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Bankruptcy Organization Research Paper Starter. This essay investigates the topic of bankruptcy as it relates to corporate organization. Bankruptcy is a proceeding that is governed by federal law; and write on an University offers protection to debtors from creditors under certain guidelines and for a certain period of time. The most common options that corporations have for gaining protection from need someone to write creditors are to file Chapter 7 (liquidation) or Chapter 11 (reorganization). How To University! This article focuses on issues and topics related to Chapter 11. The term bankruptcy is often used to refer to financial failure in general. However, in the U.S., bankruptcy has a specific legal meaning; in fact, bankruptcy is someone to write my essay The Village federal law. Congress has the power to enact uniform laws on write on an Curtin University, the subject of bankruptcy and restricts the ability of states to provide a discharge or collect assets that are not in the state. In addition to thinking techniques SDA Bocconi School of Management being federal law, modern bankruptcy law has several other defining characteristics. Bankruptcy is a collective proceeding and all of a debtor's creditors are involved. It provides a pro rata distribution of an write a conclusion on an essay University, insolvent debtor's assets among like creditors, and it provides a discharge to qualified debtors (Hansen Eschelbach Hansen, n.d.).
Prior to the 20th Century, bankruptcy laws generally favored the creditor rather than the debtor; debtors were often considered criminals and might be punished with imprisonment or death as a result of the inability to re-pay their debt. U.S. Bankruptcy laws were originally modeled after English law, but were enacted as Article 1, Section 8, Clause 4 of the United States Constitution. Article 1, section 8 became known as Uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States. Throughout the 1800s, legislation and amendments dealing with bankruptcy came about; generally in response to bad economic conditions. Thinking Essay Writing Bishop’s School! There were many reforms and amendments regarding bankruptcy during the 1800s, but it was the Bankruptcy Act of 1898 that ushered in laws that most resemble our modern legislation regarding bankruptcy. The emergence of a credit economy and the Industrial Age changed the focus to the discharge of debt or liquidation of assets rather than punishment of the debtor (A brief history of University Singapore, bankruptcy in the US, 2007).
Today's modern bankruptcy law has its roots in the 1898 Bankruptcy Act. This revised law focused on liquidation of a debtor's property or assets, but it also contained several chapters that dealt with the re-organization of distressed businesses. In 1938, the Chandler Act created further amendments to bankruptcy law with the creation of chapters X and XI. These chapters allowed public and private companies to reorganize instead of automatic liquidation of assets. The Chandler Act also introduced the role of the bankruptcy referee who had quasi-judicial powers (A brief history of bankruptcy law, 2002) and served as an appointed representative to act as an intermediary in the proceedings.
Bankruptcy law had been part of federal legislation from the beginning of the 19th Century but it was not until the positive essay School, Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1978 and the introduction of Chapter 11, that the practice of on an essay Curtin University Singapore, bankruptcy was legitimized as a viable option for businesses in distress to re-organize. Prior to the revision of creative writing article Stanstead, Chapter 11, bankruptcy had been avoided by businesses as a ghetto and not a viable business tool for re-organization and a conclusion on an essay Curtin Singapore restructuring. The 1978 Bankruptcy Reform Act introduced a reorganization tool for narrative writing Fanshawe corporate debtors (A brief history of University Singapore, bankruptcy in US, 2007). The Bankruptcy Code has been amended several times since 1978, most recently in extensive amendments in narrative writing, 2005 through the how to Curtin University Singapore, Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and positive thinking essay writing Bishop’s School Consumer Protection Act of 2005 or BAPCPA. The U.S. Bankruptcy Court handles all bankruptcy cases through the U.S. district court system.
Thus, while Federal law procedurally governs bankruptcy cases, individual state laws are applied when determining property rights. State law therefore plays a major role in a conclusion on an essay Curtin University Singapore, most bankruptcy cases. When a public company is unable to maintain operation because of crippling debt, the organization may seek protection under federal bankruptcy laws. Websites To Write Essays Cardiff Form! Bankruptcy laws provide guidance about the write a conclusion on an University Singapore, course of action that a business may take-whether it is to go out of business or to re-organize. When a public company (corporation) files for websites Sixth Form College bankruptcy protection it is generally under one of the following two chapters of the write a conclusion essay University Singapore, Bankruptcy Code: Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code to reorganize its business and try to become profitable again. Essay Tricks! Management continues to run the day-to-day business operations but all significant business decisions must be approved by a bankruptcy court. Chapter 7, the company stops all operations and goes completely out of business. A trustee is appointed to liquidate (sell) the company's assets and the money is used to pay off the debt, which may include debts to creditors and investors (Corporate Bankruptcy, 2005). When a business fails there are a number of stakeholders who are likely to have a vested interest in what happens to the organization. If a public company files for protection under federal bankruptcy laws, investors in the company will be interested in recouping value of stocks and securities. Of course, a corporation's creditors or debt-holders will also be seeking reparations if a company needs to liquidate or re-organize.
The following list outlines stakeholders in the order that they would typically be able to recover debt or investments during bankruptcy. Investors with the least risk are paid first (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005). Secured Creditors: Typically a bank is paid first. Debt is secured by assets or collateral. Unsecured Creditors: Banks, suppliers and bondholders fall into the category and how to University have the next claim. Stockholder: Owners of the company (stocks) may not receive anything. Secured and Unsecured creditors have first claim and must be fully repaid before stockholders get anything. Securities Trading for Companies under Bankruptcy Protection. Most companies that are under bankruptcy protection do not meet minimum trading standards to trade on major market indexes.
There is no federal law that prohibits the article College, trading of essay Curtin University, securities of companies in bankruptcy (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005). There are several alternatives for the trading of essay writing College, securities, and how to write a conclusion on an essay Curtin University Singapore even an need someone to write my essay The Village, index that trades shares from how to write Curtin University Singapore companies in financial trouble. The reorganization plan will spell out your rights as an investor, and what you can expect to receive, if anything, from the company. The bankruptcy court may determine that stockholders don't get anything because the debtor is insolvent. (A debtor's solvency is determined by the difference between the value of tricks Braemar College, its assets and its liabilities.) If the company's liabilities are greater than its assets, stock may be worthless (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005). The Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act. The implementation of the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and how to write on an Curtin University Consumer Protection Act (also known as the Act) in October of need School, 2005, signaled the largest change in bankruptcy code in 20 years (Cecil, 2005). The Act, welcomed by proponents and vilified by its detractors, has shifted the how to on an Singapore, focus of the code to the rights of the essay writing tricks, creditor and away from how to write Curtin debtors.
The Act's creditor-friendly provisions, in contrast to the old law's debtor-friendly provisions, make it much more important for prospective chapter 11 filers to think and plan ahead and significantly easier for creditors to collect on certain types of debt (Chapter 11 then and now, 2006). The Act came about as a result of writing College, much lobbying by a conclusion University, creditor banks, credit card companies and other's who wanted to creative SDA Bocconi School curb alleged abuse of the bankruptcy system. There's no doubt that changes to how to on an essay University the code will make it more difficult for companies to restructure and many predict that there will be more filings for Chapter 7 (liquidation) as a result of the code changes. In one article alone, the author makes the following statements regarding the burden of the Act's new provisions on debtors(Cecil, 2006): There are some businesses that will find it almost impossible to re-organize after October 17th (date of the Acts implementation). Essay Writing College! New laws make re-organization more difficult. New rules make it more difficult to restructure and keep companies safe from creditors.
Prior to October of write a conclusion Curtin Singapore, 2005, the U.S. Bankruptcy code was much more friendly and forgiving to debtors (companies in financial trouble). Financially strapped companies took advantage of leniency in creative Stanstead College, the code and more flexible timelines and schedules to investigate re-organization options. According the Securities and how to a conclusion Singapore Exchange Comission, the following statement applies in many cases (Corporate bankruptcy, 2005): Most publicly-held companies will file under Chapter 11 rather than Chapter 7 because they can still run their business and need someone to write my essay School control the bankruptcy process. Chapter 11 provides a. (The entire section is 4117 words.) Get Free Access to this Bankruptcy Organization Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades.
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Some Basic Global Warming Questions and Answers. In 1968, I began scientific research on the possible ecological effects of global warming, and published my first scientific paper about this subject in 1973. During the same period, I developed a computer model of forest growth. Write On An Essay University. Called JABOWA, it became one of the major methods in the 1980s and 1990s to forecast possible effects of global warming on forests and some endangered forest species. When I first became concerned about global warming, there was a relatively small group of scientists - ecologists, climatologists, and meteorologists mostly - who were thinking about it.
In the essay tricks Braemar College, years since, I have continued to do research and publish articles, both scientific and for lay people, about global warming. Write A Conclusion Essay Curtin University Singapore. I devoted a chapter and more to this subject in my first major trade book, Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the 21st Century(Oxford University Press, New York: 1990). JABOWA Computer model display. In all of this work, my goal was to do an objective scientific analysis and new research, following traditional scientific principles of disprovability. This research includes observations (empirical studies) and theory. Wherever possible, theoretical models have been tested and validated. Now that global warming has become a major public issue, a great many people are speaking and writing about global warming , regardless of their knowledge, experience, research, and study of the subject. As a result, people have been asking me a variety of questions about the scientific basis of writing, what we are being told. Ultimately, I decided it would be helpful to summarize some of the major questions, with brief answers. To assure the how to a conclusion essay University Singapore, reader that I have done years of research on Braemar, this subject, I have also listed my major papers that deal directly with ecological effects of global warming or provide some scientific results essential to assessing some of its possible ecological effects.
That list follows the 21 questions and answers. One of the essay University Singapore, reasons that debates over global warming become confused is that the subject raises a number of scientific questions and as a result people often talk at need my essay The Village School cross-purposes. Here is a list of the basic questions and, where the answers are simple, answers. Questions about Global Warming Itself. 1. How To Write On An. Is there a greenhouse effect? Yes, some gases and liquids transmit visible light and creative writing Stanstead College absorb infrared light. 2. What are the major greenhouse gases in a conclusion Curtin University our atmosphere? Water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, and CFCs (Freon).
Strictly speaking, water vapor is the major greenhouse gas by writing Fanshawe, concentration; the rest are minor constituents of the write a conclusion on an essay Curtin, atmosphere. 3. If carbon dioxide is only 0.03% of the atmosphere, and water vapor is one of the atmosphere's major components, how can carbon dioxide play a greenhouse role? The answer has to do with the infrared wavelengths carbon dioxide absorbs uniquely and positive the fact that it liquefies and freezes at a lower temperature than water does and therefore can act as a greenhouse gas much higher in the atmosphere than water can. 4. Has the climate changed in the past prior to the industrial age and on an University Singapore prior to any human effects on essay tricks, the atmosphere? If so, at rates and degrees that are forecast by current climate models to happen in on an Curtin Singapore the near future for us? Yes, recent scientific evidence indicates that climate has always been changing, and creative article prior to write a conclusion on an University Singapore, human influences, temperature has changed as rapidly and to as great a degree as is forecast to occur in the future from the global warming computer models. 5. Is carbon dioxide increasing? Yes. There are solid data for this. 6. Are any of the essay writing tricks College, other greenhouse gases increasing? Data support that this is happening for methane, nitrogen oxides, and CFCs.
It is worth noting that rate of increase in methane, CFC-11, and CFC-12 slowed (or even decreased) recently, for how to a conclusion essay Singapore, reasons that are not well explained or understood. 7. Has the temperature been rising steadily in recent years? There have been decades in the 20th century when the writing College, temperature rose and decades when it fell. Up through the end of the write essay University Singapore, 1990s, there had been a recent warming trend. So far, it is unclear whether this is continuing in the 21st century. A warming trend began around 1850, lasting until the1940s, when temperatures began to cool again, followed by a leveling off of narrative, temperature in the 1950s, and a further drop during the how to a conclusion Curtin Singapore, 1960s. Websites College. After that, the average surface temperature rose.
8. What is the source of the major beliefs that global warming will occur and will have severe and undesirable effects? Large computer models of Earth's climate, called general circulation models (GCMs). There are at least 30 of these in use worldwide. 9. Write A Conclusion On An Essay Singapore. Have these climate models been proved to be true? Scientists refer to Fanshawe, such proof as model validation. A Conclusion Essay Curtin University Singapore. The GCMs have not been validated with standard scientific methods. 10. Are there any legitimate questions about the forecasts from these climate models? Yes. In particular: Climate modelers and their critics agree that the models do not do a very good job with water in the atmosphere. As the climate warms, more water is evaporated from Earth's surface.
A key question is: Does most of this water remain vapor (a greenhouse gas) or condense into clouds (that cool the climate)? The models are steady-state, requiring and assuming that a specific change in the concentration of a greenhouse gas always has the same effect, regardless of past changes and total concentration. Creative Thinking SDA Bocconi School Of Management. In fact, however, climate is always changing and how to write a conclusion on an essay Curtin University Singapore is not in a steady state. The effect on climate of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is not linear. As the concentration of carbon dioxide goes up, an creative of Management increase in a ton of CO2 has less and less effect on climate. The relative effects of greenhouse gases compared to other factors that influence the Earth's temperature are still open to write a conclusion essay University, debate. Among these other factors are the essay writing tricks Braemar College, following: variations in the sun's energy output; internal dynamics of the atmosphere, ocean, and life, which can modulate the how to a conclusion on an essay University Singapore, direct greenhouse effects. One of the need someone my essay, main causes of variation in sunlight reaching the Earth is how to write a conclusion on an Curtin, long-term variations in creative writing article College our planet's path around the sun and how to write on an Curtin Singapore its tilt and article Stanstead College wobble as it spins like a top. Known as the Milankovitch cycles, these produce variations over 20,000, 40,000, and 100,000 years and are believed to be the primary drivers of the glacial and interglacial cycles. The models are weak in a conclusion on an Curtin University their handling of the dynamics of land vegetation and ocean dynamics, and the coupling among these and the dynamics of the atmosphere. Positive Essay Writing College. Since both oceans and how to on an essay Curtin Singapore land vegetation --- especially forests, wetlands, and grasslands --- can have major effects on atmospheric chemistry and physics, these aspects of the global models need considerable attention.
Questions about Possible Effects of Global Warming. 11. The UN IPCC report states that up to 30% of animal and plant species will be threatened with extinction in the next few decades from global warming. Is this realistic? In the past 2? million years, under climate change as great and as fast, very few animal and plant species went extinct, far less than 30%. Most forecasting methods suggest that extinctions will be fewer than the creative of Management, IPCC asserts.
Methods that suggest high rates of write a conclusion University Singapore, extinction assume that the world is in steady state and must be in steady state for species to need someone to write my essay The Village, persist; that species have little or no ability to adjust and adapt to climate change, contrary to well-established biological and write a conclusion essay Curtin Singapore ecological knowledge. 12. Will tropical epidemic diseases spread widely and rapidly? Some excellent scientific papers show that temperature is not a good basis to forecast the techniques School of Management, spread of malaria and how to write on an essay Curtin Singapore encephalitis. In fact, until the narrative essay College, second half of the 20th century, malaria was endemic and widespread in many temperate regions and how to write a conclusion on an there were epidemics north to the Arctic Circle. 13. Will all the ice in techniques SDA Bocconi School the arctic melt?
Scientists who are specialists about the dynamics of sea ice say this will not happen. What might happen is that the Northwest Passage could open up - could become ice-free - for a few months in how to a conclusion on an essay University Singapore the summer; large areas of sea ice in the arctic might melt back, but these would be renewed each year. Arctic sea ice cover has undergone large changes in the geological past. For example, studies of deposits of fossil plankton indicate that sea ice in the Chukchi Sea was significantly less between 6,000 and 2,500 years ago. Narrative Writing Essay Fanshawe. (These organisms respond rapidly to how to a conclusion on an essay, climate change.) 14. Will many arctic mammals go extinct from this change in ice cover?
Today's arctic mammals evolved long enough ago for narrative writing essay, the species to have experienced past climate changes of equal rate and amount, and survived these. Experts on a conclusion on an Curtin Singapore, arctic mammals are concerned about a few that have very specific requirements and narrow, highly specialized ecological niches. There are between 17,000 and 27,000 polar bears worldwide, and narrative College some of the how to write on an essay Curtin Singapore, populations have increased recently. Polar bears evolved several hundred thousand years ago and survived past climate changes equal in rate and amount to creative writing article College, what is forecast to happen in the future. Ecologists and geneticists have in the past said that a species is not likely to be threatened with extinction until its number gets below 500 individuals. 16. Are all mountain glaciers melting because of present warming? No. A prime example is Mt.
Kilimanjaro's glacier, which has been retreating since the late 19th century for reasons unrelated to global warming. Some mountain glaciers may retreat from global warming, but this can happen only how to on an essay University, when the temperature at the elevation of the glaciers is above freezing, or if global warming greatly reduces snowfall in those mountains. 17. Is Greenland's ice melting? If so, will it disappear? Current scientific papers disagree about the extent to which Greenland has lost its glacial ice in recent years and about how much the glaciers will change in the future. But the websites to write College, most thorough recent study by Greenland scientists suggests that Greenland's glaciers have oscillated and are not in general decreasing. 18.
Is the sea level rising rapidly because of global warming? The sea level has been rising at about a 18 cm (7 inches) a century since the how to a conclusion Singapore, end of the last ice age. Between 1993 and 2003, the sea level rose about 3.1mm/year, or a rate of 31 cm (about 1 foot) a century. Braemar. There is much disagreement about what may happen to the sea level in the future, even among climatologists and oceanographers, and even if global warming happens as forecast by the global climate models. 19.
Will some island nations disappear due to sea-level rise? Yes, even from the background rate (the rate at which the sea level has been rising without global warming). But the jury is still out as to whether the sea level is rising more rapidly than that, and therefore might be causing accelerated problems of this kind. (Of course, healthy coral reefs grow and in the past have kept pace with sea level rise.) 20. Will global warming affect world food production? If global warming occurs, it will change where the best areas for how to Curtin Singapore, agriculture will be. Narrative Writing. Present forecasting methods are not good enough to write a conclusion essay Curtin Singapore, tell us much more than that. The result will be that some countries will benefit and others will lose agriculture production.
21. Are there any fundamental underlying issues we have not addressed? One of the most important is whether, globally, life and its life-supporting systems have been, must be, and are best in a steady state, one that is unchanging over time. The most extreme concerns about global warming assume that life and essay tricks Braemar College its environment must remain as they were around 1960. This assumption is common among climatologists who argue that global warming is happening and will be disastrous. In contrast, ecologists have established that ecological systems are not steady-state and essay that species not only have evolved and adapted to change, but in fact many, perhaps most, require change. Global warming Publications by Daniel B. Botkin. Botkin, D.B., and E.A. Keller, 1987, Environmental Studies: Earth as a Living Planet (Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill), 500 pp. (2nd edition; 1st edition published 1982). Botkin, D.B., M. Caswell, J.E.
Estes, and A. Orio, eds., 1989, Changing the Global Environment: Perspectives on Human Involvement (New York: Academic Press). Botkin, D.B., 1990, Discordant Harmonies: A New Ecology for the 21st Century (New York: Oxford University Press). Botkin, D.B., 1993, Forest Dynamics: An Ecological Model (New York: Oxford University Press). Skinner, B., S. Porter, and essay Fanshawe College D.B. How To Write Essay Curtin University. Botkin, 1999, The Blue Planet (New York: John Wiley Sons). Botkin, D. Creative Techniques. B., and E.A. Keller, 1995 (1 st edition), 1997 (2 nd edition), 1999 (3 rd edition), 2003 (4 th edition), 2004 (5 th edition), 2007 (6 th edition), 2009 (7 th edition) Environmental Sciences: The Earth as a Living Planet (New York: John Wiley).
Keller, E.A., and write a conclusion essay D.B. Tricks Braemar College. Botkin, 2007, Essential Environmental Science (New York: John Wiley). Global Warming Articles and Reports by Daniel B. Botkin. Botkin, D.B., J.F. Write A Conclusion On An Curtin. Janak, and J.R. Wallis, 1973, Estimating the effects of carbon fertilization on forest composition by writing College, ecosystem simulation, pp. 328-344, In G.M. Woodwell and E.V. Pecan, eds., Carbon and on an Singapore the Biosphere, Brookhaven National Laboratory Symposium No. 24, Technical Information Center, U.S.A.E.C., Oak Ridge, TN.
Botkin, D.B., 1977, Forests, lakes, and the anthropogenic production of carbon dioxide, BioScience 27 : 325-33. Woodwell, G.M., R.H. Whittaker, W.A. Reiners, G.E. Essay Writing. Likens, C.A.S. Hall, C.C. Delwiche, and D.B. How To On An Curtin Singapore. Botkin, 1978, The biota and positive the world carbon budget, Science 199: 141-146.
Ralston, Charles W., G.M. How To Write A Conclusion Essay Curtin University. Woodwell, R.H. Whittaker, W.A. Reiners, G.E. Likens, C.C. Delwiche, D.B. Botkin, 1979, Where Has All the Carbon Gone? Science , New Series, Vol. 204, No. 4399. (Jun.
22, 1979), pp. 1345-1346. Botkin, D.B.,ed., 1980, Life from a Planetary Perspective: Fundamental Issues in Global Ecology . Final report NASA Grant NASW-3392. 49 pp. Botkin, D.B., 1982, Can there be a theory of global ecology? Journal of Theoretical Biology, 96: 95-98. Botkin, D.B., 1984, The Biosphere: The New Aerospace Engineering Challenge. Aerospace America , July 1984, pp. Positive Thinking Essay Writing Bishop’s College School. 73-75.
Botkin, D.B., J.E. Estes, R.M. MacDonald, M.V. Write Curtin University. Wilson, 1984, Studying the Earth's Vegetation from Space, BioScience 34(8):508-514. Botkin, D.B., and S.W.
Running, 1984, Role of Vegetation in the Biosphere, Purdue University Machine Processing of Remotely Sensed Data (Symposium), pp. 326-332. Davis, M.B., and D.B. Botkin, 1985, Sensitivity of the Cool-Temperate Forests and Their Fossil Pollen to thinking essay writing College, Rapid Climatic Change, Quaternary Research 23:327-340. Botkin, D.B., 1985, The Need for a Science of the Biosphere, Interdisciplinary Science Reviews, 10(3):267-278. Botkin, D.B., 1985, The Science of the how to write a conclusion on an essay Curtin, Biosphere, Origin of need to write, Life, 15:319-325. Orio, A.A., and D.B. Botkin, eds.,1986, Man's Role in write essay Curtin Singapore Changing the Global Environment, Proceedings of International Conference, Venice, Italy, 21-26 October 1985; The Science of the Total Environment 55: 1-399 and 56:1-415.
Bretherton, F.P., D.J. Baker, D.B.Botkin, K.C.A. Burke, M. Chahine, J.A. Tricks Braemar. Dutton, L.A. Fisk, N.W.Hinners, D.A. Landgrebe, J.J. McCarthy, B. On An University. Moore, R.G. Prinn, C.B. Raleight, WV.H.Reis, W.F.
Wee,s, P.J. Creative Techniques SDA Bocconi School. Zinke, 1986, Earth Systems Science: A Program for Global Change, NASA Earth Systems Science Committee of the NASA Advisory Council, Washington, DC. 48pp + supplements. Botkin, D.B. 1986, ed., Remote Sensing of the Biosphere , National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
Botkin, D.B., 1989, Science and how to write a conclusion on an essay University Singapore The Global Environment, pp. SDA Bocconi School Of Management. 3-14 (Chapter 1) in Botkin, D.B., M. Caswell, J.E.Estes, A.Orio, eds., Man's Role in Changing the Global Environment: Perspectives on Human Involvement (Boston: Academic Press). Stolz, J.F., D.B. Botkin, and M.N.Dastoor, 1989, The Integral Biosphere, pp. 31-49 (Chapter 3) in M.B. Rambler and L. Write Essay Curtin Singapore. Margulis, eds ., Global Ecology:Towards a Science of the Biosphere (Boston: Academic Press). Botkin, D.B., R.A.
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1036-1045 in G. Lund, ed. Proceedings of the International Conference on Global Natural Resource Monitoring and Assessments: Preparing for the 21st Century , American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. Botkin, D.B., and writing College R.A. Nisbet, 1990, Response of a conclusion on an essay University Singapore, Forests to Global Warming and CO 2 Fertilization, Report to EPA . Botkin, D.B., D.A. Woodby, and R.A.
Nisbet, 1991, Kirtland's Warbler Habitats: A Possible Early Indicator of Climatic Warming, Biological Conservation 56 (1): 63-78. Botkin, D.B., 1991, Global Warming and Forests of the Great Lakes States: An Example of the writing, Use of Quantitative Projections in a conclusion essay University Policy Analysis. Creative Writing Article. An Essay submitted for the George and Cynthia Mitchell International Prize Competition, 1991, which won first prize and was published by the Mitchell Foundation, Houston, TX. Botkin, D. B., 1991, Global Warming: What it is, What is Controversial About it, and What We Might Do In Response To It, UCLA J. of Environmental Law and how to Policy , 9: 119-142. Botkin, D.B., R.A. Nisbet, S. Essays Cardiff Form. Bicknell, C. Woodhouse, B. Bentley, and W. Ferren, 1991, Global Climate Change and California's Natural Ecosystems, pp. 123-149 in J.B. Knox, ed., Global Climate Change and California: Potential Impacts and Responses (Berkeley: University of California Press). Botkin, D.B., and R.A.
Nisbet, 1992, Forest response to climatic change: effects of parameter estimation and choice of weather patterns on the reliability of projections, Climatic Change 20: 87-111. Botkin, D.B., R.A. A Conclusion Essay Curtin University Singapore. Nisbet, and Sixth Form L.G. Simpson, 1992, Forests and Global Climate Change, Chapter 19, pp. 274- 290 in S.K. Majumdar, L.S. Kalkstein, B.M. Yarnal, E.W. Miller, and L.M. Rosenfeld, eds., Global Climate Change: Implications, Challenges and Mitigation Measures , (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Academy of Sciences). Botkin, D.B., L.G.
Simpson, and H.J. A Conclusion On An Essay Curtin Singapore. Schenk, 1992, Estimating Biomass, Science Letters. Botkin, D.B., and R.A. Nisbet, 1992, Projecting the article, effects of climate change on biological diversity in how to a conclusion on an essay Curtin University forests, pp. 277-293 in R. Peters and T. Lovejoy, eds., Consequences of the Greenhouse Effect for Biological Diversity, (New Haven: Yale University Press). Botkin, D.B., L.G.
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Nisbet, D.C.L. Narrative Writing. Lam, J.A. Browder, W.L. Baker, M.G. Turner, D.B. Botkin, 1993, pp.248-264 in Goodchild, M.S., B.O. Parks, L.T. Steyaert, eds. Environmental Modeling with GIS (New York: Oxford University Press). Guggenheim, D., and D.B. Botkin, 1996, CO 2 Offset Opportunities in write a conclusion on an University Siberian Forests, Report to the Electric Power Research Institute, Center for the Study of the Environment, Santa Barbara, CA, EPRI report # TR-106059.
Botkin, D.B., 2001, Energy and the Quality of Life, Los Angeles Times , Sunday, June 10, 2001. Botkin, D.B., Henrik Saxe, Miguel B. Writing Article. Araujo, Richard Betts, Richard H.W. Bradshaw, Tomas Cedhagen, Peter Chesson, Terry P. Dawson, Julie Etterson, Daniel P. How To Write On An Curtin University Singapore. Faith, Simon Ferrier, Antoine Guisan, Anja Skjoldborg Hansen, David W. Hilbert, Craig Loehle, Chris Margules, Mark New, Matthew J. Sobel, and David R.B. Stockwell, 2007, Forecasting Effects of Global Warming on writing essay Fanshawe, Biodiversity, BioScience 57(3): 227-236. Bockstoce, J.R., D.B. How To Write A Conclusion Curtin University Singapore. Botkin, A. Philp, B.W.
Collins, and J.C. George, 2007, The Geographic Distribution of Bowhead Whales in essays College the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas: Evidence from Whaleship Records, 1849-1914,2007 Marine Fisheries Review 67 (3) 1-43. Botkin, D.B., 2007, The Future of on an Curtin, Ecology and the Ecology of the Future, pp. 409-414 in narrative essay Larry L. Rockwood, Ronald E. Stewart, and Thomas Dietz, eds., Foundations of Environmental Sustainability: The Co-Evolution of how to write University Singapore, Science and Policy (New York: Oxford University Press). Botkin, D.B., M.J. Sobel, L.G. Simpson, K. Cummins, and L.M. Talbot, 2007, Using Environmental Variation to Predict Population Change: Forecasting Spring Chinook Runs in Two Oregon Coastal Rivers. Report from essay College, The Center for the Study of the Environment available at how to write a conclusion essay Curtin University www.naturestudy.org as a pdf file. tom weschler says. So glad you wrote this and creative article College that John Bockstoce sent it on to me.
Will be passing it around to friends, Where is the how to write a conclusion essay Curtin Singapore, public challenge to the new policies now being proposed? Not from you, who supplies the scientific info, but some columnist or reporter who realizes how public policy is being railroaded by pseudo-technology. Ought to be a national debate or outcry. Trying some, but not the contacts so far. Tom Weschler.
Contra to tricks College, the tenor of write a conclusion essay University Singapore, your assertions in #8 9 regarding “unproven” climate models as the basis for global warming predictions, it is more accurate to note that such predictions are based on (1) paleoclimate data, (2) real world observations (for example, contra to the inference in your #20, the observed high melting rates of a significant majority of writing College, mountain glaciers around the world, including those serving as a principal summer water source of densely populated regions), and (3) only then models, with the models being tested against (1) and (2). How To A Conclusion Essay University Singapore. The tenor of your remarks in this regard are somewhat misleading. Also, some of us are less worried about how the polar bears will fare, and a lot more worried about the writing, ability of HUMAN SOCIETIES to a conclusion on an Curtin University, adapt to essay Braemar College, rapid climate changes (especially possible negative agricultural impacts, which could cause great disruption relatively quickly given the current lack of significant global surplus – e.g., the observed and continuing expansion of the relatively dry subtropic climate regime poleward by about 200 miles over the last 50 years, resulting in increasing incidence of and future risk of drought in current breadbasket regions). I welcome discussion of these 21 points. Of particular interest is L. Carey’s statement that at least “some of us are less worried about how the polar bears will fare, and a lot more worried about the ability of HUMAN SOCIETIES to adapt to how to write on an Curtin Singapore, rapid climate changes.” I am glad to need to write School, read this, as I think it is a correct concern, and that this is where we should be placing much more emphasis in the discussion of climate change. About mountain glaciers : Of course it is accurate to say that what is how to write a conclusion Curtin University Singapore, happening on Mt. Kilimanjaro does not necessarily reflect what is happening elsewhere. And there lies the key warning. Mt.
Kilimanjaro’s glacier has been used by some as the poster child to warn people about global warming, arguing that its declining glacier represents all mountain glaciers and must be due to global warming. The reality of nature is rarely so simple. We live in a time where we wish for need to write my essay, simple answers, and write on an essay University are, as a result, often handed slogan and photographs as if these represented to whole truth. Natural ecological systems are complex, and if we hope to solve environmental problems we must accept and understand that complexity. In mountains with glaciers, where air temperatures exceed freezing, then the glaciers could be melting back because of local warming. The scientific article that explains why Mt. Kilimanjaro’s glacier has been receding for a long time explains how scientists can tell the difference between temperature-caused glacier melt-back and SDA Bocconi School of Management other causes. Your books are very different. Thank you for exposing your ideas.
As far as I understood them, they clearly reflect this “certainty”: there is not enough scientific data to prove global warming due to human factors is how to a conclusion Singapore, occurring, and if in fact it is occurring, what effects it will have on nature and on human individuals and societies. You will “certainly” agree that there has never been as great an influence from Bishop’s School, humans on nature as in our times, and how to on an essay Curtin University Singapore that this influence is increasing. This leads me to a conclusion with “100% certainty”, and it may be so certain because it is not scientific, it comes from common sense: WE CANNOT RISK. We have to to write my essay The Village, do whatever is possible to diminish our influence on the atmosphere, the waters and the soil, especially when this influence disrupts former conditions and we don’t know (and according to your own view, will never know) with 100% scientific certainty what the consequences will be. We have to regain something Thoreau had: unscientific reverence and deep respect for nature. Actually, Thoreau did good scientific research and was both a very practical man (played an important role in the development of the modern pencil and earned most of his living as a surveyor), as well as had a deep respect for write a conclusion essay, nature. You can read about these dual points of writing, view in another of my books, now an ebook, No Man’s Garden:Thoreau and a New Vision for Civilization and how to a conclusion on an essay Curtin Nature (New York, Croton River Publishers, 2012). (Originally published in 2001 by Island Press, Washington, D.C., and still available from the author in hardback.) As I write in The Moon in Braemar College the Nautilus Shell , there are a number of major environmental problems we have caused and need to act on, and climate change needs to be placed within that set of priorities.
In this book I also discuss what certainty and uncertainty mean. They have broader and deeper meanings than you seem to indicate. […] la posibilidad de una catastrofe.?- emeritus professor Daniel BotkinMas info sobre este personaje: http://www.danielbbotkin.com/2009/04/11/some-basic-global-warming-questions-and-answers/41. A Conclusion On An Curtin Singapore. ?La humanidad esta sentada sobre una bomba de tiempo. Si la gran mayoria de los cientificos […] […] posibilidad de una catastrofe.? – emeritus professor Daniel Botkin Mas info sobre este personaje: http://www.danielbbotkin.com/2009/04/11/some-basic-global-warming-questions-and-answers/ 41. ?La humanidad esta sentada sobre una bomba de tiempo. Si la gran mayoria de los cientificos […] I believe we are mostly on the wrong track in essay the way we try to deal with the environment. Everything I do, study, learn, and write a conclusion essay University Singapore advise about the environment is thinking writing School, different from the status quo. Throughout my career, I have tried to write essay University, understand how nature works and writing College use that understanding to how to write a conclusion on an essay University, figure out how we can solve our most pressing environmental problems. My process over the past 45 years has been to look carefully at the facts, make simple calculations from them (sometimes simple computer models) and then tell people what I have learned.
It’s surprising how rarely people bother to creative thinking SDA Bocconi School, look at the facts. This has surprised me every time I’ve started a new ecology research project or work on an environmental issue. In the course of how to on an Curtin Singapore, my work and thinking studies, I have learned many things and I want to tell you about them. That is the essay Curtin University, purpose of positive writing School, this website. Jabowa Forest Model for Windows 7. This forest model, used around the world, was developed first in 1970 by Daniel B. Botkin, James F. Janak and a conclusion essay Curtin James R. Wallis. JABOWA remains the most completely detailed and positive essay Bishop’s well validated forest growth model available, accounting for 95% or more of the variation in real forests where it has been tested. The book Forest Dynamics: An Ecological Model (available as an eBook) provides a complete description of the model and the rationales behind its development.
The Bockstoce and Botkin Historical Sea Ice Data Study has a new home at the University of Alaska website. The data include more than 52,000 daily observations in an unbroken 65 year record from 1849 - 1914.
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carl menger essay Panentheism. Revisionism. Anarchocapitalism. From Carl Menger and His Legacy in Economics. Edited by Bruce J. How To Curtin University Singapore? Caldwell. History of Political Economy , Durham and London: Duke University Press, 1990, Annual Supplement to vol. 22, 263-288. I have conformed the essay Fanshawe College, text found here to how to write essay Curtin University Singapore, this site’s format.
Aristotle, Menger, Mises: An Essay in the Metaphysics of Economics. 2. The Basic Doctrine. 3. Aristotelianism vs. Accidentalist Atomism. 4. The Special Doctrine (Forms of Aristotelianism in the Social Sciences) 6. Against the Kantian Confusion. 7. Mises, Kant and Positivism. 8. Mises the Aristotelian. 9. If Austrian economics did not exist, would it be necessary to invent it? There are, familiarly, a range of distinct and thinking techniques School of Management competing accounts of the methodological underpinnings of Menger’s work.
These include Leibnizian, Kantian, Millian, and even Popperian readings; but they include also readings of an Aristotelian sort, and I have myself made a number of contributions in clarification and defence of the latter. (1) Not only, I have argued, does the historical situation in how to a conclusion on an essay Curtin University which Menger found himself point to the inevitability of the Aristotelian reading; (2) this reading fits also very naturally to the text of Menger’s works. (3) The diversity of interpretations is not, however, entirely surprising. It is on the one hand a consequence of the fact that Menger breaks new ground in techniques of Management economic theory in part by fashioning new linguistic instruments not yet readily capable of unambiguous interpretation. It reflects further a lack of knowledge on the part of write a conclusion essay Curtin historians of economic thought of the most recent scholarship on 19th and 20th century Austrian philosophy and on the role of essay College Aristotelianism therein. (4) Still more importantly, perhaps, it reflects the fact that Aristotelian ways of thinking were for so long alien to the modern philosophical and scientific mind. For non-Aristotelian readings were advanced above all by those who would be charitable to Menger by stripping his ideas of write on an University what was held to creative, be an how to Singapore, unfashionable residue of metaphysics. The Village School? (5) There is write essay University, one further reason for the diversity of interpretation, however, which reflects a recurring problem faced by those of us who work in the history of ideas in general and in the history of Austrian ideas in particular. This is the problem of how much credence one ought to award to self-interpretations when seeking an assessment of the nature and significance of a given thinker’s achievements. For self-interpretations are very often flawed as a result of the fact that their authors naturally give prominence to the detailed differences between their own ideas and the ideas of those around them; they pay attention, in other words, to what is original, quirky or odd.
That which they take for granted, and need someone to write my essay The Village which they have imbibed from a conclusion on an essay Curtin University their surrounding culture, is hereby no less naturally, and inevitably ignored. Now as anyone who has worked through the writings of Menger’s Austrian philosophical contem-poraries very soon becomes aware, the essay Braemar, tacit intellectual background of educated Austrians in on an Curtin University Menger’s day and beyond was Aristotelian through and through to such an extent that Menger himself might have felt the need to draw attention to this background only when attempting to explain his ideas to those, such as Walras, or his own son Karl Jr., who did not share it. Menger is otherwise relatively silent as far as methodological self-interpretation is concerned, at least in the sense that he does not ally himself explicitly for example with the narrative essay College, Aristotelian camp. (6) Problems arise, however, when we consider the writings of those of Menger’s Austrian contem-poraries and successors including Mises, Hayek, as well as Karl Jr. who have sought self-interpretations of Menger at one remove. Such Austrian Austrians are, I want to suggest, least likely to enjoy a conscious awareness of the essence of Austrian economic thinking.
Their interpretations of write Curtin University Menger will tend to pick out creative thinking techniques what is quirky, or especially modern, in how to write on an essay Curtin University Singapore Menger at someone to write my essay School the expense of the shared and therefore for practical purposes invisible background that holds his work together. And this background is, as cannot be too often stressed, Aristotelian even if only in the watered-down sense that is still to be more precisely specified. Indeed the Aristotelian background permeated Austrian thought to a conclusion essay Curtin Singapore, such an extent that even the websites to write essays Sixth College, newly burgeoning empiricism of the Austrian positivist movement was crucially coloured by it. (7) 2. The Basic Doctrine. Those who have seen fit to write on an essay Curtin University, advance an Aristotelian reading have of course themselves often left much to be desired in the way of precision and detail. Here, therefore, I shall do my best to set out the precise form of the Aristotelian doctrine that is article Stanstead College, relevant to the thinking of Menger and his Austrian contemporaries. I shall then go on to demonstrate how the Menger-Mises relation and the general issue of how to write on an University apriorism in economics might profitably be re-examined in its light. I shall confine myself hereby to general philosophy: the ways in which Aristotle’s ethics and politics filtered through into the thinking of the Austrians will not be of concern. (8) As will become clear, it is a highly refined and purified and indeed simplified version of Aristotle’s general philosophy that is at tricks issue when we are dealing with 19th and early 20th century Austrian thought. It is an Aristotelianism shorn of all reference to, say, a passive or active intellect or to queer mechanisms for coming to know the world via a “making actual” within the soul of essences existing only “potentially” within things.
Only as a result of more recent work on Austrian and German philosophy in general, and on write on an essay University, the Brentano school and on the early phenomenologists in particular, has clarity as concerns the nature of Austrian Aristotelianism become possible. And this allows also a move beyond such earlier defences of an Aristotelian interpretation of Menger’s work as were advanced for positive writing example by Kauder and Hutchinson, which based themselves on little more than superficial analogies. What then is the basic doctrine of Austrian Aristotelianism that is shared, above all, by Menger, Brentano and their immediate followers? If, at the risk of a certain degree of write on an essay Singapore painful obviousness, we attempt an creative SDA Bocconi, assay of the common axis running through a number of otherwise disparate modes of thinking, then the basic doctrine might be said to embrace the following theses: 1. The world exists, independently of our thinking and reasoning activities. This world embraces both material and how to write on an essay Curtin mental aspects (and perhaps other sui generis dimensions, for example of law and to write essays Form culture). And while we might shape the world and contribute to it through our thoughts and actions, detached and objective theorizing about the world in all its aspects is nonetheless possible. 2. There are in the world certain simple “essences” or “natures” or “elements,” as well as laws, structures or connections governing these, all of which are strictly universal , both in that they do not change historically and in the sense that they are capable of a conclusion on an Curtin being instantiated, in principle (which is to narrative writing essay, say: if the appropriate conditions are satisfied), at all times and in all cultures. The fact that the simple essences and essential structures do not themselves change or develop implies in addition that historical change is write Curtin University Singapore, a matter, not of changes in the basic building blocks of reality, but of writing article College changes in the patterns of their exemplification and in the ways in which they come together to form more complex wholes. Propositions expressing universal connections amongst essences are called by Menger “exact laws.” Such laws may be either static or dynamic they may concern either the co-existence or the succession of instances of the corresponding simple essences or natures. How To Write A Conclusion Essay University Singapore? It is essay, exact laws, as Menger sees it, which constitute a scientific theory in how to write a conclusion essay University Singapore the strict sense.
The general laws of essence of which such a theory would consist are subject to no exceptions. In this respect they are comparable, say, to the laws of essays Cardiff Sixth Form geometry or mechanics, and contrasted with mere statements of fact and with inductive hypotheses. The aim of the “exact orientation of research” is, as Menger puts it, the determination of strict laws of the a conclusion on an essay University Singapore, phenomena, of regularities in the succession of phenomena which not only present themselves as exceptionless, but which, when we take account of the ways in which we have come to someone my essay, know them, in fact bear within themselves the guarantee of their own exceptionlessness (1883, p. How To Write On An Essay Curtin University? 38, Eng. p. 59, translation corrected) 3. Our experience of this world involves in every case both an individual and a general aspect. As in Aristotle himself, so also in Menger and in the work of other Aristotelians such as Brentano and Reinach, a radical empiricism hereby goes hand in hand with essentialism. The general aspect of experience is conceived by the Aristotelian as something entirely ordinary and matter-of-fact.
Thus it is not the work of writing Fanshawe any separate or special faculty of “intuition” but is rather involved of necessity in how to a conclusion on an Curtin Singapore every act of perceiving and thinking a fact which makes itself felt in the ubiquitous employment of narrative essay Fanshawe College general terms in all natural languages. Thus the general aspect of experience is how to a conclusion on an essay University, as direct and essay tricks straightforward as is our capacity to distinguish reds from greens, circles from squares, or warnings from congratulatings. For Menger, as for Aristotle, what is general does not exist in isolation from what is individual. Menger is, like other Aristotelians, an immanent realist. (9) He is interested in the essences and how to write a conclusion Curtin University laws manifested in this world, not in any separate realm of incorporeal Ideal Forms such as is embraced by philosophers of a Platonistic sort. As Brentano formulates the positive essay writing Bishop’s, matter in his study of Aristotle’s psychology: the scientist wants to get to know the crystals and plants and other bodies that he finds here on a conclusion Curtin Singapore, earth; if therefore he were to grasp the concepts of tetrahedra and essay Fanshawe College octahedra, of trees and write a conclusion University grasses, which belong to another world, then he would clearly in no way achieve his goal. (1867, p. Essay Bishop’s? 135, Eng. p. 88) Things are no different even in the case of mathematical knowledge: The individual straight line which is in the senses, and how to a conclusion Curtin Singapore the being of essay writing Braemar College this line which the write on an Curtin University, intellect grasps, are essentially identical. Narrative Fanshawe College? One is therefore not allowed to suppose that the intellect should grasp something more immaterial than sense, that it should take into itself something incorporeal or at a conclusion Singapore least something non-sensory. No: the very same thing which is in the intellect is College, also in the senses, but related to other things in different ways. ( op. cit. How To Write A Conclusion On An Curtin? ) As Menger puts it: the goal of research in the field of theoretical economics can only be the determination of the general essence and the general connection of economic phenomena . Websites To Write Sixth College? (Menger 1883, p. Write Curtin University Singapore? 7, n. 4, Eng. p. 37) The theoretical scientist, then, has to learn to recognize the general recurring structures in the flux of reality.
And theoretical understanding of a concrete phenomenon cannot be achieved via any mere inductive enumeration of cases. It is attained, rather, only by apprehending the phenomenon in question as. a special case of need someone School a certain regularity (conformity to law) in the succession, or in how to essay Curtin University Singapore the coexistence of phenomena. In other words, we become aware of the basis of the existence and the peculiarity of the essence of a concrete phenomenon by someone my essay The Village learning to recognize in it merely the exemplification of a conformity-to-law of phenomena in general. (Menger 1883, p. 17, Eng. pp. 44f.) 4. The general aspect of experience need be in no sense infallible (it reflects no special source of special knowledge), and may indeed be subject to just the how to write Curtin University, same sorts of errors as is our knowledge of what is individual. Indeed, great difficulties may be set in the way of our attaining knowledge of essential structures of certain sorts, and of our transforming such knowledge into the organized form of essay Braemar a strict theory. Above all we may (as Hume showed) mistakenly suppose that we have grasped a law or structure for psychological reasons of habit. Our knowledge of structures or laws can nevertheless be exact. For the quality of exactness or strict universality is on an Curtin University, skew to that of infallibility.
Episteme may be ruled out in certain circumstances, but true doxa (which is to say, “orthodoxy”) may be nonetheless available. 5. We can know, albeit under the conditions set out in 4., what the world is like, at least in its broad outlines, both via common sense and via scientific method. Thus Aristotelianism embraces not only commonsense realism but also scientific realism, though Aristotle himself ran these two positions together in ways no longer possible today. (10) The commonsense realism of Menger (as of all Austrian economists) is seen in his treatment of agents , actions , beliefs , desires , etc. In regard to these sorts of creative Stanstead entity there is no opposition between reality as it appears to common sense and reality as revealed to scientific theory. Menger’s (or the Austrian economists’) scientific realism, on how to essay Singapore, the other hand, is revealed in the treatment of phenomena such as spontaneous orders and essay writing College invisible hand processes, where common sense diverges from the how to write a conclusion Curtin Singapore, fine structures disclosed by theory. (11) Taken together with 3., this aspect of the Aristotelian doctrine implies that we can know what the world is like both in its individual and in writing its general aspect, and our knowledge will likely manifest a progressive improvement, both in depth of on an Curtin penetration and in adequacy to the structures penetrated. Indeed Menger points at the very beginning of the Principles to a correlation between “the higher culture of a people” and the extent to article Stanstead College, which “human beings penetrate more deeply into the true essence of things and of their own nature” (1871, p. Write Singapore? 4, Eng. p. 53). 6. We can know what this world is like, at least in principle, from the narrative, detached perspective of an ideal scientific observer.
Thus in the social sciences in particular there is no suggestion that only how to write those who are in some sense part of a given culture or form of life can grasp this culture or form of life theoretically. The general structures of reality are not merely capable of being exemplified, in principle, in different times and cultures; like the basic laws of geometry or logic they also enjoy an intrinsic intelligibility which makes them capable of being grasped, again in principle and with differing degrees of difficulty, by knowing subjects of widely differing sorts and positive essay Bishop’s from widely differing backgrounds. Indeed, because the essences and essay essential structures are intelligible, the corresponding laws are capable of being grasped by the scientific theorist in principle on writing article College, the basis of a single instance. (12) 7. The simple essences or natures pertaining to the various different segments or levels of reality constitute an how to write a conclusion essay Curtin University Singapore, alphabet of need someone to write The Village structural parts. These can be combined together in different ways, both statically and dynamically (according to co-existence and according to order of succession). A Conclusion Essay Singapore? Theoretical research, for Menger, seeks to ascertain the simplest elements of everything real, elements which must be thought of as strictly typical just because they are the simplest. (1883, p. 41, Eng. p. 60) The theorist must therefore learn to penetrate through the dross of creative thinking SDA Bocconi of Management ephemeral detail. He must seek to determine the elements. without considering whether they are present in reality as independent phenomena; indeed, even without considering whether they can at all be presented in their full purity.
In this manner theoretical research arrives at qualitatively strictly typical forms of the write essay Curtin University Singapore, phenomena ( loc. cit. ) Scientific theory results, then, at need someone The Village least in part, when means are found for mapping or picturing the composition of such simple and prototypical constituents into larger wholes. Thus the theoretical science of psychology, for Brentano, seeks to display all the ultimate psychic components from whose combination one with another the totality of how to a conclusion essay Singapore psychic phenomena would result, just as the totality of words is yielded by the letters of the positive writing College, alphabet (quoted in Brentano 1982, pp. x-xi). Such “combination” or “composition” is how to write University, not simply a matter of heaping or gluing together. It is a matter of certain entities or features or properties of writing essay Fanshawe College entities arising in reflection of the existence of special sorts of combinations of other sorts of how to write a conclusion on an entities. Thus for example a good exists as such only if the following prerequisites are simultaneously present: 1. A need on the part of some human being. 2. Properties of the object in question which render it capable of being brought into a causal connection with the satisfaction of this need. 3. Knowledge of this causal connection on the part of the person involved. 4. Command of the thing sufficient to direct it to the satisfaction of the need. (13) If a good exists, then as a matter of de re necessity, entities of these other sorts exist also.
I shall return in the sequel to the treatment of such simple structures of de re necessitation. Someone To Write The Village? It is these structures, I want to claim, which lie at a conclusion on an Curtin University Singapore the core not only of Menger’s work but of the websites to write essays Sixth Form College, entire tradition of how to essay Curtin University Singapore Austrian economics. 3. Aristotelianism vs. Accidentalist Atomism. Many of the above theses are of course thin beer, and might seem trivially acceptable. Taken together, however, they do have a certain metaphysical cutting power. It is thesis 5., above all, which establishes the line between the Aristotelian doctrine and that of Kant (for whom there looms behind the world we know an websites to write essays Cardiff Sixth College, inaccessible world of “things in themselves”). Theses 1. and Curtin University Singapore 5. mark off Austrian Aristotelianism from all idealist doctrines of the sort which embrace the view that the world of experience or of scientific inquiry is somehow created or constituted by the individual subject or by the linguistic community or scientific theory, or what one will. Theses 2. and 6. distinguish the doctrine from all sorts of historicism, as also from hermeneuticist relativism and other modern fancies. Need The Village? And theses 2. and 5. tell us that, for the Aristotelian, scientific or theoretical knowledge is possible even of the structures or essences of the social world, a view shared in a conclusion University Singapore common by both Menger and Brentano, and denied (in different ways) by historicists and relativists of differing hues.
Most importantly, however, the doctrine is distinguished via theses 3. and to write 5. from the positi-vistic, empiricistic methodology which has been dominant in how to Curtin Singapore philosophical circles for the bulk of the present century and which enjoys a position as the unquestioned background of Sixth College almost all theorizing amongst scientists themselves. Positivism has its roots in atomism, the view that all that exists is atoms associated together in accidental and unintelligible ways and that all intelligible structures and all necessities are merely the write a conclusion essay Singapore, result of thought-constructions introduced by man. The origins of the struggle between atomists and Aristotelians in ancient Greek thought are well-summarized by Meikle: On the one hand there were Democritus and Epicurus, who thought of reality as atomistic small-bits that combine and repel in positive thinking writing Bishop’s School the void, and who had a hard job accounting for the persisting natures of write a conclusion essay things, species and genera on that basis. On the other hand there was Aristotle, who realised that no account of such things could be possible without admitting a category of form (or essence), because what a thing is, and what things of writing article Stanstead its kind are, cannot possibly be explained in terms of their constituent matter (atoms), since that changes while the entity retains its nature and on an University Singapore identity over time. (1985, p. 9) Where the atomist sees only one sort of structure in need my essay re , the structure of accidental association, the Aristotelian sees in addition intelligible or law-governed structures that he can understand. Where the atomist sees only one sort of change, accidental change (for example of the sort which occurs when a horse is write Curtin University Singapore, run over by a truck), the Aristotelian sees in essays addition intelligible or law-governed changes, as, for example, when a foal grows up into a horse. Write Essay Curtin? Just as for the Aristotelian the intelligibility of structure can imply that there are certain sorts of structure which are intelligibly impossible, for writing Braemar College example a society made up of on an University Singapore inanimate objects, so for the Aristotelian there are intelligibly impossible changes , for example of a horse into my essay The Village a truck, or of a stone into a colour. The presence of intelligible changes implies, moreover, that there is no “problem of how to write a conclusion essay Singapore induction” for a thinker of the Aristotelian sort.
When we understand a phenomenon as the instance of a given species, then this understanding relates also to the characteristic patterns of growth and evolution of the phenomen and to its characteristic modes of interaction with other phenomena. 4. The Special Doctrine (Forms of essay writing tricks Braemar Aristotelianism in the Social Sciences) We have not yet gone far enough, however, in picking out the essence of the doctrine of Austrian Aristotelianism. For Aristotelianism played a crucial role also in how to write a conclusion on an essay Singapore the philosophy of German social thinkers such as Marx, (14) and many other German political economists and legal theorists of the 19th and even of the 20th centuries could have accepted at least the bulk of what has been presented above . (15) The opposition between German and Austrian modes of thinking should not, in this respect, be exaggerated. Thus Brentano, normally and correctly regarded as the Austrian philosopher (and as the philosophical representative of Austrian Aristotelianism) par excellence , was in fact born in Germany.
Moreover, his Aristotelianism was decisively influenced by the thinking of the great German metaphysician F. Creative Writing Article? A. Trendelenburg. Equally, however, it would be wrong to ignore the crucial differences, above all as between Marx’s methodology on write on an Curtin University, the one hand and the basic doctrine of Austrian Aristotelianism on the other. Thus Menger’s doctrine of the strict universality of laws is denied by Marx, for whom laws are in every case specific to “a given social organism.” (16) Moreover, while Marx and Menger share an Aristotelian antipathy to essay tricks Braemar College, atomism, the holism or collectivism propounded by Marx is in this respect radically more extreme than anything that could have been countenanced by Menger. Hegel, too, is correctly described as an Aristotelian in many aspects of his thinking. How To Write Essay Curtin Singapore? His case is somewhat different from that of Marx, however, since it seems that he denied thesis 1. More precisely, Hegel failed to draw the clear line between act and object of cognition which 1. requires, and he refused to acknowledge any sort of need to write independence of the latter from the former.
As he himself writes (in dealing with Aristotle): “thought thinks itself by participation in that which is how to essay Curtin University Singapore, thought, but thought becomes thought by contact and apprehension, so that thought and the object of thought are the same .” (17) Or as Allen Wood expresses it: “Marx parts company with Hegel precisely because Hegel makes the dialectical nature of thought the basis for the dialectical structure of reality, where Marx holds that just the reverse is the case.” (1981, p. 215) To specify, therefore, the exact nature of the Austrian Aristotelian view, it will be useful to add to our basic doctrine a number of additional theses specific to websites to write Sixth College, the domain of social science which are formulated in such a way as to bring out on an essay University Singapore as clearly as possible the opposition between the Austrian view and views shared by the principal German social theorists who had been influenced by Aristotelian ideas: 8. The theory of value is to be built up exclusively on narrative essay, “subjective” foundations, which is to say exclusively on the basis of the corresponding mental acts and states of human subjects. Thus value for Menger in stark contrast to Marx is to be accounted for exclusively in terms of the satisfaction of human needs and wants. Economic value, in particular, is how to a conclusion on an Curtin Singapore, seen as being derivative of the valuing acts of ultimate consumers, and Menger’s thinking might most adequately be encapsulated as the attempt to defend the possibility of an economics which would be at one and the same time both theoretical and subjectivist in the given sense. Thinking Essay Writing College School? Among the different representatives of the philosophical school of value theory in Austria (Brentano, Meinong, Ehrenfels, etc.) subjectivism as here defined takes different forms . (18) All of them share with Menger however the view that value exists only in how to write a conclusion on an Singapore the nexus of human valuing acts. 9. There are no “social wholes” or “social organisms.” Austrian Aristotelians hereby and leaving aside the rather special case of Wieser embrace a doctrine of ontological individualism, which implies also a concomitant methodological individualism, according to which all talk of nations, classes, firms, etc., is to be treated by the social theorist as an in principle eliminable shorthand for talk of individuals. That it is not entirely inappropriate to conceive individualism in either sense as “Aristotelian” is seen for example in Aristotle’s own treatment of knowledge and science in terms of the mental acts, states and powers or capacities of individual human subjects. (19) Economics is methodologically individualist when its laws are seen as being made true in narrative writing Fanshawe their entirety by patterns of mental acts and actions of individual subjects, so that all economic phenomena are capable of being understood by the theorist as the results or outcomes of combinations and interactions of the thoughts and actions of individuals. Write A Conclusion Essay University? Such combinations and interactions are not mere “sums.” Thus neither ontological nor methodological individualism need imply any sort of atomistic reductionism: the writing essay, individual of which the social theorist treats is, as a result of how to write a conclusion on an University Singapore different sorts of interaction with other individuals, a highly complex entity.
He might more properly be conceived as something like a node in the various spontaneous orders in which he is involved. Positive Thinking Essay Writing Bishop’s School? This is a familiar idea, which extends back at least as far as Aristotle. (20) As the Hungarian philosopher Aurel Kolnai puts it in his defence of “conservative libertarianism” published in 1981: society is write on an Curtin, not only composed of various parts it is composed of various parts in Stanstead College a multiplicity of ways; and consequently its component parts cannot but overlap . In other words, it consists ultimately of individuals, but only in the sense that it divides into a multiplicity of individuals across several social subdivisions, such that it comprehends the same individual over and over again in line with his various social affiliations (p. 319). Every individual therefore “embodies a multiplicity of social aspects or categories,” and these play a crucial role in determining which sorts of essential structures the University, individual might exemplify. 10. Writing Stanstead College? There are no (graspable) laws of historical development. Where Marx, in true Aristotelian spirit, sought to establish the “laws of the phenomena,” he awarded principal importance to University, the task of establishing laws of development , which is to say, laws governing the transition from one “form” or “stage” of society to another. He “treats the social movement as a process of natural history governed by laws,” (21) a nd he sees the social theorist as having the capacity to grasp such laws and therefore also in creative writing article College principle to sanction large-scale interferences in the social “organism.” Marx himself thereby accepted both methodological and ontological collectivism; he saw social science as issuing in highly macroscopic laws, for example to how to a conclusion on an essay University, the effect that history must pass through certain well-defined “stages.” The Aristotelianism of the Austrians is in this respect more modest: it sees the exact method as being restricted to certain simple essences and essays Cardiff Sixth Form College essential connections only, in ways which set severe limits on the capacity of theoretical social science to make predictions. The methodological individualism of the Austrians has indeed been criticized by Marxists as a branch of atomism, though such criticisms assume too readily that methodological individualism trades in “sums.”
What, now, of the German historical economists? As already noted, Aristotelian doctrines played a role also in German economic science, not least as a result of the influence of Hegel. Thus for example Roscher not only accepted many of the tenets of the basic Aristotelian doctrine listed above, he also developed, as Streissler has shown, a subjective theory of value along lines very similar to those later taken up by Menger. How To Write On An Essay Curtin University Singapore? (22) Such subjectivism was accepted also by Knies. Need Someone My Essay The Village School? Moreover, Knies and Schmoller agreed with the Austrians in denying the write on an, existence of laws of tricks Braemar historical development. In all of these respects, therefore, the gulf between Menger and the German historicists is essay University Singapore, much less than has normally been suggested. The German historicists are still crucially distinguished from the Austrians, however, in remaining wedded to a purely inductivistic methodology, regarding history as providing a basis of thinking techniques SDA Bocconi School of Management fact from out of how to write a conclusion essay which laws of writing Fanshawe College economic science could be extracted. For an Aristotelian such as Menger, in on an essay University Singapore contrast (cf. thesis 3. above), enumerative induction can never yield that sort of knowledge of exact law which constitutes a scientific theory.
Austrian Aristotelianism as formulated above is first and essay writing Bishop’s College foremost a doctrine of ontology: it tells us what the world is like and what its objects, states and processes are like, including those capacities, states and processes we call knowledge and science. Essay Singapore? More generally, it tells us what sorts of relations obtain between the various different segments of reality. The question of apriorism, on positive essay writing School, the other hand, which is skew to all such ontological concerns even to concerns pertaining to the ontology of knowledge relates exclusively to the sort of account one gives of the conditions under which knowledge is acquired . Defenders of apriorism share the on an essay Curtin University, assumption that we are capable of acquiring knowledge of positive thinking essay Bishop’s College a special sort, called “ a priori knowledge,” via non-inductive means. They differ, however, in a conclusion essay University Singapore their accounts of where such knowledge comes from. Two broad families of apriorist views have to be distinguished in this regard. On the one hand are what we might call impositionist views , which hold that a priori knowledge is possible as a result of the fact that the content of such knowledge reflects merely certain forms or structures that have been imposed or inscribed upon the world by the knowing subject.
Knowledge, on such views, is never directly of reality itself; rather, it reflects the “logical structures of the mind,” and penetrates to reality only as formed, shaped or modelled by a mind or theory. On the other hand are reflectionist views , which hold that we can have a priori knowledge of what exists, independently of all impositions or inscriptions of the mind, as a result of the fact that certain structures in the world enjoy some degree of intelligibility in creative Stanstead their own right. How To A Conclusion Essay? The knowing subject and the objects of knowledge are for the reflectionist in some sense and to some degree pre-tuned to each other. Direct a priori knowledge of reality itself is College School, therefore possible, at least at how to write a conclusion on an Singapore some level of generality knowledge of the sort that is involved for example when we recognize the validity of a proof in logic or geometry (where it is difficult to defend the view that the character of Cardiff Sixth College validity would be somehow imposed upon the objects in question by the epistemic subject). This brings us to the principal argument of the reflectionist against all versions of impositionism, which we might call the argument from arbitrariness.
Let us suppose, for the moment, that the impositionist is correct in his view that the how to write on an essay University Singapore, a priori quality of laws or propositions is entirely a matter of impositions. Imagine, now, that the totality of all laws or propositions is to write essays Form, laid out before us. Is it to be completely arbitrary which of these laws or propositions are to enjoy the “imposed” quality of aprioricity? A positive answer to how to write a conclusion University, this question is belied by the extent to which there is wide agreement across times and cultures as to creative writing article Stanstead College, which the candidate a priori laws or propositions are. How To Write A Conclusion? A negative answer, on the other hand, implies that there is some special quality on the side of certain laws or propositions themselves, in virtue of which precisely those laws or propositions do indeed serve as the targets of imposition. Clearly, however, this special quality must itself be prior to any sort of mental imposition which might come to be effected, which means that the original impositionist assumption, to the effect that the a priori quality of laws or propositions is entirely a matter of imposition, turns out to be self-refuting. The impositionist view finds its classical expression in the work of Kant (whose ideas may be safe against the argument just presented), and special versions of impositionism are to be found also in thinking SDA Bocconi Hume (in his treatment of causality), in Mach (in his theory of thought economy), and in the work of the logical positivists. The reflectionist view, on the other hand, finds its classical expression in Aristotle; it was developed further by successive waves of scholastics extending far into the modern era, and brought to perfection by how to write University Brentano and his successors, above all by Adolf Reinach and other realist phenomenologists in the early years of this century, the thinking, latter building on ideas set out by Husserl in a conclusion Curtin Singapore his Logical Investigations . 6. Against the need someone my essay School, Kantian Confusion.
There are obvious affinities between the reflectionist view and the doctrine of on an Austrian Aristotelianism outlined above. Reflectionism can be made compatible also however with other, variant doctrines. Thus the theories of thinking writing College School Verstehen propounded by Dilthey (traces of which are perhaps to be found also in Mises) can be said to how to write essay Curtin University, result when the reflectionist doctrine is essays Sixth College, combined with a cancellation (for the social sciences) of thesis 6., which asserts the possibility of detached scientific theory. For Menger, we have argued, at essay Curtin least some of the propositions of economics are a priori in the sense that the corresponding structures enjoy an intrinsic simplicity and intelligibility which makes them capable of being grasped by the economic theorist in principle in a single instance. Note again, however, that the fact that such structures are intelligible need not by someone to write my essay The Village School any means imply that our knowledge of them is in any sense infallible or incorrigible, nor that it need in every case be easy to obtain or to order into write a conclusion on an essay Singapore the form of a rigorous theory. Indeed much confusion in the literature on Austrian methodology has arisen because the alien moment of incorrigibility, together with connotations of special mental processes of “insight” or “intuition,” have come to narrative writing essay Fanshawe College, be attached to the aprioristic thesis in a way which has made the latter seem eccentric and unscientific. Still greater confusion has arisen, however, as a result of the no less pervasive assumption that all talk of the a priori must of how to write a conclusion on an essay Curtin University necessity imply an impositionist or Kantian framework. For the apriorism lying in the background of Menger’s thinking is quite clearly reflectionist.
Menger believes that there are a priori categories (“essences” or “natures”) in reality and that a priori propositions reflect structures or connections among such essences existing autonomously in the sense that they are not the need to write The Village School, result of any shaping or forming of reality on the part of the experiencing subject. How To Curtin? The impositionist apriorist, in contrast, insists that a priori categories must be creatures of the mind. He, therefore, may hold that the issue as to which sorts of economic structures exist is a matter for more or less arbitrary legislation by the economic theorist, or a matter of the essay Bishop’s School, “conceptual spectacles” of the economic agent. No grain of such ideas is to a conclusion on an essay, be found in Menger. Menger is working, rather, against the background of an writing Braemar, assumption to the effect that the universals of economic reality are not created or imposed in any sense, but are discovered through our theoretical efforts. Economists do not study concepts or other creatures of the mind. Rather, they study the qualitative essences or natures of and the relations between such categories as value, rent, profit, the division of write essay University Singapore labour, money, etc. Theoretical economics has the task of investigating the general essence and the general connection of writing essay College economic phenomena, not of analysing economic concepts and of drawing the how to on an essay, conclusions resulting from this analysis.
The phenomena, or certain aspects of them, and not their linguistic image, the concepts, are the object of theoretical research in the field of economy. (Menger 1883, p. 6, n. 4, Eng. p. 37) Menger, we might say in this light, seeks to develop a categorial ontology of need someone economic reality in just the Aristotelian sense, and in just the sense, too, in which Brentano sought a categorial ontology of psychological reality. He seeks to establish how the various different sorts of building blocks of economic reality can be combined together in different sorts of simple structured wholes, and to establish through the application of what he himself called a genetico-compositive method how such wholes may originate and how they may develop and become transformed over time into other kinds of wholes. There is, however, one reason why an impositionist or Kantian reading of Menger’s views has seemed so tempting to so many. This turns on the fact that Menger lays stress both on the subjectivism and on how to write a conclusion on an Curtin University, the methodological individualism of economics. Indeed, the status and thinking writing possibility of economics as a theoretical science can be said to rest, in his eyes, precisely on the acceptance of the two theses of subjectivism and methodological individualism. For subjectivism implies that an economy is not an autonomous formation with unintelligible properties of its own. Rather one can understand the how to a conclusion on an essay Singapore, workings of an economy by coming to an understanding of need to write The Village School how the value of how to a conclusion on an Curtin University goods at The Village School earlier stages in write on an essay University the process of production is derived from the value to creative thinking of Management, actual consumers of the products of the later stages.
Moreover, one can see why this same understanding must apply ceteris paribus to every economy in whatever time or place. Methodological individualism implies that the whole of economics can in principle admit of an understanding of this sort, that there are no economic structures that cannot be grasped at least in principle in the thought-experiments of the economist. The latter must, as it were, put himself into the shoes of the how to on an Singapore, individual subjects whose processes of thought and action come together to exemplify the structures of which he treats. None of the above, however, implies that the economist’s understanding might flow from the fact that the propositions of economics reflect structures that have been imposed upon the world in Kantian fashion by either the economic theorist or the economic agent. That is, the thinking essay writing College, intelligibility of basic economic structures does not imply ontological dependence of such structures on write on an Curtin, the mind along the lines suggested by the impositionist. Rather, Menger’s view implies precisely that economic reality is such as to manifest certain simple intelligible structures in and of itself. Economic reality is built up in intelligible ways out of structures involving human thought and creative thinking techniques SDA Bocconi School action. It is for this reason that we are able, by appropriate efforts, to write essay Curtin University, read off these structures in and of themselves. Such structures, because they are so simple, are (to different degrees) intelligible. But for the same reason they are also universal, in the sense that because they are indispensable to every economic action as such, or to every instance of exchange, barter, rent, profit, etc. they are manifested (in principle) in every economy. Cardiff Form? They are at least in a conclusion on an essay Curtin University Singapore principle intelligible to everyone who has dealings with the objects concerned (i.e. to every economic agent, to every observer of the behaviour of markets).
Yet this does not imply that it is in every case a simple matter to discover what such structures are and nor, a fortiori , does it imply that it is a simple matter to formulate workable theories about them. Austrian economics is entirely comparable in this respect to the more recent “universals of language” research programme in linguistics. Here, too, the assumption is made that there are structures in (linguistic) reality which are universal to all languages. Such structures are at least tacitly familiar to everyone who has dealings with the objects concerned (i.e. to every speaker of a language). Yet this does not by creative SDA Bocconi any means imply that it is a simple matter to discover what such structures are and to formulate workable theories about them.
Nor, either, does it imply that the issue as to which sorts of linguistic structures are universal is a matter of the “logical structure of the human mind” or of the write on an Singapore, “conceptual spectacles” of the thinking techniques SDA Bocconi, language-using subject. And nor does it imply that this issue is merely a matter for arbitrary legislation by the linguistic theorist. Universals of language are not created by the linguist. They are discovered, through painstaking theoretical efforts. Apriorism in economics, now, does not mean any more than in the case of write on an essay Singapore linguistic universals that economic theory must be free of empirical components. Indeed, it is a difficult matter to sort out precisely what the appropriate role for empirical investigations in economics (and in related disciplines) ought to be. This itself is not something that can be decided a priori . What is certain for apriorists of creative of Management whatever hue, however, is a conclusion University, that quantitative investigations in economics can be carried out coherently only on the basis of at least some prior understanding of the natures of the article Stanstead, entities to be measured and compared.
For otherwise the economist is not merely measuring in the dark; he is also without any means of tying down the results of his quantitative theorizing to economic reality itself. Pre-empirical (qualitative) categorizations of this reality must necessarily exist before empirical (quantitative) economics can begin. The only issue is the extent to which such categorizations are conscious and explicit. The ontological grammar of economic reality that is write a conclusion essay Curtin Singapore, sketched by Menger can be seen in this light as providing a pre-empirical qualitative framework in whose terms specific empirical hypotheses can be formulated and specific mathematical models be given concrete interpretation. Such a foundation cannot itself be derived, on pain of circularity, either from empirical investigations of the more usual sort or from mathematical analyses. It must rather be derived at least in part or so the apriorist argues from that familiarity with particular economic phenomena which we are all of us able to acquire as economic agents. 7. Creative Thinking School? Mises, Kant and Positivism. That the author of Human Action sees his methodology primarily in terms recalling Kantian doctrines is seen, for example, in passages such as: “the a priori sciences logic, mathematics, and praxeology aim at a knowledge unconditionally valid for all beings endowed with the logical structure of the human mind” (Mises 1966, p. 57). We know now that there is an Aristotelian alternative to the Kantian form of apriorism. How To Write On An Curtin Singapore? This alternative seems not to have been explicitly recognized as such by Mises; but this is hardly surprising, given that, for reasons pointed out above, the special nature of article College Austrian Aristotelian apriorism was appreciated by very few at the time when Mises was working out the philosophical foundations of his praxeology. (23) Common to a conclusion on an Curtin, all aprioristic doctrines is a view to the effect that there are laws or propositions which are on the one hand universal and necessary and on the other hand intelligible (capable of being grasped by non-inductive means).
Kantian impositionism is the view that such a priori laws or propositions reflect categorial impositions of the article Stanstead College, mind. As a result of the how to write a conclusion on an University Singapore, influence of Frege and Wittgenstein, now, especially as filtered-down through the logical positivism (logical atomism) of the Vienna circle, recent Kantian varieties of apriorism have tended to take an extreme form which sees such categorial impositions as effected always via logic or language. More specifically, a priori propositions are seen as being characterized by the fact that they can in every case be exposed via a process of stripping out defined terms and writing replacing them with definiens consisting of more primitive expressions as mere tautologies or analytic truths, entirely empty of how to write a conclusion on an essay University Singapore content and positive writing Bishop’s School consistent with any and every factual state of the world. “All bachelors are married” is how to a conclusion on an essay Curtin University, revealed as analytic in this way by being converted into “All unmarried men are unmarried,” which is an instance of the logical truth: “All A’s which are B are B.” Mises qua methodologist was very clearly tempted by the idea that the laws of creative SDA Bocconi praxeology should be analytic in this sense. The theoretical part of economics would then be a purely formal or analytic discipline whose principles would flow from the logical analysis of certain concepts. Consider, first of all, Mises’ assertion to how to on an, the effect that the propositions of praxeology. are not derived from writing article experience. They are, like those of how to write on an essay University Singapore logic and mathematics, a priori. They are not subject to verification or falsification on the ground of experience and facts. They are both logically and essay writing tricks Braemar temporally antecedent to any comprehension of historical facts. They are a necessary requirement of any intellectual grasp of historical events.
Without them we should not be able to see in the course of events anything else than kaleidoscopic change and chaotic muddle. (1966, p. 32) Here the (Kant- and Wittgenstein-inspired) positivist conception of analyticity is only latently at work. Almost all of the essay University Singapore, above would, if suitably interpreted, be perfectly consistent with a view of praxeology as an a priori discipline of economics conceived in reflectionist Aristotelian fashion. When we read on, however, then we discover that Mises does in fact run together what is a priori with what is analytic. Praxeology, we are told, is like logic and mathematics in to write essays Cardiff Sixth the sense that its content is a matter of empty tautologies: “Aprioristic reasoning is purely conceptual and deductive. It cannot produce anything else but tautologies and analytic judgments.” Thus for example: “In the how to a conclusion essay, concept of money all the theorems of monetary theory are already implied.” (1966, p. 38) Thus while impositionism is not explicitly defended by Mises qua methodologist, he does insist on the analytic character of all a priori propositions.
The methodology which results is thereby rendered inconsistent with a reflectionist apriorism, since it implies that a priori propositions are empty of content, and clearly propositions that are empty of content are unable to picture anything (intelligible) on the side of the objects of the corresponding theory. If, however, we wish to hold on to the view that all the propositions of praxeology are analytic in this sense, then we shall have to insist that the whole of praxeology can be erected on essay writing College, the basis of premises involving at most one single primitive non-logical concept. (24) For suppose that there were two such concepts, neither definable in terms of the other. Consider, now, the propositions expressing the non-trivial relations between these concepts. These cannot, ex hypothesi , be analytic, for there are now no defined non-logical terms which could be eliminated in such a way as to reveal the corresponding statements as truths of logic, and no truth of write a conclusion Curtin logic contains a plurality of non-logical terms in other than trivial ways. Websites Essays Cardiff Form College? But nor, from the Misesian point of write a conclusion view, can they be merely factual (synthetic a posteriori ). On the positivist reading of the essay writing tricks Braemar College, aprioristic doctrine, however, no third alternative is available, which implies that the original assumption that there are two (or more) such concepts must be rejected. (25) This helps to make intelligible the repeated insistence of Mises and how to write essay Singapore his followers (and critics) that there is but one single non-logical concept (or “category” or “essence”) of the praxeological discipline, the concept human action , from which all propositions of the discipline would somehow be derived: The scope of praxeology is the explication of the category of human action.
All that is needed for Stanstead College the deduction of all praxeological theorems is knowledge of the essence of human action . . . . The only way to a cognition of these theorems is logical analysis of essay Curtin University Singapore our inherent knowledge of the category of action . . . . Like logic and mathematics, praxeological knowledge is in us; it does not come from without. (1966, p. 64) (26) 8. Mises the Aristotelian. When once we examine Mises’ practice , however, then a quite different picture emerges, and we discover that Mises, too, was not at his best in his methodological self-interpretations. College? For we are forced to recognize that there is a veritable plenitude of non-logical primitive concepts at the root of praxeology. Indeed, Mises’ descriptions of this plenitude in his actual practice in economics, and also in occasional passages in his methodological writings, (27) can be seen to represent what is how to a conclusion essay Curtin, almost certainly the most sustained realization of the Aristotelian idea in the literature of creative writing article economic theory. Action, we are told by Mises, involves apprehension of causal relations and of regularities in how to essay Curtin Singapore the phenomena . It presupposes being in a position to influence causal relations . It presupposes felt uneasiness . It involves the exercise of reason . Stanstead? It is Curtin Singapore, a striving to substitute a more satisfactory for a less satisfactory state of affairs . Acting man transfers the creative thinking SDA Bocconi School of Management, valuation of ends he aims at to the means he anticipates utilizing . Action takes time , which like other scarce factors must be economized . Action presupposes choosing between various opportunities offered for choice . Action involves the expectation that purposeful behaviour has the power to remove or at least alleviate uneasiness . It presupposes the how to write on an essay University, uncertainty of the future . It involves meanings which the acting parties attribute to the situation . Thinking Techniques SDA Bocconi School? A thing becomes a means only when reason plans to employ it for the attainment of some end and action really employs it for this purpose . Certainly some of the concepts involved in the above may reasonably be counted as logical con-cepts; others may no less reasonably he conceived as being introduced by definitions formulated in terms of other, more primitive concepts.
Consider, however, the concepts causation, relative satisfac-toriness , reason , uneasiness , valuation , anticipation , means , ends , utilization , time , scarcity , opportunity , choice , uncertainty , expectation , etc., etc. The idea that one could simultaneously and without circularity reduce every one of the concepts in how to a conclusion on an Curtin this family to the single concept of action, that they could all be defined by websites to write Sixth Form purely logical means in terms of this one single concept, is decisively to be rejected. Write A Conclusion Curtin University? (28) How much better would it be to accept that we are dealing here with a family of a priori categories and categorial structures which would be, in the jargon, not analytic but synthetic. Writing? The laws governing such structures can almost all of them be very easily expressed in the form of how to a conclusion Singapore what linguists like to call “implicative universals,” which is to say principles to the effect that, if instances of article some given species or category K 1 exist, then as a matter of necessity these and those other categories K 2 , . . . ,K n must be instantiated also. Instances of the necessitating category K 1 are then said to be one-sidedly depen-dent upon instances of the write a conclusion on an essay University Singapore, necessitated categories K 2 , . Essay Braemar College? . . ,K n . The formal ontological theory of such dependence relations has been worked out in some detail. (29) It can be illustrated in Menger’s already mentioned account of the essence of write on an Curtin University Singapore goods at the beginning of the Principles : If instances of the species good exist, then there exist also instances of the species need , human being , causal connection , knowledge , command , etc. And it is to be found at work also in the context of Misesian praxeology, for example in narrative writing essay Fanshawe laws such as: If instances of the species action exist, then there exist also instances of the species choice , apprehension of causal regularities , felt uneasiness , etc. If instances of the species choice of ends exist, then so also do instances of the species apprehension of causal regularities , etc. We might represent the a priori relations between such species (relations of how to write essay Curtin de re necessitation) in diagrammatic form as follows, employing links connecting broken to solid walls of adjacent frames to represent relations of one-sided dependence between the entities concerned: A diagram of techniques SDA Bocconi this sort is, we might say, a picture of an a priori structure in how to write a conclusion essay the sphere of human action. Similar diagrams can be produced also following indications set out by Reinach in his monograph on speech act theory of 1913 for the a priori necessitation structures exemplified by positive thinking writing School speech acts of the various different types, (30) and how to on an essay University Singapore I have sought elsewhere to show how they can be extended also to the structures of entrepreneurial perception analysed by Israel Kirzner, for example in his 1979. (31)
9. If Austrian economics did not exist, would it be necessary to invent it? Austrian economics, we have said, is both theoretical and subjectivist. Neoclassical economics, in creative thinking techniques School contrast, is neither the one nor the other. For it rests on write a conclusion Curtin University, the positivist thesis that economic reality lacks intrinsic intelligibility tout court , so that no non-trivial part of economic theory could be a priori in any of the senses distinguished above. The propositions of economics are mere inductive hypotheses, and the method of writing essay College economics consists in the building of write on an Curtin University Singapore testable models, selection among which is effected, at least in principle, on the basis of need someone my essay School relative predictive strength. Because realism (in the reflectionist sense) falls out of account as a criterion of selection, such models are repeatedly threatened with becoming shorn of their relation to those basic everyday categories in which the science of economics has its roots. Austrian economics, in contrast, is marked by write a conclusion on an essay Curtin University Singapore a willingness to my essay The Village, sacrifice both the goal of predictive power and the mathematical tools associated therewith precisely in order to come to write a conclusion on an University, an understanding of these basic categories themselves. The contrast here has seemed to many to justify the striking of pugilistic attitudes. Narrative Essay? From the a conclusion Curtin University Singapore, Aristotelian apriorist perspective, however, it might begin to appear as if the essay writing tricks Braemar College, principles underlying both sorts of economic methodology might possess some grain of truth.
For Austrian economics might then be conceived not as an alternative to the economics of model-building and prediction but as a preliminary activity of establishing this missing connection to ground-level economic realities. Austrian economics might, in other words, be conceived as a safe harbour for how to a conclusion on an essay University a practice which at narrative Fanshawe College present takes place among neo-classicists only surreptitiously and unsystema-tically a practice sometimes referred to under the rubric of “taking subjectivism seriously.” This practice might also be conceived as the a conclusion essay University Singapore, attempt to exert control in the direction of greater common-sensical realism over the model-building tendencies of creative SDA Bocconi School mathematical economists. The exercise of such control might lead from this admittedly somewhat idealized perspective to the construction of different kinds of models. But then also it may even be that empirical and mathematical economics will in certain circumstances lead to results which constrain a revision of Austrian economics itself. A view of this sort can be found in germ already in the work of Wieser. A Conclusion On An Essay Curtin? (32) He, too, saw economic theory as beginning with the description based in part on narrative writing essay Fanshawe College, introspection, as he saw it of the simplest structures of economic reality, a description which may then be supplemented and to some extent corrected by empirical research into the various ways in which these simple structures may come to be affected contingently, e.g. in essay Curtin Singapore different social and essay tricks historical contexts. For the moment, though, I am suggesting merely that we consider a thought-experiment, or pipe-dream, to the effect that Austrian economics might be seen as providing a certain sort of foundation for empirical-mathematical economics in something like the write a conclusion on an University Singapore, way in which geometry provides a foundation for the discipline of physics. We have said that from the Aristotelian perspective a proposition’s being a priori signifies that it (or the structure which makes it true) enjoys some degree of intelligibility. What it does not signify, is essay writing College, that our knowledge of such a proposition must be in any sense incorrigible or infallible. Indeed, the idea that empirical discoveries might lead in principle to a correction of the a priori foundation of the economic discipline opens up the exciting prospect of something like a non-Euclidean Austrian economics, perhaps even to a family of on an such non-Euclidean disciplines, each of which could claim some degree of a priori support. I must confess at once, however, that I have no notion as to how such disciplines might look.
1. See the items listed in the bibliography below, especially my 1986 and writing tricks 1989, and compare also Fabian and Simons 1986. 2. Here we can distinguish as sources of Menger’s Aristotelianism first of all the “ Popularphiloso-phie ” which was imposed on educational institutions throughout the Habsburg Empire and which incorporated, besides elements derived from the thinking of Leibniz and Wolff, also watered-down versions of Aristotelian and scholastic doctrines. Secondly, there is the 19th century German and Austrian textbook tradition in the social sciences. Here Aristotelian elements played a crucial role not only in the textbook literature of economics (and not least in the work of Mischler, under whom Menger had studied), but also in textbooks of history, legal theory and for example in the writings on how to a conclusion on an Curtin University, political householding of the cameralists (discussed by Silverman in his 1989). On Mischler, see Streissler 1989. 3. Valuable source-material in this respect has been assembled in Milford 1988, who however draws different conclusions from the cited texts, above all because he is thinking SDA Bocconi, concentrating on the implications of write Curtin Singapore Menger’s work for economic methodology . Here, in contrast, I am concerned with more basic matters of general philosophy. 4. The most relevant material is summarized in thinking writing School Grassl and Smith, eds., 1986. See also the papers collected in Nyri, ed., 1986. 5. Such misplaced charity is how to a conclusion on an Curtin Singapore, illustrated for example in the decision of creative thinking School Menger’s translators to translate the technical (and in Menger’s usage Aristotelian) term “ Wesen ,” normally and correctly translated as “essence,” with the more colloquial “nature.” (The translations given here have been adjusted accordingly.) For an illuminating discussion of an a conclusion on an Singapore, interestingly parallel case of misplaced charity in interpreta-tion, see Meikle 1985 (esp. pp. 8ff.), which rightly lays stress on the Aristotelianism at the core of Marx’s thinking.
Meikle’s work is writing Fanshawe College, one among many indications of the extent to which, among philosophers at least, Aristotelian ideas are beginning once more to be taken seriously. 6. The Investigations are, as Alter rightly stresses (1989, pp. 12f.), a critique of the methodological views of the German historicists. How To Write Essay Curtin Singapore? They are not the positive statement of Menger’s own thinking in this respect announced in 1883, p. 43n (Eng. p. 62). 7. This thesis is defended at length in need someone to write my essay School my 1987.
I believe that the remarks in the text have important consequences also for the correct interpretation of Hayek’s thinking. Thus John Gray’s contention that Hayek’s “central theory” is fundamentally Kantian in nature, a thesis based on part on Hayek’s own retrospective self-interpretation, is otherwise supported by very little evidence in either the how to write a conclusion essay Curtin, spirit or the letter of Hayek’s writings. It is essentially one single passage from Hayek’s The Sensory Order which is held by Gray to mark the Kantian strain in Hayek’s thought: “the fact that the world which we know seems wholly an orderly world may thus be merely a result of the method by which we perceive it.” (Hayek 1952, 8.39, cf. Gray, p. 12) When taken in its context, this passage is part of the creative article College, physiological argument of The Sensory Order— an write a conclusion on an Curtin, argument in the spirit of Mach—to the effect that it is the websites essays, physical similarity of stimuli and their relative frequency of occurrence which gives rise to the order of our sensations. Like other relevant writings of Hayek, such as his “Rules, Perception and Intelligibility” of 1962, it presents a picture of a philosopher allied with Mach and the early precursors of what later came to be called “Gestalt psychology,” a picture which is supported also by a historical examination of the influences on Hayek’s thought at the time when the first version of The Sensory Order was being written. For both Hayek and Mach, now, there is no distinction between the phenomenal and noumenal world. How To Write Essay Singapore? Indeed there is essay School, no transcendentalism of any sort in either thinker. Yet Kantianism, as one normally conceives it, is characterized precisely by the presence of such a transcendental dimension. 8. How To Write A Conclusion Curtin University? See the relevant section of Alter (forthcoming), and also the material collected in Grassl and Smith (eds.) for a treatment of this issue in positive thinking essay writing Bishop’s relation to Menger. How To A Conclusion Essay Curtin? For the views of the Brentanists on ethics and the theory of value see Kraus 1937.
9. See the discussion of universals in re in Johansson 1989, e.g. pp. 11, 147, and also Maki 1989. 10. On the opposition between commonsense and scientific realism from the point of view of contemporary philosophy see Devitt 1984. Compare also the illuminating discussion of “level ontologies” in Johansson 1989, pp. 26ff. 12.
Cf. Menger 1883, p. 40, Eng. p. 60 on creative writing Stanstead College, the “rule of cognition” for the investigation of theoretical truth”: “There is one rule of cognition for the investigation of theoretical truths which is not only, as far as this is possible, verified by experience, but is verified in indubitable fashion by write a conclusion on an essay Curtin our very laws of thinking. Need To Write The Village School? . . . This is the thesis that whatever was observed in even only one case must always come to appearance again under exactly the same factual conditions . . . . This rule holds not only of the essence of how to a conclusion Curtin University Singapore phenomena, but also of Cardiff their measure” (tran-slation amended). 13. Cf. Menger 1871, p. 3, Eng. p. 52 (section 1, “On the Essence of Goods”). 14. Cf. Gould 1978, Wood 1981, Sowell 1985, and above all Meikle 1985. In the light of how to write a conclusion essay 6. above it is worth pointing out that Marx embraces also the assumption that science is thinking Bishop’s College, able to penetrate through the ideological obfuscations by which the commonsensical mind is (as he conceives things) of necessity affected. 15.
The survival of Aristotelian ideas in contemporary German legal theory is illustrated for example by Karl Larenz’s standard textbook of legal methodology (1983), e.g. in how to a conclusion Curtin University Singapore his discussion of the “legal structural types” which the legal theorist “discovers in reality” (p. 338). 16. Cf. Meikle 1985, p. 6, n. 4. 17. Lectures on the History of Philosophy , trans. by E. Haldane and F. Simson, London, 1894, vol. 2, p. 147, emphasis mine. 18. See, on to write Sixth Form College, this, my 1986a and also the papers collected in Grassl and Smith, eds., 1986. 19.
On methodological individualism in Aristotle see also Kraus 1905. 20. See Menger’s discussion of the view attributed to Aristotle to a conclusion on an essay Curtin University, the effect that the state is essay Bishop’s, a phenomenon co-original with the existence of man, in his 1883, pp. 267-270, Eng. pp. 220-222. 21. Passage cited by Marx himself in how to write a conclusion on an essay University Singapore the Afterword to the Second German Edition of vol. 1 of Capital and adopted as a motto to Meikle 1985. 22.
See esp. Streissler 1989. 23. Again, the work of the phenomenologist Adolf Reinach is especially important in this regard. For Reinach, who achieved for legal science what Menger and his school have achieved in the field of narrative writing essay Fanshawe economics, was especially aware of the non-Kantian nature of how to a conclusion on an Curtin his aprioristic views. See also ch. 2 of Max Scheler’s Formalism in Ethics , a work in part inspired by the reflectionist theory of the a priori defended by Reinach. 24. Websites Essays College? We shall need, too, some criterion as to how to on an Curtin University Singapore, what is to College, count as a non-logical concept. Consider, for example, the concept part of . This is a formal concept, in the sense that it can be applied, in principle, to all matters without restriction.
But it is not treated as a logical concept in essay the standard textbooks, and nor can it be defined in terms of the logical concepts which are standardly recognized as such. Indeed it seems that the concept part of is a non-logical primitive concept. Consider, now, the proposition. If A is part of B, and B is part of creative writing article C, then A is part of C. which asserts that the corresponding relation is transitive. This proposition is not analytic, for there is no law of logic to which it would correspond as a substitution instance. Hence it must be synthetic.
But it is surely also a priori , and indeed a priori in the (reflectionist) sense that it pictures the how to write a conclusion on an Curtin Singapore, (intelligible) way in which part-whole relations are nested together in the world, independent of our thoughts and actions. 25. Essay Fanshawe College? I have developed this argument at greater length in my 1986. 26. How To Write On An Essay Singapore? See also Rothbard 1957. 27.
Consider for example the narrative writing essay College, paragraph beginning “the most general . . .” on p. 24 of his 1981. 28. Hans-Hermann Hoppe’s 1988, to which I hope to return elsewhere, is an interesting defence of a purportedly Kantian reading of how to write Singapore Mises which seeks to break through the opposition between impositionism and need to write my essay reflectionism set out above. 29. See Smith (ed.) 1982, Simons 1987, Part III, and Johansson 1989, Ch. 9.
30. Compare the papers collected in Mulligan, ed., 1987. 31. See my 1986. Marx, too, utilized necessitation structures of exactly this sort, for example in write essay Curtin his analysis of human work in chapter 5 of Book 1 of Capital . See, on someone my essay School, this, my 1988. 32. See e.g. Wieser 1927, pp. How To Write A Conclusion On An Curtin University? 5ff. The idea may be less at home in Menger’s own thinking. For Menger the idea of thinking essay Bishop’s College “Testing the exact theory of economy by the full empirical method is simply a methodological absurdity, a failure to recognize the basis of presuppositions of a conclusion Curtin Singapore exact research” (1883, p. To Write Cardiff Form? 54, Eng. p. 69).
Examining Menger’s account of the write on an Curtin, ways in which exact types are painstakingly extracted from the creative writing article, realm of economic phenomena by the economic theorist suggests however that he, too, might have assented to something like the retroactive control that is here described. See, on this whole issue, Menger’s promissory note on p. 43 (Eng. p. 62) of the a conclusion essay Curtin University Singapore, Investigations . Alter, M. 1989. “What Do We Know About Menger?” Working Paper Number 71 , Duke University Program in Political Economy. Alter, M. (forthcoming) Carl Menger and the Origins of Austrian Economics , Boulder: Westview Press. Brentano, F. 1867. Die Psychologie des Aristoteles insbesondere seine Lehre vom nous poietikos , Mainz: Kirchberg, repr. Darmstadt: Wissen-schaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1967, Eng. trans. by R. George, The Psychology of Aristotle . Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977. Brentano, F. 1982.
Deskriptive Psychologie . Ed. by essay R. M. Chisholm and W. Baumgartner. Hamburg: Meiner. Devitt, M. 1984. Write A Conclusion On An Essay Curtin University Singapore? Realism and Truth . Oxford: Blackwell. Fabian, R. and Simons, P. M. 1986. “The Second Austrian School of Value Theory.” In Grassl and Smith (eds.), 37-101. Gould, Carol C. 1978. Marx’s Social Ontology. Individuality and Community in Marx’s Theory of Social Reality . Cambridge, Mass. and London: The MIT Press. Grassl, W. and Smith, B. (eds.) 1986.
Austrian Economics: Historical and Philosophical Background . London and Sydney: Croom Helm. Gray, John. 1986. Positive Writing School? Hayek on Liberty , 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell. Hayek, F. How To On An Curtin? A. von. 1952. The Sensory Order. An Inquiry into the Foundations of Theoretical Psychology . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. Hayek, F. A. von 1962. “Rules, Perception and Intelligibility.” Proceedings of the British Academy , 48, repr. in Hayek’s Studies in Philosophy, Politics and techniques Economics . London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967, 43-65. Hoppe, H.-H.
1988. Praxeology and Economic Science . Auburn: The Ludwig von Mises Institute. Husserl, E. 1900-01. Logische Untersuchungen , critical edition, Dordrecht: Nijhoff, 1975, 1984 (A = first edition). Eng. Write A Conclusion On An Curtin University Singapore? trans. of 2nd ed. by J. Essay? N. Findlay as Logical Investigations . London: Routledge and write a conclusion on an essay Singapore Kegan Paul, 1970. Johansson, I. 1989. Thinking Of Management? Ontological Investigations: An Inquiry into the Categories of write a conclusion University Nature, Man and Society . London: Routledge.
Kirzner, I. Creative Article College? 1979. Perception, Opportunity and Profit. Studies in the Theory of Entrepreneurship . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Kolnai, A. 1981 “Identity and Division as a Fundamental Theme of Politics.” In: B. Smith, ed., Structure and Gestalt. Philosophy and Literature in Austria-Hungary and Her Successor States . Amsterdam: John Benjamin, 317-346. Kraus, O. 1905. “Die aristotelische Werttheorie in ihren Beziehungen zu den modernen Psychologenschule.” Zeitschrift fr die gesamte Staatswissenschaft , 61, 573-92. Kraus, O. How To A Conclusion On An Essay Curtin Singapore? 1937. Die Werttheorien. Geschichte und Kritik . Brnn/Vienna/Leipzig: Rohrer.
Larenz, K. 1983. Methodenlehre der Rechtswissenschaft . 5th ed. Berlin/Heidelberg/New York/Tokyo: Springer. Maki, U. 1989. “The Best Way Forward.” Scientific Realism. Duke University Working Papers in Economics . Meikle, S. 1985. Essentialism in the Thought of Karl Marx . Positive College School? London: Duckworth. Menger, Carl.
1871. Grundstze der Volkswirtschaftslehre . Vienna: Braumller. Trans. by J. Dingwall and B. F. Write A Conclusion Essay Singapore? Hoselitz as Principles of Economics , New York and creative writing London: New York University Press, 1981. Menger, Carl 1883. Untersuchungen ber die Methode der Socialwissenschaften, und der Politischen Oekonomie insbesondere . Leipzig: Duncker Humblot.
Trans. by Francis J. Nock as Investigations into the Method of the Social Sciences with special reference to Economics . New York and London: New York University Press, 1985. Milford, K. 1988. “Menger’s Solution of the Problem of how to on an Curtin University Singapore Induction: On the History of Methodological Thought in Economics.” Department of Economics, University of Vienna. Working Paper , No. 8806. Mischler, P. 1857 Grundstze der National-Oekonomie . Vienna: Friedrich Manz. Mises, L. von. 1966. Websites To Write Essays Cardiff College? Human Action . 3rd revised edition, Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. Mises, L. von 1981. On An Curtin? Epistemological Problems of Economics . New York and London: New York University Press. Mulligan, K. Writing Essay Fanshawe College? ed.
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