and one of death and gloom.
Emotion , Faber and a english essay Faber , Feeling 1503 Words | 4 Pages. to desire knowledge. This thirst for knowledge is another cause of alienation for Richard. It results in write Simon University/Fraser College, alienating himself as well as being alienated from . the black community. For example, when Granny found out that her tenant, Ella, was reading Bluebeard and His Seven Wives to a 5 paragraph essay Coventry University Richard, she objected to it and write University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS forbade her from reading to paragraph Coventry him on religious grounds by saying, “That’s the Devil’s work.” When Richard protested, she responded by an essay Fraser University/Fraser - NAVITAS saying, “You’re going to burn in how to write and contrast thesis & Management, Hell.” It seems that her deep. Belief , Black people , Christianity 1145 Words | 3 Pages. An Essay Fraser International - NAVITAS! described as being 'Like a plate of writing a 5 paragraph essay Coventry, eyes'. The very different mood engendered by this imagery is developed by the subsequent allusion to the crucifixion of . Christ in 'hands . in thorn pricks' and the simile incorporating the legendary character Bluebeard (a pirate who murdered many wives). This section of the write an essay Fraser International College poem, then, gives three consecutive images that evoke . connotations of guilt: the mutilation of the berries' natural environment, the indirect reference to Christ (crucified by mankind), and. Blackberry , Fruit , Perception 1305 Words | 4 Pages. time faults, and apocalyptic destruction.
Among his other novels are Player Piano (1952), Mother Night (1961; film, 1996), Cat's Cradle (1963), God Bless . You, Mr. Rosewater (1965), Breakfast of Champions (1973; film, 1999), Deadeye Dick (1983), Bluebeard (1987), and the novel-memoir Timequake (1997). He also wrote short stories, plays, and of essay writing Washington Academy essays, e.g., the collections Wampeters, Foma and write an essay Fraser University/Fraser College Granfalloons (1974), The Man without a Country (2005), and the posthumously published Armageddon in Retrospect (2008). 25399 Vonnegut , Breakfast of Champions , Cat's Cradle 869 Words | 4 Pages. some estimating that he murdered hundreds. When a violent dispute with a clergyman broke out in 1440, his crimes were brought to light. Essay Braemar! On the twenty-sixth . of October in 1440, Gilles was condemned to death and hanged at howto write Fraser College Nantes. The fairy tale “ Bluebeard ” and several modern novels are believed to be inspired by Gilles. The Dark Ages, named for its lack of electricity, was very routine and actually somewhat better than modern day in terms of violence.
Any peasants living during this time can be. Dark Ages , Flavio Biondo , Horses in the Middle Ages 1801 Words | 5 Pages. The College Essay College! The Language of Seamus Heaney`S Death of a Naturalist Successfully Evokes the howto Simon Fraser International College - NAVITAS Texture of Rural Life. How Can I Write Essay Braemar College! Discuss. scratched and wet grass bleached our Boots. College - NAVITAS! Round hayfields, cornfields and potato drills. We trekked and picked until the cans were full, But also . in this idyllic world there are thorn pricks and the memory of type of essay writing Academy, a murdering pirate named Bluebeard . And while still in the byre of this pastoral setting, things start to go bad, We hoarded the fresh berries in the byre. But when the bath was filled we found a fur, A rat-grey fungus, glutting on our cache.
The juice was stinking. Death of howto Fraser University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS, a Naturalist , Faber and write a case study Glion London, School Faber , Life 1374 Words | 4 Pages. Howto Write Simon Fraser International College - NAVITAS! Use of Gothic Elements in Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre. their bodies in different closets, while forbidding each new wife to look inside each closet. When each bride breaks his commands, they find the dead wives, . and are themselves, murdered. The Gothic plot is Romantic in the literary sense; the i write Braemar myth of Bluebeard is not.
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Other people who claimed to owe their success of Melies include Charlie Chaplain and D. Cinematography , Feature film , Film 1783 Words | 5 Pages. Grand Duke, who was present only by chance. Writing The College Essay Form College! In 1872 Alexis Alexandrovich Romanov, brother to the tsar's heir apparent, was in America traveling. While in . Howto Write International College! New York he became enamored of an actress, Lydia Thompson, who was then appearing in a compare IUBH of Business & Management, Bluebeard . As she sang the song If Ever I Cease To Love, Alexis found himself completely lost to her charms. He trailed her on write Fraser University/Fraser College a tour south and cought up with her in New Orleans. It was almost Mardi Gras and when the local inhabitants discovered a real. A 5 Paragraph Essay Coventry University! Ash Wednesday , Carnival , Krewe 1543 Words | 5 Pages. Write An Essay College! lock and key. The mother’s grief eventually brought her to how to a compare and contrast IUBH of Business her grave; on her deathbed he gives the baron the key to an essay Simon Fraser College the room and makes him promise to how to a compare and contrast essay thesis IUBH School & Management never . open the door under any circumstance. Years pass, and University/Fraser International - NAVITAS the baron marries. Borrowing from “ Bluebeard ”, the essay Glion London, baron is called by write an essay Fraser University/Fraser College - NAVITAS his peers to a hunting trip so he gives his wife the key and strictly instructs her not to how to essay Taunton School open the door. Propelled by the sense of mystery, distrust and write an essay University/Fraser - NAVITAS a skewed by-product of reverse psychology, the wife runs up to the.
Brothers Grimm , Fairy tale , Giambattista Basile 2715 Words | 7 Pages. Study Essay Glion London, Business School! Theme analysis from Atwood's short story Bluebeard's Egg the truth that humans seek but the truth is covered by the hard protective shell and only people who go beyond the surface and look for change can get to the . core - to the truth which provides liberation. The structure of the story with the old Bluebeard tale in the middle of this new story reminds me of the write an essay International - NAVITAS egg which was once created and writing Cardiff Sixth now has a life inside itself and will create in its turn. Sally thinks the egg is write University/Fraser International - NAVITAS alive, and one day it will hatch. But what will come out of it? (184, 1st prgh).
Debut albums , Margaret Atwood , Marriage 678 Words | 2 Pages. stereotypes in society. They explore the many masks people can wear, the difficulty of seeing the truth behind masks, and why living behind a mask is not . truly living. Carter subverts the writing the college essay generic gender roles through her feminist re-telling of the Bluebeard myth: she substitutes the mother for write Fraser University/Fraser International the brothers of the bride as the rescuer. This switch calls to attention the a case study essay Business School stereotypes of the traditional fairy tale’s male-as-saviour and female-as-victim roles. A woman is the hero this time instead of a white. Fairy tale , Female , Gender 733 Words | 2 Pages. clear that this is not a true democratic government is the way Bigby runs his . investigation.
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Analysis: The reference to Bluebeard and Mr. Write Simon College - NAVITAS! Gradgrind's office room being full of bluebooks is . Writing Essay Cardiff Form! a combination of irony and allusion. At the very least, the very mention of Bluebeard , a villain from a child's fairy tale story, foreshadows the marriage drama that unfolds and it is an essay Simon College a reminder of the war against fancy and imagination that the Gradgrinds have embarked upon. Bluebeard was a dreadful knight who promised a wonderful life to each of his wives. Charles Dickens , Charles Dickens characters , Gradgrind 31819 Words | 89 Pages. lion, or a train; in his make-believe, he inspires terror.
When I told my boy the story of Jack the Giant-Killer, I tried to make him identify himself with . Jack, but he firmly chose the giant. When his another told him the writing a 5 Coventry story of Bluebeard , he insisted on being Bluebeard , and regarded the wife ns justly punished for howto an essay Simon University/Fraser insubordination, in his play, there was a sanguinary outbreak of of essay writing Washington, cutting off ladies’ heads. Sadism, Freudians would say; but he enjoyed just as much being a giant who ate little boys. Christopher Nolan , Following , Karl Marx 23574 Words | 65 Pages.
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Rosenblatt v. Howto University/Fraser International? Bivona Cohen, PC, 969 F. How To Write Study Business? Supp. 207 (S.D.N.Y. 1997) 969 F. Supp. Howto Write An Essay Fraser University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS? 207 (1997) BIVONA COHEN, P.C., Defendant. No. Washington? 95 Civ. 4671 (SAS). United States District Court, S.D. New York.
*208 Nathaniel B. Smith, Ranni Smith, New York City, for Plaintiff. Thomas W. Hyland, Edward P. Gilbert, Elizabeth M. Kelly, Wilson, Elser, Moskowitz, Edelman Dicker, New York City, for write an essay Fraser International College, Defendant. SCHEINDLIN, District Judge. Plaintiff Theodore Rosenblatt (Rosenblatt) is suing Bivona Cohen, P.C., alleging unlawful employment discrimination on the basis of race in violation of 42 U.S.C. § 2000e-2(a) (1), 42 U.S.C. § 1981 and New York Human Rights Law (NYHRL) *209 § 296.  Defendant now moves for summary judgment and the college Cardiff Sixth, plaintiff cross moves for partial summary judgment on the affirmative defense that plaintiff was not an write an essay University/Fraser, employee for purposes of Title VII. The parties bring these motions pursuant to Rule 56(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. For the reasons stated below, defendant's motion is denied and plaintiff's cross motion is granted.
Rosenblatt maintained a relationship with Bivona Cohen, P.C., for a dozen years. He joined the firm, then known as Levy, Bivona Cohen, as a senior associate in 1982. Defendant's 3(g) Statement (Def.'s 3(g)) at ¶ 1; Plaintiff's 3(g) Statement (Pl.'s 3(g)) at ¶ 1. Initially, plaintiff was viewed as a competent attorney. Deposition of John Bivona (Bivona Dep.), Bivona Cohen President, at 86; Deposition of Marlene Monteleone (Monteleone Dep.), Bivona Cohen partner, at 17-18; Deposition of Joseph Figliolo (Figliolo Dep.), Bivona Cohen partner, at 29-30; Deposition of Marc Lust (Lust Dep.), Bivona Cohen partner, at 57-59. Plaintiff worked for several years in Unit 2 under the supervision of partner Marc Lust, until plaintiff was promoted to manager of Unit 3 and how to a case analysis & Hospitality, made a non-equity partner of the firm in 1986. Def.'s 3(g) at ¶ 4; Pl.'s 3(g) at ¶ 4. As director of Unit 3, plaintiff supervised the work of several associates and howto write an essay Simon University/Fraser College, a junior partner. Def.'s 3(g) at ¶ 3; Pl.'s 3(g) at ¶ 3. His duties included several projects of firmwide significance, including production of master forms and billing practices, handling of firm insurance matters, and negotiation of the i write essay College, lease for the current office space. Affidavit of Theodore Rosenblatt (T. Rosenblatt Aff.) at ¶ 6; Defendant's Reply Memorandum in Support of Motion for Summary Judgment (Def.'s Reply) at 2. In 1987, plaintiff, who is white, entered into an extramarital relationship with his secretary, Babsie Gould-Henry, who is black.
Def.'s 3(g) at ¶ 8; Pl.'s 3(g) at ¶ 8. The pair remained co-workers throughout the majority of their affair of howto Fraser University/Fraser International College six years' duration, following which they were married in 1993. Def.'s 3(g) at ¶¶ 14-16; Pl.'s 3(g) at ¶¶ 14, 16. In December 1989, when Gould-Henry was pregnant with plaintiff's child, he permitted her, without prior authorization by the Partnership Governing Committee, to take an extended unpaid leave of absence. Def.'s 3(g) at ¶¶ 9-10; Pl.'s 3(g) at ¶¶ 9-10. Although Gould-Henry gave birth to a english plaintiff's child during this absence, plaintiff explained to defendant that the reason for the leave was caring for a sick relative in England. Def.'s 3(g) at ¶¶ 9-10; Pl.'s 3(g) at ¶¶ 9-10. Simon Fraser University/Fraser International - NAVITAS? Gould-Henry was terminated by letter dated February 1, 1990, and later rehired by defendant in mid-1990. Def.'s 3(g) at ¶ 14; Pl.'s 3(g) at ¶ 14; Defendant's Appendix (Def.'s App.), Exh.
D. Plaintiff's ongoing relationship with Gould-Henry eventually became known throughout the firm. Def.'s 3(g) at ¶¶ 11, 13; Pl.'s 3(g) at Cardiff ¶ 11; T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶ 9. In March 1992, plaintiff left his first wife and children to live with Gould-Henry, Def.'s 3(g) at ¶ 13, after which plaintiff alleges that he felt increasing harsher criticism and write Fraser University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS, pressure from Sidney Cohen and how can i write, others. T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶¶ 10-11. In early 1992, Gould-Henry terminated her employment with defendant. Howto Write Simon University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS? Def.'s 3(g) at ¶ 15; Deposition of Theodore Rosenblatt (T.
Rosenblatt Dep.) at 138-39. Two controversial events characterize the deterioration of plaintiff's relationship with the firm. First, although their accounts differ, the parties do not dispute that in December 1992, plaintiff became intoxicated at a firm Christmas party, leading to an encounter that a firm secretary reported as sexual harassment. The College Essay Cardiff Sixth College? Affidavit of John Bivona (Bivona Aff.) at ¶ 9; Def.'s 3(g) at ¶¶ 18-20; Pl.'s 3(g) at ¶ 19; T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶¶ 27-28. Unable to recollect the incident, plaintiff nevertheless formally apologized at Bivona's direction.
Def.'s 3(g) at ¶ 19; Pl.'s 3(g) at *210 ¶ 19; Bivona Aff. at ¶ 9; T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶¶ 27-28. Second, in mid-1993, AIG, one of defendant's significant clients, audited the firm's work and identified 34 late attorney status reports, 15 of howto write an essay Simon University/Fraser which had been the responsibility of associates assigned to analysis Glion London, School plaintiff's Unit 3. Def.'s 3(g) at ¶¶ 21-23; T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶¶ 30-35; Plaintiff's Appendix (Pl.'s App.), Exhs. 9, 13-14; Bivona Aff. at ¶¶ 7-8; Cohen Dep. at 154-60. An additional six files belonged to howto write University/Fraser - NAVITAS Monteleone's Unit, five to essay thesis School of Business Lust's, and howto Simon, four to Figliolo's. Pl.'s App., Exh. 14. The parties dispute the details of this audit and how to a compare essay thesis IUBH School & Management, the resultant effect on defendant's business; however, it is undisputed that AIG sent a letter to defendant in August 1993, reporting its findings and observing that changes needed to Simon Fraser International be made in how to Taunton, the handling of howto an essay International - NAVITAS its account. T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶¶ 37-38; Pl.'s App., Exh. 9. AIG reported several inappropriately handled matters and suggested improvements in defendant's performance.
Following the audit, AIG files were transferred from Unit 3 in late 1993, and the Unit was reorganized, including the demotion, transfer to another Unit and subsequent discharge of Mark Kalmanowitz, the junior partner directly under plaintiff's supervision. Def.'s 3(g) at ¶¶ 23-25; Pl.'s 3(g) at ¶ 25; Answer and Counterclaim (Ans.) at ¶ 48; T. I Write Essay Braemar College? Rosenblatt Dep. at 236, 240. In August 1994, John Bivona terminated plaintiff's employment. Def.'s 3(g) at ¶ 2; Pl.'s 3(g) at howto write Simon Fraser University/Fraser ¶ 2. None of the School, other Unit supervisors was terminated. At the time of plaintiff's discharge, Bivona Cohen was organized as a professional corporation, the sole shareholders of which were John Bivona and Sidney Cohen. Pl.'s 3(g) in Support of Cross-Motion (Pl.'s 3(g) in Support) at ¶ 2; Defendant's Second 3(g) Statement (Def.'s Second 3(g)) at ¶ 2. Only Bivona and Cohen had the write Simon International College, authority to discharge plaintiff from the firm.
Pl.'s 3(g) in Support at ¶ 2; Def.'s Second 3(g) at ¶ 2. Plaintiff's employment was at all times at will. Pl.'s 3(g) in Support at ¶ 4; Def.'s Second 3(g) at ¶ 4. 1. How To A English Essay School? Disagreement over specific events. Controversy surrounds several pivotal events during plaintiff's tenure with the firm. While both parties agree that plaintiff misrepresented the howto write an essay Simon International College - NAVITAS, reasons for how to a compare thesis of Business & Management, his extension of an unauthorized leave to Gould-Henry in howto write an essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser College, 1989, plaintiff alleges that, on learning of it, Bivona did not object to reserving Gould-Henry's position as plaintiff's secretary until her return. T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶ 18.
By contrast, Cohen objected that the extended leave was in contravention of company policy. Id.; T. How Can Essay Braemar College? Rosenblatt Dep. at 136-38. Plaintiff maintains that Cohen ordered plaintiff to send a letter to Gould-Henry formally terminating her employment with the firm. T. Rosenblatt Aff. at howto write Simon Fraser University/Fraser College - NAVITAS ¶ 18; T. Rosenblatt Dep. at 136-38. Cohen testifies that although he was aware of the letter, he did not direct plaintiff to send it. Writing The College Essay Cardiff Form? Deposition of write Fraser International Sid [sic] Cohen (Cohen Dep.), Bivona Cohen Vice President and Secretary, at 89-92. Plaintiff maintains that the writing Washington Academy, passage of approximately five years between this incident and an essay Simon Fraser International College, his termination, as well as the history of extended leaves granted to write School the secretaries of other partners, indicates that defendant did not consider this a serious infraction. Affidavit of Babsie Rosenblatt (B. Rosenblatt Aff.) at ¶ 11; Deposition of howto an essay International College Tammy Hoffman (Hoffman Dep.), Bivona Cohen secretary, at 14-19. Defendant contends that plaintiff attended a client-sponsored ski weekend on type of essay writing Washington Academy defendant's behalf in 1991, to which he brought Gould-Henry without permission.
Bivona Aff. at ¶ 4. Defendant claims that while there, plaintiff became intoxicated and flaunted his extramarital affair in contravention of the conduct expected of a representative of defendant's firm at a business event. Id. In addition, defendant characterizes the 1992 Christmas party incident as an extremely serious indiscretion for which [p]laintiff was severely reprimanded by the Partnership Governing Committee. Write Fraser College - NAVITAS? Defendant's Memorandum of Law in Support of how to write a compare and contrast essay IUBH School of Business & Management Motion for Summary Judgment (Def's Mem.) at 5. An Essay Simon University/Fraser - NAVITAS? While plaintiff admits to having become intoxicated and to having been directed to apologize, he asserts that once his apology was accepted, the issue was not raised again during his tenure at the firm. Pl.'s 3(g) at ¶ 19; T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶¶ 27-29.
*211 Plaintiff suggests that Cohen lied when questioned about the reason behind his failure to attend plaintiff's wedding in early December of 1993. T. Rosenblatt Aff. at Sixth Form ¶ 23. Cohen testified that it was his custom to spend the month of December in howto write an essay Simon - NAVITAS, Vermont. Cohen Dep. at 150-51. Plaintiff counters that no firm records of how to Taunton School such a trip exist, and that Lust testified to write an essay Simon Fraser having discussed plaintiff's wedding with Cohen at the office the following Monday. T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶ 23. Plaintiff alleges that he canceled his pre-approved honeymoon due to what he perceived as Cohen's anger when the subject was raised, as well as a warning by Lust and Figliolo that Cohen was prepared to paragraph Coventry fire me if I went on vacation. Id. at ¶ 24. 2. Plaintiff's interracial relationship.
The parties are also in dispute as to howto an essay International when plaintiff's romantic involvement with Gould-Henry, was first perceived by defendant. Defendant alleges that the Partnership Governing Committee became aware of the relationship in 1987, and regarded it as Plaintiff's personal business. Ans. at ¶ 41. Defendant contends further that plaintiff's interracial relationship was common knowledge throughout the entire firm at all times from how to write study essay Glion Business & Hospitality School 1990, that the birth of plaintiff and Simon University/Fraser College, Gould-Henry's child was known of more than four years prior to Plaintiff's termination, and that defendant was already aware of this occurrence when it re-hired Gould-Henry in 1990. Id. at ¶ 42; Def.'s 3(g) at ¶ 12. Plaintiff denies these statements, conceding only type of essay writing Academy that [o]ver time, . knowledge of our relationship became more commonly known in the firm, despite his and Simon Fraser College - NAVITAS, Gould-Henry's efforts to keep the how to write study analysis School, relationship private. Pl.'s 3(g) at ¶ 12; T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶ 9. Notwithstanding defendant's argument that the Partnership Governing Committee knew of plaintiff's relationship as early as 1987, and that the rest of the firm knew by 1990, Cohen testified that he himself was unaware of the write Fraser University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS, existence of this relationship as late as 1991. Ans. at ¶¶ 41-42; Cohen Dep. at write and contrast essay IUBH & Management 97-98. Cohen also testified to having seen Gould-Henry on howto write Fraser International College only a few occasions and to how to write essay Taunton School having formed no opinion as to howto write Simon Fraser International her race, despite the fact that she was employed by defendant for seven years and in contrast to partner Martin Stewart's testimony that everybody knew that plaintiff's wife was black.
Cohen Dep. at 82-83; Deposition of Martin Stewart (Stewart Dep.), Bivona Cohen partner, at the college College 23. 3. Plaintiff's relationship with Cohen. The timing of the initial downturn in plaintiff's relationship with Cohen is also disputed. According to the testimony of defendant's partners, the relationship began to sour in 1991 following the client-sponsored ski weekend; yet plaintiff testifies that the turning point was March 1992, when he informed Cohen of howto write University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS his cohabitation with Gould-Henry. Figliolo Dep. at 93, 97-99; Monteleone Dep. at 17; T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶ 10. Plaintiff points out write a case study essay Glion & Hospitality School that prior to howto write International College - NAVITAS this time. *212 [Cohen] gave me a lot of special projects. We worked closely together on a lot of these things, and commencing at type writing Academy approximately March of '92, is when he stopped either giving me new assignments or started being hypercritical over my handling of the assignments that he had previously given me. T. Rosenblatt Dep. at 53-54. March 1992 is also the time at which plaintiff identifies the first of what he refers to write an essay Fraser College - NAVITAS as Cohen's veiled comments expressing disapproval of how can Braemar College his relationship, Something like, `I don't understand you.' I believe that was the specific words he used, `I don't understand you.' Id. at 61. Plaintiff testified that this was also the howto an essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS, first time at which joking comments about deficiencies in his appearance became serious.
Id. Plaintiff asserts that Cohen made almost daily threats to how to write a english essay his job, either by howto an essay International - NAVITAS direct threat or innuendo, or through Mr. Lust and Mr. Figliolo. Id. at 45. He also refers to Cohen's irrational rants and ravings, recollecting that [h]e would scream at me about isolated items, a memo of law having a mistake in the caption, about how to write my responsibilities for the entire 24th floor. Id. at 47. Write Simon University/Fraser College? At times, Cohen's behavior escalated to outright threats, such as screaming, I am gonna fire you and I am gonna take you out of of essay writing that chair. Id. at 48.
Plaintiff also recounts discussing with Bivona his concern about write Fraser College - NAVITAS Sid's attitude towards me. Writing Essay Cardiff College? Id. at 65. There was one occasion he told me that if anything went wrong on the 24th floor, that Sid would consider it my fault and he included that if the howto write Simon Fraser University/Fraser - NAVITAS, bathrooms didn't work or the the college essay Sixth Form, toilets didn't work that Sid would probably blame me. Id. Plaintiff remembers having been warned on multiple occasions by both Lust and Figliolo that his job was in jeopardy. Id. at 43-44.
After plaintiff took up residence with Gould-Henry in write Fraser University/Fraser, March 1992, he recalls at least one occasion on which Lust led plaintiff to understand that the reason his job was endangered was that, as plaintiff puts it, Sid Cohen turned on me. He didn't approve of my relationship. Id. at 69-70. Plaintiff testified further that. Marc said that I shouldn't be seen with Babs because Sid might see us together. Marc told me not to have her come, that she shouldn't come up to the office to meet me after work. She shouldn't meet me at the car, she should go home by herself. And that was over the college essay Form, a period of howto time in many, many such communications, that Sid Cohen was upset when he saw us and it just inflamed him and his anger at me. Id. at 141; see also T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶¶ 20-21; B. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶¶ 15-17.  Plaintiff also testified to having discussed with Lust on such occasions how can I kiss Sid's ass more or please him more, or be more of what he wants, and cover up Babs, basically. That was the concept, the understanding. Write A Compare Thesis School Of Business? T. Rosenblatt Dep. at 61-71.
During a telephone conversation with Bivona in December 1993, plaintiff decided to confront Cohen regarding his disapproval of plaintiff's interracial relationship. I then . told him I was gonna call Sid and try to meet with Sid because I wanted to sit down with him and try and talk man to man, outside the Simon Fraser University/Fraser College - NAVITAS, office, discuss his problems with me, and my relationships and whatever else he was concerned with. Write & Hospitality? I called Sid and asked him if I could told him I was willing to come from the Poconos to Vermont immediately, sit down with him, and his response was, No, we have nothing to talk about. Id. at howto Simon Fraser College 73-74. Early in 1994, plaintiff testifies that he was again rebuffed when he approached Cohen with the invitation, `Sid, I'd like to how can i write Braemar talk to you.' He said, `I don't want to talk,' he said, `I don't want to get aggravated.' Id. at Simon Fraser University/Fraser 75. 4. Events surrounding plaintiff's termination. Plaintiff characterizes the July 1993 AIG audit and writing essay University, subsequent moratorium on new assignments to howto write an essay Simon Fraser - NAVITAS defendant as a pretextual reason for his termination.
Pl.'s 3(g) at ¶ 23. Although Cohen testified that the late submission of attorney status reports uncovered by the audit: served as the a compare essay IUBH of Business, catalyst for his decision to howto write an essay Fraser University/Fraser terminate plaintiff, plaintiff argues *213 that the of essay writing, number of late reports filed by each Unit involved was proportional to the number of AIG files handled, and that his Unit filed 44% of the late reports solely because his Unit handled the greatest share of the AIG account. Cohen Dep. at howto an essay Simon Fraser International - NAVITAS 103, 154; T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶ 35. Plaintiff points out that other Units responsible for proportionally equivalent percentages of report mishandling were not reorganized, nor were their leaders terminated. Plaintiff has also provided evidence that AIG's decision to withdraw certain business from Bivona Cohen was due to many reasons in write a english essay Taunton School, addition to the late reports. Pl.'s App., Exh. 13. He contends that the late status reports were only an insignificant part of the mishandling of howto write Simon Fraser College - NAVITAS AIG's account, in support of which he submits AIG's letter and report offering suggestions for Coventry University, firm-wide improvement.
See Pl.'s App., Exhs. 9, 13.  Also at issue is which individuals were specifically responsible for howto write an essay International College, the decision to discharge plaintiff. Plaintiff alleges that his termination was at i write essay Braemar the direction of Sidney Cohen, which defendant denies. Pl.'s 3(g) in Support at ¶ 3; Def.'s Second 3(g) at ¶ 3. Defendant maintains that it was the Partnership Governing Committee, composed of John Bivona and Sidney Cohen, who made this decision. Bivona Aff. at ¶ 3. There are statements in the deposition testimony of Figliolo and Bivona to the effect that Cohen himself made the actual decision, and write Simon University/Fraser - NAVITAS, overruled others who disagreed. Figliolo Dep. at 93-99; Bivona Dep. at 159-62. Figliolo testified that from writing a 5 essay March of Fraser International College 1991 until August 1994, if we didn't intercede, Ted would have been fired. Figliolo Dep. at 93, 98-99.
Finally, in late spring of 1994, the tension escalated to the point that. Sid wouldn't hear anything from any of us, if we brought up his name, I don't want to hear it, he said, I want this guy out of here. And then we, what, I know I did, I went to John, I said, John, it looks like my words are not getting anywhere. See what you can do, go in there, talk to Sid and see if you can change his mind and writing essay, whatnots And John said, I'll see what I can do. Figliolo Dep. at 97. Bivona also testified that he finally acquiesced in August 1994 to Cohen's desire to discharge plaintiff because Sid was so adamant.
Sid never yells at University/Fraser me. Study Essay Glion Business & Hospitality? Ever. I've been with him for howto an essay University/Fraser International College, 25 years. Sid yells at a english essay School everybody, but he never yells at me . He started yelling at me, and I knew he was right. Bivona Dep. at 160-61. The question most heatedly disputed is the motivation behind plaintiff's discharge.
Bivona claims that Plaintiff's termination by Sid Cohen and myself was the result of a totality of circumstances occurring over a period of years. Bivona Aff. at ¶ 3. Defendant portrays plaintiff's termination as a business decision . resulting from the cumulative effect of International - NAVITAS a number of deficiencies in Plaintiff's job performance, and asserts that plaintiff was warned several times that his performance was unsatisfactory. Writing Essay Coventry University? Ans. at ¶¶ 47-48; Def.'s Second 3(g) at ¶ 5. Plaintiff, in contrast, avers that at all relevant times, [he] ably and competently performed his duties. Complaint at ¶ 9. Plaintiff reports that no explanation was offered for his termination other than Bivona's comments that You know what's coming, and you know why, and asserts that it was clear to [him] that Cohen had finally prevailed in his quest to have [plaintiff] fired. T. Write An Essay Simon College - NAVITAS? Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶ 25 (emphasis in original). Plaintiff does not recall having been warned or reprimanded regarding the quality of his work, although he does testify to having been aware for several years that Cohen *214 wanted to fire him and that other partners made multiple attempts to save his job. T. Writing Washington Academy? Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶¶ 25, 43.
He contends that his termination was due to racial animosity and prejudice on account of his interracial marriage to Gould-Henry. II. Legal Standard for Summary Judgment. Federal Rule 56(c) provides that summary judgment is proper only write an essay University/Fraser College if the pleadings, depositions, answers to interrogatories, and admissions on file, together with the writing the college essay Cardiff Sixth, affidavits, if any, show that there is no genuine issue as to any material fact and that the moving party is entitled to write Fraser University/Fraser a judgment as a matter of law. How To Write Essay Taunton? See Fed.R.Civ.P. 56(c); Celotex Corp. v. Write An Essay Simon Fraser College? Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 106 S. Ct. 2548, 91 L. How To Essay IUBH School & Management? Ed. Write University/Fraser College - NAVITAS? 2d 265 (1986).
In evaluating a motion for summary judgment, all inferences justifiable in light of the totality of the evidence presented are to writing the college essay Cardiff Form College be drawn in Simon International College - NAVITAS, favor of the nonmoving party. Matsushita Elec. Indus. Co. How To Study Analysis Glion London, Business & Hospitality School? v. Zenith Radio Corp., 475 U.S. 574, 106 S. Ct. 1348, 89 L. Ed. Howto An Essay College? 2d 538 (1986). The function of a district court in the summary judgment context is not to weigh the evidence, but merely to determine whether there is a genuine issue for trial. Gallo v. Prudential Residential Servs., Ltd. Partnership, 22 F.3d 1219 (2d Cir.
1994). In an employment discrimination case, the Washington, burden of proof rests at all times with the plaintiff alleging discrimination. Howto Write Simon University/Fraser - NAVITAS? St. Mary's Honor Center v. Hicks, 509 U.S. 502, 507, 113 S. Ct. 2742, 2747, 125 L. Ed. Essay Cardiff Form College? 2d 407 (1993). If, as to the issue on an essay University/Fraser International College which summary judgment is sought, there is any evidence in the record from any source from which a reasonable inference could be drawn in favor of the nonmoving party, summary judgment is improper. Chambers v. TRM Copy Centers Corp., 43 F.3d 29, 37 (2d Cir.1994). Braemar? This is especially true where the employer's intent is at issue.
Summary judgment is notoriously inappropriate for determination of claims in which issues of . good faith and other subjective feelings play dominant roles. Krishna v. Colgate Palmolive Co., 7 F.3d 11, 16 (2d Cir.1993) (quoting Leberman v. An Essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser College? John Blair Co., 880 F.2d 1555, 1560 (2d Cir. 1989)). Thus, although a plaintiff cannot withstand summary judgment by raising purely metaphysical questions, a trial court must be cautious about granting summary judgment to an employer [and] affidavits and depositions must be carefully scrutinized for circumstantial proof which, if believed, would show discrimination. Gallo, 22 F.3d at 1224. III. Plaintiff's Motion for Partial Summary Judgment.
Because it is potentially dispositive, I initially address the write Taunton, plaintiff's motion for partial summary judgment on the affirmative defense that plaintiff does not qualify as an employee for purposes of Title VII.  The parties do not dispute that defendant is a professional corporation with more than 14 employees and howto an essay Fraser International College - NAVITAS, thus qualifies as an employer under 42 U.S.C. A 5 Coventry University? § 2000e(b). Simon Fraser University/Fraser - NAVITAS? They also agree that plaintiff's employment was at all times at will and that John Bivona and Sidney Cohen, as sole shareholders of the firm, possessed the a case study analysis Glion & Hospitality, exclusive authority to discharge plaintiff. The parties dispute whether a non-equity partner of Bivona Cohen is an employee under Title VII. Section 701(f) of Title VII defines an employee as an individual employed by an employer, to which it specifies several exemptions. 42 U.S.C. § 2000e(f). Neither this definition nor its exemptions address whether non-equity law firm partners qualify as employees. Whether a partner qualifies as an employee depends on whether a true partnership relationship exists.  Courts in this *215 Circuit have used tests both of organizational form and of economic realities to draw the employee boundaries on a case-by-case basis. While the Court of Appeals has recognized that the benefits of the anti-discrimination statutes [generally] do not extend to those who are properly classified as partners, Hyland v. New Haven Radiology Associates, 794 F.2d 793, 797 (2d Cir.1986), the court has also concluded that an economic realities test need not be applied where the individual involved is a corporate employee, . for howto write an essay Fraser University/Fraser - NAVITAS, we hold that every such employee is `covered' for purposes of the ADEA and that any inquiry respecting partnership status would be irrelevant. Write Essay Taunton? Id. at 798. After [h]aving made the election to incorporate, the defendant professional corporation could not later call itself a partnership in substance.
Id. The Court of Appeals recently reasserted that [t]he fact that certain modern partnerships and corporations are practically indistinguishable in structure and operation . is no reason for ignoring form of business organization freely chosen and established, in howto an essay Simon College, affirming a district court's refusal to grant summary judgment based on a per se partnership exemption. E.E.O.C. v. Johnson Higgins, 91 F.3d 1529, 1537 (2d Cir.1996) (quoting Hyland, 794 F.2d at 798). How To Write Study Glion London, Business School? Hyland explicitly provided that this rule extends to a professional corporation whose structure resembles that of write an essay University/Fraser International College a partnership. Id. (explaining Hyland, 794 F.2d 793). Here, where defendant is admittedly a professional corporation of which plaintiff is a non-equity partner, plaintiff is a corporate employee for Title VII purposes.  Even were defendant organized not as a professional corporation, but as a partnership, plaintiff would still qualify as an employee under Title VII. Hyland noted two factors the E.E.O.C. considers relevant to a determination of whether a partner is an employee: the ability to control and how to write essay Glion London, Business, operate the business, and to determine compensation and the administration of profits and losses.
Hyland, 794 F.2d at 798. Other courts have expanded on these factors and have established a three-part economic realities test consisting of at least the following factors: (1) the extent of an individual's ability to control and operate the business as evidenced by participation in policy decisions; (2) the extent to which an individual's compensation is based on a percentage of business profits; and (3) the extent of employment security enjoyed by the individual. Howto Write Fraser University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS? See Caruso v. Peat, Marwick, Mitchell Co., 664 F. Supp. How Can I Write Essay Braemar College? 144, 149-50 (S.D.N.Y.1987) (rejecting a per se rule making partners exempt from ADEA protection and holding partner an howto Simon College, eligible employee). Write A English Essay School? Both parties agree that plaintiff's employment was at-will, thereby precluding his classification as a non-employee partner. A firm may not fire a partner or otherwise terminate his employment merely because of howto write an essay Simon University/Fraser International disappointment with the quantity or quality of his work, but may only remove the partner in writing essay Cardiff Sixth, extraordinary circumstances. Id. at 149. Thus, even if Bivona Cohen is considered to be a partnership, rather than a corporation, plaintiff is an employee under Title VII. Plaintiff's motion for partial summary judgment is therefore granted on this issue. IV.
The Legal Framework in Employment Cases: Burdens of Proof. In an employment discrimination case in which direct evidence of discrimination is lacking, courts apply the howto Simon University/Fraser International, McDonnell Douglas three-part burden shifting analysis characterized by the Supreme Court as the write study essay Glion, allocation of burdens and the creation of a presumption *216 by the establishment of a prima facie case . intended progressively to Fraser University/Fraser International - NAVITAS sharpen the inquiry into the elusive factual question of intentional discrimination. Writing Sixth? Texas Dep't of Comm. Affairs v. Burdine, 450 U.S. 248, 254 n. Howto An Essay University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS? 8, 101 S. Ct. How To Write A Compare And Contrast Thesis IUBH School & Management? 1089, 1094 n. 8, 67 L. Ed.
2d 207 (1981). Howto Write An Essay International - NAVITAS? At the initial stage, the plaintiff must present evidence sufficient to writing a 5 essay establish a prima facie case of discrimination. In defending against a motion for summary judgment, the plaintiff's burden at this stage is de minimis. College? Once a prima facie case has been established, a rebuttable presumption of discrimination arises, and the evidentiary burden shifts to the defendant to articulate a legitimate reason for the disputed employment decision, which causes the presumption of discrimination to [drop] from the case. Id. at 255, 101 S. Ct. at 1094-95.
Finally, at of essay Academy stage three, the howto write Simon Fraser International - NAVITAS, plaintiff is afforded the opportunity of demonstrating that the defendant's proffered reasons served merely as a pretext for discrimination. As recently expounded by the Court of Appeals in an en banc decision, this burden-shifting framework provides a gift to the plaintiff by delaying his or her ultimate burden until the a 5 essay, employer has been forced to narrow the write Fraser International - NAVITAS, scope of the college essay Cardiff Sixth Form College inquiry by offering a nondiscriminatory justification for its adverse decision. See Fisher v. Howto An Essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS? Vassar College, 114 F.3d 1332 (2d Cir.1997). Once the write and contrast School of Business & Management, plaintiff makes a satisfactory prima facie showing, the remaining elements (discrimination and causation) are presumed at this stage of the Fraser, litigation. Id. at 133 (emphasis in original). Then, once the defendant has met its burden of how to write study analysis essay London, Business articulating a legitimate reason, plaintiff's burden is enlarged to include every element of the claim. Discrimination and cause are no longer presumed. Id.
The plaintiff is now faced with his or her ultimate burden, which may be defined via the same question asked in write Fraser University/Fraser International, any other civil case: Has the plaintiff shown, by a english essay a preponderance of the evidence, that the defendant is liable for the alleged conduct? Id. at write Fraser International College - NAVITAS 1336. Thus, once the minimal prima facie case has served its purpose of forcing the employer to proffer a reason, all presumptions drop out and the case proceeds like any other i.e., with the burden on plaintiff to prove the case by evidence of discrimination sufficiently persuasive to allow a favorable verdict. Paragraph University? Id. at 1343. Courts in this Circuit have held that, if an employee offers sufficient evidence that a jury could reasonably find in his or her favor, and the employer counters with a legitimate reason that does not as a matter of law require a finding in howto an essay Fraser International, its favor, an how to write Taunton, inference on either's behalf is howto an essay University/Fraser International permissible and writing essay Cardiff College, summary judgment is write Fraser International College - NAVITAS not appropriate. A plaintiff opposing summary judgment must simply show that the employer's proffered reasons do not tell the whole story, by producing evidence supporting a reasonable inference that an how to write a case study London, Business School, impermissible reason, such as race, played a significant role in the adverse decision. See Fields v. New York State Office of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities, 115 F.3d 116, 120 (2d Cir. 1997) (a Title VII plaintiff can prevail by proving than an impermissible factor was `a motivating factor,' without disproving that the howto an essay University/Fraser International College, employer's proffered explanation was not some part of the employer's motivation).  It is consistent with Title VII's purpose as it has been traditionally construed to require a plaintiff to a compare essay of Business show not `that the employer's proffered reasons were false or played no role in the employment decision, but only that [race] was at least one of the motivating factors.' Padilla v. Howto Write College - NAVITAS? Metro-North Commuter Railroad, 92 F.3d 117, 122-23 (2d Cir.
1996) (quoting Cronin, 46 F.3d at 203). This proposition also reflects the 1991 Amendments to the Act, which modified Title VII to of essay Washington Academy require a showing that race . was a motivating factor for any employment practice, even though other factors also motivated the practice. 42 U.S.C. § 2000e-2. Thus, plaintiff is not required to prove that defendant's *217 proffered reasons for the termination were false. A. Step 1: Establishment of a prima facie case. The elements comprising a plaintiff's prima facie case were initially defined as (1) membership in write Simon Fraser University/Fraser College, a protected class; (2) satisfactory performance of employment duties; (3) the occurrence of an adverse employment decision; and i write essay College, (4) replacement by an individual outside the protected class. See McDonnell Douglas Corp. Howto Write University/Fraser International? v. Green, 411 U.S. 792, 802-04, 93 S. Ct.
1817, 36 L. Ed. 2d 668 (1973). The Supreme Court, however, expressly noted that the McDonnell Douglas standard, though a useful yardstick, is not necessarily applicable in write essay Taunton, every respect to differing factual situations [and] stressed that the McDonnell Douglas analysis is howto an essay Fraser International neither `rigid' nor `mechanized' and that the primary focus is always whether an employer treats an employee less favorably than other employees for an impermissible reason. Montana v. First Federal Savings and Loan Assoc. of Rochester, 869 F.2d 100, 104 (2d Cir.1989) (quoting McDonnell Douglas, 411 U.S. at 802 n. How To Write A Compare IUBH School Of Business? 13, 93 S. Ct. at 1824 n. 13; Furnco Construction Corp. Howto Fraser College - NAVITAS? v. Waters, 438 U.S. 567, 577, 98 S. Ct. 2943, 2949-50, 57 L. Writing Essay Cardiff Form? Ed. 2d 957 (1978)). A plaintiff is not required to prove, as part of howto an essay Simon University/Fraser International College his prima facie case, that he was replaced by any employee or that his job continued to exist.
Hagelthorn, 710 F.2d at 81; see also Meiri v. Dacon, 759 F.2d 989, 995 (2d Cir.1985) (whether the plaintiff's position was refilled or eliminated is of little relevance and should not sound a death knell to [plaintiff's] Title VII claim.). Rather, as the Court of Appeals stated in Fisher, a preference for someone outside the protected class will suffice for this element of the and contrast thesis IUBH School of Business & Management, prima facie case. Write An Essay Simon Fraser? 114 F.3d at 1336-37. There is no dispute that plaintiff has satisfied the first and third elements of a prima facie case. This Court has previously determined that the plaintiff is a member of a protected class based on how can i write Braemar his interracial marriage, and plaintiff has been terminated from his employment. See Rosenblatt, 946 F. Supp. Howto Write An Essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser International? 298.
In support of his allegations that his performance was satisfactory and a english essay Taunton School, that he was qualified for his position, plaintiff points to admissions in the deposition testimony of Bivona, Cohen, and other partners that he was a capable attorney. Bivona Dep. at 85-86; Cohen Dep. at 144-45; Figliolo Dep. at 29-30; Lust Dep. at 57-59; Monteleone Dep. at 17-18. Howto Write An Essay Simon University/Fraser International - NAVITAS? In addition, plaintiff notes that Unit 3 was more profitable than Units 1 and 2 for the years 1992 through 1994. T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶ 7; Pl.'s App., Exh. How Can I Write Braemar? 1. Finally, plaintiff argues that the firm-wide management duties consistently entrusted to him indicate that his services were trusted and write International, valued. T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶ 6. [P]roof of competence sufficient to make out a prima facie case of how to write essay Taunton discrimination was never intended to encompass proof of superiority or flawless performance [but solely] the basic skills necessary for Simon Fraser University/Fraser College, performance of paragraph Coventry [the] job. Powell v. Syracuse University, 580 F.2d 1150, 1155 (2d Cir.1978). Plaintiff has met the de minimis burden of showing that he possessed the qualifications required by his position. 
Finally, although plaintiff was not replaced, he has satisfied the requisite showing of preference for someone outside the protected class. Although the AIG audit had analogous implications for the performance of other Unit supervisors, those managers were not terminated, nor were their cases transferred to other units. B. Step 2: Defendant Articulates Legitimate Non-Discriminatory Reason for howto an essay Simon University/Fraser College - NAVITAS, Plaintiff's Termination. The burden now shifts to how to study analysis essay Business the defendant to come forward with a legitimate reason *218 for plaintiff's termination that would, if believed, allow a factfinder to find in its favor. Defendant has amply met its evidentiary burden through provision of a plethora of nondiscriminatory reasons for plaintiff's discharge, consisting primarily in (1) plaintiff's failure to howto write an essay University/Fraser International - NAVITAS properly supervise attorneys under his authority and how to a compare and contrast IUBH & Management, manage his Unit; (2) plaintiff's inept handling of howto files under his supervision, as reflected by client dissatisfaction; (3) plaintiff's misrepresentation to the Partnership Governing Committee as to write essay the circumstances surrounding Gould-Henry's 1989 leave; and (4) plaintiff's public intoxication and harassment of write an essay Simon University/Fraser College - NAVITAS another of type writing defendant's employees. Defendant has therefore articulated sufficient legitimate non-discriminatory reasons for write Fraser University/Fraser - NAVITAS, plaintiff's termination to dispel the presumption of discrimination arising from plaintiff's prima facie case. C. Step 3: Plaintiff's Burden to type of essay Academy Raise Fact Issue Regarding Defendant's Improper Motive. Plaintiff now has the opportunity to show that defendant's proffered reasons serve as a pretext for discrimination. In Burdine, the howto write Simon Fraser International, Supreme Court taught that a plaintiff could prevail at phase three of the McDonnell Douglas analysis either directly by persuading the court that a discriminatory reason more likely motivated the employer or indirectly by showing that the employer's proffered explanation is unworthy of credence.
Burdine, 450 U.S. at how to write Taunton 256, 101 S. Ct. at 1095 (emphasis added). Simon Fraser International College? In St. Mary's, the Supreme Court provided further clarification, holding that proof that the defendant's proffered reason was false was neither required nor sufficient in itself to establish the writing University, pretext for discrimination. St. Mary's, 509 U.S. at 515, 113 S. Ct. at 2751-52. Howto Write An Essay Simon University/Fraser International - NAVITAS? Proof of discrimination was thus the essential facet of the McDonnell Douglas plaintiff's case, whether adduced partly through proof that the proffered legitimate reason was untrue, or shown exclusively through evidence of discrimination. The Court of Appeals recently clarified that St. Mary's and Burdine. do not require a finding of paragraph essay pretext in addition to a finding of discrimination. Since a plaintiff prevails by showing that discrimination was a motivating factor, it can invite the jury to ignore the defendant's proffered legitimate explanation and conclude that discrimination was a motivating factor, whether or not the employer's proffered explanation was also in the employer's mind.
Fields, 115 F.3d at howto Simon International 121 (internal citations omitted). See also Hagelthorn, 710 F.2d at 81 (the central question is how to write and contrast essay of Business whether [the] plaintiff has presented sufficient evidence to permit a reasonable fact-finder to conclude that age was a determinative factor in the employer's decision). Write An Essay Fraser University/Fraser College? Therefore, the relevant question at this stage is whether plaintiff has succeeded in adducing evidence supporting a reasonable conclusion that race `was at least one of the motivating factors' in defendant's decision to terminate his employment. Essay? Fields, 115 F.3d at 121 (quoting Cronin, 46 F.3d at 203). Plaintiff has met this burden.
Defendant has put forward what it describes as a litany of reasons in support of its general contention that plaintiff was terminated because of long-term deterioration in write College, his performance. Def.'s Mem. at 22. However, the record remains unclear regarding several material issues. Disparities exist between plaintiff's and defendant's evidence, as well as additional incongruities in the testimony of Coventry defendant's own partners, all of which give rise to questions of fact that can only be resolved at trial. On a motion for summary judgment, no special rules affect the weight to be given to the prima facie case, the truthfulness or falsity of the employer's explanation, or any other piece of evidence. As in any other type of howto write an essay Simon University/Fraser - NAVITAS case, the judge must analyze the how can essay College, evidence, along with the inferences that may be reasonably drawn from it, and decide if it raises a jury question as to whether the plaintiff was the victim of discrimination. Fisher, 114 F.3d at 1347. Plaintiff argues that defendant's proffered reasons are pretextual and that race was a motivating factor in an essay University/Fraser International, his discharge because of (1) statistical and circumstantial evidence showing general firm policy and disparate treatment of those in the protected class; (2) *219 inconsistencies in the deposition testimony of defendant's partners regarding the reason for his termination; and (3) the sequence and timing of events preceding his termination. Plaintiff has proffered sufficient evidence to raise a fact issue as to whether race was a motivating factor in his termination.
This question of fact precludes summary judgment. First, plaintiff contends that Bivona Cohen has never employed a black attorney during its 30-year history. See Bivona Dep. at 162-63; Cohen Dep. at 192.  Furthermore, plaintiff asserts that when he recommended a black associate in 1993, Cohen declined to interview him or review his resume, responding simply that it would not be a good idea to hire him. T. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶ 15. Plaintiff's contentions regarding defendant's disparate treatment of both plaintiff and Gould-Henry could also contribute to a reasonable conclusion that race was a motivating factor in his termination. For example, plaintiff claims that after having agreed to represent Gould-Henry without charge in how to write essay thesis IUBH School of Business & Management, her divorce proceedings in 1987, defendant's partner Martin Stewart was forbidden by howto University/Fraser - NAVITAS Cohen from doing so, although he was not directed to curtail his concurrent or subsequent representation of a white employee of the firm in how to write analysis essay Glion Business & Hospitality, a similar matter.
B. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶¶ 5-7; Stewart Dep. at 18-19. In addition, plaintiff contends that although he was required to Fraser International terminate Gould-Henry's employment in 1989, the white secretaries of other partners, including Cohen himself, were allowed leaves exceeding stated firm policy. B. Rosenblatt Aff. at ¶¶ 8-11; Hoffman Dep. at 14-19; Def.'s App., Exh. C. Writing University? Plaintiff also points to Cohen's failure to attend plaintiff's wedding, as well as Cohen's impassivity when racially discriminatory remarks were made in his presence, as evidence that race played a factor in plaintiff's termination. Plaintiff argues additionally that the AIG episode is a pretextual justification for his termination. He offers proof that the AIG letter reporting the results of the audit does not single out any particular unit's work, and the observations in the letter about `areas where changes need to an essay - NAVITAS be made' apply equally to a case study analysis essay Glion Business & Hospitality School all of the units. Write An Essay Simon International? T. Rosenblatt Aff. at Cardiff Sixth ¶ 31. An Essay Simon Fraser College - NAVITAS? He argues that despite the fact that AIG suggested firm-wide changes in how can i write Braemar, the handling of its files, defendant responded by reorganizing only plaintiff's Unit and terminating plaintiff, while leaving intact other Units responsible for howto International College - NAVITAS, a proportionally equivalent number of mishandled files.
Id. at ¶¶ 31-34; Pl.'s App., Exhs. 9, 14. Particularly when viewed in conjunction with plaintiff's evidence that from i write essay College 1992 through 1994 his Unit was more profitable than two of those whose directors were implicated by the AIG audit but not terminated, this circumstance could give rise to a reasonable conclusion that the loss of AIG business was a pretextual reason for terminating plaintiff's employment. In addition, fact questions remain as to (1) who specifically was responsible for making the final decision to terminate plaintiff; (2) the an essay Simon International College - NAVITAS, veracity of defendant's reliance on longdormant objections to plaintiff's indiscretions as potentially pretextual reasons for his termination; and (3) defendant's state of mind regarding the paragraph essay Coventry University, race of plaintiff's wife. An Essay Fraser University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS? The resolution of the remaining fact issues in this case could lead a finder of how to write essay thesis IUBH & Management fact to reasonably conclude that the race of plaintiff's wife was a motivating factor in his termination. While neither Bivona nor Cohen's conduct was necessarily indicative of write Fraser - NAVITAS a discriminatory intent, neither was it, in light of plaintiff's evidence, unambiguously neutral. Although defendant has introduced evidence that plaintiff's termination may have been based on legitimate grounds, defendant has not succeeded in precluding an inference that the legitimate reasons proffered for plaintiff's discharge served as a pretext for a true discriminatory motive.
As both inferences are permissible, [i]t remains the province of the finder of fact to decide which inference should be drawn. Cronin, 46 F.3d at 206. Type Writing? See also Hagelthorn, 710 F.2d at 83 (where *220 there is Simon International - NAVITAS evidence of both a discriminatory reason and a legitimate reason for termination, it is for and contrast & Management, the fact-finder to howto write International determine). For the School of Business & Management, foregoing reasons, defendant's motion for summary judgment is denied. Plaintiff's motion for partial summary judgment on howto write University/Fraser International College the issue of how to write a case Glion London, & Hospitality School his status as an write College, employee is writing the college essay Cardiff Sixth Form College granted.  Plaintiff originally alleged a violation of 42 U.S.C. Write International College - NAVITAS? § 1985(3), which has been abandoned. Prior to the instant motion, defendant moved for summary judgment on the grounds that plaintiff's action was premature and procedurally deficient, and that plaintiff lacked standing because he was not a member of a protected class. That motion was denied in its entirety. See Rosenblatt v. How To Study Essay Glion? Bivona Cohen, 946 F. Supp. 298 (S.D.N.Y. 1996).
 In addition, Gould-Henry testified that Lust commented to her that she could resume working for the firm if Sidney Cohen died. B. Rosenblatt Aff. at howto write Simon Fraser - NAVITAS ¶ 18.  Of the nine-page AIG audit report, only a portion of one page is devoted to the delinquent attorney status reports. Pl.'s App., Exh. 13.
Although Cohen testified that defendant lost a substantial portion of its AIG business due directly to plaintiff's inefficiencies in overseeing the delinquent reports, plaintiff offers as contradictory evidence the memorandum sent to Unit leaders in response to AIG's letter, in which Bivona addressed the paragraph essay, need of the write Simon University/Fraser International - NAVITAS, entire firm to respond collectively to the AIG problem, making no effort to pinpoint plaintiff or Unit 3 as having played any greater part than others. Cohen Dep. at 103; 157-58; Pl.'s App., Exh. 12. Plaintiff also provides testimony from Harold Jacobowitz of AIG, regarding the firm-wide breadth of errors uncovered by the audit as well as the decrease in writing Coventry University, AIG business assigned to all similarly situated firms. See Deposition of Harold Jacobowitz, American International Group Vice President of howto an essay University/Fraser College claims litigation, at 24-28, 43, 53; Pl.'s App., Exh. 9.  Because the of essay Academy, relevant provisions of 42 U.S.C. § 1981 and NYHRL § 296 are governed by the same standards as Title VII in New York, these claims are addressed together.  Because Title VII, the ADA and the ADEA set forth identical definitions of the term employee, courts generally cross-reference discussions of the standards required by these statutes. Howto Simon University/Fraser College - NAVITAS? See Hyland v. New Haven Radiology Associates, 794 F.2d 793, 796 (2d Cir.1986) (asserting that because the FLSA and how to a compare and contrast essay thesis School & Management, the ADEA have a similar purpose to stamp-out discrimination in various forms cases construing the definitional provisions of one are persuasive authority when interpreting the others).
This cross-construction method is howto an essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser International also supported by the directive in writing essay, the E.E.O.C. Interpretative Guidelines that defined terms are to have the same meaning under Title VII and the ADA. See 56 Fed.Reg. 35,740 (1991); Jones v. Inter-County Imaging Centers, 889 F. Supp. 741 (S.D.N.Y.1995).  Some courts that have found partners not to be employees for employment discrimination purposes have based that conclusion on Justice Powell's concurrence in Hishon v. King Spalding, 467 U.S. 69, 104 S. Ct. 2229, 81 L. Ed. 2d 59 (1984). As support for a rigid distinction between law firm partners and employees, defendant relies on howto write Simon University/Fraser International College Justice Powell's statement that [t]he relationship among law partners differs markedly from a compare and contrast essay IUBH School that between employer and employee Hishon, 467 U.S. at howto Fraser International - NAVITAS 79, 104 S. Ct. at 2235-36 (Powell, J., concurring). The Hishon concurrence also cautions, however, that an employer may not evade the strictures of Title VII simply by labeling its employees as `partners.' Id. at n. 2.  See also Cronin v. Aetna Life Insurance Co., 46 F.3d 196, 206 (2d Cir.1995) (a plaintiff defending a motion for i write College, summary judgment need demonstrate only that a genuine issue exists as to whether, despite the employer's ostensible rationale and overall operations, intentional discrimination is the persuasive explanation for the plaintiff's treatment,); Hagelthorn v. Kennecott Corp., 710 F.2d 76, 82 (2d Cir.1983) (plaintiff was not required to show that the reasons offered were false, but that they were not [defendant's] only reasons and that age made a difference).
 Defendant asserts that although plaintiff was responsible for procuring and determining what malpractice insurance would be carried by Bivona Cohen, drafting the defendant law firm's litigation form books, establishing Bivona Cohen's billing guidelines and billing codes and dealing with the landlord with regard to lease negotiations for firm office space, plaintiff just didn't get the job done. Write Simon Fraser International College? He wouldn't complete any tasks. Def.'s Reply at 2; Figliolo Dep. at 96. These assertions raise a material issue of fact as to plaintiff's qualification; however, as [i]t is not the province of the summary judgment court itself to decide what inferences should be drawn, this is a question for a jury. Chambers, 43 F.3d at 38.
 When asked at study analysis Glion Business & Hospitality his deposition whether defendant had ever hired a black lawyer, Bivona initially responded Yes, the firm had hired Ken Rolands; however, he quickly admitted that Rolands was not admitted to the New York Bar, and, while employed by defendant, had never appeared in court in the capacity of an attorney. Write An Essay Simon Fraser? Bivona Dep. at 162-63. Subscribe to type Washington Justia's Free Newsletters featuring summaries of federal and state court opinions .
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causes of ww2 essay We can count many causes of howto write Fraser University/Fraser College - NAVITAS, World War 2, political and others, but the three root causes of World War 2 were : The Prussian Militarism - developed in 200 years of history, it was the force that made Germany so powerful, and made it possible for writing a 5 essay Coventry a man like Adolf Hitler to howto write an essay International College gain total control of it. Adolf Hitler - a madman and political genius, Adolf Hitler re-ignited the Prussian militarism after the German defeat in World War 1, and how can i write essay Braemar with this great power under his total control, he started the greatest and cruelest war in history, in his planned attempt to vastly expand Germany and to dominate the entire world. Appeasement - Britain and France could easily stop Hitler when Germany was still weak, but their war-traumatized pacifist desire to totally avoid violence just helped Hitler rebuild Germany's military strength more rapidly, until it was too late to stop him. For many centuries, the territory of modern Germany was divided between over 300 German-speaking small and independent political units ruled by small absolute princes. Prussia, in International, eastern Germany, with Berlin its capital city, was one of these many countries. The Prussian militarism started with Friedrich Wilhelm I, The soldier king of Prussia (1713-1740), then a small kingdom around Berlin, and developed for how to write a compare thesis IUBH School of Business & Management over 200 years, making Prussia one of the most militarist countries in history, A military that has a state. Howto Write Simon International College - NAVITAS? Prussia was an efficient and strictly disciplined military-oriented state, with a militarist mentality and the world's most effective army. Prussia was initially just a small agricultural state with little resources, but The soldier king and his successors, with an impressive combination of merciless iron will and organizational talent, converted it to a modern Sparta. Prussia typically spent 65% - 85% of its budget on its military, an enormous spending.
Such a system could be sustained for so long only by writing Cardiff Sixth College a combination of : Strict, efficient, professional, and blindly obedient civil service that ran the state for howto write an essay Simon University/Fraser College its king, and for his strict, efficient, professional, and blindly obedient army. Paragraph Essay Coventry? The backbone of Prussia's civil and military services were the Junkers, (the word means young lords in howto write an essay College, old German), the conservative and militarist aristocratic land owners, who were Prussia's officer Corps and held almost all the senior and medium-level civil positions. An education system which produced hard working obedient people, aware of how to a compare and contrast essay thesis IUBH of Business, their duty and willing to sacrifice. Expansion. Prussia's formidable military strength, and its willingness to use it, enabled its rapid territorial expansion by a skilled combination of military victories and write University/Fraser College power diplomacy.
The territorial expansion added population and resources, which fed and sustained the Prussian military. A English School? In the howto Simon Fraser International College - NAVITAS 19th century, with the industrial age, Prussia's military advantage increased even further. Prussia's successful expansionist militarism reached its peak under the writing the college essay Cardiff Form leadership of howto write Simon Fraser College, Otto von Bismarck, The Iron Chancellor, who was its prime minister for 28 years (1862-1890). A great statesman and diplomat, Bismarck's political vision was to unify the many German states to one great country, a German Empire in Prussian domination, by a combined campaign of Blood and iron and diplomacy. Bismarck achieved that goal in less than a decade, with a series of wars and diplomatic maneuvers, and dedicated the write essay IUBH of Business & Management rest of his long tenure to solidify his great achievement, both by helping to howto write an essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser International College keep Europe in peace, and by type writing Washington keeping Prussia and howto write an essay University/Fraser International College - NAVITAS its Junkers class in power in their new Empire, while skillfully capping calls for writing the college Cardiff Form democracy. Bismarck knew how to preserve his great achievement, but his successors did not.
In 1914 the peace in Europe collapsed into World War 1. After four years of terrible and Fraser College - NAVITAS futile carnage in both sides, the combined weight of several great powers finally overcame the German military. The German High Command in 1918 did not wait for the collapse, and write essay thesis IUBH School & Management stopped the write Fraser University/Fraser International College war when they realized that they're about to how to a case London, & Hospitality School lose, saving the write Fraser College country from further destruction. As a result of the defeat, monarchy was abolished, the large German military was dismantled, later re-established under very severe limitations of its size and equipment, the exhausted country was required to i write Braemar College pay unbearably enormous compensations to the equally exhausted victors, and democracy was established, in the country of people who were taught to strictly obey their superiors, not elect them (there were elections in Germany earlier, but the Reichstag (Congress) had no real authority). On the surface, the new German republic seemed a different country, a peaceful and howto Simon University/Fraser College disarmed democracy that was no longer a threat to its neighbors, and became a prolific and influential center of modern arts and science. But under the surface, it was still the Prussian Germany, with the Junkers in power in the civil and writing Cardiff Sixth military service (including the admired wartime supreme commander as president), with a limited military force, but one that was formed from the finest war veterans and demonstrated great resourcefulness in bypassing the limits dictated by howto Simon Fraser University/Fraser International College the peace treaty, and the country was in a financial crisis and a political chaos, and many Germans blamed the peace treaty's dictations of their country's troubles, and wanted to i write essay Braemar restore its national pride and howto write an essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser International - NAVITAS past greatness, which above all meant a desire to restore Germany's military strength. With all the a compare essay power of write Simon College - NAVITAS, great, long-term, political, social, economical and Coventry University cultural forces that shape human history, historians are awed by the great role of howto an essay Simon International - NAVITAS, key individuals, the ability of the right person at the right time and place to deeply affect the direction of history. When World War 1 ended in a German defeat and of essay Academy the large German military was dismantled, most Germans accepted the new reality and did their best to howto an essay Fraser - NAVITAS build their new post-war civilian life, in a english essay Taunton School, difficult economic circumstances. For Adolf Hitler, who was a plain soldier in the war (severely wounded twice, decorated twice for an essay University/Fraser International - NAVITAS bravery in write School, battle), the prospects of new life and career were even less promising.
A high-school dropout who was a poor homeless nomad in Vienna before the war, Hitler was not even a German citizen, he was an Austrian who volunteered to write University/Fraser International College the German military when World War 1 started. He had no family or friends in Germany, no contact with his family in a 5 essay University, Austria, and a [theoretical] attempt to evaluate his social skills by his relations with his fellow soldiers during the war, or with women, before and howto Fraser University/Fraser International after the a 5 paragraph Coventry war, would also suggest a very unpromising future, since Hitler was unpopular in his unit, the an essay Simon Fraser International College - NAVITAS other soldiers thought he was weird, and of essay he was very inhibited with regard to women. From such an unpromising start point, the Fraser International chance that such a person can rise from so low to how to write analysis Glion Business & Hospitality School becoming an extremely popular and successful political leader, seemed practically impossible, but Hitler did that in just 13 years. In 1920 he resigned from the army (he was still technically a soldier) to enter politics as the leader of a very tiny unknown extreme right political group, not even a party yet, and in 1933 he was elected the Chancellor of Germany, and quickly abolished democracy, as he said he would, and became a dictator of absolute power. For Hitler's full biography, read my Adolf Hitler essay.
Here I'll describe the write unique set of qualities of Hitler's personality, and then explain why without them Hitler, or anyone else, could not lead Germany so fast to a second war, a World War that shook the world and almost drowned it in blood. In his authoritative book The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich : A History of Nazi Germany, William L. Shirer writes about Hitler : The man who founded the Third Reich, who ruled it ruthlessly and often with uncommon shrewdness, who led it to such dizzy heights and to such sorry end, was a person of writing Form, undoubted, if evil, genius. It is true that he found in the German people, as centuries of experience had molded them up to that time, a natural instrument which he was able to howto Fraser shape to his own sinister ends. But without Adolf Hitler, who was possessed of a demonic personality, a granite will, uncanny instincts, a cold ruthlessness, a remarkable intellect, a soaring imagination and, until toward the end, an amazing capacity to size up people and situations, there almost certainly would never have been a Third Reich. It is one of the writing a 5 paragraph Coventry University great examples of the singular and incalculable power of personality in historical life.
To some Germans and, no doubt, to most foreigners it appeared that a charlatan had come to power in write an essay Fraser University/Fraser College - NAVITAS, Berlin. To the majority of Germans Hitler had, or would shortly assume, the aura of a truly charismatic leader. They were to follow him blindly, as if he possessed a divine judgment, for the next twelve tempestuous years. Hitler was an exceptional speaker, a demagogue. His speeches might now seem weird or funny, and that's what foreigners thought of him until it was too late, but the effect of Hitler's speeches on his political audience was almost hypnotic. First of how to write a compare thesis IUBH of Business & Management, all, that's what gave him the howto an essay University/Fraser International - NAVITAS leadership of the tiny group that he joined, as the other few members, and others who joined later, quickly realized that their only hope of ever getting anywhere in politics depends on Hitler's gift of speech. Then, as party leader, Hitler was different from all his political opponents in his vision for Germany's future. Hitler had an exceptionally far-fetched and very appealing vision of what he wanted for Germany, how to get there, and why it will succeed. Writing A 5 Coventry University? Hitler didn't just promise a better future like politicians do. He promised them the world. He convinced them that it's theirs by natural right and that they have the power to take it for themselves, that they are a Masters race of superior people, and howto write an essay University/Fraser College - NAVITAS he was so convincing that they believed him.
By that, Hitler dwarfed all his political opponents, and slowly, year by year, but at how to write essay thesis IUBH of Business, an increasing rate, more Germans listened to his message and Simon University/Fraser International - NAVITAS became supporters. Washington? Hitler's words were also backed by howto Simon International College brutal street violence. German politics in those years was not just speeches, and Hitler operated, ruthlessly, a private army of how to a compare and contrast School of Business, 500,000 street gangsters, the S.A organization, or Brown shirts as they were called for their uniform, who attacked other parties followers and gatherings. In the effectiveness of howto an essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser College - NAVITAS, their organized brutality, the Nazis also left all their political opponents behind. Those in a compare essay thesis, power, the leaders of mainstream parties and the widely respected president, saw the danger in Hitler and disliked him, but they kept underestimating him until it was too late, and after the 1933 elections, he overcame all of them in a political negotiation in which they did not realize what he was trying to howto an essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser - NAVITAS achieve and why, and so he got what he needed while his political opponents thought that the deal they made with him will keep him under control. So in 1933 Hitler did the unbelievable and became the prime minister of Germany, and his partner Goering became minister of the Police. A Compare And Contrast Of Business? The Nazi party was a minority in a coalition government, but Hitler and Goering immediately used the emergency authorities of howto Simon Fraser International College - NAVITAS, their new roles, combined with massive street violence that totally ignored the law. But since by then the Nazis were the how can i write Braemar police, the Simon Fraser - NAVITAS law meant nothing. Hitler was the law in Germany between January 1933 and a 5 Coventry University his death in 1945. But once he got to power and became a dictator, Hitler faced a new threat, a threat that persisted until 1938.
The German military quickly learned of an essay University/Fraser - NAVITAS, Hitler's plans for a new war. Feeling responsible for saving Germany from disaster, since it was still so weak militarily, groups of senior officers seriously planned to remove Hitler in a military coup, but Hitler, who needed the Generals for his intended war but did not trust their enthusiasm of him and his plans, always outsmarted them, sometimes very narrowly, until when the war started, the a compare essay thesis IUBH of Business series of German victories made the Generals put these plans aside. The Generals returned to attempting to remove Hitler when he was losing the - NAVITAS war, and in how to write a english essay Taunton School, 1944 he survived an assassination attempt by the military by howto write Fraser University/Fraser International College pure luck, when a bomb exploded next to him in a room where he held a meeting. But even after overcoming his domestic opposition, Hitler still had to face the world outside, the write a case study analysis Business far stronger and increasingly worried European powers, Britain, France, Russia, and Germany's smaller neighbors which were protected by alliances and shared strategic interests with those powers, above all the interest to avoid having a militarist and mighty Germany next door again. In the area of international power politics Hitler had his greatest success. He was a statesman the world had not seen before, an exceptional poker player who played an incredibly dangerous game and won time after time, a series of University/Fraser International - NAVITAS, amazing victories which time after time convinced the worried Generals to delay their plans to remove him, and how to write further increased his already high popularity at home, making him, for a few years, the most genuinely popular dictator in history, which is why the Germans kept following him later, like a losing but still hopeful gambler, all the way down to disaster. What Bismarck achieved in a decade of diplomacy combined with a series of wars, Hitler achieved in lightning fast diplomatic moves combined, until September 1939, with military threats but not actual warfare. Write An Essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser College - NAVITAS? Europe's other leaders were always at least a step behind him, with political maneuvers and turns that ended in days or sometimes overnight, literally. How Can I Write College? It was unprecedented in diplomatic history, and Hitler managed, with incredible skill and astonishing success, using all the characteristics of his unique personality described above, to arrange and initiate a series of write Simon International, crises on write a compare and contrast essay IUBH School of Business the brink of war, and come out the winner with great gains, territorial and other, time and again, and write an essay College without actually starting a war, a war which until 1939 he was going to lose because the German military was still too small and ill-equipped to win. The German Generals knew it well and were rightfully worried, the European leaders knew it, and essay Hitler knew it, and still, time after time, between 1935 and 1939, he won with weaker cards, thanks to his exceptional personal abilities in a fast paced diplomatic game of threats and negotiations, of alternating between reason and fury, of deception, temptation, intimidation, lies, stress. Just like his former domestic political opponents, most of whom were dead or imprisoned by then, Europe's political leaders also underestimated and howto write an essay College misjudged Hitler, and many of a case study Glion London, Business & Hospitality School, them also ended up dead or imprisoned by him, sometimes not much later after meeting him as peers.
But having to deal with a talented diplomatic opponent like Adolf Hitler can not be accepted as an excuse for the political leaderships of France and Great Britain, which could easily put an end to Hitler's dangerous game before 1939, when he still lacked the military power to survive active resistance to his actions, a resistance that was likely to quickly knock him down, either by Simon International College military defeat or by a military coup. The appeasement of Hitler, by Britain and France mostly, was not just the result of the incompetence and pacifism of particular top politicians like Neville Chamberlain in Britain, and how to a case study analysis essay Glion School Edouard Daladier, Paul Reynaud, Georges Bonnet in France. These elected leaders represented the nationwide pacifism of an essay Simon Fraser International, their war-traumatized nations, which resulted from the enormous and paragraph essay Coventry University futile carnage in the battlefields of World War I, that ended in 1918 and Simon University/Fraser was therefore still firmly in the memories and how to a case essay London, & Hospitality School thoughts of write Simon Fraser International, all adults. The blindness that led to essay School the continued and repeated appeasement of Hitler in crisis after crisis, all of which he initiated, was the result of two logical flaws in the thinking and decision making of the an essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser International - NAVITAS British and French political leaders, and also, which is even worse, in the thinking of the how can i write essay Braemar top Generals, mostly of the French military. Since these were logical flaws, they are inexcusable, as political and military leaders have the write Fraser College - NAVITAS responsibility to make decisions based on reality, even if unpleasant one, not on how to write a english essay Taunton single-sided desires and wishes. Furthermore, they were repeatedly warned, by Winston Churchill and others, and even by high ranking members of the anti-Nazi opposition in the German military and foreign office, but all warnings were dismissed until it was too late. The two logical flaws in the British and French national thought were: The wide belief, based on the first World War, that war has become futile, a fruitless mutual mass carnage. This belief was false because it relied on two false assumptions: The assumption that the opposing forces in howto an essay Simon - NAVITAS, a future war will be generally equivalent as in writing a 5 essay Coventry, the first World War. The assumption that modern military technology made war between equivalent enemies a futile carnage. Based on howto write Simon International College these two unchallenged false assumptions, Britain and France greatly reduced their military manpower and largely neglected military modernization and military technology development, and persisted with that policy even when they knew that Hitler's Germany, like 18th century Prussia, was making a maximum national effort to build the strongest and writing Washington most technologically advanced military force, in a total violation of the 1919 peace treaty. By that, these nations' military forces were gradually reduced from a decisive superiority over the small post-war German military, to howto write an essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser College - NAVITAS an increasing inferiority, technological, tactical, and professional.
Britain and France made these assumptions false by their own unilateral action and in-action that was based on these assumptions. The British military establishment was finally alarmed in 1938 and hurried to start closing the gap as they could in the months left before war finally started in 1939. The French military remained stuck in the obsolete past, unable to believe that war will return so soon, and largely unprepared for it, technologically, tactically, and professionally. The few warning voices within the French military, like that of Colonel Charles De Gaulle, were suppressed and a 5 paragraph University dismissed until it was too late. The belief that Hitler can be appeased, that he will stop demanding more, that he too wants to avoid war, and therefore that war against Hitler's Germany can be avoided.
The British and French leaders and their military, diplomatic, and intelligence advisors should all have known or at least suspect that this was not so, and act accordingly. Hitler made no secret of his long term plans and intentions. He clearly warned the world of howto write Fraser International College, his intentions, both in essay Coventry, the book he wrote in 1923, which sold many millions of copies since he became the leader of Germany, and in his many speeches and howto an essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser International - NAVITAS direct diplomatic threats in all the years since. Furthermore, they knew from writing experience that after every crisis he initiated and won, Hitler started another crisis with new demands. But all that was ignored and Europe's leaders and diplomats were willing to accept Hitler's deception which time and again claimed that he was making one last justified demand and write Fraser University/Fraser International - NAVITAS even willing to make reasonable concessions about it. A total lie, time and again. The British government finally opened its eyes to the frightening reality in march 1939, when less than six months after Hitler was given part of its ally Czechoslovakia, Hitler swallowed the rest of Czechoslovakia with a threat of immediate invasion to it, and just three days later clearly marked his next target, Poland. The worried British government then decided to stand beside its ally Poland even if that means war.
The French government still tried to avoid war even after the war started with Hitler's invasion to their ally Poland, and after the Washington Academy last minute ultimatum to Hitler to stop the write an essay Simon University/Fraser International invasion was ignored, and how to analysis Glion London, & Hospitality unwillingly joined the howto an essay Fraser University/Fraser College - NAVITAS war only following a British diplomatic pressure to stop hesitating and stand beside it. The result of the appeasement policy was that Britain and how to write analysis essay Glion & Hospitality School France did nothing more than diplomatically protest when Hitler violated the peace treaty (and later with treaties that he signed), started a major rearmament plan, largely increased military manpower, sent his army to the neutral Saar border region (with clear orders to write an essay University/Fraser - NAVITAS retreat immediately in case of French military response, but this never came), sent his army to the demilitarized Rhine border region, annexed Austria by writing the college essay College combination of political murders and threat of an essay Simon University/Fraser International College, invasion. When Hitler demanded the strategically important western region of Czechoslovakia, they put unbearable pressure on how to Taunton the Czech government, their ally, to write an essay Simon Fraser - NAVITAS immediately give this territory to Hitler to avoid war that Hitler threatened to start, and still did not act when Hitler swallowed the how can essay rest of Czechoslovakia with a threat of immediate invasion. Howto University/Fraser International? They also did nothing meaningful when Italy, Hitler's ally dictatorship, invaded Ethiopia and later invaded its European neighbor Albania. With every step of expansion, Hitler gained not just more territory and how to write population. He also got the natural resources in these territories, the howto write an essay Fraser University/Fraser industry, and the equipment of the dismantled armies of the how to write a case study analysis essay Glion London, School nations he swallowed, and the military strength of these nations was removed from the potential order of battle of write University/Fraser - NAVITAS, his future enemies. Czechoslovakia is a key example. It had a significant military force, very well equipped, with a modern supporting domestic military industry, and fortified excellent natural defense lines along the German-Czech border in western Czechoslovakia.
The Czechs wanted to writing the college essay Cardiff Form fight for their country and could fight well with their modern military and excellent defenses, and definitely with military help from France and Britain, their allies, but they were betrayed by France and Britain which played Hitler's game and threatened the Czechs that by not surrendering these regions to Hitler as he demanded, they, the Czechs, risk being blamed for starting a war. Under enormous pressure by both allies and enemies, the Czechs gave that land and all the military equipment in an essay Fraser International College, it to Hitler and remained almost defenseless, only to be forced to complete their surrender to his next threat of immediate invasion just months later. In addition to the valuable territorial and industrial gain, and to removing a significant military force from how can essay his list of enemies without firing a shot, Hitler also gained the entire equipment of the dismantled Czech military. This modern equipment, in plenty, was used by the German military in World War 2, and in the invasion of France, two German armor divisions were using solely Czech tanks, and the Czech military industry was producing plenty more for Hitler's army. One can not write about the causes of World War 2 without referring to an essay Simon Fraser University/Fraser International - NAVITAS the Japanese militarism, that was very similar to the German militarism, and which put Japan in the hands of militarist leaders with expansionist aggression similar to Hitler's. After all, Japan started the war in East Asia even before Hitler became dictator of a case Glion Business & Hospitality School, Germany, and its militarism was defeated only after Hitler's. It is my opinion that if the attention and military resources of all the world's other major military powers were not committed to the European war against Hitler's Germany, Japan would have kept its military aggression limited to write an essay Simon International its never ending war in the college Cardiff, China, which between and 1931 and 1945 consumed the majority of the resources and attention of the Japanese army and howto an essay Simon University/Fraser International - NAVITAS remained Japan's original and main goal.
If the USA, Britain, France, Russia were not so busy with Hitler, it is likely that Japan would not have expanded its Chinese war to a rapid and paragraph Coventry University easy conquest of the European colonies in Simon University/Fraser College - NAVITAS, the entire South East Asia, and would not attack the a compare essay thesis IUBH School US in Fraser International - NAVITAS, the Phillipines and writing Academy Pearl Harbor, and that even if it had, its success would have been significantly smaller and an essay University/Fraser International College shorter.