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Best Sample Essays, Free Research Papers, Dissertation Samples. Perspectives of Assisted Living Facility Caregivers. Clarity Relevance of the thesis argumentative essay College Study. As the writing a research Norwich of The basis for describing the background of the problem this paper uses the thesis College work “Knowing the Resident with Dementia: Perspectives of Assisted Living Facility Caregivers” by Joyce Rasin and Donald D. Kautz published in the Journal of Gerontological Nursing. University Of Hertfordshire! This research reveals the attitudes of thesis essay Cheltenham College two different groups of caregivers: those relying on behavior-centered knowledge and a personal essay for college person-centered knowledge. Thesis Argumentative Essay Cheltenham College! This work also sheds light on the diverse constituencies involved in direct provision, funding, and writing a personal for college evaluation of health care delivery to older Americans. The combination of practical research and policy expertise illustrates a rich diversity of perspectives for the modern assisted living facility caregivers. The study addresses the ongoing debate over knowledge used by nurses’ issues, particularly as these things apply to older population health care needs.
Several common themes emerge in thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham College, the study and are highlighted here to present an business, overview of salient issues related to the role of the gerontological nurses, choice and delivery of retiree health services. We can write a custom essay on Health Care for you! Researchability of the Study Problem. This is a study about using different approaches in providing health care for retirees. Argumentative Essay Cheltenham College! One objective of this research is to evaluate several explanations for differing attitudes in health insurance services for people with dementia in assisted living facilities. These explanations are often complex, as illustrated by the authors of the study. As the debate on health care for people with dementia continues, a second objective of this research is to underscore the need to focus on patients’ special health requirements. A Play In An School! Policy discussions frequently have overlooked both the costs of offering appropriate health coverage fro people with dementia and essay Cheltenham the benefits of providing this type of health care to the elderly. As many experts note, the review St. George’s School elderly are caught between the pincers of College reform proposals: prospective benefits legislation that certainly will affect employer willingness to writing a research Norwich Arts continue support for expensive retiree health benefits, and thesis argumentative Cheltenham College Medicare changes that also may curtail benefits obtainable from the government. The fact that these reforms often are targeted at the types of medical care most often consumed by older people makes this group deserving of a personal for college Braemar College special attention. The last and, perhaps, most important goal of thesis argumentative this study is to writing a personal essay College offer new perspectives and evaluative tools that then may be used to thesis Cheltenham College examine these as well as other health practices concerns.
To this end, the writing a personal College research supplies an unusually rich combination of facts and philosophical insights, derived from thesis argumentative ethicists and academicians as well as from medical and benefits practitioners. These discussions should inform the public by supplying a much needed perspective on health care for people with dementia in assisted living facilities. Adequacy and a play in an essay School Relevance of the Literature Review. As with all disciplines, nursing’s theories are composed of argumentative essay College concepts and the propositional statements connecting these concepts in a systematic way. As the products of writing University of The science, they form a central part of our knowledge base. However, for most of the twenty-first century nursing has been dominated by a wide array of theories from other disciplines. Rasin and Kautz suggest that the thesis Cheltenham ultimate justification for the existence of theory is to give humans a view of article Norwich University their world which may help them describe, explain or predict events, or prescribe actions which will enable events to argumentative essay Cheltenham College occur or not. Theories are like different lenses or maps and each one will offer the user a particular focus or topography. For instance, a map of the underground sewer system of Paris would not be very useful if you were trying to find your way through the city streets.
Similarly, a pair of writing a personal College opera glasses would not serve your purpose if you wanted to view the night sky. Theory is argumentative Cheltenham, a distinct and well-articulated system of concepts and propositions rooted explicitly in a philosophy of nursing and writing article Norwich Arts intended solely to guide nursing practice and research. If we accept this definition then we must be careful in essay, our selection. If we choose the wrong map we may find ourselves at write admission essay University of Hertfordshire, a different destination from the one chosen. Therefore, perhaps a central selection criterion is fitness for purpose in other words, does the thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham theory serve the purpose for peer scientific journal, which it is thesis argumentative Cheltenham College, intended? If we accept that nursing theories have unique perspectives, then each theory will determine how nurses assess a patient, plan care, intervene and review outcomes. Furthermore, different nursing theories will have varying influences on writing, how we perceive patients.
For instance, one theory may encourage dependence by stressing that the nurse should do everything for the patient, while another may encourage independence by stressing that the nurse should teach the patient about self-care. The authors also imply that practitioners should feel empowered by the theories they select, and they and thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham their patients should have ownership of them. By using their power to impose a theory on practicizing nurses, managers and academics are being allowed to define expert nursing . Rasin and Kautz argue that, without a strong orientation towards the work of write a college admission essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas) theorists and the work of practitioners, the basic requirements for thesis essay Cheltenham College, a profession are missing. They state that only if we are able to prove that this link exists will we be legitimate contenders for professional status. Agreement of Purpose, Design, and Methods. Norwich University Of The Arts! Interestingly, behavior-centered may challenge the argumentative essay necessity of a pragmatic link between theory and practice. In a way it can be explained that some theories are not intended to be 100% clinically relevant. There is something attractive about journal articles American Heritage School this view. Theories are, by thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham, their very nature, abstract, so they originate from, and business School can lead to, abstract thinking.
They stretch your perceptions, providing new insights and interesting and creative ways of looking at the world of nursing. That is thesis argumentative essay College, part of their value. Since many are at the forefront of Norwich University of The new knowledge development, they are extending the discipline’s frontiers. Therefore, by thesis Cheltenham College, definition, they cannot coincide with what is now being practiced to do so would limit their vision and restrict nursing within a time warp. To make all theories clinically relevant would hamper the development of Norwich of The highly abstract (non-practical) ideas that might eventually prove more valuable to nursing. Alternatively, there is also attraction in thesis argumentative essay, the opposing position of person-centered knowledge. This approach illustrates that regardless of whether nurses work as researchers, educators, theorists, administrators or practitioners, it must be realized that they are in a practice profession with the client at the receiving end of that practice. Accepting this, theories should have a direct bearing on client care. If they do not, their value is open to question. Perhaps the true answer comes somewhere in between these two approaches.
It is possible to argue that there are two types of theory, the realistic, which coincide with the views of practitioners and a personal essay College current practice, and thesis Cheltenham College the idealistic, which may appear alien to contemporary practitioners. This study reflects on the relationship between theory and research. Authors imply that research without theory is how to essay University of Hertfordshire, analogous to a team of bricklayers, each making a brick in isolation from other bricklayers and with no blueprint to follow. They throw the bricks together into a large pile confident that, somehow, a house will emerge. Without theory, therefore, nursing knowledge would be a mass of data, statistics and observations with no coherence or understanding. Knowledge is of little use without understanding.
Knowledge is provided through research studies while understanding is gained by theory. It is essay College, a reciprocal relationship; while knowledge can increase in writing a personal for college, nursing for thesis argumentative College, a time without understanding, understanding is not possible without new knowledge being developed. According to Lorraine Walker (1971), the writing Norwich University result of theory being unable to thesis argumentative keep pace with knowledge development is stagnation of the discipline. Suitability of the writing a personal essay Braemar College Sampling Procedure and Cheltenham College the Sample. Five groups of caregivers were selected with the total of 23 participants. Perhaps one of the most important aspects of the sample chosen was their clarity. Clarity may be rated as high or low. In this case it was rated high. The analyst should ask if the theory is written and presented clearly and if the language used is understandable. This represents semantic clarity. You should ask the following questions: Are key terms defined?
Are concepts and writing for college College assumptions implicit? If explicit, are they stated clearly? You should also note any evidence of tautology: Is there unnecessary overuse of words? Note too if there is structural clarity. This occurs when the prepositional links between the concepts are clear to the reader and essay any diagram representing the theory can be understood without a great deal of difficulty. If you cannot make sense of the theory (and you have really tried), it has low clarity. The hypothesis should be elegant in its simplicity; that is, the theorist should have chosen the simplest, most parsimonious format possible to get across the theoretical message. Reviewed Scientific! If we want hypothesis, practice and research to link appropriately, theory should be easily understood if it is to argumentative essay Cheltenham College gain the attention and commitment of the hard-pressed clinicians.
How can anyone use a theory if they cannot comprehend it? This applies equally well to diagrammatic representations. Essay For College Braemar! If a theory is composed of a confusing mixture of geometric lines, circles, triangles and squares, busy practitioners will not be impressed. Essay! Considering the complexity of nursing, all hypotheses cannot be presented in a simple manner. Writing University Of The Arts! You may think a theory is complex and accept this fact because its concepts and assumptions relate to very difficult issues within practice. Therefore, you should make a judgment as to whether you think a hypothesis is excessively simple or unnecessarily complicated in its content and form. Argumentative Essay! Correctness of Analytical Procedures. All the components within the hypothesis should support each other and be free from writing a personal essay for college contradictions. As with clarity, consistency can be rated high or low.
Look carefully to note if inconsistencies are explicit or implicit. The following types of inconsistency may be identified: • Inconsistency in terms: are definitions of concepts consistent with later assumptions? For instance, a theorist may define people as entire communities, yet the assumptions within the thesis essay Cheltenham College body of the article Thailand theory may relate specifically to individual clients. • Inconsistency in interpretation: if a theory adopts a holistic stance about health care but is reductionist when describing care (e.g., having a large biophysical emphasis). • Inconsistency in principle: a theory may highlight the importance of clients being able to have choices yet be prescriptive in the interventions it supports. Furthermore, inconsistency in principle may be observed when a theory that has its basis in a behavioral paradigm includes concepts that are better related to a system’s paradigm. Examining the perspectives of different theories may be like looking through telescopes of varying focal lengths. Selecting a grand theory would be like looking through the wide-angled end of a telescope.
Here, the selectors require a broad theory which can be used in many different situations with many different types of patient. While the grand theory will not specify explicit interventions, it will give them a framework for viewing the essay world and an assessment template for practice. Selecting a mid-range or practice theory would be like focusing a telescope on a particular nearby scene, where more detail is observed but the surrounding landscape cannot be seen in its entirety. Review Business St. George’s School! Here, a theory is required for a particular patient-care situation and in the case of a practice theory a guideline is argumentative, presented for nursing action. Currently there are more grand theories available for selection than there are mid-range or practice theories, but this situation is changing rapidly. When selecting a nursing theory the relevance to practice is central. She suggests that the person who is review business, choosing the thesis essay theory should seek answers to the following questions: • Does the theory have direct relevance for the way in write a college University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), which nursing is practiced? • Does the theory describe real or ideal care? • Have its assumptions and College propositions been tried and tested? • Does it deal with the resources which are necessary for good care? • Does it guide the how to in an essay use of the argumentative Cheltenham College nursing process? • Does it provide practicing nurses with good direction for clinical actions? • Are the concepts within the theory too abstract to be applied in practice? • Is the language of the theory easy to understand? The prospect of any sort of rationing in how to a college essay University (Navitas), health services is particularly important to the elderly for many reasons. As a group, the elderly tend to suffer from more chronic illnesses, which are generally incurable, than other groups.
Many chronic illnesses, like rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes, can be managed effectively over long periods, but doing so requires an ongoing level of expenditures. Some chronic ailments are particularly problematic because their treatment often means that those suffering from them will come to suffer additional chronic ailments that require further treatment. Also, the elderly suffer disproportionately from critical illnesses associated with old age and, ultimately, death. As a result, they consume disproportionately greater amounts of health service resources. Advances in medical science and the underlying demographics of the American society portend that, in the future, the elderly will need even more health services than now.
The general level of resources that will be available to provide medical services to College the elderly and the allocation of those resources cannot be ignored. Before investigating why Americans feel that all medical services should be available to everyone and before investigating whether this philosophy should be curtailed, it is important to assess the nature of the resource limitations giving rise to the debate over how to essay University, health care rationing. Remember , Remember, free essays, sample essays and essay examples on Health Care topics are traced by plagiarism detection systems. All samples online are plagiarized. Argumentative Cheltenham! Don#8217;t download them and submit them as your own paper for school, college or university. Why not to get a 100% original custom essay at a play Chigwell School, PapersMart.net?
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Skills of an Effective Administrator. Although the selection and training of good administrators is widely recognized as one of American industry’s most pressing problems, there is thesis argumentative Cheltenham College surprisingly little agreement among executives or educators on what makes a good administrator. The executive development programs of some of the nation’s leading corporations and Norwich of The Arts, colleges reflect a tremendous variation in objectives. At the root of this difference is industry’s search for essay, the traits or attributes which will objectively identify the “ideal executive” who is equipped to cope effectively with any problem in any organization. As one observer of U.S. industry recently noted: “The assumption that there is an journal articles American, executive type is widely accepted, either openly or implicitly.
Yet any executive presumably knows that a company needs all kinds of managers for different levels of jobs. The qualities most needed by a shop superintendent are likely to be quite opposed to those needed by a coordinating vice president of manufacturing. The literature of executive development is loaded with efforts to define the qualities needed by executives, and by themselves these sound quite rational. Few, for instance, would dispute the fact that a top manager needs good judgment, the ability to argumentative, make decisions, the ability to Bromsgrove, win respect of others, and all the other well-worn phrases any management man could mention. But one has only to look at the successful managers in any company to thesis essay, see how enormously their particular qualities vary from any ideal list of peer journal articles Heritage School, executive virtues.” 1. Yet this quest for the executive stereotype has become so intense that many companies, in thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham College concentrating on certain specific traits or qualities, stand in danger of academic writing article School Thailand, losing sight of their real concern: what a man can accomplish . It is the purpose of this article to essay College, suggest what may be a more useful approach to the selection and development of administrators.
This approach is Bromsgrove based not on what good executives are (their innate traits and characteristics), but rather on what they do (the kinds of skills which they exhibit in carrying out their jobs effectively). As used here, a skill implies an ability which can be developed, not necessarily inborn, and which is manifested in performance, not merely in potential. So the principal criterion of skillfulness must be effective action under varying conditions. This approach suggests that effective administration rests on three basic developable skills which obviate the thesis argumentative essay need for identifying specific traits and which may provide a useful way of review School, looking at and understanding the administrative process. This approach is the outgrowth of firsthand observation of executives at work coupled with study of current field research in administration. In the sections which follow, an attempt will be made to define and demonstrate what these three skills are; to Cheltenham College, suggest that the relative importance of the academic writing Bromsgrove International three skills varies with the level of administrative responsibility; to present some of the implications of this variation for selection, training, and promotion of executives; and to propose ways of developing these skills. It is assumed here that an administrator is one who (a) directs the activities of other persons and essay Cheltenham, (b) undertakes the in an Chigwell responsibility for Cheltenham, achieving certain objectives through these efforts. Within this definition, successful administration appears to a research article Norwich Arts, rest on three basic skills, which we will call technical, human, and conceptual . Argumentative College. It would be unrealistic to assert that these skills are not interrelated, yet there may be real merit in examining each one separately, and in developing them independently. As used here, technical skill implies an understanding of, and proficiency in, a specific kind of business School, activity, particularly one involving methods, processes, procedures, or techniques. It is thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham relatively easy for us to visualize the technical skill of the surgeon, the musician, the accountant, or the engineer when each is performing his own special function. Writing Article Bromsgrove Thailand. Technical skill involves specialized knowledge, analytical ability within that specialty, and facility in the use of the tools and techniques of the specific discipline.
Of the three skills described in this article, technical skill is argumentative Cheltenham perhaps the writing a personal most familiar because it is the most concrete, and because, in our age of specialization, it is the skill required of the thesis argumentative essay College greatest number of people. Most of our vocational and on-the-job training programs are largely concerned with developing this specialized technical skill. As used here, human skill is the executive’s ability to work effectively as a group member and to build cooperative effort within the team he leads. Review Business. As technical skill is primarily concerned with working with “things” (processes or physical objects), so human skill is primarily concerned with working with people. This skill is demonstrated in argumentative essay the way the peer reviewed scientific journal articles American School individual perceives (and recognizes the perceptions of) his superiors, equals, and subordinates, and in essay College the way he behaves subsequently. The person with highly developed human skill is aware of his own attitudes, assumptions, and beliefs about other individuals and groups; he is able to writing essay, see the usefulness and limitations of these feelings.
By accepting the existence of viewpoints, perceptions, and beliefs which are different from his own, he is argumentative Cheltenham skilled in understanding what others really mean by their words and behavior. He is equally skillful in communicating to others, in their own contexts, what he means by his behavior. Such a person works to create an atmosphere of approval and security in which subordinates feel free to express themselves without fear of censure or ridicule, by encouraging them to writing a personal Braemar, participate in the planning and carrying out of those things which directly affect them. He is sufficiently sensitive to the needs and motivations of others in his organization so that he can judge the possible reactions to, and Cheltenham, outcomes of, various courses of action he may undertake. Having this sensitivity, he is able and peer reviewed journal American School, willing to act in a way which takes these perceptions by Cheltenham, others into account.
Real skill in working with others must become a natural, continuous activity, since it involves sensitivity not only at times of review business St. George’s School, decision making but also in the day-by-day behavior of the individual. Cheltenham College. Human skill cannot be a “sometime thing.” Techniques cannot be randomly applied, nor can personality traits be put on or removed like an overcoat. Because everything which an executive says and does (or leaves unsaid or undone) has an effect on writing Norwich his associates, his true self will, in time, show through. Thesis Argumentative Essay College. Thus, to be effective, this skill must be naturally developed and unconsciously, as well as consistently, demonstrated in a play Chigwell the individual’s every action. It must become an integral part of his whole being. Because human skill is so vital a part of everything the administrator does, examples of inadequate human skill are easier to describe than are highly skillful performances. Perhaps consideration of an actual situation would serve to clarify what is argumentative essay Cheltenham involved: When a new conveyor unit was installed in a shoe factory where workers had previously been free to determine their own work rate, the writing a personal for college Braemar production manager asked the industrial engineer who had designed the thesis essay Cheltenham College conveyor to serve as foreman, even though a qualified foreman was available.
The engineer, who reported directly to the production manager, objected, but under pressure he agreed to take the job “until a suitable foreman could be found,” even though this was a job of lower status than his present one. Then this conversation took place: Production Manager: “I’ve had a lot of experience with conveyors. I want you to academic writing article International School, keep this conveyor going at all times except for rest periods, and thesis Cheltenham, I want it going at top speed. Get these people thinking in terms of 2 pairs of shoes a minute, 70 dozen pairs a day, 350 dozen pairs a week. St. George’s School. They are all experienced operators on their individual jobs, and it’s just a matter of getting them to do their jobs in a little different way. Argumentative. I want you to academic writing Bromsgrove International School, make that base rate of 250 dozen pair a week work!” [Base rate was established at slightly under 75 % of the maximum capacity. This base rate was 50 % higher than under the old system.]
Engineer: “If I’m going to be foreman of the Cheltenham College conveyor unit, I want to do things my way. I’ve worked on conveyors, and I don’t agree with you on first getting people used to a conveyor going at writing Norwich University, top speed. These people have never seen a conveyor. You’ll scare them. Thesis Argumentative. I’d like to run the article Bromsgrove School conveyor at one-third speed for a couple of weeks and then gradually increase the Cheltenham College speed. “I think we should discuss setting the International School Thailand base rate [production quota before incentive bonus] on a daily basis instead of a weekly basis. [Workers had previously been paid on a daily straight piecework basis.] “I’d also suggest setting a daily base rate at 45 or even 40 dozen pair. You have to set a base rate low enough for them to make. Thesis Argumentative College. Once they know they can make the base rate, they will go after the bonus.” Production Manager: “You do it your way on the speed; but remember it’s the results that count. How To A College Essay University (Navitas). On the base rate, I’m not discussing it with you; I’m telling you to make the essay 250 dozen pair a week work.
I don’t want a daily base rate.” 2. Here is writing Norwich of The Arts a situation in which the production manager was so preoccupied with getting the argumentative Cheltenham College physical output that he did not pay attention to the people through whom that output had to be achieved. How To Write A College Essay University. Notice, first, that he made the engineer who designed the unit serve as foreman, apparently hoping to force the engineer to justify his design by producing the Cheltenham maximum output. Reviewed Scientific Journal American. However, the thesis argumentative Cheltenham College production manager was oblivious to (a) the way the engineer perceived this appointment, as a demotion, and a research article Norwich University of The, (b) the need for thesis essay Cheltenham College, the engineer to be able to control the how to School variables if he was to be held responsible for maximum output. Instead the production manager imposed a production standard and refused to make any changes in the work situation. Moreover, although this was a radically new situation for argumentative, the operators, the production manager expected them to produce immediately at well above their previous output—even though the operators had an unfamiliar production system to cope with, the operators had never worked together as a team before, the operators and a play essay School, their new foreman had never worked together before, and argumentative essay College, the foreman was not in agreement with the production goals or standards. Peer Reviewed Scientific Articles American School. By ignoring all these human factors, the production manager not only placed the engineer in an extremely difficult operating situation but also, by refusing to allow the engineer to “run his own show,” discouraged the very assumption of responsibility he had hoped for in making the appointment. Under these circumstances, it is easy to College, understand how the relationship between these two men rapidly deteriorated, and how production, after two months’ operation, was at only 125 dozen pairs per write a play essay Chigwell week (just 75 % of what the output had been under the old system). As used here, conceptual skill involves the ability to see the enterprise as a whole; it includes recognizing how the various functions of the organization depend on one another, and how changes in any one part affect all the others; and it extends to thesis argumentative essay, visualizing the relationship of the how to a college essay of Hertfordshire individual business to the industry, the community, and the political, social, and economic forces of the nation as a whole.
Recognizing these relationships and perceiving the significant elements in any situation, the administrator should then be able to act in a way which advances the over-all welfare of the total organization. Hence, the essay Cheltenham success of any decision depends on the conceptual skill of the people who make the decision and those who put it into peer journal articles, action. When, for example, an thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham, important change in marketing policy is made, it is academic article Bromsgrove critical that the thesis argumentative essay effects on production, control, finance, research, and the people involved be considered. And it remains critical right down to the last executive who must implement the new policy. If each executive recognizes the over-all relationships and significance of the change, he is almost certain to be more effective in administering it.
Consequently the chances for succeeding are greatly increased. Not only article University Arts does the effective coordination of the argumentative essay College various parts of the business depend on the conceptual skill of the writing a personal essay for college College administrators involved, but so also does the whole future direction and tone of the organization. The attitudes of a top executive color the thesis argumentative Cheltenham whole character of the organization’s response and determine the “corporate personality” which distinguishes one company’s ways of doing business from another’s. These attitudes are a reflection of the administrator’s conceptual skill (referred to writing article Norwich of The Arts, by some as his “creative ability”—the way he perceives and responds to the direction in which the business should grow, company objectives and policies, and thesis essay Cheltenham College, stockholders’ and employees’ interests. Conceptual skill, as defined above, is Bromsgrove International School Thailand what Chester I. Barnard, former president of the New Jersey Bell Telephone Company, is implying when he says: “…the essential aspect of the [executive] process is the sensing of the organization as a whole and thesis, of the total situation relevant to it.” 3 Examples of inadequate conceptual skill are all around us. Here is one instance: In a large manufacturing company which had a long tradition of job-shop type operations, primary responsibility for production control had been left to the foremen and other lower-level supervisors. “Village” type operations with small working groups and informal organizations were the rule. A heavy influx of orders following World War II tripled the normal production requirements and severely taxed the how to write a play essay Chigwell School whole manufacturing organization.
At this point, a new production manager was brought in from outside the company, and he established a wide range of thesis essay, controls and formalized the entire operating structure. As long as the boom demand lasted, the employees made every effort to a personal, conform with the new procedures and environment. But when demand subsided to thesis essay College, prewar levels, serious labor relations problems developed, friction was high among department heads, and the company found itself saddled with a heavy indirect labor cost. Management sought to reinstate its old procedures; it fired the production manager and attempted to give greater authority to the foremen once again. How To Write A Play Essay. However, during the four years of formalized control, the foremen had grown away from their old practices, many had left the company, and adequate replacements had not been developed. Essay Cheltenham College. Without strong foreman leadership, the traditional job-shop operations proved costly and inefficient. In this instance, when the new production controls and formalized organizations were introduced, management did not foresee the School consequences of this action in College the event of a future contraction of business. Later, when conditions changed and it was necessary to pare down operations, management was again unable to write a college admission of Hertfordshire (Navitas), recognize the implications of its action and reverted to the old procedures, which, under the circumstances, were no longer appropriate.
This compounded conceptual inadequacy left the company at a serious competitive disadvantage. Because a company’s over-all success is dependent on its executives’ conceptual skill in establishing and carrying out policy decisions, this skill is the unifying, coordinating ingredient of the administrative process, and thesis essay Cheltenham, of undeniable over-all importance. We may notice that, in how to write a play in an Chigwell a very real sense, conceptual skill embodies consideration of both the technical and human aspects of the argumentative essay Cheltenham organization. Yet the concept of skill, as an ability to translate knowledge into action, should enable one to writing of The Arts, distinguish between the thesis Cheltenham College three skills of performing the technical activities (technical skill), understanding and motivating individuals and groups (human skill), and coordinating and integrating all the activities and interests of the organization toward a common objective (conceptual skill). This separation of effective administration into three basic skills is useful primarily for purposes of article Bromsgrove School Thailand, analysis.
In practice, these skills are so closely interrelated that it is difficult to determine where one ends and another begins. However, just because the skills are interrelated does not imply that we cannot get some value from looking at them separately, or by varying their emphasis. In playing golf the action of the hands, wrists, hips, shoulders, arms, and head are all interrelated; yet in improving one’s swing it is often valuable to work on one of these elements separately. Also, under different playing conditions the relative importance of these elements varies. Similarly, although all three are of importance at every level of administration, the technical, human, and conceptual skills of the administrator vary in relative importance at different levels of responsibility. Technical skill is responsible for many of the great advances of modern industry. It is indispensable to efficient operation. Yet it has greatest importance at the lower levels of administration. As the administrator moves further and further from the actual physical operation, this need for technical skill becomes less important, provided he has skilled subordinates and can help them solve their own problems. At the top, technical skill may be almost nonexistent, and the executive may still be able to argumentative essay Cheltenham College, perform effectively if his human and conceptual skills are highly developed.
For example: In one large capital-goods producing company, the controller was called on to replace the manufacturing vice president, who had been stricken suddenly with a severe illness. The controller had no previous production experience, but he had been with the company for more than 20 years and knew many of the review business key production personnel intimately. Thesis Argumentative Essay. By setting up an advisory staff, and by review business St. George’s, delegating an unusual amount of authority to his department heads, he was able to devote himself to coordination of the Cheltenham College various functions. By so doing, he produced a highly efficient team. The results were lower costs, greater productivity, and writing School Thailand, higher morale than the production division had ever before experienced. Management had gambled that this man’s ability to work with people was more important than his lack of a technical production background, and the gamble paid off. Other examples are evident all around us. We are all familiar with those “professional managers” who are becoming the prototypes of argumentative, our modern executive world.
These men shift with great ease, and how to essay University (Navitas), with no apparent loss in effectiveness, from one industry to another. Their human and conceptual skills seem to make up for their unfamiliarity with the new job’s technical aspects. Human skill, the ability to work with others, is essential to effective administration at every level. One recent research study has shown that human skill is of paramount importance at the foreman level, pointing out that the chief function of the foreman as an administrator is to thesis Cheltenham, attain collaboration of review business School, people in the work group. 4 Another study reinforces this finding and extends it to thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham College, the middle-management group, adding that the administrator should be primarily concerned with facilitating communication in the organization. A College (Navitas). 5 And still another study, concerned primarily with top management, underscores the need for self-awareness and sensitivity to human relationships by executives at that level. 6 These findings would tend to indicate that human skill is argumentative essay College of great importance at how to a play in an Chigwell, every level, but notice the argumentative difference in emphasis. Human skill seems to be most important at article Norwich of The, lower levels, where the number of argumentative Cheltenham, direct contacts between administrators and subordinates is greatest. As we go higher and higher in the administrative echelons, the number and frequency of these personal contacts decrease, and the need for human skill becomes proportionately, although probably not absolutely, less.
At the same time, conceptual skill becomes increasingly more important with the need for policy decisions and broad-scale action. Writing College. The human skill of dealing with individuals then becomes subordinate to the conceptual skill of integrating group interests and activities into essay Cheltenham College, a whole. In fact, a recent research study by writing article Bromsgrove International School, Professor Chris Argyris of Yale University has given us the example of an extremely effective plant manager who, although possessing little human skill as defined here, was nonetheless very successful: This manager, the head of thesis Cheltenham College, a largely autonomous division, made his supervisors, through the effects of how to a college essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), his strong personality and the “pressure” he applied, highly dependent on him for most of their “rewards, penalties, authority, perpetuation, communication, and identification.” As a result, the supervisors spent much of their time competing with one another for thesis, the manager’s favor. They told him only the things they thought he wanted to for college Braemar College, hear, and thesis argumentative Cheltenham, spent much time trying to find out his desires. They depended on him to set their objectives and to show them how to reach them. Because the manager was inconsistent and unpredictable in his behavior, the supervisors were insecure and how to write School, continually engaged in thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham interdepartmental squabbles which they tried to keep hidden from the manager. Clearly, human skill as defined here was lacking. Yet, by the evaluation of review School, his superiors and by his results in increasing efficiency and raising profits and morale, this manager was exceedingly effective. Professor Argyris suggests that employees in modern industrial organizations tend to have a “built-in” sense of dependence on superiors which capable and alert men can turn to argumentative Cheltenham, advantage.
7. In the academic context of the three-skill approach, it seems that this manager was able to thesis argumentative, capitalize on this dependence because he recognized the interrelationships of all the activities under his control, identified himself with the organization, and sublimated the writing for college Braemar College individual interests of his subordinates to his (the organization’s) interest, set his goals realistically, and showed his subordinates how to reach these goals. This would seem to be an excellent example of a situation in essay which strong conceptual skill more than compensated for a lack of human skill. Conceptual skill, as indicated in the preceding sections, becomes increasingly critical in more responsible executive positions where its effects are maximized and most easily observed. In fact, recent research findings lead to the conclusion that at the top level of administration this conceptual skill becomes the most important ability of all. As Herman W. Steinkraus, president of Bridgeport Brass Company, said: “One of the most important lessons which I learned on academic writing School Thailand this job [the presidency] is the importance of argumentative essay College, coordinating the various departments into an effective team, and, secondly, to recognize the shifting emphasis from writing a personal for college College, time to argumentative essay, time of the relative importance of for college Braemar, various departments to the business.” 8.
It would appear, then, that at lower levels of administrative responsibility, the principal need is for technical and human skills. At higher levels, technical skill becomes relatively less important while the need for conceptual skill increases rapidly. Thesis. At the top level of an organization, conceptual skill becomes the most important skill of review business St. George’s School, all for successful administration. A chief executive may lack technical or human skills and argumentative Cheltenham, still be effective if he has subordinates who have strong abilities in these directions. Writing A Research Norwich Arts. But if his conceptual skill is weak, the success of the thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham College whole organization may be jeopardized. This three-skill approach implies that significant benefits may result from redefining the objectives of executive development programs, from reconsidering the placement of executives in organizations, and reviewed journal articles American School, from revising procedures for testing and selecting prospective executives. Many executive development programs may be failing to achieve satisfactory results because of their inability to foster the growth of these administrative skills. Thesis Essay Cheltenham. Programs which concentrate on the mere imparting of information or the cultivation of a specific trait would seem to write a play essay Chigwell School, be largely unproductive in enhancing the administrative skills of candidates.
A strictly informative program was described to me recently by an officer and director of a large corporation who had been responsible for the executive-development activities of his company, as follows: “What we try to do is to get our promising young men together with some of our senior executives in thesis College regular meetings each month. Then we give the young fellows a chance to ask questions to let them find out write a college of Hertfordshire, about the company’s history and essay Cheltenham College, how and why we’ve done things in the past.” It was not surprising that neither the senior executives nor the writing a personal College young men felt this program was improving their administrative abilities. The futility of pursuing specific traits becomes apparent when we consider the essay responses of an administrator in a number of different situations. In coping with these varied conditions, he may appear to demonstrate one trait in one instance—e.g., dominance when dealing with subordinates—and the directly opposite trait under another set of circumstances—e.g., submissiveness when dealing with superiors. Yet in each instance he may be acting appropriately to achieve the best results. Which, then, can we identify as a desirable characteristic?
Here is a further example of articles American, this dilemma: A Pacific Coast sales manager had a reputation for decisiveness and positive action. Thesis Essay College. Yet when he was required to name an assistant to understudy his job from among several well-qualified subordinates, he deliberately avoided making a decision. Academic Article Bromsgrove Thailand. His associates were quick to observe what appeared to be obvious indecisiveness. But after several months had passed, it became clear that the sales manager had very unobtrusively been giving the various salesmen opportunities to argumentative essay, demonstrate their attitudes and feelings. As a result, he was able to identify strong sentiments for one man whose subsequent promotion was enthusiastically accepted by the entire group. In this instance, the sales manager’s skillful performance was improperly interpreted as “indecisiveness.” Their concern with irrelevant traits led his associates to overlook the adequacy of his performance. Would it not have been more appropriate to conclude that his human skill in working with others enabled him to adapt effectively to scientific Heritage, the requirements of a new situation? Cases such as these would indicate that it is more useful to judge an argumentative, administrator on the results of academic article International, his performance than on his apparent traits. Skills are easier to identify than are traits and are less likely to be misinterpreted. Furthermore, skills offer a more directly applicable frame of reference for executive development, since any improvement in an administrator’s skills must necessarily result in more effective performance.
Still another danger in many existing executive development programs lies in the unqualified enthusiasm with which some companies and colleges have embraced courses in “human relations.” There would seem to argumentative essay Cheltenham College, be two inherent pitfalls here: (1) Human relations courses might only be imparting information or specific techniques, rather than developing the individual’s human skill. School. (2) Even if individual development does take place, some companies, by placing all of their emphasis on human skill, may be completely overlooking the training requirements for thesis Cheltenham, top positions. They may run the risk of producing men with highly developed human skill who lack the write in an School conceptual ability to essay College, be effective top-level administrators. It would appear important, then, that the training of a candidate for an administrative position be directed at the development of University of The Arts, those skills which are most needed at the level of responsibility for which he is being considered. This three-skill concept suggests immediate possibilities for the creating of thesis essay, management teams of individuals with complementary skills. For example, one medium-size midwestern distributing organization has as president a man of unusual conceptual ability but extremely limited human skill. However, he has two vice presidents with exceptional human skill. These three men make up an executive committee which has been outstandingly successful, the skills of each member making up for article School, deficiencies of the others.
Perhaps the plan of two-man complementary conference leadership proposed by Robert F. Bales, in which the one leader maintains “task leadership” while the other provides “social leadership,” might also be an example in point. 9. In trying to predetermine a prospective candidate’s abilities on a job, much use is being made these days of various kinds of testing devices. Executives are being tested for everything from “decisiveness” to “conformity.” These tests, as a recent article in Fortune points out, have achieved some highly questionable results when applied to performance on thesis essay the job. 10 Would it not be much more productive to write a play in an Chigwell, be concerned with skills of doing rather than with a number of traits which do not guarantee performance ? This three-skill approach makes trait testing gun necessary and substitutes for it procedures which examine a man’s ability to cope with the actual problems and situations he will find on his job.
These procedures, which indicate what a man can do in specific situations, are the same for selection and for measuring development. They will be described in the section on developing executive skills which follows. This approach suggests that executives should not be chosen on the basis of their apparent possession of a number of thesis argumentative Cheltenham College, behavior characteristics or traits, but on a research article University of The the basis of their possession of the requisite skills for the specific level of responsibility involved. For years many people have contended that leadership ability is inherent in certain chosen individuals. We talk of “born leaders,” “born executives,” “born salesmen.” It is undoubtedly true that certain people, naturally or innately, possess greater aptitude or ability in certain skills. But research in psychology and physiology would also indicate, first, that those having strong aptitudes and abilities can improve their skill through practice and training, and, secondly, that even those lacking the natural ability can improve their performance and over-all effectiveness. The skill conception of administration suggests that we may hope to improve our administrative effectiveness and to develop better administrators for the future. This skill conception implies learning by doing . Thesis Argumentative Essay Cheltenham. Different people learn in different ways, but skills are developed through practice and through relating learning to one’s own personal experience and how to write a play, background. If well done, training in these basic administrative skills should develop executive abilities more surely and more rapidly than through unorganized experience.
What, then, are some of the essay College ways in which this training can be conducted? Development of technical skill has received great attention for many years by industry and educational institutions alike, and much progress has been made. Sound grounding in the principles, structures, and processes of the individual specialty, coupled with actual practice and experience during which the academic writing article School Thailand individual is watched and helped by thesis College, a superior, appear to be most effective. In view of the vast amount of work which has been done in training people in the technical skills, it would seem unnecessary in this article to suggest more. Human skill, however, has been much less understood, and only recently has systematic progress been made in developing it. Many different approaches to the development of human skill are being pursued by various universities and professional men today. These are rooted in such disciplines as psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Some of these approaches find their application in “applied psychology,” “human engineering,” and a host of other manifestations requiring technical specialists to write essay, help the businessman with his human problems. As a practical matter, however, the argumentative essay Cheltenham executive must develop his own human skill, rather than lean on the advice of others. To be effective, he must develop his own personal point of view toward human activity, so that he will (a) recognize the feelings and sentiments which he brings to a research University of The Arts, a situation; (b) have an attitude about his own experiences which will enable him to re-evaluate and learn from them; (c) develop ability in understanding what others by their actions and words (explicit or implicit) are trying to thesis argumentative essay, communicate to him; and (d) develop ability in writing a personal essay for college Braemar successfully communicating his ideas and argumentative essay, attitudes to others.
11. This human skill can be developed by some individuals without formalized training. Others can be individually aided by their immediate superiors as an integral part of the “coaching” process to be described later. This aid depends for effectiveness, obviously, on how to write a college admission essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas) the extent to which the superior possesses the human skill. For larger groups, the use of case problems coupled with impromptu role playing can be very effective.
This training can be established on a formal or informal basis, but it requires a skilled instructor and organized sequence of thesis argumentative, activities. 12 It affords as good an approximation to Bromsgrove, reality as can be provided on a continuing classroom basis and offers an opportunity for critical reflection not often found in actual practice. Thesis Argumentative Essay. An important part of the procedure is the writing article Norwich self-examination of the trainee’s own concepts and thesis College, values, which may enable him to develop more useful attitudes about academic writing article Bromsgrove Thailand, himself and about others. With the change in attitude, hopefully, there may also come some active skill in dealing with human problems. Human skill has also been tested in the classroom, within reasonable limits, by a series of analyses of detailed accounts of actual situations involving administrative action, together with a number of role-playing opportunities in which the individual is required to carry out the details of the action he has proposed.
In this way an individual’s understanding of the total situation and his own personal ability to do something about it can be evaluated. On the job, there should be frequent opportunities for a superior to observe an individual’s ability to Cheltenham, work effectively with others. These may appear to be highly subjective evaluations and to depend for validity on the human skill of the rater. Peer Reviewed Scientific Journal American Heritage School. But does not every promotion, in the last analysis, depend on someone’s subjective judgment? And should this subjectivity be berated, or should we make a greater effort to develop people within our organizations with the human skill to make such judgments effectively? Conceptual skill, like human skill, has not been very widely understood. A number of methods have been tried to aid in developing this ability, with varying success. Some of the best results have always been achieved through the argumentative essay Cheltenham College “coaching” of subordinates by superiors.
13 This is no new idea. It implies that one of the key responsibilities of the writing a research article Norwich University of The Arts executive is to help his subordinates to develop their administrative potentials. Essay College. One way a superior can help “coach” his subordinate is by writing article Bromsgrove International, assigning a particular responsibility, and then responding with searching questions or opinions, rather than giving answers, whenever the subordinate seeks help. When Benjamin F. Fairless, now chairman of the board of the United States Steel Corporation, was president of the corporation, he described his coaching activities: “When one of my vice presidents or the head of one of thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham, our operating companies comes to me for Bromsgrove Thailand, instructions, I generally counter by asking him questions. First thing I know, he has told me how to solve the problem himself.” 14.
Obviously, this is an ideal and wholly natural procedure for administrative training, and applies to argumentative essay College, the development of technical and human skill, as well as to that of conceptual skill. However, its success must necessarily rest on the abilities and willingness of the superior to help the subordinate. Another excellent way to develop conceptual skill is through trading jobs, that is, by moving promising young men through different functions of the business but at the same level of responsibility. This gives the man the chance literally to “be in the other fellow’s shoes.” Other possibilities include: special assignments, particularly the kind which involve inter-departmental problems; and management boards, such as the McCormick Multiple Management plan, in which junior executives serve as advisers to top management on policy matters. For larger groups, the kind of case-problems course described above, only using cases involving broad management policy and interdepartmental coordination, may be useful.
Courses of this kind, often called “General Management” or “Business Policy,” are becoming increasingly prevalent. In the classroom, conceptual skill has also been evaluated with reasonable effectiveness by presenting a series of detailed descriptions of specific complex situations. In these the individual being tested is peer scientific articles Heritage asked to set forth a course of thesis argumentative Cheltenham College, action which responds to the underlying forces operating in each situation and which considers the implications of this action on the various functions and reviewed journal articles, parts of the organization and its total environment. On the thesis essay Cheltenham College job, the alert supervisor should find frequent opportunities to observe the extent to which the individual is able to relate himself and how to write a college admission essay, his job to the other functions and operations of the company. Like human skill, conceptual skill, too, must become a natural part of the executive’s makeup. Different methods may be indicated for developing different people, by virtue of their backgrounds, attitudes, and experience. But in every case that method should be chosen which will enable the executive to develop his own personal skill in visualizing the enterprise as a whole and in coordinating and integrating its various parts. The purpose of this article has been to show that effective administration depends on three basic personal skills, which have been called technical, human, and essay, conceptual . The administrator needs: (a) sufficient technical skill to writing a personal essay Braemar College, accomplish the mechanics of the particular job for thesis Cheltenham, which he is responsible; (b) sufficient human skill in working with others to be an effective group member and to be able to School, build cooperative effort within the team he leads; (c) sufficient conceptual skill to recognize the interrelationships of the thesis essay Cheltenham various factors involved in his situation, which will lead him to take that action which is likely to achieve the maximum good for the total organization.
The relative importance of these three skills seems to vary with the level of administrative responsibility. At lower levels, the major need is for a college admission University of Hertfordshire, technical and human skills. At higher levels, the administrator’s effectiveness depends largely on human and conceptual skills. At the top, conceptual skill becomes the most important of all for successful administration. This three-skill approach emphasizes that good administrators are not necessarily born; they may be developed. It transcends the need to thesis argumentative essay College, identify specific traits in an effort to writing of The Arts, provide a more useful way of looking at the administrative process. Argumentative Essay Cheltenham. By helping to identify the skills most needed at St. George’s School, various levels of responsibility, it may prove useful in thesis Cheltenham College the selection, training, and promotion of executives. When this article was first published nearly 20 years ago, there was a great deal of interest in trying to identify a set of ideal personality traits that would readily distinguish potential executive talent. The search for these traits was vigorously pursued in how to write a play essay School the hope that the essay Cheltenham selection and training of managers could be conducted with greater reliability. This article was an attempt to focus attention on demonstrable skills of performance rather than on innate personality characteristics.
And, while describing the three kinds of administrative skill (technical, human, and conceptual), it also attempted to highlight the importance of conceptual skill as a uniquely valuable managerial capability, long before the concept of corporate strategy was well defined or popularly understood. It still appears useful to think of managerial ability in terms of these three basic, observable skills. It also still appears that the relative importance of these skills varies with the administrative level of the St. George’s manager in the organization. However, my experience over the past 20 years, in working with senior executives in thesis Cheltenham a wide variety of essay Chigwell, industries, suggests that several specific points require either sharp modification or substantial further refinement. I now believe that this kind of skill could be usefully subdivided into (a) leadership ability within the manager’s own unit and (b) skill in thesis Cheltenham intergroup relationships. In my experience, outstanding capability in one of these roles is frequently accompanied by writing a research Norwich, mediocre performance in the other. Often, the most internally efficient department managers are those who have committed themselves fully to the unique values and criteria of their specialized functions, without acknowledging that other departments’ differing values have any validity at all. For example, a production manager may be most efficient if he puts all his emphasis on obtaining a high degree of reliability in argumentative Cheltenham his production schedule. He would then resist any external pressures that place a higher priority on criteria other than delivering the required output on time. Or a sales manager may be most efficient if he puts all his emphasis on maintaining positive relationships with customers. Of Hertfordshire. He would then resist all pressures that would emphasize other values, such as ease of production or selling the highest gross margin items.
In each case, the manager will probably receive strong support from his subordinates, who share the thesis essay Cheltenham College same values. But he will encounter severe antagonism from other departments with conflicting values. To the extent that two departments’ values conflict with each other, skillful intergroup relationships require some equivocation. But compromise is often perceived by departmental subordinates as a “sellout.” Thus the manager is obliged to choose between gaining full support from subordinates or enjoying full collaboration with peers and/or superiors. Having both is rarely possible.
Consequently, I would revise my original evaluation of human skill to say now that internal intragroup skills are essential in lower and middle management roles and that intergroup skills become increasingly important in successively higher levels of peer reviewed scientific Heritage, management. In retrospect, I now see that what I called conceptual skill depends entirely on a specific way of thinking about an enterprise. This “general management point of view,” as it has come to thesis essay, be known, involves always thinking in terms of the following: relative emphases and priorities among conflicting objectives and criteria; relative tendencies and write a college admission University, probabilities (rather than certainties); rough correlations and patterns among elements (rather than clear-cut cause-and-effect relationships). I am now far less sanguine about the argumentative College degree to which this way of thinking can be developed on the job. Unless a person has learned to think this way early in life, it is unrealistic to expect a major change on School reaching executive status.
Job rotation, special interdepartmental assignments, and working with case problems certainly provide opportunities for a person to enhance previously developed conceptual abilities. Thesis Cheltenham. But I question how easily this way of thinking can be inculcated after a person passes adolescence. In this sense, then, conceptual skill should perhaps be viewed as an innate ability. In the original article, I suggested that specific technical skills are unimportant at a research article Norwich of The, top management levels. I cited as evidence the many professional managers who move easily from one industry to another without apparent loss of effectiveness. I now believe this mobility is possible only in thesis argumentative essay College very large companies, where the chief executive has extensive staff assistance and highly competent, experienced technical operators throughout the organization.
An old, established, large company has great operational momentum that enables the new chief executive to concentrate on strategic issues. In smaller companies, where technical expertise is not as pervasive and seasoned staff assistance is not as available, I believe the peer articles School chief executive has a much greater need for personal experience in the industry. He not only needs to know the thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham right questions to ask his subordinates; he also needs enough industry background to know how to evaluate the answers. In the original article, I took too simplistic and naive a view of the chief executive’s role. St. George’s. My extensive work with company presidents and my own personal experience as a chief executive have given me much more respect for the difficulties and complexities of that role. Thesis Argumentative Essay College. I now know that every important executive action must strike a balance among so many conflicting values, objectives, and criteria that it will always be suboptimal from any single viewpoint. Every decision or choice affecting the a college essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas) whole enterprise has negative consequences for some of the parts. The chief executive must try to perceive the conflicts and trace accurately their likely impact throughout the organization. Reluctantly, but wittingly, he may have to sacrifice the interests of a single unit or part for the good of the whole. He needs to thesis argumentative essay College, be willing to accept solutions that are adequate and feasible in the total situation rather than what, from a single point of writing International, view, may be elegant or optimum.
Not only argumentative Cheltenham must the chief executive be an efficient operator, but he must also be an effective strategist. It is his responsibility to provide the framework and direction for overall company operations. How To. He must continually specify where the company will place its emphasis in thesis essay College terms of reviewed scientific journal articles School, products, services, and thesis argumentative Cheltenham, customers. He must define performance criteria and determine what special competences the company will emphasize. Norwich Of The Arts. He also needs to set priorities and timetables.
He must establish the thesis argumentative Cheltenham standards and controls necessary to monitor progress and to place limits on individual actions. He must bring into the enterprise additional resources when they are needed. Moreover, he must change his management style and strike different balances among his personal skills as conditions change or as his organization grows in size and complexity. Write A College Essay University (Navitas). The remedial role (saving the organization when it is in great difficulty) calls for drastic human action and emphasizes conceptual and argumentative essay, technical skills. The maintaining role (sustaining the organization in its present posture) emphasizes human skills and requires only how to a play essay modest technical or strategic changes. But the innovative role (developing and expanding the organization) demands high competence in both conceptual and intergroup skills, with the technical contribution provided primarily by subordinates.
In my view, it is impossible for anyone to perform well in these continually changing roles without help. Yet because effective management of the thesis argumentative essay total enterprise involves constant suboptimizing, it is review business impossible for the chief executive to get unanimous or continuous support from his subordinates. If he is thesis essay College overly friendly or supportive, he may compromise his effectiveness or his objectivity. Yet somewhere in the organization, he needs to have a well-informed, objective, understanding, and supportive sounding board with whom he can freely discuss his doubts, fears, and aspirations. Sometimes this function can be supplied by an outside director, the outside corporate counsel, or the company auditor. Peer Scientific Articles American School. But such a confidant requires just as high a degree of conceptual and thesis College, human skills as the chief executive himself; and to be truly helpful, he must know all about the company’s operations, key personnel, and industry. This role has been largely overlooked in discussions of organizational requirements, but in my view, its proper fulfillment is essential to the success of the chief executive and the enterprise. I now realize more fully that managers at all levels require some competence in each of the three skills.
Even managers at the lowest levels must continually use all of them. Dealing with the review business St. George’s School external demands on a manager’s unit requires conceptual skill; the thesis argumentative essay College limited physical and financial resources available to him tax his technical skill; and the capabilities and demands of the persons with whom he deals make it essential that he possess human skill. A clear idea of article of The Arts, these skills and of ways to measure a manager’s competence in each category still appears to me to be a most effective tool for argumentative Cheltenham College, top management, not only in essay for college Braemar College understanding executive behavior, but also in the selection, training, and argumentative essay Cheltenham, promotion of managers at all levels. 1. Perrin Stryker, “The Growing Pains of essay for college College, Executive Development,” Advanced Management, August 1954, p. 15. 2. From a mimeographed case in the files of the Harvard Business School; copyrighted by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. 3. Functions of the thesis essay Executive (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1948), p. 235. 4. Write A College Essay (Navitas). A. Zaleznik, Foreman Training in a Growing Enterprise (Boston, Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1951).
5. Harriet O. Cheltenham College. Ronken and Paul R. Lawrence, Administering Changes (Boston, Division of a personal essay College, Research, Harvard Business School, 1952). 6. Edmund P. Learned, David H. Thesis Argumentative Cheltenham College. Ulrich, and Donald R. Booz, Executive Action (Boston, Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1950). 7. Executive Leadership (New York, Harper Brothers, 1953); see also “Leadership Pattern in how to a play essay School the Plant,” HBR January–February 1954, p. 63. 8. “What Should a President Do?” Dun’s Review, August 1951, p. 21. 9. “In Conference,” HBR March–April 1954, p. 44. 10. William H. Whyte, Jr., “The Fallacies of ‘Personality’ Testing,” Fortune, September 1954, p. 117. 11.
For a further discussion of this point, see F. J. Roethlisberger, “Training Supervisors in Human Relations,” HBR September 1951, p. 47. 12. See, for example, A. Winn, “Training in Administration and argumentative Cheltenham College, Human Relations,” Personnel, September 1953, p. 139; see also, Kenneth R. Andrews, “Executive Training by St. George’s School, the Case Method,” HBR September 1951, p. 58. 13. For a more comlete development of the concept of “coaching,” see Myles L. Mace, The Growth and Development of Executives (Boston, Division of Research, Harvard Business School, 1950).
14. “What Should a President Do?” Dun’s Review, July 1951, p. 14.
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7 Common MBA Essay Questions and How to Tackle Them. Thesis Essay Cheltenham! There are a handful of business school essay questions that seem to capture the heart and articles Heritage School imagination of many an MBA program. It seems that, across the board, admissions committees feel these queries offer the best insight into thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham College the minds of their applicants. You are likely to see a version of essay University (Navitas) one or more of these common MBA essay questions on your b-school application. These tips will help you craft the perfect answer. 1. Describe your specific career aspirations and essay Cheltenham your reason for pursuing an MBA. This may be the most important essay question you tackle. Write In An Essay Chigwell! You must convince the admissions committee that you deserve one of their few, cherished spots. Reference your background, skills, and career aspirations, demonstrating how this degree is a bridge to the next step in your professional life. Be sure to speak to how this particular program will help you realize your potential. It's okay to present modest goals.
Deepening your expertise and broadening your perspective are solid reasons for pursuing this degree. If you aspire to lofty goals, like becoming a CEO or starting your own company, be careful to detail a sensible (read: realistic), pragmatic plan. 2. What are your principal interests outside of work or school? What leisure and/or community activities do you particularly enjoy? There's more to b-school than the library. Thesis Argumentative College! The best programs buzz with the energy of a student body that is talented and writing a personal essay Braemar creative and bursting with personality. These students are not just about case studies and careers. Describe how you will be a unique addition to thesis essay College, the business school community. B-school is how to write a play essay, also a very social experience.
Much of the work is done in groups. Thesis Essay Cheltenham College! Weekends are full of social gatherings or immersion experiences, and reviewed the networking you do here will impact the rest of your career. Communicate that people, not just your job, are an argumentative essay Cheltenham College, important part of your life. A Research Article Of The Arts! The admissions committee wants to thesis, know the qualities, attributes and strengths you value in others and hope to embrace. Drive, discipline and vision are fine examples but try and look beyond these conventional characteristics. Tell a story and provide specific examples. If you choose someone famous (which is fine), remember that you risk being one of many in the pile. Instead, consider a current boss, business associate, or friend. Know that your choice of writing College person is less important than what you say about thesis College him or her. 4. Describe a situation in which you led a team.
What challenges did you face, and how did you overcome them? The committee isn't looking to see how you saved the team through your heroic efforts (so put yourself on ego alert). They want to see how you helped foster an environment in St. George’s, which everyone contributes, illustrating that the sum is greater than its parts. B-schools like leaders, but they like leaders who can help everyone get along and arrive at thesis Cheltenham, a collaborative solution. You should shift gears for writing Bromsgrove International School Thailand this question.
Almost the entire application process thus far has asked you to showcase me-me-me. Now the focus of your story needs to be on the we and essay how you made the business St. George’s, we happen. 5. Our business school is a diverse environment. How will your experiences contribute to this? This essay gets at two concerns for the admissions committee: (1) how will you enrich the thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham College, student body at how to write in an essay Chigwell, this school and (2) what is your attitude toward others' diverse backgrounds? Diversity comes in many shapes. If a grandparent or relative is an immigrant to this country, you can discuss the impact of thesis Cheltenham College his or her values on your life.
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A good essay describes how you reached a personal objective and what that meant to you. How To Essay Chigwell School! Maybe you didn't lead a sports team to a victory. Maybe the victory was that you made it onto the team . 7. Cheltenham College! Discuss a non-academic personal failure. What did you learn from the experience? Many applicants make the mistake of answering this question with a failure that is really a positive. Or they never really answer the question, fearful that any admission of writing a personal for college College failure will throw their whole candidacy into jeopardy. Don't get crafty. You should answer with a genuine mistake that the committee will recognize as authentic.
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Desdemona And Emilia Essays and Research Papers. and jealousy, trust and breach of trust etc. Desdemona , a representative of the perfect embodiment of a faithful loving wife, eventually . Argumentative College. killed by her suspecting husband. Emilia , an writing a research article Norwich Arts analytical woman that knew to obey the social norms but still carried a sense of inherent moral compass and compassion. How do the characters perceive what is proper and moral in the society they were in? This essay will explore the characters of Desdemona and Emilia , compare and contrast their personalities and different. Husband , Iago , Love 1295 Words | 4 Pages. Othello - English Essay The contrasting characters; Desdemona and Emilia , form an interesting and important relationship . in the play Othello. Thesis Argumentative Cheltenham. Desdemona is very #8216;sheltered#8217; from the ways of the world and Emilia is very #8216;down to earth#8217; and #8216;experienced#8217;. From this difference we see a fascinating relationship between the two of them.
In the given passage, we see that Desdemona takes a very honest, romantic and loyal stance towards Othello, (this is. Audience , Desdemona , Emilia 1084 Words | 4 Pages. Othello- Emilia, Desdemona Relationship. Emilia Desdemona Relationship In the play “Othello”, by William Shakespeare, there are two major feminine figures that attract . our attention. One is the wife of the writing a personal for college Braemar College play’s tragic hero-Othello; the other is betrothed to thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham, one of the greatest villains of all time-Iago.
They are part and parcel of what goes on how to write a college admission in the play and eventually how the crisis of the play is resolved. These two females of the play can be compared and argumentative Cheltenham College contrasted in a number of ways. To begin, both Desdemona and Emilia are the. Husband , Iago , Love 836 Words | 3 Pages. of Desdemona’s Will in Othello Among William Shakespeare’s vast array of deeply flawed characters, Desdemona of Othello stands out as . remarkably virtuous and pure of heart.
Furthermore, Desdemona’s character initially displays a sense of independence and agency that is rare amongst other female characters in literature at the time that Othello was written. However, by the story’s end, Desdemona is a much more submissive and passive character, accepting her tragic circumstance without protest. Throughout. Brabantio , Desdemona , Husband 2068 Words | 6 Pages. evaluated the role of Desdemona , as she encounters the write admission of Hertfordshire (Navitas) troubles with inter racial relationships, the injustice of female inequality and the . impurities of love. Othello was written at a time of significant changes in society. Is Desdemona , “A maiden never bold of spirit”, “a super- subtle Venetian” and a “cunning whore of Venice”.
Iago is the source of the conflict and dishonesty in essay, Shakespeare's Othello, but there is a definite question as to the honesty of Othello's wife, Desdemona . Iago indicates that. Brabantio , Desdemona , Emilia 2108 Words | 5 Pages. The Significance of Emilia in Othello. and Dramatic Purposes of Emilia In Shakespeare’s “Othello”, Emilia is considered one of the minor characters. Writing A Research. She is the . wife of Iago and the lady in waiting to Desdemona . Emilia makes a crucial contribution to the play as a whole.
She contributes to the characterization of thesis essay Cheltenham a couple of key characters and adds to the dramatic irony of the play. She plays an essential role in the escalation of the dramatic action. She also adds to some of the themes of the play. A Research Article Norwich University Of The Arts. Emilia contributes to the characterization. Envy , Fiction , Iago 867 Words | 3 Pages. ?The psychoanalysis of the characters from thesis Cheltenham, Othello allowed me to understand the way Desdemona acted throughout the play and how come she took . the abuse that Othello gave her. Like Othello, Desdemona is a controversial character that has a role in writing a research article University of The, determining the essay Cheltenham outcome of the play. At the reviewed scientific articles American School start of the play we see Desdemona as a strong, outspoken and behaves in thesis argumentative, a way that is outrageous in writing essay for college Braemar, her society.
She has fallen in essay College, love with a man of writing Norwich of The Arts a different race, country, and color; and she is so determined. Blame , Desdemona , Guilt 1018 Words | 3 Pages. Comparing and Contrast Emilia and Desdemona's love for their husband. characters. This is highlighted though the relationship that Emilia and Desdemona have with their respective husbands. . Throughout, the relationship of these characters with their spouses will be analyzed. The relationship between Emilia and her husband Iago will be expressed as well as the relationship between Desdemona and her husband Othello. Then the similarities and differences between the two relationships will be compared.
Emilia and argumentative essay Cheltenham College Iago had a very complex relationship. Bromsgrove. They do not have. Emilia , Husband , Iago 1009 Words | 3 Pages. How do you interpret the thesis argumentative College character and role of Desdemona in Othello? If any character in Othello embodies goodness, it is peer reviewed articles American Heritage School . Desdemona . In simple terms, she appears to be the antithesis of all the evil and malice that is represented by Iago. Essay. Yet she is a research article Arts not a completely ‘flat’ character – Shakespeare gives to her certain characteristics and human qualities that result in her being a far deeper and more interesting character.
Much of the interest in her is owing to the fact that each character in. Brabantio , Desdemona , Iago 1057 Words | 3 Pages. seminar on ‘interpretations of Shakespeare's characters’. EMILIA : “O, who hath done this deed?” DESDEMONA : “Nobody; I . myself. Farewell.” The short scripted speech and claim of guilt symbolize the loss of strength in Desdemona’s final words as she dies. This is just the first example of many that prove that the statement ‘Victims are actually the makers of their own demise’ is true in relation to that of the character Desdemona in the play Othello. Specifically Desdemona’s flaws, her betrayal. Brabantio , Desdemona , Emilia 1007 Words | 3 Pages. Othello and Desdemonas Relationship. within Othello and Desdemona throughout the play ultimately represents the tragedy, common to the controversial nature of argumentative essay Shakespeare’s . How To Essay University Of Hertfordshire (Navitas). writing.
Desdemona and Othello’s marriage is contentious; it is essay Cheltenham through Othello’s hamartia of idealised love for a play in an School, Desdemona and his credulity that leads to his downfall. In Act 1 Scene 3 Shakespeare explores the passionate and extreme nature of thesis argumentative essay Othello and Desdemona’s relationship, where their elopement expressesing the deep love the naive Desdemona has for the worldly. Desdemona , Iago , Interpersonal relationship 1461 Words | 4 Pages. Opposites Attract: Othello and admission University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) Desdemona. Frequently drama teachers will explain to thesis argumentative College, their students that the essence of drama is conflict. In Shakespeare's Othello, conflict on the social and . political levels are an essential part of the reviewed journal American story. Yet within the relationship of Othello and argumentative essay College Desdemona , one that should be conflict-free, we find the most important and the deepest rifts.
The difference that has received the how to Chigwell School most attention in recent years is their interracial marriage. During the trial of O. J. Simpson, media used the play as a comparison. Desdemona , Iago , Interpersonal relationship 1589 Words | 5 Pages. Othello has for argumentative essay, Desdemona . During many aspects of the play, Othello's love for his wife is contradictory and questionable. Throughout . Writing Article University Of The Arts. Shakespeare's play, Othello displays that he does not truly love Desdemona through his relationship was based on pity and not true love, the lack of trust Othello had for thesis Cheltenham, Desdemona raised false suspicion and Shakespeare's design to create a tragedy with miscommunication between Othello and Desdemona . First of all, the relationship between Othello and Desdemona is write a play School weak because. Iago , Interpersonal relationship , Love 858 Words | 3 Pages. Desdemona The daughter of the Venetian senator Brabantio. Thesis Essay Cheltenham College. Desdemona and Othello are secretly married before the play begins. . While in writing essay for college Braemar, some ways stereotypically pure and meek, Desdemona is also determined and self-possessed. She is equally capable of defending her marriage, jesting bawdily with Iago, and responding with dignity to Othello’s incomprehensible jealousy. Essay Cheltenham College. Desdemona is a more plausible, well-rounded figure than much criticism has given her credit for.
Arguments that see Desdemona as. Brabantio , Desdemona , Emilia 523 Words | 2 Pages. To What Extent Is Desdemona Presented as a Tragic Victim in Othello? To what extent is Desdemona presented as a tragic victim in the play ‘Othello’? Desdemona , the daughter of Venetian senator . Brabantio, is captivated by Othello’s fables of bravery as a warrior and she falls in love with him. Writing A Research Article University. In view of the fact that Desdemona is a “fair” woman and argumentative College Othello is admission essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) “an old black ram”, commonly referred to thesis essay Cheltenham College, as ‘the Moor’, their marriage indicates that her fate might be tragic. In ‘Othello’, Desdemona is portrayed as a courageous young woman whose character is used against. Desdemona , Iago , Irony 1489 Words | 4 Pages. Explore the Relation Between Othello and Desdemona. Explore the how to admission University of Hertfordshire relation between Othello and essay College Desdemona The relationship between Desdemona and Othello is an integral aspect of . ‘Othello’, both in terms of plot and in conveying Shakespeare’s socio-political commentary. The view that Desdemona ‘is vital to her husband’ and ‘in losing her, he loses himself’ is review strongly evidenced by Othello’s degeneration throughout the play having an undeniable correlation with the breakdown of his marriage.
Furthermore, the ‘tragedy’ of the play is Othello’s hubris forcing. Brabantio , Desdemona , Iago 1124 Words | 3 Pages. can or can't exist. Judging from the relationship between Desdemona and Othello, through Nicholson’s Othello And The Geography Of . Persuasion. the play seems to say that marriage based on an innocent romantic love or profane love is bound to fail. Shakespeare is pessimistic about the existence and survival of a true type of argumentative essay College love. There is review St. George’s School a common thread of betrayal and deceit among his female characters, especially. Othello and Cheltenham Desdemona , as portrayed in the play, are the two greatest innocents. Cher , Desdemona , Iago 1198 Words | 3 Pages. Desdemona as a Victim in the Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of Venice by William Shakespeare. Desdemona as a victim in The Tragedy of a personal essay for college Braemar College Othello, the Moor of thesis essay Cheltenham Venice by William Shakespeare William Shakespeare is widely known for his famous . plays, sonnets, and other works including the journal articles School tragedy.
In The Tragedy of Othello, the Moor of thesis essay College Venice, many characters are unjustly victimized. Throughout the review business St. George’s play, Othello’s wife, Desdemona , is a victim of many false statements that lead to her ultimate death. In the thesis Cheltenham College beginning, Brabantio, Desdemona’s father, believes that Desdemona is a victim under a spell. Abuse , Brabantio , Desdemona 1065 Words | 3 Pages. time many years ago, the 16th century in Shakespeare’s time where there was hardly any technology and write essay University (Navitas) the society was very different.
Now If that’s hard to . imagine that’s ok because I’m an actor in the 21st century hear to talk to you about Desdemona . Desdemona was a beautiful, young, white Venetian girl but also she disobeys her father’s expectations by marrying a black man, she also challenges the thesis Cheltenham College society that largely disapproves of intercultural marriages and also she gets abused by her husband. 16th century , 21st century , Child abuse 485 Words | 2 Pages. ?Character of Emilia in Othello Emilia is a character in a college admission of Hertfordshire, the tragedy Othello by William Shakespeare. The character's origin is . traced to the 1565 tale, Un capitano Moro from Giovanni Battista Giraldi Cinthio's Gli Hecatommithi. There, the character is described as young and virtuous, is essay referred to simply as the ensign's wife, and becomes Desdemona's companion in Cyprus. In Shakespeare, she is named Emilia , is the wife of reviewed American Othello's ensign, Iago, and is an attendant to Othello's wife, Desdemona . While. Desdemona , Emilia , Giovanni Battista Giraldi 821 Words | 2 Pages. ?Reggio Emilia Approach: Atelier The teaching strategies used in thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham, the Reggio Emilia Approach are quite different from the peer reviewed scientific journal American Heritage ones . that are seen in the United States of America. To an argumentative essay Cheltenham College American or any other person other than an writing a personal essay for college College Italian, these teaching strategies are quite revolutionary. However, to an Italian the argumentative Cheltenham child rearing strategies the Reggio Emilia school use are not very abstract because they mirror the writing Norwich Arts culture and lifestyle of an Italian. A major aspect of the Reggio Emilia schools’ philosophy.
Art , Culture of Italy , Education 819 Words | 3 Pages. Doris L Soto Prof Nadita Batra INGL 4025 802 07 8757 Desdemona and Cordelia’s Love The differences between love and tragedies are . portrayed in argumentative essay College, Shakespeare’s Othello and a personal College King Lear. The complete relationship between father and thesis essay College daughter is corrupted by an external meaning, which plays an Bromsgrove Thailand important role. How blind and argumentative essay Cheltenham College deft can a father be to not understand? Is it that important for academic article School, a daughter to die just to prove her point and argumentative essay Cheltenham her extreme emotional intelligence? One man that can provide an write essay Chigwell School example. Family , First Folio , King Lear 1136 Words | 3 Pages. emilia in othello: A complete transformation.
Emilia : A Complete Transformation During the sixteenth century, men were able to control their wives and women were not able to speak out . against their husbands, including Emilia , a character in William Shakespeare's play Othello, is completely underestimated by every character, including her husband, Iago. In the beginning of the play, Emilia is submissive, but in the end she transforms and thesis argumentative Cheltenham College stands up to her husband and write admission essay University (Navitas) doesn't let him get away with any of his manipulations. At the beginning. Desdemona , Emilia , Husband 769 Words | 2 Pages. class citizens with little rights. They were considered properties of their masters (fathers and argumentative Cheltenham husbands), and had no use other than birthing and . mothering. A woman was supposed to be meek, chaste, and have no opinion. However, the characters Desdemona in William Shakespeare’s Othello and Dame Alison from The Wife of scientific articles School Bath’s Prologue in Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales seemingly go against common conventions of women, as they are bold characters who have strong opinions and exert dominance. Canterbury , Geoffrey Chaucer , Marriage 1394 Words | 4 Pages. them to thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham, express their opinions and write a play essay School their participation in decisions which guides them to argumentative essay College, find their own voices and understand their own strengths.
Reggio . Emilia The Reggio Emilia approach is a signature educational philosophy which mainly focuses on preschool education; this is one of many preschool programs around the world. The Reggio Emilia approach centres its philosophy on the ‘unique child’ featured in the EYFS framework by which, this method of peer reviewed American Heritage School teaching is to essay College, focus on the nature of the a research Norwich University child’s. Childhood , Forest kindergarten , Natural environment 1006 Words | 3 Pages. How Are Jocasta, Desdemona, Dorine, Elmire, Mariane, and Laura All Portrayed Differently? knowledge (Sophocles, 1999). Othello Desdemona is young, sexual, and thesis College recently married. She is the daughter of the Venetian senator . Brabanzio. Admission University Of Hertfordshire (Navitas). Desdemona and Othello are secretly married before the play begins.
While in many ways stereotypically pure and meek, Desdemona is also determined and self-possessed. She is equally capable of defending her marriage, jesting bawdily with Iago, and responding with dignity to Othello’s incomprehensible jealousy. Desdemona is at times a submissive character, most. Marriage , Oedipus , Oedipus the King 985 Words | 3 Pages. bride Desdemona . In act one, scene three, Desdem the all the actsOthello, the central character of William Shakespeare's play is an excellent . leader but a poor reasoner and foolish lover. Thesis Argumentative Essay Cheltenham College. The tragedy of `Othello' is largely due to Othello's personality and life experience. Othello believes himself to be loved and respected by everyone around him as most people refer to him as the noble General Othello. Article Thailand. Othello, after realizing his tragic mistake of murdering his innocent wife, Desdemona , claims.
Iago , Love , Michael Cassio 2800 Words | 8 Pages. Reggio Emilia, Sweden and thesis argumentative Cheltenham Te Whariki. Reggio Emilia Reggio Emilia is a place in Italy. After the war the local women decided to use the essay Braemar rubble of old houses . destroyed during the essay war and build schools for their young people. Loris Malaguzzi was the first creative director and how to write a college University (Navitas) believed that children were competent, creative learners from birth. This type of schooling in Reggio Emilia started in 1945 but hasn’t been recognised worldwide until recently.
Reggio Emilia is in the northern regions of thesis Italy. How To Write Chigwell School. They have an thesis College approach which. Childhood , Education , History of Bromsgrove education 1067 Words | 5 Pages. Othello and Desdemona are truly in love? When two people are in love, there is almost nothing that can break it. A relationship between two . people can be tested, but in the end, their love is forever. In the play Othello, Desdemona and Othello have a relationship that is indestructible, they have a genuine and honest love for each other throughout the entire play.
Desdemona and Othello show their affection for each other regardless of racial and cultural differences. In the first half of thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham College the. Affection , Desdemona , Iago 614 Words | 2 Pages. Othello - How Is Desdemona Merely a Passive Victim? Desdemona has not fallen victim to Othello's insane rage and journal articles American jealousy by thesis argumentative College her wrong doing. She isn't even the main target of the demise brought . upon Iago. Review St. George’s School. The one to thesis argumentative Cheltenham College, fall is Othello, but to achieve this, Iago must get him to kill Desdemona . Business School. Totally deprived of breath and of words to tell the truth. Cheltenham. Wrong place's at the most wrong times, this is what made her the passive victim for Iago's true victim. Desdemona is probably the strongest willed character in the play, although she is a woman. Essay. Shakespeare.
Abuse , Bullying , Desdemona 413 Words | 2 Pages. describing would be Desdemona and Emilia . Both women are strong characters, but one may be stronger. Whenever Shakespeare . wrote, he always wanted the feeling of argumentative Cheltenham his female characters to be strong and passionate. In Othello, both Desdemona and peer journal articles American Emilia are similar and different in many ways. They both are loyal to their husbands, but are different in the realization of their experiences and their viewpoints of argumentative Cheltenham reality. They both want to please their husbands and International Thailand make them happy. Desdemona reassures this. Desdemona , Emilia , Iago 1353 Words | 4 Pages. Tragic Flaws in Othello William Shakespeare creates dynamic and complex characters in thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham College, his tragic play, Othello. Othello, Iago, Desdemona , . and Emilia each display a tragic flaw. Shakespeare’s subtle descriptions of the characters allow for varying interpretations of each character.
The tragic flaws can truly alter perspectives as the story transitions. A tragic flaw can begin as a positive character trait, yet spiral into the downfall of the respective character. Shakespeare thoroughly expresses. Hamartia , Iago , Michael Cassio 1612 Words | 4 Pages. A Critique - Reggio Emilia Approach a Educational Philosophy. REGGIO EMILIA APPROACH A EDUCATIONAL PHILOSOPHY I fully support the Reggio Emilia Approach model which was found by Loris . Malaguzzi. This model became associated with mainstream educational practices in business, 1945 when the first parent-run preschool of the common people opened in argumentative essay Cheltenham College, Reggio Emilia , Italy. The Reggio Emilia Approach is an educational philosophy focused on preschool and primary education. The destruction from the essay College war, parents believed, necessitated a new, quick approach to teaching. Early childhood education , Education , Educational psychology 1120 Words | 4 Pages. adulterous wife by thesis argumentative essay College her husband in a majority of their plays.
She attempts to prove that Desdemona and Emilia both died as . victims of spousal abuse due to reviewed scientific journal articles American, their alleged infidelity. According to the accepted social norms, both Desdemona and Emilia deserved their murders because of their infidelity to essay College, their husbands. Write In An Essay Chigwell School. Emilia betrayed Iago by blatantly defying him in order to prove Desdemona’s innocence; while Desdemona , although always faithful, betrayed Othello through her supposed infidelity with Cassio. Domestic violence , Husband , Iago 890 Words | 3 Pages. Shakespeare's play Othello, the representation of my lord is a common reference to essay College, Othello, a Moorish general in the Venetian army. . Desdemona , the bride of University of The Othello, and Emilia , the wife of the villain Iago, both refer to Othello as their lord. Iago, Othello's standard-bearer, has an intense hatred towards Othello but still calls him his lord. Thesis Argumentative Cheltenham. It is quite peculiar as to why Emilia , whom is married to Iago, calls Othello her lord but not her own husband. The element of why my lord is said so many times. Desdemona , Emilia , Husband 1064 Words | 4 Pages. Shakespeare's Othello: Plot Summary.
Summary Act 1, Scene 1: Venice, A Street at night. Iago complains to Roderigo about Othello giving the promotion to Cassio. They go to Brabantio’s house . and write a play claim his daughter has run off to marry Othello. Roderigo and Brabantio go and search for Desdemona . Scene 2: Venice, outside the essay Cheltenham Sagittary. Cassio tells Othello the Senate needs him to go to Cyprus to fight the article University Turks.
Brabantio finds Othello and accuses him of stealing his daughter. They decide to ask the Duke’s opinion. Argumentative Cheltenham. Scene 3: Venice, the. Brabantio , Desdemona , Iago 1452 Words | 4 Pages. to make Othello think that his wife Desdemona is a play in an essay cheating on him, which leads to Othello killing Desdemona . Iago’s wife, . Cheltenham. Emilia , plays a very important role in revealing the truth about writing a research University Arts Iago’s lies. Thesis Argumentative Essay Cheltenham College. More realistic and older than Desdemona , Emilia grows a strong bond with the write a college general’s idealistic wife. Though Emilia loves her husband, upon discovering that she was used by her husband in implementing the plot to bring about the destruction of thesis argumentative essay Othello and Desdemona , she reveals the truth about Iago’s. 1995 in article Bromsgrove School, film , Emilia , Iago 916 Words | 3 Pages. William Shakespeare.
In the play, the College two prominent women, Desdemona and writing University of The Emilia , both recognize the expectations of women at the . Essay College. time. However, the two women disagree in their views on the topic. Desdemona tries to be the Bromsgrove School ideal wife whereas Emilia takes a more feminist approach. In Othello, Desdemona and Emilia’s views on argumentative the role of women explains the how to write a college University (Navitas) traits of argumentative Cheltenham each character and how to write School are involved in thesis argumentative College, major themes of the story. Both Desdemona and Emilia have different views on the concept of chastity. In. Gender , Husband , Iago 1043 Words | 4 Pages. Scene 3 Character - Emilia Analysis of write a college essay University text in relation to character The piece is thesis argumentative essay written in traditional Shakespearian language. We looked up . words to work out what the characters were saying. Emilia is interested in learning about scientific journal Desdemona’s relationship but is wary about saying exactly how she feels in case she hurts her.
She gets irritated however when she is told Othello wanted Desdemona to dismiss her and tells Desdemona that she wishes she had never seen Othello. Emilia then realises she. Cheating , Desdemona , Emilia 1284 Words | 7 Pages. Othello: Compare and thesis argumentative Contrast The Two Wives. ? Bob Mudd Compare and contrast the two characters Desdemona and writing a personal Braemar College Emilia from the play Othello. Desdemona and . Emilia Comparison and Contrast In the play Othello the Moor of Venice by William Shakespeare., there are two prominent women that grab and thesis argumentative essay College hold our attention. One is the wife of the play’s heroic character Othello; the other is engaged to an untrustworthy man named Iago. The women are part of, but yet serve as a small piece of what goes on in the play and which is how the conflict. Desdemona , Emilia , Husband 1617 Words | 4 Pages. falls down because he believes that Desdemona is cheating on him and passes out in fear b) Iago is very happy and proud of his . work when Othello passes out 2. Iago tells Othello that if he listens to his and a research article University Cassio’s conversation he will get Cassio to admit that he is thesis essay having an affair with Desdemona 3. a) Iago jokes with Cassio about Bianca so that it seems like Cassio is laughing about the affair he is having with Desdemona . b) It is review business revealed that there. Emilia , Iago , Infidelity 537 Words | 4 Pages.
late 16th century was his character development. Argumentative Essay College. Shakespeare’s seamless use of indirect characterization sets his works apart from the other playwrights and . authors of his time. In Othello, the Shakespearian tragedy about the newlywed Othello and Desdemona , Shakespeare uses character foils to emphasize the strengths and weaknesses of the characters. By making inwardly similar characters seem like polar opposites, Shakespeare truly shows how dynamic each of the characters is. Othello, the play's protagonist.
Desdemona , Emilia , Husband 1326 Words | 4 Pages. his daughter. A Personal Essay For College. 1.3 In which Othello defends himself, Desdemona makes her entrance, and the newlyweds have to make haste to Cyprus. Iago . tells Roderigo about his plans, and in his monologue, reveals why he hates Othello. 2.1 There is storm and the fleets are destroyed. Everyone survives but the Cheltenham College Turks. Iago sees Cassio and Desdemona together and begins to plot. He continues with his facade by pretending he is incapable when Desdemona asks him to improvise praise about her.
2.2 Othello’s. Brabantio , Desdemona , Iago 636 Words | 3 Pages. Plot Summary Act 1 The play opens in Venice, Italy, at reviewed scientific journal Heritage, night. Iago, General Othello's ensign, and Roderigo, who is in thesis Cheltenham, love with Desdemona , . are on the street outside of the home of Brabantio, Desdemona's father. Iago tells Roderigo of his hatred for writing a personal for college Braemar, Othello, primarily because Othello has promoted Michael Cassio ahead of Iago.
They call out to Brabantio, telling him in argumentative College, crude language that his daughter is having a sexual encounter with Othello. Brabantio, enraged, goes with his servants to find the. Brabantio , Desdemona , Iago 1215 Words | 4 Pages. the role of Desdemona , Emilia , and Bianca portray how women were during the 15th century. Women were portrayed as being loyal to . their husbands; doing what they are told, and not going against their husband’s judgment or actions. These women represent three different characteristics in which women are being recognized in write a play, Othello. The women in Othello represent various levels of class, virtue, and intelligence. Argumentative College. Desdemona is aristocratic, virtuous, and makes her own decisions; Emilia is the middle. Desdemona , Husband , Iago 1091 Words | 3 Pages. Women in Othello/ Elizabethan Times. “The value of identity of writing School Thailand course is that so often with it comes purpose” (Stevenson, Robert).In play Othello identity is a topic that appears throughout the . Thesis Cheltenham College. play.
In Shakespeare Othello all the women, Desdemona , Emilia and Bianca have no separate identity all three are defined by who they are or not married to or the male characters they are connected with. Writing Article Norwich University Arts. “According to the Elizabethan times that the argumentative essay College play was written in review St. George’s, and the general hierarchies within Venetian society men hold all the power and. Desdemona , Elizabeth I of England , Elizabethan era 1622 Words | 5 Pages. expectations of Elizabethan women in the time of Othello, will be compared to thesis essay Cheltenham College, the actual behaviors of the School female characters in the story. In the . Elizabethan era there was clear expectations for women of thesis College all social status. Writing A Research Article Norwich Arts. Women of a higher class, like Desdemona were only sometimes given the chance to have an education. Argumentative Cheltenham. Girls from noble families were taught by tutors from ages five or younger. The curriculum they were taught consisted of writing Norwich University of The Arts different languages, English and music.
However, girls who were not. Desdemona , Elizabethan era , Emilia 1747 Words | 5 Pages. Desdemona In the beginning of the play Othello, Desdemona is seen as a strong powerful women who isn’t afraid to stick up for . College. herself. Roderigo and Othello both were in love with Desdemona . Essay. The changes the audience see are on the surface. Underneath the surface Desdemona is strong, determined, and self-possessed, “My life and education both do learn me How to respect you; you are the lord of duty, I am hitherto your daughter. But here’s my husband. ” (I, iii, 197-199). As you can see Desdemona. Audience , Audience theory , Desdemona 439 Words | 2 Pages. Power in Othello- Character Analysis. believes Iago. Psychologically, Othello also seems to have power, mainly a result of his military rank.
Between his soldiers and his friends, he is also very . highly respected, this too being a form of power. Desdemona : Desdemona is Othello’s wife and the daughter of Brabantio. Desdemona secretly married Othello, against her father’s wishes. Throughout the thesis Cheltenham play, Desdemona’s power is not clearly conveyed to the audience, but her presence has an effect. Roderigo is in love with her and her presence. Brabantio , Desdemona , Iago 888 Words | 3 Pages. ?OTHELLO ACT VI (Othello and Desdemona return from the dead to Bromsgrove, the afterlife) Othello: Oh my dear Desdemona , how could I be . so blind, hath that villainous serpent, Iago to plant the seed of doubt within. You and I could be together, alive and well!
Desdemona : silence, my love. I trusted you, I had faith in you and I was true as my love with you. But love you, I can no longer. Otherllo: NO!! prithee please, I need you, I lust for thesis, you, you alone, are all I need. (THE DEVIL appears from hiding) . 2002 singles , Desdemona , Emilia 1014 Words | 4 Pages. Act 1 Scene 1 The Shakespearian play Othello begins on a street in Venice, with an argument between Roderigo and Iago. The rich Roderigo has been paying . Iago to help him get Desdemona love, but he has seen no progress.
Roderigo has just found out that Desdemona has married Othello, a general whom Iago serves as a wingman. Iago reassures Roderigo that he hates Othello. Iago’s reason for this hatred is Othello’s recent promotion of Michael Cassio to the post of lieutenant. Othello chose to give the. Brabantio , Desdemona , Iago 2710 Words | 7 Pages. the relationship of Emilia and Iago and later in how to write in an Chigwell School, the play between Othello and Desdemona where the woman is in some sense abused . by essay College the man due to the lack of power they experience in Venetian society. The power the men possess are different, where Othello and Cassio are given hierarchical power, Iago has the power of how to University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) language, but the power they possess over argumentative essay Cheltenham, woman are the same, strength and what society has determined for the sexes. The relationship between Iago and Emilia shows how men misuse. Desdemona , Emilia , Gender 1048 Words | 3 Pages. of who stabbed him, falls to the ground. Othello enters and hears Cassio’s cries.
Therefore, he draws the conclusion that Iago has killed Cassio. Enraged by . what he believes to be Iago’s successful vengeance, Othello runs to his bedroom to kill Desdemona . Graziano and writing a research Norwich of The Lodovico enter the scene and can see nothing; however they hear the cries of Cassio and Roderigo. They are nervous to help because they think the situation could be a trap. Iago then enters the scene holding a light. Iago pretends.
Bianca , Desdemona , Emilia 877 Words | 3 Pages. aspects of the female personality based off of the nature of their relationship. Desdemona plays the argumentative essay College role of essay for college Braemar a woman who is dedicated to her . Argumentative Cheltenham. marriage. Emilia role is of a woman trying to peer scientific journal Heritage School, amend her faulty marriage, but eventually gives up having made a deeper connection with someone else. Bianca’s character is a representation of a woman who desires to be married, but cannot obtain it based off her lifestyle. Desdemona can be seen as a woman who is sincerely devoted to argumentative Cheltenham, her husband, and the bond of.
Desdemona , Gender role , Husband 932 Words | 3 Pages. Othello presents women as the victims of men. the manipulation of the protagonist, by the antagonist, Iago, to writing Norwich University of The, present a play controlled by men. In such a male dominated society, Shakespeare presents the . women in the play as tragic victims at the hands of their husbands, in particular Desdemona and Emilia . Throughout this essay I will relate to the Aristotelian and thesis argumentative Senecan descriptions of tragedy to come to a conclusion of a research article Norwich University of The how in ‘Othello’ Shakespeare presents women as tragic victims of men. Firstly, throughout ‘Othello’ Shakespeare presents. Character , Desdemona , Emilia 1276 Words | 3 Pages. this night.
Before the action starts, he tells Roderigo: It makes us or it mars us, think of that, / And fix most firm thy resolution. To Roderigo, Iago is . saying Be brave, kill Cassio, and thesis argumentative Cheltenham College you will have Desdemona . To himself, he is saying Be brave, make sure Roderigo, Cassio, and Desdemona die, and you will have your revenge on Othello. Iago and Roderigo wait in the darkness for Cassio. Iago then withdraws himself, although Roderigo asks him not to go too far in case he needs help killing Cassio. Bianca , Desdemona , Emilia 1364 Words | 4 Pages. The men in Othello are either gullible or frauds; only the women have strength and honesty. lose all sense of reason and ultimately become a copy of him manipulator, in journal, terms of thesis essay language and irrationality. On the writing article Norwich Arts other hand, the females in Othello, . all show integrity throughout the play. Desdemona shows strength when she stands up for her love while Emilia shows strength when she defends Desdemona against argumentative College Othello. Shakespeare exposes Iago as a fraud and a liar throughout the play. He shows no empathy towards other characters and never demonstrates righteousness or strength.
Iago manipulates. Desdemona , Emilia , Fraud 940 Words | 3 Pages. Early Childhood Education Journal, Vol. 29, No. 2, Winter 2001 (? 2001) Examining the Reggio Emilia Approach to Early Childhood Education . Article Arts. Valarie Mercilliott Hewett1,2,3 Reggio Emilia , a prosperous region in Northern Italy, is the site of one of the most innovative, high-quality city-run infant-toddler and pre-primary systems in the world. The Reggio Emilia Approach to early childhood education draws from the ideas of thesis essay many great thinkers, yet it is much more than an eclectic mix of theories. Child , Childhood , Developmental psychology 4317 Words | 12 Pages. rich man, and Iago.
Roderigo has been paying Iago to help him in his suit to Desdemona . But Roderigo has just learned that . Desdemona has married Othello, a general whom Iago begrudgingly serves as ensign. Iago says he hates Othello, who recently passed him over for the position of lieutenant in favor of the inexperienced soldier Michael Cassio. Unseen, Iago and Roderigo cry out to Brabanzio that his daughter Desdemona has been stolen by and married to Othello, the Moor. Brabanzio finds that his. Desdemona , Emilia , Iago 1761 Words | 5 Pages. This play presents several opposing views of love and marriage. What are these views and who expresses them? Iago is really jealous of Othello because he . Writing Article International. has Desdemona . However, Iago does not want Desdemona , he just envies Othello for the sake of it.
Iago is thesis Cheltenham jealous of Cassio too because Cassio got the promotion that Iago wanted. Desdemona is faithful to Othello no matter what, even when Othello accuses her repeatedly of just the opposite, and essay Braemar College even when Othello is suffocating her, she still stays.
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Essay/Term paper: Domestic violence. Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of argumentative essay Cheltenham College, your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on how to (Navitas) Domestic Abuse: Domestic Violence , you can hire a professional writer here to write you a high quality authentic essay. While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade. national boundaries as well as socio-economic, cultural, racial and class. distinctions. College? It is a problem without frontiers.
Not only is the problem. widely dispersed geographically, but its incidence is also extensive, making it. a typical and write a play School, accepted behavior. Only recently, within the College past twenty-five. years, has the issue been brought into the open as a field of concern and. study (Violence Against Women in the Family, page 38). Domestic violence is not an isolated, individual event but rather a.
pattern of write a college University (Navitas), repeated behaviors that the abuser uses to gain power and control. over the thesis argumentative victim. Unlike stranger-to-stranger violence, in domestic violence. situations the academic writing International School same perpetrator repeatedly assaults the same victim. Essay College? These. assaults are often in the form of reviewed scientific articles American School, physical injury, but may also be in the form. of sexual assault.
However the abuse is not only physical and sexual, but also. psychological. Thesis Argumentative Essay? Psychological abuse means intense and repetitive humiliation, creating isolation, and controlling the actions of the victim through. intimidation or manipulation. Domestic violence tends to become more frequent. and severe over article School time. Thesis Essay Cheltenham College? Oftentimes the abuser is a personal essay for college Braemar College physically violent sporadically,
but uses other controlling tactics on a daily basis. Thesis Argumentative Essay Cheltenham? All tactics have profound. effects on Bromsgrove International School Thailand the victim. Perpetrators of essay Cheltenham College, domestic violence can be found in a personal Braemar College all age, racial, ethnic, cultural, socio-economic, linguistic, educational, occupational and. religious groups. Domestic violence is found in all types of intimate.
relationships whether the individuals are of the same or opposite sex, are. married or dating, or are in a current or past intimate relationship. There are. two essential elements in every domestic violence situation: the thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham College victim and. abuser have been intimately involved at some point in time, and the abuser. consciously chooses to use violence and other abusive tactics to gain control. over the victim.
In some instances, the abuser may be female while the victim is. male; domestic violence also occurs in gay and lesbian relationships. However, 95% of reported assaults on spouses or ex-spouses are committed by men against. women (MTCAWA e-mail interview) It is writing School Thailand a terrible and argumentative essay Cheltenham College, recognizable fact that for many people, home is. the least safe place (Battered Dreams, 9). Domestic violence is real violence, often resulting in permanent injuries or death. Battering is a widespread.
societal problem with consequences reaching far beyond individual families. It. is conduct that has devastating effects for individual victims, their children. and their communities. In addition to these immediate effects, there is growing. evidence that violence within the family becomes the breeding ground for other. social problems such as substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, and violent. crimes of all types (MTCAWA e-mail interview).
Domestic violence against. women is not merely a domestic issue; but, rather a complex socio-economical. crisis that threatens the interconnected equilibrium of the entire social. (Violence Against Women: The Missing Agenda, 29). Domestic violence against women accounts for approximately 40 to 70% of.
all violent crime in writing article University Arts North America. However, the figures don't tell the entire. story; less than 10% of argumentative Cheltenham College, such instances are actually reported to police (The. Living Family, 204). The causes of domestic violence against women are numerous. Many claim. stress is the substantial cause of a play, domestic conflict resulting in violence.
Though stress in the workplace is a contributing factor, it is by no means the. substantial one. Many people suffer from stress disorders, but most don't. resort to violence as a means of release. It is apparent that the substantial. causes have more to do with the conditioning of males culturally, and within.
the family of orientation than anything else. Historically, women have been treated more as belongings than human. beings; Old English Common Law permitted a man to abuse his wife and kids, as. long as he didn't use a stick thicker than the width of his thumb--Rule of. Thumb (The Living Family, 201). Culturally, men have been conditioned to. repress their feelings of emotion--always acting like the tough guy, the. linebacker, the cowboy.
But, when confronted with an emotionally difficult. conflict, one which is impossible to shove down deep, they irrupt in volcanic. proportions, often taking out years of repressed rage on those closest to them, in particular their own family. However, what seems to argumentative Cheltenham College be the most significant cause of the male tactic. of violent conflict resolution is violence within the family of orientation. Statistics show that 73% of article of The Arts, male abusers had grown up in a family where they. saw their mother beaten, or experienced abuse themselves (MTCAWA e-mail. interview). Essay Cheltenham? Using the essay for college College (relatively accepted) Freudian model, which claims that. all mental illness stems from traumatic childhood trauma, one can see how there.
is a direct correlation between violence in the family of orientation and. violence within the family of procreation. And, indeed, abusers are mentally. ill, though the illness tends to be more subtle than others: many abusers. display a JekyllHyde personality, where they are nothing like their domestic. selves outside the thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham College home. In most cases the cycle of violence starts slowly; it usually consists. of a slap in the face or a hard shove.
But the essay Braemar College frequency and degree of argumentative Cheltenham, violence. escalates with time. Academic Writing Article Bromsgrove? The abuser will justify the abuse by pointing out his. wife's inadequacies and faults. But, no matter how wrong the wife is, there is.
little, if no, justification for thesis argumentative essay, spousel abuse within a civil society. The real issue at hand is the a research article University of The neurosis within the male psyche. Essay Cheltenham College? Just as. in rape, the key issue is control. Male abusers are laden with fear about.
losing power. They inflict physical abuse on how to a play Chigwell their spouse to prove that they. have, still have, and will have control over their spouses (and/or children.) They won't stop there either. The pattern of abuse involves severe mental. torture and humiliation--blaming, threatening, ignoring, isolating, forcing sex, monitoring phone calls, and restricting any form of social life. It is a. vicious cycle of abuse, where the thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham wife is almost literally chained to the. husband.
Her self-esteem has been obliterated. She is financially, emotionally, and functionally helpless. How To A Play In An Essay? She is incapable of reaching out for help for. herself or for her children. Argumentative Essay Cheltenham College? At this point the abuse gets more routine; the.
abuser sites his partner's pathetic state as more reason to beat her. Academic Writing Article International Thailand? And the. victim sinks deeper, and more beatings ensue. She has been infected with. psychological-AIDS; she has no defense (immune system) to combat the disease.
For women, escaping an abusive relationship is VERY difficult. And the. abuse usually doesn't stop at the discretion of the argumentative Cheltenham male. An in-depth study of. all one-on-one murder and non-negligent manslaughter cases in peer scientific articles American Canada from 1980. to 1984 found that 62% of female victims were killed by a male partner (Violence. Against Women Homepage). Thesis Essay Cheltenham College? It is painfully clear that victims have little but two.
choices: leave or die. Sadly, the latter is the easier one. physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or. infirmity (In the Health of Women: A Global Perspective, 78). Based on this, domestic violence against women is clearly a health problem. In 1984, the U.S. Surgeon General declared domestic violence against women as the writing article Norwich Arts number ONE. health problem (Violence Against Women Homepage). Physical violence is the most basic form of argumentative Cheltenham College, domestic violence, leading.
to extensive injury, unsuccessful pregnancies and University of The Arts, even murder. As mentioned. above, in thesis Cheltenham Canada 62% of women murdered were killed by an intimate male partner. These are deaths caused by a preventable social problem. Actual or threatened physical violence, psychological violence and the. denial of physical and economic resources all have an enormous impact on women's. mental health. A history of victimization is seen as a strong risk factor for.
the development of mental health problems (MTCAWA e-mail interview). These. problems take many forms, all affecting women's ability to attain a basic. quality of life for herself and her family. Abuse is writing article Bromsgrove International strongly associated with. alcoholism and drug use in women (Facts About Domestic Violence). It also can.
lead to fatigue and passivity coupled with an extreme sense of worthlessness (Violence Against Women in the Family, 78 ). These symptoms together remove any. initiative and Cheltenham, decision making ability from the victim. This lethargy, coupled. with economic barriers, makes escape from the situation very difficult. The lack. of initiative also thwarts women's abilities to participate in activities. outside of the home. High levels of stress and journal Heritage School, depression are also extremely. common mental health problems for victims of family violence, often leading to. suicide (Facts About Domestic Violence).
In the thesis argumentative Cheltenham College United States, one quarter of. suicide attempts by white women and write admission essay (Navitas), one half of attempts by African American. women are preceded by abuse (In the Health of thesis argumentative Cheltenham, Women: A Global Perspective, 128). The World Bank's analysis found domestic violence to be a major cause of. disability and a personal essay for college Braemar, death among women; the argumentative Cheltenham College burden of a research article University of The, family violence is thesis argumentative essay College comparable. to that of HIV, tuberculosis, cardiovascular disease or cancer (Domestic. Violence Against Women: A Global Issue, 29). In industrialized nations one in.
five healthy days of business St. George’s, life are lost to women age 15 to 44 due to domestic. violence (Fact Sheet About Domestic Violence) Domestic violence diverts the scarce resources of national health care. systems to the treatment of a preventable social ill (Violence Against Women. in the Family, 87). Medical costs for the treatment of abused women total at. least 3 to 5 billion dollars annually in the United States. Battered women in. the United States are four to essay five times more likely than non-battered women to. require psychiatric treatment, and over Norwich of The Arts one million women in the U.S. use.
emergency medical services for injuries related to battering each year. Finally, families in the United States in which domestic violence occurs use doctors. eight times more often, visit the emergency room six times more often and use. six times more prescription drugs than the general population (Facts About. It is an important social issue. Using the Systems Theory as a theoretical. framework helps show the resonating effect of such violence.
The family unit. is one of many sub-systems. Together, all these different sub-systems make up. the one big system (i.e., society). The human body serves as a good example: when one organ (sub-system) is malfunctioning, all other organs are effected. (other sub-systems). This will have an effect on the whole body itself. (society). Although the argumentative essay Cheltenham family unit is only one among the many sub-systems, it. is considered to be the business St. George’s School most important of them all--the heart, if you will.
Since the family unit is responsible for the socialization of children who will. later go on to participate in other sub-systems, than it is logical to assume. that a deterioration in the crucial family unit can result in a deterioration. within other sub-systems, and thesis argumentative Cheltenham, of course, the entire system itself. As mentioned above, the sub-system of health care is feeling the. pressure. Peer Journal Articles American School? Something as preventable as domestic violence against women is. diverting funds from an already under-funded health care system.
There are. people out there who need serious medical treatment, but will never, or at essay College the. very most, will get insufficient treatment. In the U.S., domestic violence. against women ranks as one of the most expensive health problems (Facts About.
Domestic Violence). Monies allocated to the medical treatment of abused women (3. to 5 billion dollars annually) diverts much needed funds from such already. under-funded institutions as education, law enforcement, social services etc. Therefore the possibility exists that adults of the future will be sparsely. educated delinquents; crime will be on the increase; and important social. services won't be able to look out for the welfare of the writing article School people--such as. shelters for abused women. The result is long term decay within the entire.
system, which will add further to the decay within the family, which will cause. the entire vicious cycle to continue. As previously mentioned, 73% of male abusers were abused, or saw abuse. as children. Thus an epidemic of violence within the thesis argumentative essay Cheltenham College family of orientation is a. primary cause of psychological disfunction--in specific, violent conflict. resolution--which is how to Chigwell responsible for thesis argumentative, the breakdown of the entire social order.
U.S. Justice Department statistics show that at essay Braemar least 80% of men in prison grew. up in violent homes (Facts About Domestic Violence.) And in at least half of. the wife abusing families, the children were battered as well. And 63% of boys. ages 11 to 20 who commit homicide, murder the man who was abusing their mother. breeding ground for argumentative Cheltenham College, other social problems such as substance abuse, juvenile.
delinquency, and violent crimes of how to, all types. The all important family unit is. the centre of social universe. Thesis Argumentative College? All other institutions revolve around it. If. the sun were to blow up the entire galaxy would go with it. problem rather than a private issue imbedded within family -- a domestic issue. which can be easily ignored. How To In An Chigwell School? It must receive appropriate attention from the.
various institutions within our society as an issue affecting the overall. standard of living. It is not only a women's issue, but also a problem that.