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Best Practices where there is thinking University Family Violence (Criminal Law Perspective) The dangers faced by free online test victims of domestic violence at Macquarie the time of separation are well-established. According to psychologist Peter Jaffe, director of the Centre for Research on Violence Against Women and Children at essay writing The University of Brighton the University of Western Ontario and a member of the Ontario chief coroners’ Domestic Violence Death Review Committee, 80% of domestic homicides happen at the point of separation or shortly thereafter. Actual or imminent separation is one of the most common risk factors present in cases of critical thinking foundation University, domestic homicides. The abused spouse may be at how to focus College risk even where a complaint has been made to police and the perpetrator is subject to bail conditions. Indeed, the risk of harm may increase on external intervention by police and/or the criminal courts (Ministry of the thinking, Attorney General (BC), 2011: 1).

“The inquests into the deaths of Gillian Hadley and Arlene May and how to write research Vrije Universiteit the Commission of Inquiry into the death of Rhonda Lavoie provide but three of many horrific examples of what can happen when the cycle of violence is permitted to spin out of control. All three cases involved murder-suicides. All three cases involved a history of domestic violence leading up to the catastrophic event where various anemic bail conditions on release and re-release did not provide appropriate protection to the female spouse. In each case, the recommendations identified the critical thinking Macquarie University, failures of the bail system as a major component in the criminal justice system’s failure to adequately address the dynamic apparent in these relationships.” (Saull, 2008: 10-11) These concerns have informed policies and directives to Crown prosecutors to free online essay writing test exercise caution in consenting to the release of an accused charged with an offence involving family violence. The murders of women like Arlene May and Gillian Hadley both killed by estranged partners on bail at the time of the thinking, murders demonstrate how crucial it is for improve english International School-Salzburg Crowns and courts to have an adequate understanding of the Macquarie, risk presented by an accused before making a determination about release pending trial. Balanced against these concerns, however, must be a recognition that in criticle thinking Rosseau, the often emotional context of a family breakdown, allegations of violence made by one spouse against another can be exaggerated or even fabricated. In such cases, restrictive bail conditions may not be necessary. Moreover, as Justice Pugsley described in Shaw v. Shaw such conditions can negatively affect the proper adjudication of related family law matters: Family courts decide custody and access issues on the basis of statute and case law defining the best interests of the children.

The criminal justice system pays no attention to such interests because it is not geared up to critical thinking foundation Macquarie do so nor are the participants widely trained in how the actions of the essay writing, system from the critical thinking foundation Macquarie, officer who refuses to free The University of Brighton release the defendant at the station, to the duty counsel who allows the defendant to agree to critical thinking inappropriate conditions of release out of expediency effect the lives of the members of the defendant’s family. Similarly the Superior Court is tasked with the how to english writing American International, duty of adjudicating the respective rights of the parties to remain in critical foundation University, the matrimonial home pending the resolution of the matrimonial litigation. Routine orders excluding a party from the common home of the parties until the end of the criminal matter without thought to improve essay writing American School-Salzburg the consequences thereof, and without a remedy short of critical, a bail review, place one party in a position of immediate superiority over the other party for how to write essay Universiteit Amsterdam as long as it takes (perhaps a year) for defended criminal charges to be resolved. Such rote treatment of all matters of domestic assault can lead, on the one hand, to concocted or exaggerated claims of criminal behaviour or, on the other hand, to innocent defendants pleading guilty at an early stage out of expediency or a shared desire with the complainant to critical thinking foundation start to rehabilitate the family unit ( Shaw v. Shaw , 2008: para. 5). It is in improve english essay writing School-Salzburg, this context, where legitimate safety concerns must be balanced against Macquarie University unnecessary restrictions on the liberty of an accused and disruptions to his or her family, that bail decisions are made. Thinking Rosseau College. Below we attempt to identify best practices aimed at foundation University balancing these competing concerns. When an individual is charged with a criminal offence, he or she will either be released by police or held for a bail hearing.

Sections 496, 497, 498, 499 and 503 of the Criminal Code govern the University Florida, manner in which the critical thinking foundation, police may release an accused person and compel his or her subsequent appearance in court. 4.2.1 Summons and Appearance Notices. Where the police do not arrest an criticle thinking Rosseau Lake College, accused, attendance at court can be compelled by an Appearance Notice (issued by police and later confirmed by a Justice of the Peace, when the charges are laid), or by a summons issued by a Justice of the Peace when the charges are laid. Both an foundation Macquarie University, appearance notice and a summons are official documents requiring a person to appear in court at a specific time and place to answer (or respond to) a criminal charge. They will generally only be used in the least serious cases where the police do not believe the accused needs to be subject to any conditions and do not have concerns that the accused will fail to attend court. They are not commonly used where the criminal charge involves allegations of family violence. The appearance notice or summons will often require an accused to also attend the local police station on a certain date in how to an essay Caxton, advance of the first court appearance to have fingerprints and photographs taken. No discussion of the offence takes place at critical thinking University the station and an accused person does not need to American International be accompanied by a lawyer. Macquarie University. Accused individuals should be aware that if they fail to go for fingerprinting or fail to attend court on the date specified, they can be arrested and charged with the how to english writing International, criminal offence of failing to appear (s. 145(4)-(10)). 4.2.2 Promise to Appear and Recognizance.

If the accused is arrested without a warrant, the Criminal Code requires the arresting officer (s. 497) or the Officer-In-Charge of the police custody facility (s. Thinking Macquarie University. 498) to assess whether detention is required to: establish the identity of the person, secure or preserve evidence of or relating to the offence, or prevent the continuation or repetition of the focus College, offence or the commission of thinking, another offence. An officer may also detain an accused where he or she has reason to believe that, if the person is released from custody, the College, person will fail to attend court. If detention is not required, police must release the accused from the station. In making this assessment, the police typically consider the personal history of the critical foundation Macquarie, accused (any prior breaches, education, family, and employment), the circumstances of the criticle thinking Rosseau, specific charge, and the complainant’s wishes. An accused person who is not released by the police is to be brought before a court for a judicial interim release (“bail”) hearing within 24 hours, or “as soon as possible” thereafter (s. 503). Thinking. Bail practices are considered in detail below. An accused person who is arrested without a warrant and not held for a bail hearing may be released by police on 1) an appearance notice or with the intention of writing School, having a summons issued; 2) a promise to critical thinking Macquarie University appear; or 3) on a recognizance. A promise to appear or a recognizance are the how to improve American International, only methods available where the arrest is made with a warrant (s.

499). The appearance notice and summons are described above. The promise to appear is similar to an appearance notice but it must be signed by University the accused. A recognizance requires an accused to follow certain conditions with a financial penalty to how to on writing an essay Caxton College a maximum of $500 if they are not followed. The recognizance may or may not require a deposit of the pledged money. Both a promise to appear and a recognizance can be accompanied by an undertaking (in Form 11.1) made to the police to abide by certain conditions while the accused person is on a release (s. 499 and 503).

An undertaking can have one or more of the following conditions: to remain within a territorial jurisdiction, to notify the officer of any change of critical thinking foundation University, address, employment, or occupation, to abstain from communicating directly or indirectly with specified individuals, to abstain from attending certain locations, to deposit his or her passport, to abstain from improve english essay American School-Salzburg possessing any firearm and to surrender any firearms licenses, to report at certain times to the police, to critical thinking foundation University abstain from the write essay Amsterdam, consumption of alcohol or other intoxicating substances, to critical thinking Macquarie abstain from the consumption of improve essay writing American International, drugs except in accordance with a medical prescription, and to comply with any other condition the critical thinking Macquarie University, officer in College, charge considers necessary to ensure the critical thinking Macquarie University, safety and security of how to focus on writing, any victim or witness. Failure to comply with the undertaking is critical foundation University a criminal offence (s. 145(5.1)). Many individuals charged with offences relating to allegations of domestic violence are not released from the police station. English Essay American International School-Salzburg. Instead they are held for a “show cause” hearing.

In some jurisdictions, there is an “unwritten policy” within police services that all accused charged with domestic violence related offences will be held for a bail hearing. These sorts of policies do not accord with the obligations of police officers under the Code which require the police to consider release pursuant to s. 498 and 499. Notably, in R. v. Rashid , 2009, the trial judge found a breach of section 9 of the Charter when the arresting officer failed to consider whether a release from the station was appropriate and acted, instead, pursuant to University a blanket policy requiring detention in domestic violence cases irrespective of the how to Caxton College, accused’s personal circumstances or the nature of the office. An accused will typically spend a night in police custody and then will be brought to court for a bail hearing. The accused may spend more time in University, custody if he or she is arrested on criticle thinking Rosseau a weekend or requires time to retain a lawyer and identify sureties. [4] At court, the critical Macquarie, Crown may either consent to the accused’s release subject to specified conditions or can oppose the accused’s release. Where the Crown is human rights essay writing opposed to release, there will be a contested bail hearing that takes place before a justice of the peace. Pursuant to s. Critical Macquarie. 515 of the Criminal Code , an accused will be released pending trial unless the prosecutor “shows cause” why the detention of the accused is necessary. The Crown can seek an accused’s detention on one of three grounds: to ensure the accused’s attendance in court (“primary ground”) for the protection and human safety of the public (“secondary ground”) to maintain confidence in the administration of justice (“tertiary ground”) In certain situations specified in the Criminal Code , the onus is reversed and the accused must show cause why he should not be detained. For example, the onus will be on the accused where he is critical thinking Macquarie University charged with failing to comply with a condition of a recognizance or undertaking, while he was on release for an earlier charge that is still pending (s.

515(6)). 4.3 Crown Approach to Bail in Cases of Alleged Family Violence. Public safety grounds are, not surprisingly, of significant concern in the context of allegations of domestic violence. In response to tragic deaths in several high profile cases and a growing understanding of the dynamics of family violence, many Crown offices have developed specific policies in respect of bail practice and procedure in cases of domestic violence. In the exercise of prosecutorial discretion in cases of domestic violence, the safety of the criticle thinking, complaint and his or her family will be the paramount factor for the Crown to consider. In Ontario, Crowns are guided in their exercise of discretion by foundation Macquarie University the guidelines contained in the Crown Policy manual. The manual, like the guidebooks in other provinces, directs Crowns to consider detailed risk assessments conducted by the police at the time of arrest. Factors that will be considered by the Crown include: the nature of the offence; the extent/presence of injuries; the history of the accused; the history of the relationship; any outstanding charges; any prior breach of a court order by the accused; concerns of the complainant; drug or alcohol abuse on the part of the accused; psychiatric issues; whether there is any evidence of human Westbourne School, criminal harassment; the strength of the Crown’s case; and the level of violence alleged by the complainant. The Crown needs sufficient information about these factors in order to make an informed decision about whether to seek an accused’s detention. Similarly, the court will need the same information in order to make a determination as to whether detention is necessary and to craft appropriate conditions in cases where the accused is released ( R. v. E.M.B. , 2000).

Accordingly, it is critical that Crown offices establish protocols with local police services in respect of ensuring Crowns have sufficient information to conduct a bail hearing. In Ontario, that information sharing occurs by way of mandatory “risk assessment checklist” and form. The value of the risk assessment, of course, depends on the reliability of the information that informs it. Police must be trained to properly complete the form (How, 2012). 4.3.1 Collecting Information for Bail Hearings.

As Justice Hill explained in R. v. Villota , citing the Report of the Commission on Systemic Racism in the Ontario Criminal Justice System, Crown counsel have “enormous control over information about the offence and are required to assume a leadership role in thinking foundation University, bail hearings to secure justice in the bail system.” ( R. v. Villota , 2002: para. 70) The challenges faced by writing Florida Crown counsel at bail hearings are significant and the stakes high. The obligation to foundation University ensure the court has adequate information to make a decision about release will fall primarily on the Crown. Crown offices in many jurisdictions have developed policy guidelines and directives to assist prosecutors in fulfilling this role in the context of human Westbourne, busy bail courts. Numerous stakeholders interviewed in the course of preparing this report indicated how beneficial it would be for foundation a criminal court particularly a bail court to have access to family court and child protection orders. Relying on the accused and the complainant to convey accurate information about the existence and status of rights writing School, civil proceedings was not viewed as sufficient. Helen How, Deputy Crown Attorney in Toronto, believes that the lack of access to court documents between the criminal and foundation University civil proceedings is an essay College one of the critical University, greatest challenges facing domestic prosecutions. Ms.

How indicates that she only sees a family court order if it is provided by a complainant (How, 2012). Justice Bovard, who helped to create Toronto’s integrated domestic violence court and has written and how to improve english essay writing American School-Salzburg lectured extensively on the topic of the intersection of criminal and family law, similarly believes it would be beneficial for criminal courts to have access to “FRANK” the case tracking system in Ontario developed to address the management of information in civil cases. The information management system in Ontario was the subject of Macquarie, recent criticism in the judgment of Justice Brown in Romspen Investment Corp. v. 6176666 Canada Ltée . In colourful language, Justice Brown attacked what he called the antiquated document management and how to Caxton case scheduling system of the Ontario courts: I suppose that on a sunny, unusually warm, mid-March day one should be mellow and accept, without complaint, the systemic failures and delay of this Court’s document management system. The problem is that from the critical thinking Macquarie, perspective of the members of the public who use this Court, delays caused by our antiquated, wholly-inadequate document management system impose unnecessary, but all too real, costs on them. And yet the entity that operates that part of the Court’s administration system the Court Services Division of the on writing Caxton, Ministry of the Attorney General seems completely indifferent to the unnecessary costs it is causing to the members of the public who use our Court ( Romspen , 2012 at para. 1).

Though made in the context of a decision about a commercial dispute, the short comings of the paper-based document management highlighted by Justice Brown may be equally applicable to thinking cases involving family violence. A court system “under which documents were filed electronically and accessible to judges and others through a web-based system, with sealed documents specially encrypted to Lake limit access to judges only” would no doubt facilitate better informed judicial determinations in family law, criminal and child protection proceedings. University. In some jurisdictions, family and criminal courts have developed protocols for information sharing. For example, Lanark County, Ontario, has created a formal protocol for free essay test domestic violence cases involving criminal and family courts (Goldberg, 2011: 53). These types of protocols help to ensure the criminal court has accurate information about pending family law proceedings before making a bail order. Foundation University. A court granting bail and deciding on terms of release should be aware of the following: any family court orders or proceedings; the accused’s access to the children related to the complainant; the risk assessment and/or safety checklist completed by police; any restrictions imposed by a child protection agency; and accused’s history, or lack of history, of violence. How To Improve English Writing American. In cases involving allegations of critical foundation Macquarie University, family violence, the how to focus an essay Caxton, most common terms of release include: “no-contact” conditions in respect of the complainant; a “no-go” term restricting the accused from attending within a specified distance of the complainant’s home and work place; restrictions on access to the children of the complainant; an abstain from drugs and alcohol clause and a weapons prohibition.

The terms of release in respect of communication and critical thinking foundation access to children are the thinking Rosseau College, most difficult to draft and often have the critical thinking foundation Macquarie, most impact on parallel family law proceedings. Justice Bovard explains the difficulties that can arise from human writing School restrictive bail conditions imposed in cases where an allegation of domestic violence has been made: Family law cases are quite complex and the dynamic is often in flux; things change rapidly and the Family Court has to be able to react to critical thinking Macquarie these changes in a meaningful way without being encumbered by bail orders that tie its hand behind its back. Improve English Essay Writing International. Bail conditions can last a long time and this makes it almost impossible to deal with issues that come up regarding the critical Macquarie University, welfare of children and access and support issues. People need to contact each other to human essay deal with these issues. It is especially important to resolve issues that touch on the best interest of children in critical thinking foundation University, the most efficient manner. This is difficult, if not impossible, to human rights essay writing Westbourne do if the parents are not allowed to contact each other (Bovard, 2009). In this section of the report, we review typical bail conditions, identify potential problems with the wording chosen and provide suggestions for better practices.

4.4.1 “No contact directly or indirectly with the critical foundation University, complainant except through a mutually agreeable third-party or pursuant to a Family Court order and only for purposes of arranging and facilitating child access.” The wording of this condition properly avoids the how to improve essay writing International School-Salzburg, “blanket” prohibition on communication that Justice Bovard and others have counseled against. For that reason it enjoys significant advantages over a condition that requires spouses to absolutely refrain from critical thinking Macquarie University contact (e.g. Rights Westbourne. “abstain from communicating directly or indirectly with the complainant”). Absolute prohibitions are likely to critical University prevent any progress being made in parallel family law or child protection proceedings and may be inconsistent with family court orders in respect of custody and access. However, there remain some difficulties with the wording. First, a bail condition that requires the complainant’s consent to appoint a “neutral” third party to assist with contact and access to the children may put pressure on the complainant to agree, could enhance any existing power imbalance and create another source of tension in essay writing American, the relationship. A better solution may involve requiring a surety or officer-in-charge to foundation Macquarie agree to the third party (Bovard, 2012). Second, arranging and rights essay facilitating access to children may be frustrated even where bail conditions permit communication through a third party. Critical Foundation Macquarie University. For example, the inability of an accused who is exercising her access rights to thinking Rosseau Lake College the children to critical Macquarie notify the complainant of unexpected lateness or emergency situations may result in further tension between the accused and criticle thinking Rosseau Lake College the complainant or even further police involvement.

For this reason, in appropriate cases, a court may wish to consider whether a non-communication condition could include an exception for “contact by e-mail or text message, the contents of which are limited to arrangement related to access to children only.” This sort of exception to the non-communication order may not be appropriate in cases involving serious allegations of violence, where the complainant does not feel safe having any contact with the accused. In many more minor cases, however, such an exception may be beneficial. Third, the condition set out critical above does not allow for contact between the essay, accused and the complainant through counsel or for any purpose other than facilitating access to the children. Foundation University. Ongoing family law proceedings will be effectively put on hold if the parties are not allowed to communicate in any way, even through their respective family law counsel. 4.4.2 “Contact with children to how to Caxton be exercised under the supervision of the child protection agency or pursuant to the order of a court of competent jurisdiction.” Crafting appropriate terms of release relating to the accused’s access to his or her children presents a significant challenge for the criminal courts: Termination of contact between parents and children can seriously and often detrimentally affect their lifelong relationship. No-contact orders can also impede counselling or other efforts to address the underlying issues facing the family, and can prevent any meaningful assessment of whether regular contact is in the child’s best interest. Foundation. Further, it can be very difficult to an argument University of Central change release conditions once they are made; no-contact bail orders can remain in place for a year or more in Macquarie University, some cases, despite every effort of child protection agencies to change them.

For these reasons, judges may prefer to human essay writing Westbourne School craft conditions of release that allow for child protection authorities and/or family courts to determine whether access should occur and under what circumstances (Goldberg, 2012: 54). There are a number of factors to consider in deciding on appropriate terms of release including the circumstances of the offence and whether or not the critical thinking foundation, child is the complainant or a witness in respect of the alleged offence. In cases where the how to on writing an essay Caxton, child is the foundation Macquarie University, complainant or a witness, a complete prohibition on criticle communication may be necessary pending trial. Strict no contact provisions are informed by concerns that 1) contact between an accused parent and a child complainant will give rise (even subconsciously) to feelings of guilt or doubt that could affect the child’s ability and willingness to testify truthfully; and 2) an accused may attempt to influence the child’s evidence. The prosecution may oppose a condition that permits a family court order to allow access to the child. The objective of the family court is the best interests of the critical Macquarie, child, but that court may not have sufficient information about the underlying criminal charge or the emotional conflict that can ensue from having to testify in how to improve english writing School-Salzburg, court (Witkin, 2007: 2; Joseph Stangarone, 2009: 2-3). Ms.

How explains that she is cautious about relying on family court orders when crafting bail conditions because of the different goals of the family and criminal court proceedings. In her view, civil proceedings are often aimed at reunification of the thinking foundation Macquarie University, family while criminal proceedings focus on safety issues and ensuring an effective prosecution (How, 2012). Rights Writing. The concerns of the thinking foundation Macquarie University, Crown regarding delegating contact decisions to of Central a family court may be alleviated by critical thinking foundation Macquarie University a condition in the bail directing the family court to consider the criminal charges when making an order for contact (Goldberg, 2011: 54). In cases of allegations of spousal assault that do not involve the children as complainants or witnesses, the justification for Lake strict no-contact provisions is attenuated. Where a child is in no danger from the accused parent, separation for a significant length of time can needlessly result in unnecessary damage to the parent-child relationship. In these situations, a requirement that contact be supervised by a child protection agency may not be appropriate or necessary. Child protection agencies have limited resources to supervise parental access visits. Accordingly contact between the accused parent and the child may be restricted not because of any safety concerns but simply because of a lack of resources.

The condition set out thinking above, which would permit contact with children under the supervision of the child protection agency or pursuant to the order of a court of human Westbourne, competent jurisdiction is troublesome in that it could result in conflicting orders between the Children’s Aid Society (CAS ) and critical thinking foundation the family court. Focus Caxton. Moreover, as Justice Bovard explains, CAS may not be willing to act in critical thinking foundation University, a supervisory role. Child protection agencies that are not involved with the family may object to being involved in enforcing bail orders and writing an argument University Florida take the position it is not within the agency’s mandate to supervise access for all parents involved in the criminal justice system. Even where CAS is prepared to supervise, the access facilitated may be sporadic, at best. There are resource issues which severely limit the amount of supervised access that is available. For these reasons, in Justice Bovard’s view, the Family Court is thinking Macquarie University really in human rights essay writing Westbourne School, the best position to critical foundation Macquarie University consider all of the circumstances when deciding questions of access and to make a determination that is in criticle Rosseau Lake, the child’s best interest. Justice Bovard’s sentiments are echoed by Kate Kehoe: Child protection authorities have a specific legislative mandate to ensure the safety and well-being of children, and can provide services to the family to alleviate protection concerns. However, orders which only provide for access as directed by critical thinking Macquarie University the child protection authorities do not permit any variation in cases where the essay Westbourne, family court judge is of the opinion that the critical foundation, child protection authorities are not exercising their discretion in the best interests of the free essay test The University of Brighton, children. Critical Thinking Foundation Macquarie University. Further, orders which provide for access “supervised by the child protection authority” can place the child protection authority in a difficult position. On Writing. In some cases, the agency may not have grounds to bring the matter before the court or may be of the critical thinking foundation Macquarie, view that the safety of the an argument University, child can be ensured without a court order (perhaps with a family member or access centre providing the supervision). However, child protection agencies are often not funded by their governing bodies to supervise access except where such access is court-ordered.

The agency will therefore be forced to commence litigation solely for foundation the purpose of an argument University of Central Florida, carrying out the order made by the criminal court (Kehoe: 4). There appears to be some consensus that child protection agencies should not be mandated by bail conditions to supervise access. However, where a court nevertheless wishes to impose this sort of condition, it may be beneficial to include a term specifying the minimum amount of access that is to be facilitated (e.g. “contact with children to critical Macquarie be exercised under the supervision of the child protection agency and not to occur less than once per week”). While this does not address all of the concerns noted above, it does ensure some consistent access to how to on writing an essay College the children for an accused parent. 4.4.3 “Contact with children pursuant to a Family Court order that post-dates the date of this order” “Contact with children pursuant to a Family Court order” Where the bail includes a condition that contact with children is permitted pursuant to a family court order, the term should specify that the family court order be one that post dates the bail order. A family court order made before the critical thinking foundation, arrest of the accused may no longer be appropriate in online of Brighton, light of the criminal allegations. For example, a family court order allowing for generous access for a non-custodial parent should not continue to critical foundation University govern when the parent has been charged with assaulting the child. Justice Bovard suggests that the term “post-dates” is unnecessarily confusing to improve english essay American International School-Salzburg many accused persons. This could be replaced with “made after this bail order.” If a court determines that it is necessary to have a condition limiting contact between an accused and his or her children, the foundation, condition “Contact with children pursuant to a Family court order that post-dates the essay writing, date of this order” is likely the best option available.

The difficulty with even this sort of provision, however, arises from the practical realities of obtaining a family court order which can impose significant barriers to critical Macquarie University access for an accused parent. Justice Bovard explains that an application for access made to a family court can take several months to how to International School-Salzburg be heard during which time the accused parent and the child cannot have contact. Delays can be even longer if either or both parents are unrepresented. According to Justice Bovard up to 70% of foundation University, litigants in Ontario Court of Justice family matters are unrepresented (Bovard, 2012). In some cases the how to on writing an essay, resulting delay in contact between parent and child cannot be safely avoided, however a total prohibition on contact will not be necessary in all cases. Thinking Foundation Macquarie University. A busy justice of the peace in a busy provincial court house is rights writing unlikely to have sufficient information at a bail hearing including reliable information on the dynamics in the family and the historic relationships between parents and children to make an appropriate access decision. It is in this context that a bail court must undertake the difficult task of assessing the risk presented to children or other family members with little information and little knowledge as to critical how the family will be dealt with by other courts. Best practices for ensuring that bail courts have as much information as possible are discussed in other sections of the report. Writing Of Central Florida. Where, having considered the available information, the bail court is satisfied that there is no apparent danger associated with the children having contact with the accused, any decisions about access and custody may be best left to the family court. We note, however, that where the terms of thinking foundation University, bail do not address access issues there may be a period of free online essay, time where no court order is in place governing the interaction between an accused parent and critical thinking Macquarie University a child. 4.5 Defence Counsel / Duty Counsel Approach to how to Caxton College Bail.

4.5.1 Ensuring Reasonable Bail Conditions. Being detained, particularly for an accused person who has never had any previous experience in critical thinking Macquarie University, the criminal justice system, can impose an intolerable amount of human rights essay writing School, pressure on an individual and may result in an unwarranted guilty plea. Negotiating a speedy release for a client is therefore critical. It is critical thinking foundation Macquarie University equally important, however, that the client be willing and able to comply with the writing Florida, bail conditions imposed. It will be difficult to thinking University vary conditions agreed to in an effort to get out of custody quickly, particularly where the conditions were negotiated by experienced defence counsel.

In R. v. Bain , for example, the accused ex-husband was released on the consent of the free online of Brighton, Crown with conditions including that he not attend within 200 metres of the matrimonial home. This term was included in the recognizance of bail despite the fact that at critical University the time of how to improve writing International, his arrest, the accused was residing in that home, the complainant was living in another residence and the two were in the process of litigating the issue of possession of the matrimonial home in critical thinking foundation Macquarie, family court. Justice Shaw held that it was not role of the criminal courts to vary the accused’s conditions of bail in order to “level the playing field” in the family court proceedings ( R. v. Bain , 2009: para. 13). In addition to the issues addressed above relating to communication with the complainant and access to children, defence counsel should also ensure that the bail conditions do not place an accused at any more of how to, a disadvantage in the family law proceedings than absolutely necessary. Counsel should ensure, for example, that the accused is permitted to return to the matrimonial home, in the company of thinking Macquarie, police, to thinking Rosseau Lake obtain personal items. If family law proceedings are initiated (including custody, access or support application), the accused will need personal and financial documents, including bank statements, tax returns, pay stubs, passport, etc. Terms of the bail that restrict access to the family home can also amount to de facto orders for the exclusive possession of the family home. Similarly, restrictions on contact with children imposed by the bail order can result in the creation of a “status quo” in relation to issues of custody and access. 4.5.2 Checklist for Defence Counsel and Duty Counsel.

As set out above, risk assessments play a significant role in the exercise of Crown discretion in critical thinking foundation Macquarie, domestic violence cases, including bail decisions. Defence counsel must be prepared to deal with this approach and be able to respond to and address Crown counsel’s concerns. Defence counsel will be in essay, a better position to negotiate workable terms of release where he or she has the following information: Does the client have children? How will the thinking foundation, bail order affect his or her access to the children? What, if any, family court proceedings is your client involved in? Divorce?

Custody and access? Child/spousal Support? Child protection? When is the next court date? Does the client have a family lawyer? Are there any existing family court orders regarding: custody and access or exclusive possession of the matrimonial home? Do the circumstances of the allegation make the previous order inappropriate? Are the circumstances such that counsel can argue that issue of access is better left to the family courts in the circumstances of the case? Has a risk assessment been conducted by the Crown or police?

If so, can a copy be obtained from the how to focus an essay Caxton, Crown? An accused at a bail hearing is often being assisted by duty counsel who has no previous relationship with the accused and limited ability to find out the answers to these questions. Duty counsel should find out from the accused whether he or she has a family lawyer or a lawyer in University, relation to child protection proceedings. Counsel in these matters can be an invaluable source of information on Lake short notice. It is important to note that in many cases an accused person charged with a domestic violence offence will remain unrepresented by counsel throughout the criminal proceedings. As Ms. Critical Thinking Foundation Macquarie. How explains, in Ontario, individuals will not qualify for legal aid unless there is a risk they will be sentenced to a term of imprisonment if found guilty and they meet strict financial eligibility guidelines (How, 2012). Focus An Essay Caxton. The Crown, with the assistance of the investigating police force, is likely to have compiled background information including prior incidents, complainant input and risk assessments.

Where the Crown wishes to rely on this information in the course of the bail hearing, it must be disclosed to the accused. Duty counsel should examine this material and discuss it with the accused before the hearing if at all possible (Legal Aid Ontario: 49). Thinking Foundation University. Actuarial risk assessment tools, such as the Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA), may be completed by police and provided to the Crown in American School-Salzburg, advance of the bail hearing. Risk assessment results and reports are not admissible as evidence unless an expert witness is called who can interpret the critical University, report and express an opinion in regard to focus on writing an essay Caxton its validity as a predictor of behaviour. However, the facts which underlie the risk assessment score may be introduced as evidence (Nova Scotia Public Prosecution Service, 2009: 2). In many jurisdictions Crown counsel will take a conservative approach to bail in thinking Macquarie University, cases of domestic violence. How To Writing American School-Salzburg. The Crown may seek detention even where there is thinking Macquarie no criminal record and no outstanding charges. Where the Crown consents to the accused person’s release it is often only where the terms of improve writing, release require the accused to reside with a surety. The bail handbook developed by Legal Aid Ontario for duty counsel reminds duty counsel that, in thinking foundation Macquarie University, this context, it will often to thinking Rosseau College fall to duty counsel to protect the record and “repeatedly remind the court of the critical thinking foundation Macquarie University, requirements of s. 515 of the Code ” which places the onus on Caxton the Crown to show cause for each increasingly restrictive form of release. The range of cases that involve allegations of “domestic violence” varies widely. The tendency to lump all such cases together and insist on the same stringent bail conditions in foundation Macquarie University, all cases must be resisted.

In Appendix A we have outlined some relevant case law which may assist in a contested bail hearing. Counsel representing an accused at a bail hearing should ensure, if possible, that the terms of release: permit the accused to return to the matrimonial home, in the company of the police, to collect personal effects, including financial documentation; do not limit contact between the accused and the complainant that will hamper the accused’s ability to resolve his or her family law case (e.g. avoid conditions that prohibit any contact between the accused and complainant, without exception); specify minimum terms of access to children where a complete prohibition is not warranted; and do not restrict the accused’s ability to work. 4.5.3 Advising a Client after Release. An individual who is accused of essay writing Westbourne School, a domestic offence and has spent a night in custody often experiences a certain shock at the reality of his or her situation. That state of shock can make it difficult for the individual to take the thinking Macquarie University, necessary steps to how to improve essay writing International address the numerous and pressing issues relating to both the family and criminal proceedings. Defence counsel should advise the client to retain family law counsel as soon as possible and provide the names of referrals. Critical Thinking University. The accused may need to respond to emergency motions brought without notice by the complainant or may need to bring his or her own applications. For instance, the accused may consider making one of the following emergency applications in order to protect his or her relationship with the children and prevent the creation of a “status quo” in respect of custody and possession of the matrimonial home: Emergency order for specified access to the children. This type of application should be made immediately where the criminal court has imposed conditions that do not provide for how to focus an essay Caxton access; Order for supervised access if that is what is required by critical foundation the bail conditions.

Where such a condition is imposed, defence counsel may wish to include a requirement that the access supervisor be required to deliver access reports to counsel or the court, particularly, where an accused believes such reports will reflect favourably on how to write research essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam him or her (and/or could demonstrate attempts at parental alienation by the complainant); Order for the non-removal of children from the jurisdiction, if the accused believes the complainant is critical foundation Macquarie a flight risk; A Preservation order to prevent depletion of a spouse’s property (Halpern, et al., 2007: 14-15). Family Law Act of Ontario, if the court considers it necessary for the protection of the other spouse's interests under this Part, the court may make an interim or final order,(a) restraining the depletion of writing School, a spouse's property; and (b) for the possession, delivering up, safekeeping and preservation of the property.[5] Where an accused is unable to retain counsel for the family law matter, defence counsel may wish to point the foundation Macquarie, client to the resources available for unrepresented litigants. In order to allow for the effective drafting of essay American International, applications and responses, family counsel should be made aware of the nature of the criminal allegations against Macquarie the accused and any bail conditions imposed. Where affidavits are prepared in improve english essay International, support of the applications or responses, it is good practice to have the contents reviewed by criminal counsel. As will be discussed in greater detail below, the contents of materials filed in family court proceedings can make exceptional fodder for cross-examination at a criminal trial.

An accused and critical foundation University a complainant must ensure that statements made and positions taken in the family law context are not inconsistent with those made and taken in the criminal courts. Client management and proper explanation of the consequences of free essay writing, breaching a bail condition are crucial. Clients need to know that if they breach a condition of bail (or an critical thinking Macquarie University, undertaking given to the police), they will end up back in custody and that bail will be significantly more difficult to criticle thinking Rosseau Lake College obtain in the face of breach charges, particularly in light of the reverse onus provisions (s. 145 and s. Thinking University. 515(6)(c)). While the criticle thinking College, concept seems simple, the foundation University, dynamics at play in cases of allegations of domestic violence often add complications. Clients are likely to become frustrated with the slow pace of the criminal justice system and will want to resume communication, and even cohabitation with the complainant. A complainant who shares those desires can exercise considerable pressure on an accused.

Clients should be advised to resist temptation. Anecdotal experience suggests that where the accused and complainant do resume contact, discussions often escalate into disagreements about the writing The University, pending charges and may result in a breach of critical foundation, bail charge. Clients should be advised that even contact initiated by the complainant will violate the terms of bail and that the accused is an essay Caxton obligated to terminate contact immediately. Accused individuals should be aware that there are no reciprocal non-communication conditions or restrictions placed on complainants. In some cases, an accused fears that a complainant will “set up” or encourage a breach of the conditions of bail.

In these situations, an accused should be advised to keep a journal or diary of University, his/her activities and to record telephone message/texts/emails from the complainant. Counsel should not assist or participate in violation of bail conditions. That means counsel cannot turn a blind eye when a client who is subject to a non-communication order comes to the lawyer’s office with complainant in free online essay, tow. Instead, counsel should take immediate steps to address the issue. In Ontario, the Crown policy manual mandates that where there is a breach of a no-contact order condition of bail in the domestic violence situation, “Crown counsel should apply for revocation [of the original bail] and seek a detention order.” Where a Crown exercises his or her discretion otherwise and does not seek detention, he or she must make a written explanation in the file (Ministry of the Attorney General (Ont), 2005). Because a breach of a court order is an identified risk factor for future violence, it is important for Crown Counsel to consider laying charges, where appropriate, for breaches of bail orders. The Crown may choose to proceed on these charges even if the substantive charge is critical Macquarie ultimately not prosecuted, especially in situations identified as high risk. Convictions for breaches will inform risk assessments at how to research Universiteit Amsterdam future bail and sentencing hearings (Ministry of the Attorney General (BC ), 2011: 3). Complainants should be made aware of restrictions on the accused either by the Crown, the police, or victim services.

A complainant should be made aware that where there is Macquarie a “no-contact” term of bail, an accused is not permitted to resume contact with the complainant, even with the complainant’s consent. Complainants who wish to resume communication and/or do not want the on writing an essay College, criminal court proceedings against their spouse to critical continue should be advised to seek independent legal advice (see further discussion below in Complainants should be made aware of what constitutes a breach of recognizance and the importance of reporting breaches to the police. The complainant may wish to keep a diary of any attempted contact or communication by an accused. An accused seeking a bail variation increases his or her chances of success by approaching the Crown with a realistic variation supported by the requisite information (including input from the how to write Vrije Amsterdam, complainant, confirmation of family court orders, etc.). While best practices for obtaining a bail variation will depend to a large extent on the unique circumstances of each case, for ease of consideration, we have divided domestic assault cases into critical, two types: those where the complainant is cooperative and those where the research essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, complainant is adversarial.

This division is merely practical but it affects how the case will be addressed at the bail variation stage and what information should be provided to a complainant and accused. Critical Foundation. 4.7.1 Where the Complainant Supports a Bail Variation. These cases typically involve a domestic relationship where, post-arrest, the complainant and how to College defendant want to reconcile. This type of case is not limited to those where the complainant recants or changes his or her version of critical thinking foundation University, events; in some cases, the complainant maintains the accuracy of the allegation, but nonetheless wants to reconcile with the accused. In these circumstances, bail conditions can cause hardship for College both an accused and the complainant. As discussed above, an accused may be removed from his or her house, prevented from Macquarie seeing and at times speaking with his or her children. Decisions relating finances, joint businesses, child rearing, education, etc. are put on hold.

Bail variations will form part of write research Vrije Universiteit, a plan to resolve these cases. Foundation University. In cases of family violence, there are three general plans to how to an essay deal with the case: 1) a guilty plea, where the thinking University, client is prepared to admit guilt; 2) resolution through a peace bond, diversion or withdrawal; or 3) a trial, where the client maintains innocence. Essay Writing. Bail Variations and foundation Violations in the Domestic Context The Defence Perspective , presented at the 2007 Ontario Bar Association Conference on Crime in essay writing Westbourne School, the Family: Navigating the Intersection between Criminal and Macquarie University Family Law.[6] Bail Variations in Anticipation of a Guilty Plea. Where the case is dealt with through a guilty plea in association with participation in essay, a treatment program, bail variations are generally standard graduated variations that are tied to critical Macquarie University progress in the counselling program. Often, a client will plead guilty and have their sentencing adjourned to proceed after the completion of the program. In these cases, a bail variation is often granted that allows full contact between the American School-Salzburg, defendant and the complainant subject to the “written, revocable consent” of the complainant. The complainant’s written revocable consent for contact is to be filed either with the Crown’s office or with the Courthouse Probation office.

Both the accused and the complainant should be aware that the thinking foundation Macquarie University, complainant may revoke his or her consent verbally at any time and that the revocation does not require any grounds, nor does it require the office with which the consent is filed to be notified to take effect. How To Write Research Essay Vrije Universiteit. Should the consent be revoked, the accused must cut off all contact with the complainant immediately. Generally, Crown Policy is not in favour of withdrawing domestic assault charges or resolving them by way of peace bond apart from cases where there is little prospect of conviction. Clients need to understand that efforts undertaken to seek a withdrawal or peace bond are not guaranteed and the Crown may legitimately decide to continue with a prosecution notwithstanding the efforts undertaken by all parties. Where the critical thinking, complainant is co-operative and the client wishes to seek a peace bond or withdrawal resolution of the charges, counsel may wish to consider the following steps: Counsel needs to assess whether the how to, couple is legitimately committed to remaining together and working through their problems. Making domestic assault charges “go away” takes hard work. Successful resolution is critical foundation Macquarie most likely to occur in cases where the client and his/her partner are committed to how to essay writing American seeking a constructive resolution of the charges and are prepared to thinking foundation Macquarie University make a legitimate effort to better themselves and move forward. The complainant should receive independent legal advice (ILA). In cases where financial means are a concern, counsel should consider asking a colleague to provide the ILA pro bono or at a reduced rate and online writing test The University of Brighton offer to do the same when they have a complainant that needs ILA . It is important though, that the ILA be, and to appear to be, truly independent. The complainant’s wishes should be conveyed to the Crown by the counsel providing the ILA on an ongoing basis.

The ILA should cover basic information relating to the process. The complainant should be advised of Crown Policy in critical thinking foundation University, domestic assault cases. They need to understand that they cannot simply ask for charges to be “dropped”. In fact, the complainant did not “press” charges in the first place. Complainants should be advised about the focus an essay Caxton, stages in a criminal proceeding and their role. They should be provided with information relating to their safety. Critical Thinking University. In cases where the complainant indicates that they wish to change or retract their allegation, he or she needs to how to research be advised of the potential consequences.

If necessary, counsel providing the ILA may need to assist in drafting an affidavit from the complaint where there is foundation Macquarie University a partial or full recantation. ILA helps to reassure the Crown and focus on writing an essay the court that a complainant is cooperating with an accused freely and voluntarily and not out of fear or intimidation or because he or she is Macquarie subject to coercion. Counsel should arrange for private individual counselling. Each party should meet with a counsellor individually at criticle Rosseau College least once and discuss their willingness to participate and complete counselling. The counsellor should report to counsel who needs to know whether the critical thinking Macquarie, counsellor feels he or she can help the couple.

The counsellor may want to meet with the parties separately for a while and determine whether joint counselling sessions are appropriate. Sometimes a “cool down” period is warranted. Get an interim report from the counsellor to provide to the Crown in support of a bail variation request to permit joint counselling. A Crown needs to have something tangible demonstrating that the efforts being undertaken are legitimate and earnest. Have the parties attend a number of sessions with the counsellor. Ten is usually a good start, twelve to fourteen sessions is usually the norm.

Get a follow up report for the Crown. Consider whether the client should also enroll in drug/alcohol/anger management courses in addition to the counselling. If so, get reports for the Crown. Bail variations can be sought incrementally and should be supported by counselling reports, etc. At first, just get the couple back together for counselling. As counselling progresses well, further incremental variations for example, permitting telephone communication, then meetings in the presence of third party, then unrestricted contact, can be sought. Once all counselling has been successfully completed, the College, Crown can be approached with a view to seeking a withdrawal or peace bond.

In many cases the critical thinking Macquarie, answer may be no. However, in thinking Lake, some cases, given the critical thinking Macquarie, passage of time, the genuine and extensive efforts made by the parties and the consequences of having an entry (even a discharge) on a person’s record, a Crown can be persuaded to accept the essay The University of Brighton, proposed resolution. Critical Thinking Foundation Macquarie University. If not, the case is likely well set-up for an absolute or conditional discharge following a finding of guilt. Clients should be advised that this process can be lengthy. Many counselling programs have lengthy waiting lists and, once admitted, run from 10 14 weeks, plus additional time for various court appearance, pre-trial, etc. The steps undertaken above in order to vary the client’s bail may occur where an accused maintains his or her innocence. However, the online The University of Brighton, scope of any counselling will necessarily be circumscribed by the fact that the client denies any assaultive behaviour.

Counsel must ensure that any report provided to the Crown does not directly or indirectly constitute an admission of guilt. 4.7.2 Where the Complainant Opposes a Bail Variation. Thinking Foundation Macquarie. Sometimes, the parties have no intention of resuming the relationship and the complainant does not support a bail variation. These cases are generally, though not always, more adversarial in nature. In cases where the complainant remains adverse in interest, seeking consent bail variations can be significantly more challenging.

In most cases, the Crown will seek input from the complainant prior to University considering whether to consent to critical Macquarie a variation. While the essay Vrije Universiteit, complainant’s input is not determinative, it is often persuasive. In cases where there are concurrent family law proceedings, criminal law counsel should engage with family law counsel to assist in addressing bail variations. Critical. When the human rights, related family law proceedings address issues relating to child custody and access, bail variations may need to be sought to thinking foundation maintain consistency between Court orders. In most cases, Crowns are willing to how to write Vrije vary bail conditions to permit concurrence with and/or delegation to family court orders and agreements. Counsel should obtain copies of file material from family counsel and should co-ordinate efforts to avoid conflicts and/or uncertainty. Similarly, criminal counsel should provide a copy of the bail recognizance to the family lawyer and provide updates on any variations. 4.7.3 Bail Variations versus Bail Reviews. The terms of a bail order do not have to remain fixed throughout the course of the thinking foundation University, criminal proceedings.

However, once bail is granted (or denied), no other judge or justice of the peace at the provincial court level can review that decision or the conditions of bail imposed by the original judge or justice. A provincial court judge or justice can only modify an existing bail condition with the agreement of the Crown prosecutor. Otherwise, an essay Vrije Amsterdam, accused person must bring a formal application to review the bail conditions before a judge in the Superior Court of Justice. As described above, the Crown may agree to vary the thinking foundation Macquarie, conditions of bail to allow for more contact between the accused and complainant in order to facilitate in counseling. Crown counsel may agree to other variations to curfew or house arrest provisions to allow for write attendance at school or work. Obtaining a “consent bail variation” is the least expensive and most efficient way to modify the terms of foundation University, release. Where the Crown does not agree to change the bail conditions, the improve writing International School-Salzburg, only available remedy to an accused is to bring a bail review application before a Superior Court judge. In order to be successful at the bail review, an accused person must satisfy the Superior Court that the judge or justice who imposed the original bail conditions made either an error of law or that there has been a material change in the accused person’s circumstances to warrant the change of critical thinking Macquarie University, bail conditions. How To Focus On Writing. Applying for critical thinking foundation University a bail review requires the filing of materials at the Superior Court including a copy of the transcript of the original bail hearing.

Also required as part of the bail review application are affidavits (sworn statements) from both the accused person and any proposed sureties (in Ontario see Rule 20 of the Superior Court of Justice Criminal Proceedings Rules ). The time and expense required to prepare these materials means that it can take several weeks before a bail review can be heard and may cost the accused thousands of dollars. [4] A surety is someone who makes an agreement with the court to take responsibility for free online test a person accused of a crime. The surety is responsible for making sure the accused person comes to critical court on time and on how to write Vrije Universiteit the right dates and for ensuring that the accused person obeys each condition of the bail order, also known as a recognizance. Sureties must sign the recognizance and agree to pay a specified amount of money if the accused person fails to obey the court order. [5] Pursuant to s. 12 of the Family Law Act of Ontario, if the court considers it necessary for the protection of the other spouse's interests under this Part, the court may make an interim or final order,(a) restraining the critical thinking University, depletion of a spouse's property; and (b) for the possession, delivering up, safekeeping and preservation of the property. [6] These guidelines discussed in this section are adapted from an earlier paper by Joseph Di Luca, Bail Variations and Violations in the Domestic Context The Defence Perspective , presented at the 2007 Ontario Bar Association Conference on Crime in the Family: Navigating the Intersection between Criminal and Family Law.

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Infertility Essays and Research Papers. ? Infertility What Is Infertility ? There are many different definitions of critical thinking University, infertility , depending on different . circumstances. The clinical and most common definition of writing of Central, infertiliy is described as a sexually active couple whom with no contraception are unable to achieve pregnancy within one year of trying. Infertility can also be described as both primary and secondary. When a women is thinking foundation Macquarie classified as primarily infertile it means that she is criticle Rosseau College unable to critical Macquarie, ever bear a child due to either not being able. Assisted reproductive technology , Childbirth , Chlamydia infection 945 Words | 3 Pages. an infertile couple has progressed greatly.

However, society's opinion of infertility treatment has not progressed. There is a widespread . ignorance about the different aspects of infertility . This ignorance plays a role in how little empathy is criticle Rosseau Lake shown to thinking foundation University, couples undergoing infertility treatment. An infertile couple undergoes serious risk at a very high cost to be able to bear a child. Despite the fact that Infertility Treatments are high risk, they are an important tool for infertile couples. Assisted reproductive technology , Fertility , Fertility medicine 2062 Words | 6 Pages. Kelsey Olen Rowan Johnson English II 15 February 2013 Infertility In Relationships Infertility , or sterility, is the . inability to produce offspring or the inability to conceive. Although the majority of American men and write essay Universiteit Amsterdam, women assume that they will mature, fall in love, and create children of foundation University, their own, the an argument University of Central Florida, rate of fertility continues to thinking foundation Macquarie University, decrease over the years, and criticle thinking College, the American dream of becoming a parent does not always become a reality. Although some men and women are complacent with adoption. Andrology , Anovulation , Assisted reproductive technology 2021 Words | 6 Pages.

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Assisted reproductive technology , Fertility , Fertility medicine 1878 Words | 6 Pages. Infertility: Menstrual Cycle and Cell Nuclear Transfer. Infertility is the inability or failure to thinking Lake, conceive after a year of regular intercourse without contraception. There are two categories to University, . classify infertility , primary and secondary. Primary infertility occurs in women who have never conceived while secondary infertility occurs in women who had a previous conception. Affecting about one in six couples, there are many causes of infertility . A little more than half of cases of infertility are attributed to female conditions. Female conditions include. Anovulation , Gynecology , Hormone 1526 Words | 5 Pages. The Psychological Impact of Infertility on criticle Rosseau Lake College, Men and critical thinking foundation University, Women.

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counsel other couples on infertility . I have also been on essay Vrije, the other side of the table facing these infertility choices in thinking Macquarie my . How To On Writing. first marriage. There was a choice we faced regarding selective termination if we did conceive after hormone therapy. In a way, I am glad we did not conceive because my ex-wife and I opposed each other on this procedure. I was opposed to the procedure while my wife accepted it. As a pastor having to counsel others with the problem of infertility , there are a lot of choices. Assisted reproductive technology , Embryo , Family 1512 Words | 4 Pages. Ethical Issues Surrounding Reproductive Technologies. Institute Practical Nursing Program Nurs 171 Health and critical thinking, Healing 1 April 14th, 2013 Submitted to: D Bickford Ethical Issues Surrounding . Infertility Treatment Options “ Infertility has emerged as one of the fastest growing health challenges that are of paramount concerns” (Yuit Wah Wong, 2012). There are various causes for an argument University of Central Florida infertility in women some of which include medical disorders with the uterine tubes, the uterus and with the ovaries. Women are experiencing more amenorrhea and critical thinking foundation Macquarie, sexually. Artificial insemination , Assisted reproductive technology , Fertility 829 Words | 3 Pages.

that in of Central Florida 1995 the infertility rate was 7 percent. So about 1 every 14 people was infertile. In 2005 the infertility rate was 15 . percent, which is about 1 every 7 people. They expect in 2025 that the infertility rate will be about thinking foundation, 33 percent, which is about 1 out of 3 people will be infertile. Although some may say that since that infertility will. They say that if there is essay a cure for everything then why not infertility . Surely people can come up with something to cure infertility . Macquarie. You have stem cell. Childbirth , Fertility , Infant 1113 Words | 3 Pages. Test Tube Baby: an Option for Childless Couple. Infertility is the inability of human essay writing Westbourne School, a couple to become pregnant.

An advancement in the field of medicine has been used recently which helps . childless couple to have their biological child. This advancement includes what the thinking, people call in vitro fertilization which results to what is commonly known as the test tube baby. In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is the most common among the high-tech fertility treatments. It can help the woman conceive if she has ovulatory problems, if they have problems in writing an argument University Florida the fallopian. Assisted reproductive technology , Fertility , Fertility medicine 2478 Words | 6 Pages. The Portrayal of Women to thinking foundation, Men in Genesis. idea that God is striving to create an ideal world recurs in Genesis. Human Rights Writing School. And, in many instances, as in the case of Eve, it is a woman who impedes the . fulfillment of God's vision. However, disobedient actions are not always the mode of obstruction, infertility was another way women are different from man and had threats towards God‘s mission. Even thought Genesis does not specifically blame the matriarchs for their inability to conceive, they are responsible for not breeding instance, it is the women.

Adam , Adam and Eve , Book of Genesis 1503 Words | 4 Pages. “Should Ivf Be Available to foundation Macquarie, All People Who Apply for This Form of Reproductive Technology?” (usually one or two) are transferred back to the woman's uterus. Rosseau Lake. Seven to ten days later, she takes a pregnancy test. Depending on the circumstances, the . procedure has a roughly 30% success rate each cycle it's tried. Many scientists believe that Infertility is critical thinking Macquarie University rising faster in Amsterdam developing countries than in developed nations and critical foundation, it has a much more devastating impact on countries like Japan because of the recent radiation from the nuclear plants and scientists predict that this could last well over 500. Fertilisation , Fertility , In vitro fertilisation 1098 Words | 3 Pages. Galpern 2007) In the United States in 1995 there were 1.2 million women, which 2 percent of 60.2 million of human writing Westbourne, women who had infertility . medical problems. There were several causes for this medical problem, the Macquarie, main one was a blockage in the fallopian tubes; another cause id pelvic adhesions which cause pain during the intercourse and is a symptomatic of infertility , also endometriosis were the endometrial tissue is found outside the essay writing The University of Brighton, uterus, furthermore ovulation is critical another cause where the ovary. Artificial insemination , Assisted reproductive technology , Fertility 2741 Words | 7 Pages. insemination and in vitro fertilization.

Since that time, there has been an increase of reproductive technologies, and a multitude of options are now . available to those couples who are infertile. Infertility affects ten percent of men and women. One in six Canadian couples is infertile. To overcome infertility many couples have chosen the path of reproducing artificially using reproductive technologies. Free Essay Test Of Brighton. Reproductive technologies are a term referring to methods used to achieve pregnancy by artificial. Assisted reproductive technology , Fertility , In vitro fertilisation 1977 Words | 5 Pages. medical, ethical intervention There has been many cases where a women want like to become pregnant but it is impossible due to medical or gynaecological . Critical Thinking Foundation. conditions. An Argument University. This is Macquarie University where medical intervention takes place by a specialist, looking at infertility cases of individuals. Invitro-fertilization (IVF) was developed in the late 1970’s. This involved, sperm being implanted into an egg outside of the woman’s body then placed back into the whomb after fertilisation.

Initially pregnancy success was. Abortion , Assisted reproductive technology , Fertility 1236 Words | 4 Pages. Childhood Obesity Crtical Literature Review Dissertation. sperm. In order to see whether the embryo is develops a record is essay kept once it is place in the women’s womb. However as it’s not something guaranteed a 100 . per cent and critical thinking University, it doesn’t always end up in pregnancy. Although “over 30,000 couples receive infertility treatment each year in the UK” (J.Herring, 2008: P-315), IVF isn’t offered to how to essay writing International, everyone. In 2004 around 10, 175 children were born through IVF and in some cases the University, sperm was donated. IVF is offered to women aged 23 to 39 which have had fertility.

Assisted reproductive technology , Ethics , Immanuel Kant 1344 Words | 4 Pages. Contemporary Research on Parenting. absence of a genetic tie to one or both parents may have an undermining effect on the child’s sense of thinking Lake, identity (Burns, 1987). It has also been suggested . that whether or not gamete donation has been used in foundation thechild’s conception, the an argument University, stress of infertility may lead to dysfunctional patterns of parenting, which may result in negative outcomes for critical thinking foundation Macquarie University the child (Burns, 1990). In spite of the expectations that children conceived by gamete donation may be at risk for College psychological problems, a previous study. Artificial insemination , Assisted reproductive technology , Family 825 Words | 3 Pages. fertilization and early embryo growth. v. Macquarie University. Transfer embryos into the uterus. Second Main Idea: a. Significant Physical, Emotional, Financial, . amp; Time Commitment i. Stress and depression are common among couples dealing with infertility . ii. How To On Writing An Essay. Many IVF medicines must be given by injection, often several times a day, which can cause abdominal pain, mood swings, headaches, as well as other side effects. iii. There is critical Macquarie University a risk of multiple pregnancies when more than one embryo.

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The government should force the physician to explain all the possibilities and risks before . treatments, as well as restrict the approval of drugs by the FDA. In addition to those drug risks, infertility patients have to face a possibility of critical thinking University, multiple births: twin, triplet, and even higher multiples. In November 1997, McCaughes gave birth to a set of live septuplets in the U.S. Despite being born premature and needing intensive care, all seven infants. Assisted reproductive technology , Fertility medication , In vitro fertilisation 974 Words | 3 Pages.

success is guaranteed. Of course this is true for writing many couples, but did you know that according to the Center for Disease Control, 15 percent of American . couples will fail to conceive after one year of trying? There are many medical issues that cause infertility , but for 10-20 percent of infertile couples, physicians find no definable reason (, 2012). This can be devastating news to critical foundation University, a couple that has great expectation of human essay, someday becoming parents. With the advances in reproductive technology. Assisted reproductive technology , Fertilisation , Fertility 1281 Words | 4 Pages. child? The process of Macquarie, conception is open to a myriad of complications, starting from fertilization. If an individual, male or female, is infertile, they . are biologically unable to contribute to the conception of how to focus an essay Caxton College, a child. Critical Thinking Macquarie. According to McArthur's ' Infertility statistics' (2007) one in eight couples are infertile.

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Childbirth , Dystopia , Future 795 Words | 2 Pages. Introduction Infertility or primary infertility refers to criticle thinking Lake, the inability of a couple to get pregnant (the cause notwithstanding) . following a year of having unprotected sex and without using any methods of thinking University, birth control. This is different from secondary infertility which refers to the inability to maintain a pregnancy to term. Florida. Infertility or primary infertility affects approximately 6.1 million individuals in the US, approximately 10 percent of males and females of reproductive age. Due to this problem. Artificial insemination , Assisted reproductive technology , Fertility medicine 3093 Words | 8 Pages. turning to the latest, most advanced medical procedures to treat infertility . With the rising cost of medical insurance, does it make sense for . infertility procedures like IVF to be covered by thinking Macquarie insurance?

In my opinion, yes; as an infertile couple why should we be denied the insurance coverage to writing an argument Florida, treat our disease or have relief from the sadness and stress that affects one in eight couples today. Critical Thinking Foundation Macquarie. In this essay I will argue that infertility procedures like In Vitro Fertilization should be covered by. Assisted reproductive technology , Fertility , In vitro fertilisation 587 Words | 2 Pages. In-Vitro Fertilization Should it be implemented in society today? Introduction “ Infertility , also known as primary . infertility , is the inability of a couple to become pregnant (regardless of an essay Caxton, cause) after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse using no birth control methods. Similarly, secondary infertility refers to the inability to maintain pregnancy until birth” (Emedicinehealth, 2012).

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Couples who are infertile due to an unknown cause and have been investigated can enter the IVF program after one year of infertility . Before a couple can commence with IVF. Assisted reproductive technology , Embryo , Fertilisation 2894 Words | 8 Pages. endometriosis. The first is the risk of cancer. Women with endometriosis have an increased risk for development of certain types of how to essay Vrije Amsterdam, cancer of the ovary, . known as epithelial ovarian cancer. This risk is critical foundation highest in women with endometriosis and primary infertility (women with no children). The use of write essay Universiteit, oral contraceptive pills, which are sometimes used in critical thinking foundation Macquarie University the treatment of endometriosis, appears to significantly reduce this risk. The reasons for the association between endometriosis and criticle thinking Lake College, ovarian epithelial cancer. Endometriosis , Endometrium , Fallopian tube 3192 Words | 5 Pages. procedure has become one of the greatest developments in the world of medical technology.

In Vitro Fertilization has given infertile couples the chance to . Thinking Foundation University. conceive and bear a child from a full term of pregnancy. Without this procedure, their infertility would render them childless. Human Essay. There are many aspects of the IVF program that have been both praised and criticized. The legal, ethical and social repercussions of the IVF program have created great debate and controversy. Critical Thinking Foundation Macquarie University. This essay will demonstrate. Assisted reproductive technology , Embryo , Fertility 2015 Words | 8 Pages. How Does Fertilization Takes Place. to start a family. Research Vrije. Over 15 percent of couples in critical foundation Macquarie the U.S. Human Writing Westbourne School. have difficulty conceiving a child, she says. In about one-third of thinking Macquarie, cases, the essay, male is . Critical Thinking Macquarie. infertile; in one-third, the female has infertility issues.

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It is not only a gynecological illness but also a bio-psycho-social health problem. Despite recent developments in rights writing infertility treatments, around 4% of all couples who want children remain infertile (Gunnell Ewings, 1994). Thinking Foundation University. After a period of many years in online test The University of Brighton which they are hopeful of conceiving. Anovulation , Assisted reproductive technology , Fallopian tube 5034 Words | 19 Pages. Infertility and ART (Assisted Reproductive Technologies) There are many things that can cause infertility in both a man and . women. Infertility can be cause by poor lifestyle or sexual habits. Thinking Macquarie University. Although both of these problems can be reversed by change, there are more excessive problems that can happen to criticle Rosseau College, a man of critical thinking foundation Macquarie University, a women to cause infertility . PID (Pelvic Inflammatory Disease) is the most common cause of infertility worldwide in women.

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Infertility / Subfertility • one year of foundation University, unprotected intercourse with the same partner without conception. • 10-15 % of how to on writing an essay College, couples • . Multifactorial infertility male tubal peritoneal ovulatory cervical other Homocysteine Fertility Dr. S. Bhanu Rekha Assoc. Prof SVS Pioneers Dr .Vigneaud 1933 Dr .Kilmer Mc Cully 1968 What is Homocysteine ? Protein diet Digestion Metabolism Methionine Auto-oxidation Protein synthesis 2)Homocystine 1)Homocysteine HS-CH2-CH2-CH-COOH NH2 Homocysteine •. B vitamins , Cysteine , Folic acid 757 Words | 7 Pages. Infertility, Ivf and Assisted Reproduction. Infertility , I.V.F. and other Assisted Reproductive Technologies A look into the main reasons for infertility , how . procedures evolving from recent scientific breakthroughs can combat this problem and an insight into the ethics surrounding this issue of ARTs. Macquarie University. Since the how to improve School-Salzburg, live birth of Louise Joy Brown (the first successful 'test-tube' baby) in 1978; we have heard massive praise, accompanied by huge controversy about the use of In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and other methods of technology-assisted. Assisted reproductive technology , Fertility , Fertility medicine 2081 Words | 6 Pages. The use of reproductive cloning as infertility treatment. Infertility is the fundamental lacking of the ability to conceive a baby, and both men and women can have this problem.

Dr. Clark, our . guest speaker in class pointed out University that approximately 30% of how to write research Universiteit Amsterdam, men and women are infertile, while 25% of infertility cannot be explain by critical foundation Macquarie University science yet. Because of that, infertility is no longer considered as a lifestyle problem but a disease instead. According to Dr. Clark, one of the how to focus, options for the infertility patients today is the use of stem cell therapies to. Cloning , Fertility , Human 2062 Words | 5 Pages.

Families in Macquarie University a Diverse Society Phase Five Infertility. Infertility Rates In Present-Day Canada Phase Five Amanda Fischer Ms.Thiel Due: December 12, 2012 . Introduction In the last ten to online of Brighton, twenty years there has been an critical University increase in infertility among women. Focus An Essay. This report is being designed to Macquarie University, answer the following question: What are the causes of write research essay, infertility in present-day Canada? The purpose of answering this question is to make women aware of the Macquarie, possible causes of infertility so fertile. Birth control , Body fat percentage , Dieting 1673 Words | 5 Pages.

Female infertility is a major consequence every woman should take into understanding. As known around, women themselves set aside an amount of . Thinking Lake College. purposes which makes a successful marriage and thinking foundation University, female infertility has become a serious discussion. The argument of the University Florida, incapability of children making among couples is seldom the topic that risks a marriage and women would be blamed for that as pregnancy is at all times faced by the female gender. Foundation University. Men would pretty much contribute to how to essay International School-Salzburg, the factors of infertility. Anovulation , Endometrium , Fertility 642 Words | 2 Pages. Pregnancy and Infertility Treatment After 35.

Human Sexuality Course Project: Human Sexuality — Different Facets Submitted by: Date: Delayed Pregnancy and Infertility . Treatment Although Marsha and Liam’s marriage is able to critical foundation Macquarie University, weather the conflict arising from Marsha’s diagnosis of Florida, HPV. Marsha is treated as successfully as possible, and the virus seems to be in remission. The couple decides to postpone starting a family until they both have more time to develop their respective careers. Although they discuss starting a family. Childbirth , Embryo , Fertility 819 Words | 4 Pages.

Christian Attitudes to Infertility. Christian attitudes to medical treatment for critical Macquarie University infertility * Childlessness is online essay writing The University of Brighton a major problem for some Christian couples who believe that . if they cannot have a child, they are not able to fulfil God’s command to humans to critical foundation Macquarie, be “fruitful and multiply” (Genesis 1:28) * Some may accept that it is God’s choice for them to not have children. * Some may find other ways to direct their parental skills such as school, charity or church work. * Some may choose to adopt children and on writing an essay Caxton College, therefore. Catholic Church , Christianity , Family 404 Words | 2 Pages. Essay About Infertility And Its Medical Solutions. possible solution to critical foundation, this problem! This sad story happening to 11% of the US population ( Infertility , 2010) is called . Infertility , and it simply means that you are unable to get pregnant after attempts for a usual time period of Lake, a year ( Infertility , n.d.). There can be many variables that causes this problem, and recent medical breakthroughs have lead to Macquarie, the discovery of a method to writing an argument Florida, help dissolve the sad pain of infertility in women. Critical Macquarie. This method is called In-Vitro Fertilisation, or IVF. There can be many. Assisted reproductive technology , Fertilisation , Fertility 1674 Words | 5 Pages.

Running head: MALE AND FEMALE INFERTILITY Male and Female Infertility . Infertility in refers to inability to conceive and carry a pregnancy to full term in women while in men, it refers to inability to contribute to a conception after a full year of unprotected sexual intercourse. Infertility has a myriad of courses ranging from genetic problems to environmental factors. Infertility affects both those who have. Andrology , Fertility , Gynecology 840 Words | 3 Pages. Asthma in Children Born After Infertility Treatment: ?ndings from the Uk Millennium Cohort Study. Hum. Essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. Reprod. Advance Access published December 5, 2012 Human Reproduction, Vol.0, No.0 pp.

1– 9, 2012 doi:10.1093/humrep/des398 ORIGINAL ARTICLE . Reproductive epidemiology Asthma in foundation Macquarie University children born after infertility treatment: ?ndings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study C. Carson 1,*, A. Sacker 2, Y. Kelly 2, M. Criticle Thinking Rosseau Lake. Redshaw 1, J.J. Kurinczuk 1, and M.A. Thinking Foundation. Quigley 1 1 National Perinatal Epidemiology Unit, University of how to write research essay Vrije Universiteit, Oxford, Oxford OX3 7LF, UK 2Institute for Social and Economic Research, University. Assisted reproductive technology , Asthma , Clinical trial 7631 Words | 22 Pages. Investigation of Reproduction and Development in Animals. which provides protection against pregnancy. What is infertility ? Infertility in humans and other species(animals) is the . inability to concieve or carry a pregnancy to a live birth.

The causes of infertility can be identified in some cases. The majority of cases relate to female factors (50%), 40% relate to male factors and 10% aree unknown. Infertility sometimes may serve as a combination of critical thinking foundation Macquarie, both male and female factors. If the rights essay Westbourne, cause of critical foundation University, infertility is known, treatment of some kind may be available. Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill , Endometrium 746 Words | 3 Pages. | In-Vitro Fertilisation 1. Rights Essay Writing Westbourne School. The problem of infertility and its causes In-Vitro Fertilisation refers to the technique of reproduction which . is an thinking foundation University antithesis to the biological reproduction .As the how to write research, name suggests,in this method of fertilisation the egg is fertilised outside the mother’s body when natural fertilisation is thinking University not feasible. Infertility is a common problem being faced by couples which is not limited to any particular group, region or country but rather couples across the world are plagued. Assisted reproductive technology , Embryo transfer , Fertilisation 1498 Words | 5 Pages. for infertility since they have not been able to have a baby for three years. Angelo is very embarrassed about the process of going to the . infertility doctor. He is very private with his co-workers about where he is going and has even told them his diabetes was out of control is why he had to leave work.

Angelo is essay Westbourne uncomfortable in having sex in the doctor office and critical thinking foundation, feels like it is more stressful. Angelo takes his food for his diabetes to all his appointments and leaves the infertility appointments. Culture , Hispanic , Hispanic and Latino Americans 1402 Words | 4 Pages. depending upon their cultural norms. Vissing says that over the life course every person has a family – even if it is a family of one (Vissing, 2011). An Essay Caxton College. The . 21st century American family has been reshaped by the changes in University moral family values, rising infertility rates and human rights School, changing marital patterns attained in the previous century.

The institution of the American family has been typified as the nuclear family comprised of a father, mother and one or more children. Thinking Foundation Macquarie University. That traditional family makeup of. 21st century , Family , In vitro fertilisation 1897 Words | 6 Pages.

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It is a permanent and public record of writing your ideas, and should mean precisely what you have written. Avoid redundancy Unfortunately, specifying minimum page requirements encourages redundancy, but please try to avoid that temptation. Critical Macquarie. When two words will do, there is how to research essay Universiteit, no need to use twenty. Thinking Macquarie. Whenever you finish a sentence or paragraph, read over it to rights essay writing see if any words or sentences can be eliminated -- often your point will get much stronger when you do so. In the academic community, your ability to write concisely is far more important than your ability to fill up a page with text. Academic courses specify page minimums to ensure that you write an essay of the appropriate depth, not to thinking test whether you can say the same thing a dozen different ways just to online essay The University of Brighton fill up space. In the real world, you will see many more page maximum specifications than page minimums. Be professional and diplomatic When writing about another's work, always write as if your subject may read your document. Your essays for a course assignment will probably not be published, but genuine scientific writing will be, and the subject of your paper may very well come across your work eventually. Thus it is crucial to avoid pejorative, insulting, and critical foundation Macquarie University, offensive terms like attempt to, a waste of The University of Brighton time, pointless, etc. If some of the essays I have seen were read out loud to the author under discussion, a fistfight would probably result.

At the very least, you would have made an enemy for life, which is rarely a good idea. In any case, your points will be much more convincing if you can disagree professionally and diplomatically, without attacking the foundation University author or implying that he or she is an research Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam imbecile. Thinking Foundation. And, finally, no one will publish your work if it is just a diatribe and not a sober, reasoned argument. To avoid these sorts of problems, it might be good to human rights School pretend that you are the Macquarie author under discussion and re-read your essay through his or her eyes. It should be straightforward to figure out which parts would make you defensive or angry, and you can then reword those. Avoid imperative voice Use imperative voice sparingly in a scientific paper, because it comes across as rude (as do many of the sentences in what you are reading right now!). E.g. do not say Recall that . . How To Improve English Essay American School-Salzburg. Of course, an occasional imperative in parentheses is critical thinking Macquarie, not objectionable (e.g. Human Essay. (see Walker 1996 for more details).). A formal document needs to be structured at all levels, whether or not the thinking foundation Macquarie structure is The University of Brighton, made explicit using section labels or other visible clues. Overall structure The standard format for critical thinking, an effective essay or article is to: (1) present a coherent thesis in writing an argument University, the introduction, (2) try your hardest to convince the reader of your thesis in thinking foundation Macquarie University, the body of the paper, and (3) restate the writing an argument University thesis in the conclusion so that the reader remains quite sure what your thesis is, and so that the critical thinking foundation Macquarie University reader can decide whether he or she was convinced. Using any other format for a formal article is almost invariably a bad idea.

The introduction and conclusions do not always need to be labeled as such, but they need to be there. Note that an abstract is no substitute for an introduction; abstracts act as an independent miniature version of the article, not part of the introduction. Each paragraph is one relevant sub-topic Each paragraph in a document should have one topic that is clearly evident early in the paragraph. Every paragraph should have a clear relationship to the main topic of how to focus on writing Caxton College your document; if not, either the paragraph should be eliminated, or the main topic should be revised. Use complete sentences Except in extraordinary circumstances, sentences in the main text must be complete, i.e., they must have a subject and a verb, so that they express an entire thought, not just a fragment or the beginning of a thought. Note that most -ing words are not verbs. The light turning green is just a fragment, i.e., a start to critical Macquarie University a sentence or a part of one. Criticle Rosseau. To be a sentence that you could use on its own followed by critical thinking foundation Macquarie a period, it would have to be The light turned green, which has both a subject and a verb.

Put appropriate punctuation between sentences. Two complete sentences can be divided with a period, question mark, or exclamation point, or they can be weakly connected as clauses with a semicolon. However, they can never be connected with a comma in formal writing! To see if your writing has this problem, consider each of your commas in turn. If you could replace the comma with a period, leaving two complete, meaningful sentences, then that comma is an error -- a comma can never be used like that! Instead, replace the comma with a semicolon, in case you have two sentences that need to be linked in some generic way, or make the on writing linkage explicit with a conjunction, or simply use a period, to thinking University leave two complete and independent sentences. Section titles Section titles for an article should say exactly and succinctly what the reader will get out of that section. In most relatively short documents, using a standard set of how to write Vrije Amsterdam section titles is best so that people can scan through your document quickly.

Section standards vary in different fields, but a common set is: Introduction, Background, Methods (for an experimental paper) or Architecture (for a modeling paper), Discussion, Future Work (often merged with Discussion), and critical foundation Macquarie, Conclusion. If you do not use the standard titles, e.g. if you have labeled lower-level subsections, you should be quite explicit about what is in how to, that section. Thinking. Such labels should make sense to how to on writing Caxton someone who has not yet read that section, and make it clear why they should read it. For instance, a section about adding a second eye to a simulation of single-eye vision could truthfully be called Multiple eyes, but that title is thinking foundation University, meaningless to how to research Universiteit someone scanning the document. Instead, it should be something like Extending the model to explain stereo vision whose meaning will be clear to the type of person likely to be reading the critical thinking foundation Macquarie paper. Everything important goes in your introduction and conclusion Everyone who looks at your paper will at online writing The University, least skim the critical University introduction and conclusion, and write research essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, those who read it in critical foundation Macquarie, depth will remember those two sections the best.

So make sure that your most important points are quite prominent and unmissable in those sections. Say it, never just say that you will say it In the introduction, conclusion, and abstract (if any), do not merely describe what you are going to say or have said; actually say it! For instance, do not just state that I will discuss and evaluate this paper if you will later argue that (for example) it is not convincing. Instead state that the paper is focus, unconvincing, and Macquarie, (in brief) why you believe that to writing an argument be the case. Then you can elaborate on that point in subsequent paragraphs. Subsections If you have sections 1, 1.1, and 1.2, there must be introductory material between 1 and 1.1 that explains briefly what is in the subsections, mentioned in the order of the foundation Macquarie University subsections. That is, 1.1 should never follow just after 1 without some intervening text. If you have 1.1, there must always be a 1.2; otherwise 1 and 1.1 should be merged.

Each 1.x subsection should end with a concluding statement of what has been established in how to write research Vrije, that subsection, wrapping things up before moving on to the next subsection. Figure captions Different communities have different expectations on foundation Macquarie University, what to put into english American International figure captions. Some journals, like Science , have very long captions, which are meant to be readable independently of the critical Macquarie main article. That way, readers can skim articles and only look at online writing The University, interesting figures, before deciding whether to read the whole article. In such cases, you must ensure that all of the main points of the figure are also mentioned in the text of the article, so that someone reading the article straight through will not miss them. Other journals and other publications like books, theses, and proposals tend to have very little in the caption, with the thinking figures being understandable only when reading the main text.

Even in such cases, I myself prefer to put all the graphical details like the dotted line represents in Rosseau, the caption, plus enough context so that the import of the figure is clear. You are welcome to have your own preferences, but you should be aware of what you are trying to critical thinking Macquarie achieve, i.e. Writing Florida. whether you want the critical thinking foundation Macquarie University caption to writing test of Brighton be readable on its own. Try hard to avoid ambiguous references Conversation is thinking foundation University, replete with ambiguous words like this, these, his, it, they, etc. These words have no meaning in themselves, but in conversation the rights writing meaning is usually clear from the context. In written text, however, the intended meaning is quite often not evident to foundation Macquarie University the reader, because there are e.g. many possible interpretations of it and this. It is a good idea to read over anything you write, searching for this sort of word.

For each instance, first ask yourself To what specific item does this term refer?. For such a reference to make sense, the object, person, or concept must have been explicitly mentioned just prior to your reference. Often you will find that it or they refers to writing an argument of Central something vague that was not even discussed explicitly in your paper, in thinking foundation, which case you should reword your text entirely. Even if the item to free which you refer is critical Macquarie, explicitly mentioned in your paper, ask yourself whether there is any chance that the reader might not know to which of criticle thinking Rosseau College several items you might be referring. E.g. for the word he, were there two or three people being discussed? If so then state the actual name of critical thinking foundation University each; he would be ambiguous. Often an ambiguous this or these can be disambiguated by adding a noun that specifies precisely the writing an argument University type of object or concept to which you are referring. Thinking Foundation Macquarie University. For instance, this argument or this paper is an argument Florida, less confusing than simply this. That is, do not use this followed directly by a verb phrase, but you can use this before a noun phrase, as in this sentence is a good example of the use of the word 'this'. Watch out for critical thinking Macquarie, homonyms Spell checkers are wonderful, but they are absolutely useless for detecting misused homonyms or near-homonyms, i.e., actual words whose meaning is confused with other actual words. Free Essay Test. As a result, homonyms are probably the most common spelling errors in word-processed text.

Even if you are lazy and let the spell checker fix all of critical thinking University your other words, make certain that you know the differences between words like: If you do not know the difference, you must simply avoid using any of these words. Yet because the spell checker takes care of all the how to improve essay other words you may misspell, learning to use these few words correctly is surely not much of a burden, and is crucial for convincing your readers that you are competent and trustworthy. Avoid comprise Apparently the word comprise has now been used incorrectly so many times to mean compose that this usage is now becoming acceptable. But it is much safer simply to University avoid comprise altogether, as anyone who does know what it started out meaning will be annoyed when you use it to mean compose. But and online essay writing test of Brighton, however are not interchangeable The words but and however have similar meanings, but they are not interchangeable.

If you take a grammatically correct sentence containing but and replace it with however, or vice versa, the critical thinking result will almost always be incorrect, mainly because of School comma punctuation. I like oranges, but I do not like tangerines. I like oranges. However, I do not like tangerines. I like oranges; however, I do not like tangerines. I, however, do not like grapefruits. I like oranges however they have been prepared. If you exchange any of these buts and howevers, then the sentences would become incorrect, and in some cases meaningless. A point is a single item The word point can only be used for a single, atomic item. Thus it is thinking Macquarie University, not appropriate to how to research Vrije Amsterdam discuss a sub-point, part of a point, the critical thinking first half of a point, etc.

Instead use topic or section, etc. A research There is no noun phrase a research in English. Use a study or just research, never a research. Similarly, there is no separate plural form of research; researches is an English verb, not a noun. Avoid capitalization When in doubt, use lower case. Criticle Thinking Rosseau Lake. Capitalization is appropriate only for specific, named, individual items or people. For example, capitalize school subjects only when you are referring to a specific course at a specific school: math is Macquarie University, a general subject, but Math 301 is a particular course. Similarly: Department of Computer Sciences vs. How To Improve American School-Salzburg. a computer science department, the foundation Macquarie University president vs.

President Bush. How To Focus On Writing An Essay. When in doubt, use lower case. Avoid contractions Contractions are appropriate only for conversational use and for informal writing, never for foundation Macquarie, technical or formal writing. Hyphenate phrases only when otherwise ambiguous In English phrases (groups of several words forming a unit), hyphens are used to group pairs of words when the meaning might otherwise be ambiguous. That is, they act like the parentheses in a mathematical expression. They should normally otherwise be avoided unless they are part of a single word (or the dictionary explicitly requires them), i.e., it is a mistake to use a hyphen where the meaning was already clear and unambiguous. For instance, long adjective phrases preceding a noun sometimes include another noun temporarily being used as an how to focus an essay Caxton adjective. Critical Thinking Macquarie University. Such phrases can often be parsed several different ways with different meanings. Online Essay Test The University. For example, the phrase English language learners as written means language learners from England, because, by default, language modifies learners, and English modifies language learners. But the phrase that was intended was probably English-language learners, i.e. learners of the English language, and using the hyphen helps make that grouping clear.

Note that there would never be a hyphen if the critical thinking same phrase were used after the noun it modifies, because in on writing an essay Caxton College, that case there would be absolutely no chance of ambiguity: a learner of the English language ( NEVER a learner of the English-language; the hyphen effectively turns the noun phrase English language into an adjective, and critical thinking foundation Macquarie, a prepositional phrase starting with of the how to improve english writing must be completed with a noun, not an adjective). Note that hyphens are used only in adjective phrases; they are not needed after an adverb (and are therefore incorrect). Critical Thinking Foundation. An adverb explicitly modifies the Lake College adjective immediately following it, never a noun. For instance, a quickly dropping stock cannot possibly be mistaken for a quickly dropping-stock, because adverbs like quickly cannot modify a noun phrase like dropping stock, and so quickly clearly must modify dropping. In general, there should never be a hyphen after an adverb ending in ly, though hyphens are sometimes necessary after some non-adverbial ly words like early (as in the correct examples an early-rising rooster or an early-rising English-language learner). You may want to search through your finished document for ly-; nearly all examples of those three characters in a row will be mistakes. In some very complicated phrases, two levels of critical thinking Macquarie University grouping can be achieved using an en dash, i.e. a slightly longer dash than a hyphen. For instance, a language-learning--associated problem would be a problem associated with language learning; the hyphen groups language and learning, while the human rights essay writing School en-dash -- connects language learning with associated.

Without hyphens or without the en-dash, the phrase would be quite difficult to read. But in such cases it is often clearer just to reword the sentence to avoid the ambiguity, as in a problem associated with language learning. In cases where the critical foundation University word grouping is quite obvious because the how to write research essay Amsterdam pair of words are so often used together, the hyphen can be omitted even when it would strictly be required to avoid ambiguity. For instance chocolate chip cookies is unlikely to be misread as chocolate chip-cookies, despite that being the thinking University literal interpretation, and so the hyphen can usually be omitted from writing an argument University of Central Florida chocolate-chip cookies. In general, you should hyphenate a phrase when that particular sentence would otherwise be ambiguous.

In any other case, even a nearby sentence containing the same phrase but e.g. after the critical thinking noun it modifies, you should leave out the hyphen. I.e., the hyphen is not a property of the phrase, but of how you are using the phrase in an essay, the sentence. American vs. Foundation Macquarie University. British English I myself am American by birth, despite lecturing in an argument of Central, a British university, and I use American spellings by default (e.g. organization, not organisation). Authors are generally free to use whichever spelling they prefer, although publishers will often change the spellings to make e.g. all the papers in a certain edited volume use the same conventions. Thus please do not hesitate to use whichever one of the (correct) spellings you are more comfortable with, as long as you keep it consistent throughout the document. Formatting and grammar rules When in doubt about grammar or page format, researchers in critical University, psychology and computer science generally follow the free online essay writing The University of Brighton APA style guide; biological fields use similar standards. Unfortunately, you do have to pay for the APA guide, though it is now available in a less-expensive electronic edition.

Pay attention to how your document looks Use readable, clear fonts and reasonable margins, following the typical format used for critical thinking foundation Macquarie, similar documents. If your word processor cannot make the rights essay writing School spacing regular between words (e.g. most versions of Microsoft Word), turn off right justification. Poor spacing makes the page look jumbled and seem incoherent, even if the writing is not. Nearly all formal writing should simply be stapled --- anything else looks unprofessional. For instance, using a fancy cover and binding for a short paper or report is distracting and critical Macquarie University, makes it difficult to photocopy the paper; such binding is necessary only for long papers that a staple would have trouble keeping together.

At the opposite extreme, it should be obvious that folding one corner is not an acceptable substitute for a staple. Authors are authors, not writers The people who perform a scientific study are called authors, never writers, even though the Rosseau College results are presented in a written paper. Scientific authorship includes much more than the actual writing, and some authors may well not have written any word in the paper. Use last names Never refer to the authors by their first names, as if they were your friends. University. They are not, and rights essay School, even if they were, it would be inappropriate to thinking University draw attention to that circumstance. Except in unusual cases to avoid ambiguity or to discuss specific people (e.g. the how to writing American International School-Salzburg original founders of a field of research), first names are not even mentioned in the body of a scientific text; the last names are sufficient. Author names are keys -- spell them properly In academic writing, an author's last name is critical thinking Macquarie, like the human rights essay School key in critical thinking Macquarie University, a database lookup -- if the name is misspelled (e.g. Davis for Davies), your reader will not be able to locate works by that author in the library or online. Moreover, it is extraordinarily impolite to misspell someone's name when you are discussing them; doing so shows that you have not paid much attention to them or their work.

So you should make a special effort to spell author names correctly, double and triple checking them against the original source, and ensuring that you spell them the same way each time. Use appropriate pronouns Use appropriate pronouns when referring to the authors. If there are multiple authors, use they or the authors or the write research essay Vrije authors' last names, not he or the author. If there is Macquarie, only one author and you can determine the gender with great confidence, you may use he or she; otherwise use the author or the criticle thinking Lake College author's last name. Referring to foundation Macquarie other texts Use double quotes around the title of an how to write essay Vrije Amsterdam article when you refer to critical thinking University it in the text. Italics are reserved for how to english essay writing American, books or other works of similar length. Avoid underlining altogether --- underlining is just a way of indicating that handwritten or typewritten text should be typeset in italics, and is thus inappropriate when italics are available (as they are on any modern word processor). Be very precise when discussing an University author discussing another author For better or worse, academic writing often devolves into discussions of what one author said about another author. If commenting on criticle College, such controversies, you should be extremely careful about using ambiguous terms like his, the author, etc. Very often your reader will have no idea which of the critical foundation University various authors you are referring to, even though it may be clear to you.

When in doubt, use the free online essay The University actual last names instead, even if they might sound repetitive. Avoid footnotes Footnotes should be used quite sparingly, and should never be used as a way to critical foundation Macquarie University avoid the hard work of making your text flow into a coherent narrative. How To An Essay College. Only when something genuinely cannot be made to critical Macquarie fit into how to research Universiteit Amsterdam the main flow of the text, yet is somehow still so important that it must be mentioned, does it go into a footnote. Avoid direct quotes In scientific (as opposed to critical Macquarie University literary or historical) writing, direct quotes should be used only criticle Rosseau College, when the precise wording of the original sentences is important, e.g. if the work is so groundbreaking that the words themselves have driven research in thinking foundation Macquarie, this field. Write Essay Vrije Amsterdam. In nearly every other case, paraphrasing is more appropriate, because it lets you formulate the idea in the terms suitable for your particular paper, focusing on critical thinking University, the underlying issue rather than the Rosseau College way one author expressed it. Be careful with arguments about critical Macquarie University grammar If you are going to criticize the grammar or spelling of an author in writing, you should be extraordinarily careful to verify that you are correct. Reading a long rant from an American about how a person of British upbringing has supposedly misspelled words like utilisation, or vice versa, can be quite painful. There is no need to mention explicitly reading the paper A lot of students use phrases like while reading this paper, I . and In this paper the authors . . Try to avoid this redundancy.

If you use the word author you need not also use paper, and vice versa. An Essay Caxton. Similarly, it is critical foundation Macquarie, clear that whatever you discovered about the paper, you discovered while reading the paper; we do not need to focus on writing an essay Caxton be reminded of this. Academic writing is always about critical University papers and authors, and thus those topics should only be discussed when they are relevant. Discussing existing work Whenever you bring up an existing piece of research, whether it is criticle thinking Rosseau College, your own or someone else's, there is thinking, a standard way of doing it properly. First you say what the research showed, then you say what its limitations are, and then you say how your own work is going to overcome those limitations. I.e., say what has been done, what has not been done, and how you are going to rights essay Westbourne do some of what has not been done. If you are doing a literature review rather than an original research paper, you just describe what you think should be done, rather than what you plan to do.

Unless you want to make an enemy, you should always mention something positive about thinking foundation Macquarie University existing work before exploring the limitations, and you should always assume that the person you are discussing will read what you wrote. How To English American School-Salzburg. Of course, sometimes there is critical thinking Macquarie University, a good reason to how to focus an essay Caxton make an enemy, e.g. to draw attention to yourself by attacking someone famous, but you should be sure to choose your enemies wisely. Discussing proposed work In a research proposal, it is never acceptable to announce only that you are planning to study topic X. In the context of research, studying is a vague and unbounded task, with no criterion for success and Macquarie University, no way to how to focus on writing College tell if you are getting anywhere. Studying is something you do in a course, where someone can tell you what to focus on and can test you to see if you got the Macquarie right answer; research is essay, not like that. In research, you need to spell out the specific questions you are going to try to answer, the specific phenomena that need explanations, and so on -- it's up to Macquarie University you to define the question and the methods, and until you've done so, it's not research, just idle speculation. Discussion/future work In the discussion sections of a research paper, be sure to how to improve english American International discuss all topics that the audience expected to see in thinking foundation Macquarie, the paper, even if you yourself do not believe them to be relevant. The reader is more likely to assume that you have been sloppy about your literature review than to assume you knew about the how to work but believed it not to be relevant. Critical. Page restrictions can help here --- they provide a good excuse for free online of Brighton, omitting topics that you do not believe to thinking foundation University be relevant. In a longer article or thesis without page limits you have no choice but to address the issue and explicitly state why the topic is not relevant despite the common belief that it is. Bibliographies Students often seem to think that bibliographies are mysterious, tricky things with rules far too complex to understand or remember.

Although there is a vast array of different bibliographic formats, the underlying principles are actually not complicated at all. Simply put, all bibliographies must have a certain basic minimum standard of information in order to fulfill their function of allowing people to locate the specific item of reference material you cite. In particular, every bibliography entry needs an author, date, and title, every journal article absolutely must have a volume and page numbers, and every conference paper must have the title of the conference proceedings, the page numbers, and some indication of who published it. Free Essay Test Of Brighton. Without having every bit of this basic information, there is no way to be sure that readers can find the one specific article that you are discussing. Conversely, you should not include anything not necessary or useful for locating the article, such as the cost of reprints.

As long as the critical thinking foundation correct information is human writing School, included, there are many acceptable bibliography formats, though note that in all cases each entry ends in foundation Macquarie University, a period. Citations The bibliography or reference list in an academic paper must consist of precisely those sources that you cite in the text, without any extra sources and without omitting any. Each citation must provide enough information for the reader to human writing Westbourne find the correct source in the bibliography; beyond that, any number of citation formats will do unless there is some specific standard you are told to follow. One common approach is to use author-date citations like (Smith, Wu, and Tong 2008), but other approaches such as numbering the bibliography entries and then using bracketed or superscript numbers are also fine. If using numeric citations with brackets, note that there must always be a space before the critical Macquarie University first bracket, as in . known [1], ( not . known[1]). If using author-date citations, you must remember that any item in parentheses does not exist , as far as the grammar of the sentence is concerned, and thus it cannot be used as part of the sentence. How To Focus An Essay Caxton College. Thus the rule is simply to put the parentheses around the critical foundation Macquarie University part that would be acceptable to omit when reading aloud, as in Carlin (1972) showed that. or . as seen in how to research essay, rats (Carlin 1972). ( not (Carlin 1972) showed that. and not . as seen in rats Carlin (1972).).

It is usually best to have only a single level of parentheses, because multiple parentheses start to distract from the main text. Thus I would prefer has been established (but for a counterexample see Johnson, 1905) to has been established (but for foundation University, a counterexample see Johnson (1905)). I and we Writing standards disagree about whether to use I and we (and their various forms) in academic work. Some argue that those personal pronouns distract from what should be objective and on writing an essay Caxton College, scientifically valid without recourse to any particular speaker, or even that they just do not sound scientific. Others argue that omitting I and critical foundation Macquarie, we results in awkward, passive sentences rather than direct We did X sentences. Personally, I believe that academic writing should use personal pronouns whenever what is being reported was an on writing Caxton College arbitrary and critical thinking foundation Macquarie, specific choice made by a human being, or for opinions or personal judgment, precisely because these pronouns emphasize that a human was involved in the work. When reporting universal scientific facts or observations, I would not use personal pronouns, because any reasonable observer would have reported similar results and thus there is no need to emphasize the an argument University of Central Florida role of the authors. Thus, personally, I believe that I and we have their place in critical University, academic writing, i.e., to emphasize the human element where appropriate; in free essay, other circumstances I would discourage their use. Please note that I happen to disagree with a few of the rules commonly accepted for English text, and in critical, the text on this page I happily use my own rules instead. Free Online Essay Writing Test Of Brighton. You might wish to follow the accepted usage in such cases, though I would much rather everyone used my own much better rules as listed below. If you do agree to join my one-man campaign to fix the English language, I cannot accept any responsibility for points deducted by less enlightened folks. :-)

Punctuation after quotations In American English (and in some cases for British English), punctuation following a bit of thinking foundation Macquarie quoted text is traditionally placed inside the how to on writing Caxton quotation. However, I consider that rule an egregious violation of the whole notion of quotation, i.e. an thinking University obvious bug in the English language. For example, if I am quoting someone who said that life is hard, I always put the comma outside the quotation mark because they themselves did not necessarily have a pause when they said it; in how to english essay School-Salzburg, fact, they probably had a full stop (which would be written as a period). Accepted American usage is to University write life is hard, but the computer programmer in me just cannot be convinced to make such an obvious semantic error. Spaces around dashes An em-dash is an argument University Florida, a long dash, longer than an en-dash and a hyphen. The traditional formatting for an em-dash does not use any spaces, as in life is hard---then you die. However, I myself much prefer to foundation put a space before and after the dash. How To Improve English International. Without the spaces the thinking foundation Macquarie University dash appears to be connecting two words like hard---then, which makes no grammatical sense. Grammatically, the function of the writing an argument Florida dash is to separate and University, connect phrases or clauses, not words, and Lake College, I prefer to make that visually clear by putting spaces around the dash.

Again, in my opinion the accepted usage is a bug in the language. Dangling prepositions Officially, it is an error to end a sentence with a preposition, as in critical, they arrived at write Vrije Universiteit, the place they were heading to. However, in thinking foundation Macquarie University, practice it is often very difficult and awkward to reword sentences to avoid dangling prepositions. Thus I consider this rule to be optional at best. Serial commas In Britain and online writing The University of Brighton, some other less-enlightened countries, the comma is often omitted before an 'and' in a list. Critical Foundation University. For instance, they will write of online essay writing of Brighton ham, chips and eggs, rather than ham, chips, and eggs.

I consider this an appalling, confusing construction, because it meaninglessly groups the last two items in the list together. Lists are generally meant to critical thinking University be collections of equals, so there should be just as many separators between chips and eggs as between ham and chips. In many cases, omitting the serial comma is on writing an essay, ambiguous. Thinking Foundation Macquarie University. Moreover, in the very rare case where adding the comma is ambiguous, the sentence should be rewritten anyway. Oxford University Press, at criticle College, least, agrees with me; see the Wikipedia serial comma entry. Again, this insistence on using appropriate syntax is probably driven by the computer programmer in me, but I think all right-thinking people should be offended whenever a serial comma is omitted. Commas after i.e. and e.g. Critical. Many grammar books state that a comma is improve english essay writing, always required after i.e. and e.g. Thinking Foundation Macquarie. used in a sentence, as in sentences often contain spelling errors, i.e., words spelled incorrectly. The inspiration for human rights, this rule is that such abbreviations should be mentally expanded to thinking Macquarie University the English translation of the Latin phrase for which they stand (i.e. translating to that is, and e.g. Human Rights Essay Writing. translating to for example, which in critical foundation Macquarie, itself is an important distinction to know). Rosseau College. However, these terms come up very often in formal writing, and in many cases I consider it inappropriate to add symbolic pauses (i.e. commas) around them.

Such pauses break up the flow of the sentence, and modern readers treat the abbreviations just as they would any other word, without internally translating them to Macquarie University Latin phrases and essay Amsterdam, then English phrases. Thus in many cases I prefer to critical foundation Macquarie University omit the comma after the abbreviation, and sometimes also the one before it. Some people, even more pedantic than I, disagree. This document is in the public domain. You are free to copy it, redistribute it, modify it, or use it for any other non-fraudulent purpose.

If redistributing a complete copy or a lengthy excerpt, please (1) retain this notice, (2) clearly mark the original author, and (3) clearly mark any changes that you make as your own and not those of the original author.

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Critical Thinking - PHIX137 - 2017 Course Handbook - MQ Handbook

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It is written to notify all the reasons, features and other emotions of the topic. It is an argument University of Central Florida also written to critical thinking foundation Macquarie, entertain people, well entertainment is depends on the theme, like when it is on the gossip of Hollywood or Bollywood then it comes under entertainment. More » Critical Analysis Essay Writing Tips. While writing a critical analysis essay you must remember few major points. Initially you must give a small intro about the nature of work and the theme. You intro can be fulfilled when you describe the title of the how to focus an essay Caxton work, name of the author, information of publisher and lastly the elaboration of the theme with the purpose of writing. More » Rhetorical Analysis Essay Example. The following rhetorical analysis essay example of a narrative story demonstrates the writer’s ability to capture the interest of the readers while narrating an unforgettable experience. The short story is thinking Macquarie a good reading material for students because the reader is given a clear idea on the techniques used by how to focus on writing excellent writers. A story about human experience does not have to be a long one to be interesting and critical foundation have an impact on its reader.

When writing an analysis essay , always bear in mind that you are writing someone else’s work and you are simply elucidating for the reader what message the human rights essay Westbourne School author is trying to thinking Macquarie, convey in his work. The format to be used should be in the form of a summary of the an essay Caxton author’s work, pointing out its salient points. Analysis essays are usually undertaken in the academic world where students study the work of critical thinking, known authors and professors attempt to human writing, utilize the essays as tools for imparting certain writing techniques. When a student is asked to write a causal analysis essay , he might be tempted to simply rewrite a literary work that contains typical causal relationships. This is not a surprising occurrence since this type of essay, also called a cause and effect essay deals with how things work or the relationship between two situations where one causes the critical foundation Macquarie University effect on another. To avoid the mistake of virtually copying an how to essay American, essay with similar content, one should strive to write an original essay that has the elements of a cause and effect situation. This way, one can be confident of doing his own work on the subject and refrain from the temptation of thinking Macquarie, committing plagiarism. When asked to write an analytical essay , one has to follow some suggested procedures to succeed. Thinking Rosseau! The suggested writing process is a good guide for students to keep them on critical thinking Macquarie, track while writing the essays assigned to them. As always, it is by constant practice that a writer gets to hone his writing skills and improve his ability to communicate his ideas.

The best advice that students can get is to follow the steps taught by their teacher on how to on writing, how to write an analytical paper. If no specific instructions were given, this will serve as a guide that the students can use. Example of Analytical Essay Outline. The analytical essay outline example is critical foundation University a guide for students, professionals, or those people who simply love to write so that they can make properly-structured and well-thought-out essays and analytical compositions. Normally, the outline of the analytical essay comprises the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. However, there are also other outlines on how an analytical essay should be structured and these are more complicated than the average outline. Topic Ideas for Analysis Essay Writing. One may choose any of rights writing Westbourne School, analysis essay topic ideas; however, there are some ideas that may be assigned to him or her, especially a student trying to comply with school requirements. Analysis essays can also be notoriously difficult to write as the writer should also analyze facts as well as presenting them. These essays may evaluate both the student’s ability to analyze topics and express thoughts and they can evaluate the knowledge of the student on particular issues.

Example of a Process Analysis Essay. Critical! What is a process essay ? It is an free online of Brighton, essay or a paper that tells the foundation Macquarie University reader how to do something (a “how to” essay) or it can describe how something is done. The example below shows how one can easily bake a chicken pot pie. Here is writing an argument University a process analysis essay sample: Chicken pot pie is a wonderful short order and comfort food that can be cooked now and critical thinking foundation University then stored in how to write research essay Vrije Universiteit a refrigerator to be heated later. It can be eaten as a snack or it can be part of thinking Macquarie University, a meal. Crytical Analysis Essay on essay writing, A Rose for Emily. Resistance to change is the underlying theme of American author William Faulkner’s short story entitled “A Rose for critical Macquarie Emily.” The critical analysis essay on A Rose for Emily is an write research Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, in-depth exploration of how the main character, Emily Grierson , relates with the society. Moreover, it is also a story about a woman who had been in the shadow of the overbearing nature of critical thinking foundation Macquarie, her father for a very long time. Human Rights Essay Westbourne School! Poem analysis essay is the best way to express your feelings and emotions. Whenever you describe any poem is said to be poem analysis essay. Macquarie! Do you remember when you were child; in language class you were asked to express your opinion on certain issue.

Poem analysis essay is just like that. Through this essay you can clearly and deeply define each and every point in the written poem you can highlight the value of the poem. How to Write a Literary Analysis Essay? Literary, Literacy is quite important for all of us. The word designates the style of attitude in the written article of every author. Whenever you search out any product, topic or anything else deeply said analysis and it is very important to hunt every topic before buying or writing on it. Literary analysis essay is a brief note about literacy which describes it till the depth. Through the note writer expresses his inner thoughts about the theme. Literary analysis essay includes A to Z concepts of the topic which give you knowledge around the topic.

While writing note author shows each and free online The University of Brighton every point by which.

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Critical Thinking - PHL137 - 2017 Course Handbook - MQ Handbook

CAREER PATH - PowerPoint PPT Presentation. To view this presentation, you'll need to enable Flash. PPT CAREER PATH PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 3cc833-MDQyM. The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content. THIS PRESENTATION IS FOR EVERYONE WHO SEARCHING FOR THEIR CAREER AFTER INTERMEDIATE IN DIFFERENT STREAMS LIKE MPC; Bi.PC; ENGG; CA;etc., PowerPoint PPT presentation. 2 Career planning The process of establishing career objectives and. determining appropriate educational and.

developmental programs to further develop the. skills required to achieve short- or long-term. Career Paths After Class12 M.P.C. 7 To Join In Engineering 1) IIT JEE IIT JEE an National Level Engineering Entrance. Exam which is conducted for foundation Macquarie filling the. Admissions in 15 IITs, ISM Dhanbad, IT-BHU which. contains 8,384 seats and ISER containing 386. seats.

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marks in Intermediate(M.P.C) to appear for IIT. JEE For More information regarding IIT JEE Click. this link and News Regarding the IIT JEE Click. 8 2) AIEEE AIEEE is a National Level Engineering Entrance. Exam Conducted to thinking Rosseau College, fill 13,248 seats in the 20. NITs. NITs are the best Institutes after the IITs. for providing the University, Engineering education.

Thats. the cause most of the aspirants try for getting. in to human writing School, this institutes. We can get admitted in the. National Level NITs, IIITs, Deemed Universities. for the B.Tech/B.E, B.Arch/B.Planning courses and. Four New IIITs,24 self financed Deemed. universities, 11 more institutes and 10 more new. NITs are additional for this. Critical Thinking Foundation Macquarie University? Eligibility A student should have scored 60 of. marks in Intermediate(M.P.C) to appear for improve english essay writing American International AIEEE For More information regarding AIEEE Click this.

link and News Regarding the AIEEE Click on News. 9 3) BITSAT BITSAT is another National Level Engineering. Entrance Exam conducted to thinking University, fill the 837 seats in. BITS Pilani, 599 seats in BITS Goa and 534 seats. in BITS Hyderabad.

These institutes will provide. the high quality of technical education after. IITs and test The University NITs in India. Eligibility A student should have scored 80. of marks in Intermediate(M.P.C) to appear for. BITSAT, Toppers of the Macquarie University, Internmediate boards can. get a direct admission. For more details Regaring the BITSAT Entrance. Exam Click on this link and for the news. regarding BITSAT 2010 News. 10 4) EAMCET EAMCET is an University of Central Florida, State Level Engineering Entrance.

Exam conducted by thinking foundation Macquarie University, the EAMCET Convener Behalf of. the Government of Andhra Pradesh to fill the. admissions in how to write essay Universiteit 650 Colleges and nearly 2.25 lakhs. of Engineering seats. EAMCET Means Engineering,

Agriculture, Medical Common Entrance Test. The. aspirant who want to thinking foundation Macquarie University, get in to the Engineering. institutes in Andhra should qualify in EAMCET and. get a good rank.This Exam will be conducted every. year in the month of May. Eligibility A student should have scored 60 of.

marks in Intermediate(M.P.C) to appear for. EAMCET. Free Online Writing Test The University? For more details Regaring the EAMCET Entrance. Exam Click on this link and for the news. regarding EAMCET 2010 News. 11 5) IIITs IIITs are the institutes established to make the. students well suited for the Information. Technology Market. IIITs Means Indian Institues. of Information Technologies. These were.

establihed by the central government between 1998. 2000. The first IIIT was establihed in. hyderabad and Macquarie the List of how to english essay IIITs in critical University India is here. AIEEE Entrance Exam, not only thinking Lake, those IIITs there. are three more IIITs in critical foundation Nugivedu, Basara and.

Edupalayapayah and the students who have scored. good marks in 10th and from rural areas are. eligible. For More details on the IIITs. 12 6) ISAT ISAT is an National Level Engineering Entrance. Exam conducted to fill the criticle thinking College, seats in Indian. Institute of critical foundation University Science and Technology (IIST). Rosseau College? This.

Exam will be held in April as same as the IIT JEE. happens and this paper consists of critical foundation University 2 papers. In. each paper Maths, Physics, Chemistry subjects. consists of improve essay International School-Salzburg 40 questions.This institution will. provide the courses Engineering courses in. Aveationics, Aerospace, Physical Sciences and the. students who completed that course will have. chances to work for ISRO. For More details on the Exam

13 Higher Education Through B.Sc If the student cannot join in the Engineering. course after Intermediate then the immediate. alternative is B.Sc with several combinations. After completing the 3 year degree course there. will be lot of opportunities for critical thinking University higher education. and also Jobs. M.Sc This can be done by appearing for the. PGCETs conducted by the Universities in the State. for getting admissions. After completing the 2. years M.Sc Course then you may choose teaching. field or do research by thinking Rosseau Lake College, doing 2 years Phd.

M.B.A To get an admission for critical foundation M.B.A in National. Level one must qualify in CAT, MAT National Level. Exams and if you are supposed to free writing test The University of Brighton, do it in Andhra. Pradesh we have to critical thinking, get qualified in how to focus College ICET. in. M.B.A Finance, HR, Marketing fields teh Corporate. companies may hire you guys.

M.C.A If you are supposed to critical foundation Macquarie, do M.C.A in Andhra. Pradesh we have to get qualified in ICET. Online Writing Test Of Brighton? Then. you have to complete 3 years M.C.A and get. settled in the software field. B.Ed If you have choosen your carrer to critical thinking foundation University, be a. teacher then this is the how to focus an essay College, best option. This is one. year course then you have to critical thinking foundation Macquarie University, write D.Sc and how to research Vrije Universiteit then. qualify in thinking Macquarie University that to become as SGT or school.

asistant. Media and Mass Communication After completing. Degree doing the Media and Mass Communication. course you can grab chances in the Electronic and. Print Media which is now palying a key role our.

society with a handsome salary. 14 Higher Education with B.Tech The Students who have completed the B.Tech they. will have grip on the core branch and good. communication skills. If they are capable to get.

a job in Campus placements that fine Other wise. you have to search for a job of your. qualification either in private or Government. Sectors and if you have an intension to study. furthur like M.B.A or M.Tech in how to english essay writing the Famous. Institutes like IITs, Deemed univetsities, some. other Engineering institutes you must get.

qualified in the Following Entrance Exams. 15 1) GATE GATE Means Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering, to get in to the Famous IITs, IISC,NITs and in. Universities for doing a P.G Course. This is the. Key step to reach your destination as an. Engineer. Critical Macquarie? Eligibility 4 years Engineering, Equavalent. eligibility in /Science/Mathematics/Statistics/Com. puter Applications. How To An Essay Caxton? Notification Released date September Second.

week. Expected Exam Date February first week Results March second week The Gate score will be considered for 2 years. from the exam date (ie. you will be eligible to. get in to the institutes shown above for thinking 2 years. if you once qualify in an essay College the Exam) For More details http//

16 2) CAT CAT Means Common Aptitude Test this is thinking foundation University the. entrance exam conducted for the aspirants who. wants to do Management courses(M.B.A) in the. famous in ike IIMs. Engineering Management.

best Job Oppurtunities in the corporate sectors. Human Rights Westbourne School? Eligibility Any Bachelor Degree with 50 of. marks are eligible and for SC,ST,DA Candiates are. eligible if they score 45 of marks Notification Released date August Expected Exam Date November Results January For More details http// 17 3) XAT XAT is the Entrance Exam conducted by critical thinking foundation Macquarie University, the best. Business school in India named XLRI-Javier Labour.

Relations Institute.Not only in that instute more. than 70 business schools in Inadia provides. admissions based on American, the XAT Scores. Eligibility Any Bachelor Degree are any other. equivalent degree For More details http// 18 4) MAT MAT is the Management Aptitude Test Conducted by.

the All India Management Association for. providing admissions in to the 160 business. schools in thinking Macquarie India. Eligibility Any Degree For More details http// 19 5)JMAT JMAT is an National Level Entrance Examfor. getting admissions in IITs and IISC Banglore for. doing an two year post graduate programm in. Management. How To Research? One must get qualifeid in this exam.

to get in to the institues for that course Eligibility The Eligibilty Criteria Differs. from Institute to critical University, Institute and the common. Eligibility is 4 year Engineering degree or the. students who have done PG in science groups Applications Applications will be available. online from September Expected Exam Date December Results January For more Details http// 20 6) ATMA ATMA is the short form of focus on writing an essay Caxton College Association of Indian.

Management Schools Test for Management Admission. This exam will be conducted twice in every year. Based on the rank scored in this nealry 350. Business schools will provide admissions Eligibility Any Degree. For more details http// 7) National Aptitude Test National Aptitude Test is conducted by the. Society for research and development education. Based on the performance in the exam nearly 70. insitutes which offers M.B.A, M.C.A,M.Com, M.F.T, M.I.T and M.I.B Courses offer seats.

For more details Visit http// 21 8) GMAT GMAT is the Entrance Exam Conducted for the. admissions in to the Business schools world. wide.GMAT is an critical thinking foundation Macquarie, online entrance exam, the. aspirants can wirte it many times in the centers. that are alloted to them. Eligibility Any degree The Aspirants who are interested should register. in http// or http// and.

then login. 9) GRE GRE is an how to essay Vrije Amsterdam, entrance exam conducted for getting. admissioins in the English speaking countries. like America for doing graduation programs Eligibility Any degree Exam The Interested aspirant can registe online. and the exam fee is 150 for more details Integrated M.Sc Course After Completing the. M.P.C in Intermediate the foundation Macquarie University, students also have the. oppurtunity to do a 5 year Integrated M.Sc. Course.

This course is almost available in all. the universities. The Admissions in to these. courses will be based on the entrance exams. After you have completed the three year degree.

course your certificate will be provided to you. and you shallcontiue the M.Sc course furthur. 22 10) TOEFL TOEFL stands for Test of criticle thinking Rosseau College English as a Foreign. Language. Critical Thinking Foundation Macquarie University? The test is designed to measure the. English proficiency of non-English speaking. people and is divided into three sections. The.

test is timed for each section and how to research essay Amsterdam uses. multiple-choice questions with four possible. choices for each question. 11) Clat Law After Completing the students can also do the. Under Graduation courses in Law.

One must Qualify. in the National Level Entrance Exam Named CLAT. and the admissions will be provided based on the. rank scored in that exam. 23 Government jobs with Inter Based Higher Education. Jobs in Banks The students who have completed. Intermediate M.P.C are eligible to apply for University the. jobs in Florida Banking sector. They are eligible for. Clerk, Office Assistants, Accountants, Cashier.

posts. The eligible candidates must qualify the. written exam first and based on the perfromance. in the critical foundation Macquarie University, exam the aspirant is selected after. conducting an interview. Jobs in Defence Indian Airforce admits AIRMEN. cadder jobs for the students who have completed. their Intermediate (M.P.C) Airmen Technical. This Group belongs to X-trade and free the applicants. age should be betwwen 17 to critical University, 22 years and how to essay Vrije Universiteit height. of 152.5 centimenters.

The Entrance exam will be. conducted in all india level and then Physical. test and then Interview. For more details http//www.indianairforce.nic. in Jobs in critical Railways Special Class Railway. oppranties Exam will be conducted by the indian. railways Mechanical department and this exam will. be conducted by UPSE and human rights writing Westbourne School the age of the applicant.

should be betwwen 17 and 25. 24 Civils After completing Engineering or B.Sc then that. students are eligible to applu for the Civils. Exams. Critical Macquarie? You will get some Engineering subjects as.

the options. Every year the notification releases. in December and the prelims will be conducted in. May and essay International mains will be conducted in October or. November. For More details visit http// IES Engineering students are eligible for the. Engineering Services Exam which is critical foundation Macquarie University conducted.

every year to get jobs in the Government sector. The Notification will be released in January. first week and the exam will be conducted in June For More details visit http// IFS The Students completed Engineering and. also B.Sc Science are eligible for Indian Forest. Services. This exam is how to english writing American conducted by the UPSE. Every year. The Notification will be released in. February second week and thinking Macquarie the exam will be. conducted in July first week.

For More details visit http// CDS Combined Defence Services exam will be. conducted by UPSE twice in an year. Focus An Essay? The. Engineering students can apply for this and. Central Police Force (Assistant Commandants). Critical Foundation? For More details visit http// AP states Corporation Assistant Engineering. jobs in AP Jenco, AP Transco, APCPDCL, APSRTC, MDWSS Boards Assistant engineer jobs AEE In the sectors of R B, Irrigation the. Post of improve english essay School-Salzburg Assistant Executive Engineer the.

Engineering students can apply For More details visit http// APPSC Groups The students who have completed. their Engineering or B.Sc degree can compete fpor. the APPSC Groups. Group 1 includes the jobs like. Deputy Collector, DSP, CTO, RTO and the postings.

will be done by Group 1. For Engineering and. Degree Qualified students can get the University, jobs of. Deputy Thasildar, Sub Registar, Municipal. Commisinor, Exercise SI by writing the Group 2. For More Details Visit http// also have the oppurtunity to grab the chances of. getting the of Central Florida, jobs like SI, Conistable also. Thinking Foundation University? More details about free online essay test of Brighton this Jobs in PSU Air India, Bharath Dynamics.

Limited, BEML, BEL, BHEL, BPCL, NHPC, ONGC, Power. Grid are some of the Government based Industries. which hire the Engineering students. 25 Related posts EAMCET toppers pefer IITJEE and AIEEE scores Comparison and Competition Between AIEEE and. EAMCET Eduquity Career Technologies Will Conduct BITSAT.

2010 for BITS Pilani EAMCET and AIEEE last month preperation Where theres a coaching class, theres hope IIT dreams are costly Instructions regarding filling Aieee Application Tips on IIT-JEE 2010 and critical AIEEE How to essay Westbourne School, crack IIT-JEE or AIEEE with just 5 months. left? IITs and NITs plan for common counselling. Career Paths After Class12 bi.P.C. 27 Degree / Diploma / Certificate Courses are.

available for Bi.P.C. Agriculture Ayurvedic Dental Fisheries / Aqua Culture Floriculture Landscaping Forestry and wildlife Homeopathy Horticulture Medicine Medical Lab Technology Naturopathy Yogic Sciences Nursing Occupational Therapy Physiotherapy Rehabilitation. 28 Top Medical Entrance Exams Pattern A. All India Institute of Medical Sciences. (AIIMS MBBS) AIIMS Entrance for critical foundation Macquarie MBBS is a paper-based test of. 3 ? hours duration. This exam would consist of. 200 objective type (multiple choice and. assertion-reason type) 60 questions from. Physics, Chemistry, Biology and General knowledge.

are asked. 20 questions are asked from General. Knowledge and there is negative marking for. incorrect answers. After the declaration of the. result a final list for counselling is prepared. based on merit. B. All India Pre-Medical/Pre-Dental Entrance. Examination (AIPMT) This exam is conducted by the CBSE.

The. preliminary examination consists of 200 objective. type questions from the Physics, Chemistry and. Biology and the final examination consists of 120. objective type questions from Physics, Chemistry. and Biology. How To Research Essay Vrije Universiteit? C. Critical Thinking? Armed Forces Medical College Entrance. Examination (AFMC Entrance Exam) This exam is focus Caxton conducted by the Armed Forces. Medical College,Pune.

It consists of 200. objective type questions from Physics, Chemistry. and Biology. However, it also includes questions. to assess English language skills, comprehension. skills, logical reasoning skills, and the general. intelligence level of the candidates. D. JIPMER (Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate. Medical Education Research) This exam consists of 200 Multiple Choice.

Questions, equally distributed among English, Botany, Zoology, Physics and Chemistry. The. evaluation is fully computerized and thinking Macquarie there is Rosseau no. negative marking. E. Association of Managements of Unaided Private. Medical and Dental Colleges (AMUPMDC) This is a common entrance examination for the. admissions to the postgraduate courses, both. dental and medical degrees for the unaided.

private medical colleges in Maharashtra. It. comprises of 200 multiple choice questions from. 29 Medical Entrance Exam Eligibility The minimum age of the candidate should not be. less than 17 years. A candidate must have passed Higher Secondary.

Certificate Examination (102) or its equivalent. examination with Physics, Chemistry and Biology. from a recognized board and English as one ofthe. main subjects. A candidate should have passed the 102 exam.

with 60 aggregate in Chemistry, Biology, English. and Physics. The minimum passing percentage for the reserve. categories is 55 to appear in the entrance. exams. Those candidates who are waiting for results may. also apply to appear in the medical.

32 MBBS MBBS stands for Bachelor of medicine and foundation Macquarie Bachelor. of surgery. It is the basic degree for an. aspiring allopathic doctor. MBBS, as a career. option, has huge scope in India. Seats and Course Duration There are 248 colleges (government and improve english essay American School-Salzburg private) approved by the Medical Council of India, with an. annual intake of 28,742 students.

The course. duration in most colleges is 5 and half years, which include three semesters each of 18 month. duration and 1 year devoted to compulsory. rotating internship. Curriculum The curriculum is designed such that it trains. students to undertake responsibilities of a. physician of first contact, who is critical thinking Macquarie capable of. looking after the criticle Rosseau Lake College, patients.

Fees Fee varies from institute to institute. The cost. of an MBBS programme from All India Institute of. Medical Sciences for an outstation candidate is. Rs 970 and critical that for a local candidate is Rs 332. every year. For an institute like JIPMER, it may. go up to Rs 10,000-12,000 per annum and for a. private college, it may go up to as high as 2-3.

lakhs per how to an essay Caxton annum (excluding hostel and mess. charges). Thinking? Eligibility and essay writing International School-Salzburg Admission Process In general, the foundation, prospective students shall. complete the age of 17 years on or before 31st. December of the year of admission to the MBBS. course, they must have completed a HSC (102, or.

high school) with the Science stream, including. the subjects Biology, Chemistry and Physics with. at least 50 marks and the rank obtained in the. entrance examination. Research Essay? Foreign candidates nominated by the Government of. India are required to have obtained a minimum of. FIFTY PERCENT (50) marks in aggregate in the. subjects of ENGLISH, PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY (Organic. and Inorganic) and critical foundation Macquarie University BIOLOGY (Botany and Zoology) in their Pre-Medical/Intermediate Science or an. equivalent examination to be eligible for.

33 BDS The graduate degree required for you to become a. dentist is the Bachelors of Dental Sciences. (BDS). A wide range of courses like basic. anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology. and microbiology are taught. Free Online Essay The University? Specialization in. dentistry and hands-on-practice are during the.

two final semesters. Seats and Course Duration There are around 250 colleges, with an critical thinking University, annual. intake of free essay writing The University of Brighton about 15,000 students. This program is. of 4 years duration, followed by 1 year. compulsory rotating internship. Curriculum The course is critical thinking Macquarie designed such in how to research a way that it. inculcates in them, an critical foundation University, understanding of the. scientific basis of dentistry including the. relevant medical sciences, the mechanisms of. knowledge acquisition and the variety of.

techniques that have been developed for the. recognition, investigation, prevention and. treatment of how to write essay Vrije patients. Eligibility and Admission Process It may vary, but, in general, the prospective. students shall complete the age of 17 years on or. before 31st December of the year of admission to. the MBBS course, they must have completed a HSC.

(102, or high school) with the thinking foundation Macquarie, Science stream, including the subjects Biology, Chemistry and. Physics with at least 50 marks and Rosseau Lake College the rank. obtained in the entrance examination. Foreign candidates nominated by the Government of. India are required to have obtained a minimum of. FIFTY PERCENT (50) marks in aggregate in the. subjects of ENGLISH, PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY (Organic. and Inorganic) and BIOLOGY (Botany and Zoology) in their Pre-Medical/Intermediate Science or an. equivalent examination to be eligible for.

admission to the B.D.S. Course. 34 BHMS DHMS The Homoeopathic Education in critical thinking Macquarie University India is presently. monitored by the National Institute of. Homoeopathy, which is a statutory Central. Government body. There are 2 courses available in. the undergraduate level Bachelor of Homeopathic. and Medicine (BHMS) and Surgery and Diploma in. Homeopathic and Medicine Surgery (DHMS).

Seats and Course Duration There are about 160 colleges in India that offer. courses in homeopathic education, in improve American International India. BHMS. is a degree course of 5 and half years (which. includes 12 months of foundation Macquarie University internship), while DHMS is. a diploma course of 4 years. Curriculum Instead of allopathic pharmacology, homeopathic. students have to study materia medica (collected. knowledge about the therapeutic properties of any.

substance used for healing), organon of medicine, pharmacy and repertory. Eligibility and Admission Process It may vary, but, in general, the prospective. students shall complete the age of 17 years on or. before 31st December of the year of write research essay admission to. the BHMS course, they must have completed a HSC.

(102, or high school) with the Science stream, including the subjects Biology, Chemistry and. Physics with at least 50 marks and the rank. obtained in the entrance examination. Foreign candidates nominated by the Government of. India are required to have obtained a minimum of. FIFTY PERCENT (50) marks in thinking Macquarie aggregate in the. subjects of ENGLISH, PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY (Organic. and Inorganic) and criticle Lake BIOLOGY (Botany and critical thinking Zoology) in their Pre-Medical/Intermediate Science or an. equivalent examination to be eligible for.

35 B.A.M.S BAMS stands for Bachelors in Ayurvedic Medicine. and Surgery. The Ayurvedic Education in India is. presently being monitored by the Central Council. of Indian Medicine (CCIM), which is a statutory. Central Government body. Seats and Course Duration Around 150 colleges offer BAMS. The duration of. the course is 5 and writing an argument University half years, which includes 12. months of internship.

Curriculum Curriculum of B.A.M.S. course consists of critical thinking studies. of metaphysics, human Anatomy, detailed. information about plants, physiology, and. diagnosis of pathological state of body, minerals. and animal products as medicine, preparation of. various herbo mineral formulations, and their.

management and essay writing Westbourne treatment. Thinking Foundation University? Various branches of. studies consist of Medicine, Surgery, Eye, E.N.T., Gynaecology Obstetrics, Paediatrics, Panchkarma. Eligibility and Admission Process It may vary, but, in general, the prospective. students shall complete the age of 17 years on or. before 31st December of the year of admission to.

the BAMS course, they must have completed a HSC. (102, or high school) with the Science stream, including the subjects Biology, Chemistry and. Physics with at least 50 marks and University of Central the rank. obtained in the entrance examination. Foreign candidates nominated by the Government of. India are required to have obtained a minimum of. FIFTY PERCENT (50) marks in aggregate in the. subjects of critical foundation ENGLISH, PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY (Organic.

and Inorganic) and BIOLOGY (Botany and Zoology) in their Pre-Medical/Intermediate Science or an. equivalent examination to be eligible for. undergraduate degree course in Unani Medicine. Surgery. The Unani Education in India is being. monitored by the Central Council of thinking Rosseau Indian.

Medicine (CCIM), which is a statutory Central. Government body. University? Seats and Course Duration The duration of the course is 5 and half years, which includes 12 months of internship. Curriculum The aim of the criticle thinking Rosseau, programme is to produce experts in. the field of critical thinking Macquarie Unani system of medicine. Criticle Rosseau Lake? There are.

four treatment therapies employed in Unani. medicine in India. These include regimental. therapy venasection, pharmaco-therapy, surgery, dietotherapy. Eligibility and Admission Process All the thinking, admitted candidates in BUMS Course are.

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equivalent. English Writing American International School-Salzburg? He/She has attained or will attain the age of. Seventeen (17) years as on thinking University, 31st October of how to improve english International School-Salzburg the. academic year in which he/she is applying. Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry. The.

Veterinary education in India is being monitored. by the foundation, Veterinary Council of India. Seats and Course Duration The course is for thinking 5 and half years, including a 6. month compulsory rotating internship. Foundation University? Curriculum The aim of the course is to equip the students. with all the Westbourne School, essential skills required to treat. sick animals and critical be competent enough to deal with. sudden outbreaks of essay writing test of Brighton diseases related to animals.

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students shall complete the age of 17 years on or. before 31st December of the year of admission to. the B.Pharma course, they must have completed a. HSC (102, or high school) with the Science. stream, including the english, subjects Biology, Chemistry. and Physics with at least 50 marks and the rank. obtained in thinking foundation Macquarie the entrance examination. Foreign candidates nominated by how to research essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Government of.

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admission to critical thinking foundation Macquarie University, B.Pharma course. graduate degree course which is offered by. different medical institutes of the country. The. programme prepares professional therapists who. help people with physical or mental disabilities.

in achieving maximum functioning and independence. at home and at the workplace. Seats and Course Duration It is a 4 ? year degree course, which includes 6. months of rotating internship. Criticle Lake? Curriculum Occupational therapy is the use of productive. activity in the rehabilitation or treatment of. physically or emotionally challenged people.

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Eligibility and Admission Process It may vary, but, in general, the prospective. students shall complete the age of 17 years on or. before 31st December of the Rosseau College, year of admission to. the BPT course, they must have completed a HSC. (102, or high school) with the Science stream, including the subjects Biology, Chemistry and. Physics with at thinking University least 50 marks and the rank. obtained in the entrance examination. Foreign candidates nominated by the Government of. India are required to writing University, have obtained a minimum of. FIFTY PERCENT (50) marks in aggregate in the. subjects of ENGLISH, PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY (Organic.

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for this program. Seats and Course Duration The duration of B.Sc. Nursing course varies. between 3 to 4 years. Curriculum The curriculum is specifically directed to thinking foundation, the.

upgrading of critical thinking skills, competencies and standards required for practice. of professional nursing and write research Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam midwifery as. envisaged in National Health Policy. The course. is intended to enable the graduates Assume responsibilities as professional. competent nurses and midwives at basic level in. providing promotive, preventive, curative and. rehabilitative services. Make independent decisions in nursing. situations, protect the rights of and facilitate. individuals and groups in pursuit of health, function in the hospital, community-nursing.

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students shall complete the age of 17 years on University, or. before 31st December of the year of admission to. the Nursing course, they must have completed a. HSC (102, or high school) with the Science. stream, including the subjects Biology, Chemistry. and Physics with at least 50 marks and the rank.

obtained in the entrance examination. How To Write Essay Universiteit? Foreign candidates nominated by the Government of. India are required to foundation University, have obtained a minimum of. FIFTY PERCENT (50) marks in aggregate in the. subjects of ENGLISH, PHYSICS, CHEMISTRY (Organic. and Inorganic) and BIOLOGY (Botany and Lake Zoology) in their Pre-Medical/Intermediate Science or an.

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