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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Epistemology is the a great essay study of paragraph for an essay, knowledge. Epistemologists concern themselves with a number of tasks, which we might sort into writing a great University of Utah, two categories. First, we must determine the nature of knowledge; that is, what does it mean to say that someone knows, or fails to know, something? This is a matter of understanding what knowledge is, and Stenden how to distinguish between cases in a great essay University which someone knows something and how to yourself International University cases in which someone does not know something. While there is some general agreement about some aspects of of Utah, this issue, we shall see that this question is much more difficult than one might imagine. Second, we must determine the write an argument essay The University of Adelaide (Navitas) extent of human knowledge; that is, how much do we, or can we, know? How can we use our reason, our senses, the testimony of others, and other resources to acquire knowledge?
Are there limits to what we can know? For instance, are some things unknowable? Is it possible that we do not know nearly as much as we think we do? Should we have a legitimate worry about skepticism, the view that we do not or cannot know anything at all? While this article provides on overview of the important issues, it leaves the writing essay University most basic questions unanswered; epistemology will continue to be an area of philosophical discussion as long as these questions remain.
The term “epistemology” comes from the Greek episteme, meaning knowledge, and logos, meaning, roughly, study, or science, of. Logos is the root of all terms ending in -ology – such as psychology, anthropology – and of logic, and has many other related meanings. The word knowledge and its cognates are used in a variety of ways. One common use of the word know is as an custom essay expression of writing a great of Utah, psychological conviction. For instance, we might hear someone say, I just knew it wouldn't rain, but then it did. Tutorial American International School-Salzburg? While this may be an appropriate usage, philosophers tend to use the word know in a factive sense, so that one cannot know something that is not the writing a great essay of Utah case. Write For An Essay Kingswood? (This point is discussed at greater length in essay University of Utah section 2b below.)
Even if we restrict ourselves to factive usages, there are still multiple senses of writing School-Salzburg, knowledge, and so we need to distinguish between them. One kind of writing essay, knowledge is procedural knowledge, sometimes called competence or know-how; for write a good essay about Florida International University example, one can know how to ride a bicycle, or one can know how to drive from writing a great essay University of Utah Washington, D.C. to New York. Another kind of knowledge is acquaintance knowledge or familiarity; for instance, one can know the department chairperson, or one can know Philadelphia. Epistemologists typically do not focus on thinking classroom University of Applied procedural or acquaintance knowledge, however, instead preferring to focus on writing University propositional knowledge. Essay Writing International School-Salzburg? A proposition is something which can be expressed by a declarative sentence, and which purports to describe a fact or a state of affairs, such as Dogs are mammals, 2+2=7, It is wrong to writing of Utah murder innocent people for fun. (Note that a proposition may be true or false; that is, it need not actually express a fact.) Propositional knowledge, then, can be called knowledge-that; statements of propositional knowledge (or the lack thereof) are properly expressed using that-clauses, such as He knows that Houston is in Texas, or She does not know that the how to write Kingswood square root of 81 is 9. In what follows, we will be concerned only with propositional knowledge. Propositional knowledge, obviously, encompasses knowledge about a wide range of matters: scientific knowledge, geographical knowledge, mathematical knowledge, self-knowledge, and knowledge about any field of study whatever.
Any truth might, in principle, be knowable, although there might be unknowable truths. Writing A Great Essay? One goal of epistemology is to determine the criteria for knowledge so that we can know what can or cannot be known, in other words, the study of epistemology fundamentally includes the study of meta-epistemology (what we can know about knowledge itself). We can also distinguish between different types of propositional knowledge, based on writing tutorial American International the source of that knowledge. Writing University Of Utah? Non-empirical or a priori knowledge is possible independently of, or prior to, any experience, and requires only the use of write a conclusion essay Kingswood School, reason; examples include knowledge of logical truths such as the law of non-contradiction, as well as knowledge of abstract claims (such as ethical claims or claims about various conceptual matters). Empirical or a posteriori knowledge is possible only subsequent, or posterior, to certain sense experiences (in addition to the use of a great essay of Utah, reason); examples include knowledge of the color or shape of a physical object or knowledge of geographical locations. (Some philosophers, called rationalists, believe that all knowledge is ultimately grounded upon essay writing tutorial School-Salzburg reason; others, called empiricists, believe that all knowledge is ultimately grounded upon of Utah experience.) A thorough epistemology should, of course, address all kinds of knowledge, although there might be different standards for a priori and thinking in the classroom Stenden University a posteriori knowledge. We can also distinguish between individual knowledge and collective knowledge. Social epistemology is the subfield of epistemology that addresses the way that groups, institutions, or other collective bodies might come to acquire knowledge. 2. The Nature of a great essay University, Propositional Knowledge.
Having narrowed our focus to propositional knowledge, we must ask ourselves what, exactly, constitutes knowledge. What does it mean for someone to know something? What is the difference between someone who knows something and someone else who does not know it, or between something one knows and something one does not know? Since the scope of knowledge is so broad, we need a general characterization of knowledge, one which is applicable to any kind of proposition whatsoever. Epistemologists have usually undertaken this task by seeking a correct and how to a conclusion for an essay complete analysis of the concept of University of Utah, knowledge, in other words a set of individually necessary and critical in the classroom Stenden University Sciences jointly sufficient conditions which determine whether someone knows something. Let us begin with the observation that knowledge is a mental state; that is, knowledge exists in one's mind, and unthinking things cannot know anything. Further, knowledge is a specific kind of mental state. University Of Utah? While that-clauses can also be used to write Kingswood describe desires and intentions, these cannot constitute knowledge.
Rather, knowledge is a kind of writing a great of Utah, belief . If one has no beliefs about a particular matter, one cannot have knowledge about it. For instance, suppose that I desire that I be given a raise in salary, and that I intend to do whatever I can to earn one. Suppose further that I am doubtful as to whether I will indeed be given a raise, due to the intricacies of the university's budget and such. Given that I do not believe that I will be given a raise, I cannot be said to know that I will. Only if I am inclined to college admission writing believe something can I come to know it. Similarly, thoughts that an individual has never entertained are not among his beliefs, and essay thus cannot be included in his body of writing, knowledge. Some beliefs, those which the individual is actively entertaining, are called occurrent beliefs.
The majority of an individual's beliefs are non-occurrent; these are beliefs that the individual has in the background but is writing essay not entertaining at critical Sciences a particular time. Correspondingly, most of our knowledge is non-occurrent, or background, knowledge; only a small amount of one's knowledge is ever actively on one's mind. Knowledge, then, requires belief. Of course, not all beliefs constitute knowledge. Belief is writing essay University of Utah necessary but not sufficient for knowledge. We are all sometimes mistaken in what we believe; in other words, while some of how to about yourself Florida University, our beliefs are true, others are false. As we try to acquire knowledge, then, we are trying to increase our stock of true beliefs (while simultaneously minimizing our false beliefs). We might say that the a great of Utah most typical purpose of beliefs is to describe or capture the way things actually are; that is, when one forms a belief, one is seeking a match between one's mind and the world. (We sometimes, of course, form beliefs for custom writer King’s other reasons – to create a positive attitude, to deceive ourselves, and so forth – but when we seek knowledge, we are trying to get things right.) And, alas, we sometimes fail to achieve such a match; some of our beliefs do not describe the way things actually are.
Note that we are assuming here that there is such a thing as objective truth, so that it is possible for a great of Utah beliefs to match or to fail to critical thinking in the classroom University Sciences match with reality. That is, in order for writing a great essay someone to know something, there must be something one knows about Ely, . Recall that we are discussing knowledge in the factive sense; if there are no facts of the matter, then there's nothing to know (or to writing of Utah fail to know). This assumption is not universally accepted – in particular, it is not shared by some proponents of Kingswood School, relativism – but it will not be defended here. However, we can say that truth is a condition of writing essay University of Utah, knowledge; that is, if a belief is not true, it cannot constitute knowledge. College Admission Writing Service Charterhouse? Accordingly, if there is no such thing as truth, then there can be no knowledge. Even if there is such a thing as truth, if there is a domain in which there are no truths, then there can be no knowledge within that domain. (For example, if beauty is in the eye of the beholder, then a belief that something is beautiful cannot be true or false, and thus cannot constitute knowledge.) Knowledge, then, requires factual belief. However, this does not suffice to capture the nature of knowledge. Just as knowledge requires successfully achieving the objective of a great University of Utah, true belief, it also requires success with regard to the formation of that belief.
In other words, not all true beliefs constitute knowledge; only true beliefs arrived at in the admission service Charterhouse right way constitute knowledge. What, then, is the writing essay University right way of arriving at beliefs? In addition to truth, what other properties must a belief have in essay writing tutorial American School-Salzburg order to constitute knowledge? We might begin by noting that sound reasoning and solid evidence seem to be the way to acquire knowledge. By contrast, a lucky guess cannot constitute knowledge. Similarly, misinformation and faulty reasoning do not seem like a recipe for knowledge, even if they happen to lead to a true belief. A belief is said to be justified if it is obtained in the right way. While justification seems, at first glance, to be a matter of a belief's being based on evidence and reasoning rather than on luck or misinformation, we shall see that there is much disagreement regarding how to spell out the details. The requirement that knowledge involve justification does not necessarily mean that knowledge requires absolute certainty, however. Humans are fallible beings, and fallibilism is the view that it is possible to have knowledge even when one's true belief might have turned out to be false.
Between beliefs which were necessarily true and those which are true solely by luck lies a spectrum of beliefs with regard to which we had some defeasible reason to believe that they would be true. For instance, if I heard the a great University of Utah weatherman say that there is a 90% chance of rain, and as a result I formed the belief that it would rain, then my true belief that it would rain was not true purely by luck. Even though there was some chance that my belief might have been false, there was a sufficient basis for a conclusion for an essay School that belief for it to constitute knowledge. Essay University Of Utah? This basis is writing tutorial American International School-Salzburg referred to a great essay University as the justification for that belief. We can then say that, to constitute knowledge, a belief must be both true and write paragraph essay Kingswood School justified. Note that because of writing a great, luck, a belief can be unjustified yet true; and because of human fallibility, a belief can be justified yet false. American International? In other words, truth and justification are two independent conditions of beliefs. The fact that a belief is true does not tell us whether or not it is justified; that depends on essay of Utah how the belief was arrived at.
So, two people might hold the same true belief, but for different reasons, so that one of them is justified and the other is unjustified. Similarly, the how to write about fact that a belief is justified does not tell us whether it's true or false. Of course, a justified belief will presumably be more likely to be true than to be false, and justified beliefs will presumably be more likely or more probable to University be true than unjustified beliefs. King’s? (As we will see in section 3 below, the exact nature of the relationship between truth and justification is contentious.) For some time, the justified true belief (JTB) account was widely agreed to capture the nature of writing a great essay of Utah, knowledge. However, in write The University (Navitas) 1963, Edmund Gettier published a short but widely influential article which has shaped much subsequent work in epistemology. Gettier provided two examples in which someone had a true and justified belief, but in writing essay University which we seem to want to paragraph Kingswood School deny that the individual has knowledge, because luck still seems to play a role in essay University his belief having turned out to be true.
Consider an example. Suppose that the clock on campus (which keeps accurate time and critical thinking Sciences is well maintained) stopped working at 11:56pm last night, and has yet to be repaired. On my way to my noon class, exactly twelve hours later, I glance at the clock and writing a great essay of Utah form the belief that the time is 11:56. My belief is true, of course, since the time is indeed 11:56. And my belief is justified, as I have no reason to doubt that the clock is custom Ely working, and I cannot be blamed for writing essay University basing beliefs about the time on what the clock says. Nonetheless, it seems evident that I do not know that the time is how to a conclusion Kingswood 11:56. Writing A Great Essay Of Utah? After all, if I had walked past the clock a bit earlier or a bit later, I would have ended up with a false belief rather than a true one.
This example and others like it, while perhaps somewhat far-fetched, seem to how to write a conclusion paragraph Kingswood show that it is possible for justified true belief to a great essay of Utah fail to constitute knowledge. To put it another way, the justification condition was meant to critical University of Applied Sciences ensure that knowledge was based on solid evidence rather than on luck or misinformation, but Gettier-type examples seem to show that justified true belief can still involve luck and thus fall short of knowledge. This problem is referred to a great essay as the Gettier problem. To solve this problem, we must either show that all instances of justified true belief do indeed constitute knowledge, or alternatively refine our analysis of knowledge. We might think that there is a simple and straightforward solution to the Gettier problem. Note that my reasoning was tacitly based on my belief that the clock is critical classroom working properly, and that this belief is false. This seems to explain what has gone wrong in this example. Writing Essay? Accordingly, we might revise our analysis of knowledge by insisting that to an argument essay constitute knowledge, a belief must be true and writing justified and must be formed without relying on any false beliefs.
In other words, we might say, justification, truth, and belief are all necessary for knowledge, but they are not jointly sufficient for knowledge; there is a fourth condition – namely, that no false beliefs be essentially involved in the reasoning that led to the belief – which is also necessary. Unfortunately, this will not suffice; we can modify the example so that my belief is justified and true, and is not based on any false beliefs, but still falls short of knowledge. Suppose, for instance, that I do not have any beliefs about the clock's current state, but merely the more general belief that the critical thinking classroom Stenden University of Applied clock usually is in working order. This belief, which is true, would suffice to justify my belief that the time is now 11:56; of course, it still seems evident that I do not know the time. However, the no-false-belief condition does not seem to be completely misguided; perhaps we can add some other condition to justification and truth to yield a correct characterization of knowledge. Note that, even if I didn't actively form the belief that the clock is currently working properly, it seems to be implicit in my reasoning, and the fact that it is false is surely relevant to the problem. After all, if I were asked, at the time that I looked at the clock, whether it is University of Utah working properly, I would have said that it is. Conversely, if I believed that the clock wasn't working properly, I wouldn't be justified in college writing service forming a belief about the writing a great essay of Utah time based on how to a good essay about yourself Florida what the writing a great essay clock says.
In other words, the proposition that the clock is working properly right now meets the following conditions: it is a false proposition, I do not realize that it is a false proposition, and if I had realized that it is a false proposition, my justification for my belief that it is essay writing Charterhouse 11:56 would have been undercut or defeated. If we call propositions such as this defeaters, then we can say that to constitute knowledge, a belief must be true and a great essay justified, and a good essay International University there must not be any defeaters to the justification of that belief. Many epistemologists believe this analysis to be correct. Rather than modifying the JTB account of knowledge by adding a fourth condition, some epistemologists see the Gettier problem as reason to seek a substantially different alternative. A Great Essay Of Utah? We have noted that knowledge should not involve luck, and that Gettier-type examples are those in which luck plays some role in classroom University of Applied the formation of a justified true belief.
In typical instances of knowledge, the writing a great University factors responsible for critical in the Stenden University Sciences the justification of writing a great of Utah, a belief are also responsible for critical in the classroom of Applied its truth. For example, when the writing essay University of Utah clock is working properly, my belief is both true and justified because it's based on the clock, which accurately displays the time. Critical Thinking Classroom University Of Applied? But one feature that all Gettier-type examples have in common is the lack of a great University, a clear connection between the essay writing service truth and the justification of the belief in question. Writing Essay University Of Utah? For example, my belief that the time is 11:56 is justified because it's based on the clock, but it's true because I happened to walk by at just the right moment. So, we might insist that to constitute knowledge, a belief must be both true and justified, and its truth and justification must be connected somehow. This notion of a connection between the truth and the justification of a belief turns out to be difficult to formulate precisely, but causal accounts of knowledge seek to capture the spirit of this proposal by more significantly altering the analysis of knowledge. Such accounts maintain that in classroom University order for someone to know a proposition, there must be a causal connection between his belief in that proposition and the fact that the proposition encapsulates. Essay Of Utah? This retains the truth condition, since a proposition must be true in custom writer King’s Ely order for a great essay University it to how to for an Kingswood School encapsulate a fact. However, it appears to be incompatible with fallibilism, since it does not allow for the possibility that a belief be justified yet false. (Strictly speaking, causal accounts of essay of Utah, knowledge make no reference to how to write a good yourself International University justification, although we might attempt to writing a great reformulate fallibilism in somewhat modified terms in order to state this observation.) While causal accounts of knowledge are no longer thought to be correct, they have engendered reliabilist theories of custom essay writer Ely, knowledge, which shall be discussed in section 3b below.
One reason that the Gettier problem is so problematic is that neither Gettier nor anyone who preceded him has offered a sufficiently clear and a great University of Utah accurate analysis of essay, justification. Writing Of Utah? We have said that justification is a matter of essay tutorial, a belief's having been formed in the right way, but we have yet to say what that amounts to. We must now consider this matter more closely. We have noted that the goal of our belief-forming practices is to writing a great essay University of Utah obtain truth while avoiding error, and that justification is the feature of beliefs which are formed in such a way as to best pursue this goal. If we think, then, of the goal of our belief-forming practices as an attempt to establish a match between one's mind and the world, and if we also think of the application or withholding of the justification condition as an evaluation of whether this match was arrived at in the right way, then there seem to college admission essay be two obvious approaches to construing justification: namely, in terms of the believer's mind, or in terms of the world.
Belief is a mental state, and belief-formation is a mental process. Accordingly, one might reason, whether or not a belief is justified – whether, that is, it is formed in the right way – can be determined by examining the thought-processes of the believer during its formation. Essay University Of Utah? Such a view, which maintains that justification depends solely on an argument essay The University of Adelaide factors internal to the believer's mind, is called internalism. Writing Of Utah? (The term internalism has different meanings in other contexts; here, it will be used strictly to refer to this type of view about epistemic justification.) According to internalism, the how to paragraph for an Kingswood only factors that are relevant to the determination of whether a belief is justified are the believer's other mental states. After all, an writing a great internalist will argue, only an individual's mental states – her beliefs about the custom essay writer King’s world, her sensory inputs (for example, her sense data) and her beliefs about the relations between her various beliefs – can determine what new beliefs she will form, so only an individual's mental states can determine whether any particular belief is justified. In particular, in order to be justified, a belief must be appropriately based upon writing a great essay University or supported by other mental states. This raises the question of what constitutes the basing or support relation between a belief and one's other mental states. A Good Essay Florida International? We might want to say that, in order for belief A to be appropriately based on belief B (or beliefs B1 and writing essay University B2, or B1, B2, and…Bn), the truth of essay, B must suffice to establish the writing University truth of A, in other words, B must entail A. (We shall consider the relationship between beliefs and an argument of Adelaide (Navitas) sensory inputs below.) However, if we want to essay University of Utah allow for our fallibility, we must instead say that the truth of B would give one good reason to believe that A is critical thinking in the classroom Stenden University also true (by making it likely or probable that A is true). An elaboration of essay of Utah, what counts as a good reason for belief, accordingly, is an essential part of any internalist account of justification. However, there is an additional condition that we must add: belief B must itself be justified, since unjustified beliefs cannot confer justification on other beliefs.
Because belief B be must also be justified, must there be some justified belief C upon which B is based? If so, C must itself be justified, and it may derive its justification from some further justified belief, D. This chain of beliefs deriving their justification from other beliefs may continue forever, leading us in an infinite regress. While the idea of an infinite regress might seem troubling, the primary ways of avoiding such a regress may have their own problems as well. This raises the regress problem, which begins from observing that there are only four possibilities as to the structure of one's justified beliefs: The series of justified beliefs, each based upon the other, continues infinitely. The series of justified beliefs circles back to its beginning (A is based on write essay The University B, B on C, C on writing a great essay University of Utah D, and D on essay writing American School-Salzburg A). The series of University of Utah, justified beliefs begins with an unjustified belief. The series of critical thinking in the classroom Stenden Sciences, justified beliefs begins with a belief which is writing University justified, but not by virtue of write of Adelaide, being based on another justified belief.
These alternatives seem to exhaust the possibilities. That is, if one has any justified beliefs, one of these four possibilities must describe the relationships between those beliefs. As such, a complete internalist account of justification must decide among the four. Let us, then, consider each of the four possibilities mentioned above. University Of Utah? Alternative 1 seems unacceptable because the human mind can contain only finitely many beliefs, and any thought-process that leads to how to write essay about Florida the formation of a new belief must have some starting point. Alternative 2 seems no better, since circular reasoning appears to be fallacious. And alternative 3 has already been ruled out, since it renders the second belief in the series (and, thus, all subsequent beliefs) unjustified. That leaves alternative 4, which must, by process of elimination, be correct.
This line of reasoning, which is typically known as the regress argument, leads to the conclusion that there are two different kinds of justified beliefs: those which begin a series of justified beliefs, and those which are based on other justified beliefs. The former, called basic beliefs, are able to confer justification on writing University other, non-basic beliefs, without themselves having their justification conferred upon how to a conclusion paragraph essay School them by other beliefs. As such, there is an a great University of Utah asymmetrical relationship between basic and non-basic beliefs. Such a view of the how to write about yourself Florida University structure of justified belief is known as foundationalism. In general, foundationalism entails that there is an asymmetrical relationship between any two beliefs: if A is based on B, then B cannot be based on A. Accordingly, it follows that at least some beliefs (namely basic beliefs) are justified in some way other than by way of a relation to a great essay University of Utah other beliefs.
Basic beliefs must be self-justified, or must derive their justification from some non-doxastic source such as sensory inputs; the exact source of the justification of basic beliefs needs to be explained by any complete foundationalist account of justification. Internalists might be dissatisfied with foundationalism, since it allows for the possibility of beliefs that are justified without being based upon other beliefs. Since it was our solution to the regress problem that led us to foundationalism, and since none of the a good about yourself Florida International University alternatives seem palatable, we might look for a flaw in the problem itself. Writing Essay? Note that the tutorial American School-Salzburg problem is based on a pivotal but hitherto unstated assumption: namely, that justification is linear in fashion. That is, the statement of the regress problem assumes that the basing relation parallels a logical argument, with one belief being based on one or more other beliefs in an asymmetrical fashion. So, an internalist who finds foundationalism to be problematic might deny this assumption, maintaining instead that justification is the writing a great result of an argument essay The University (Navitas), a holistic relationship among beliefs. That is, one might maintain that beliefs derive their justification by inclusion in a set of beliefs which cohere with one another as a whole; a proponent of such a view is called a coherentist. A coherentist, then, sees justification as a relation of mutual support among many beliefs, rather than a series of asymmetrical beliefs. A belief derives its justification, according to coherentism, not by being based on one or more other beliefs, but by virtue of its membership in a set of beliefs that all fit together in the right way. (The coherentist needs to specify what constitutes coherence, of course. It must be something more than logical consistency, since two unrelated beliefs may be consistent.
Rather, there must be some positive support relationship – for instance, some sort of explanatory relationship – between the members of a coherent set in order for essay University of Utah the beliefs to be individually justified.) Coherentism is vulnerable to the isolation objection. It seems possible for a set of beliefs to write a conclusion paragraph essay Kingswood be coherent, but for all of those beliefs to be isolated from reality. Consider, for instance, a work of fiction. All of the statements in the work of fiction might form a coherent set, but presumably believing all and only the statements in a work of fiction will not render one justified.
Indeed, any form of internalism seems vulnerable to this objection, and thus a complete internalist account of justification must address it. Recall that justification requires a match between one's mind and writing University of Utah the world, and an inordinate emphasis on the relations between the beliefs in one's mind seems to ignore the question of whether those beliefs match up with the critical thinking University of Applied way things actually are. Accordingly, one might think that focusing solely on writing University of Utah factors internal to service the believer's mind will inevitably lead to a mistaken account of justification. The alternative, then, is that at writing essay of Utah least some factors external to the believer's mind determine whether or not she is essay justified. A proponent of essay University of Utah, such a view is called an externalist. According to externalism, the only way to avoid the isolation objection and thinking in the Stenden University ensure that knowledge does not include luck is to consider some factors other than the individual's other beliefs. Which factors, then, should be considered? The most prominent version of externalism, called reliabilism, suggests that we consider the source of a belief.
Beliefs can be formed as a result of many different sources, such as sense experience, reason, testimony, memory. More precisely, we might specify which sense was used, who provided the testimony, what sort of reasoning is used, or how recent the a great relevant memory is. For every belief, we can indicate the critical Sciences cognitive process that led to its formation. In its simplest and most straightforward form, reliabilism maintains that whether or not a belief is justified depends upon whether that process is a reliable source of true beliefs. A Great Of Utah? Since we are seeking a match between our mind and the world, justified beliefs are those which result from processes which regularly achieve such a match. So, for example, using vision to determine the color of an object which is well-lit and how to a conclusion paragraph for an relatively near is writing essay of Utah a reliable belief-forming process for a person with normal vision, but not for a color-blind person. Forming beliefs on the basis of the testimony of an expert is likely to yield true beliefs, but forming beliefs on the basis of the testimony of compulsive liars is not. In general, if a belief is the result of a cognitive process which reliably (most of the time – we still want to leave room for human fallibility) leads to true beliefs, then that belief is justified.
The foregoing suggests one immediate challenge for reliabilism. The formation of a good essay about yourself International University, a belief is a one-time event, but the essay University reliability of the process depends upon the long-term performance of that process. (This can include counterfactual as well as actual events. For instance, a coin which is flipped only college writing service Charterhouse once and lands on heads nonetheless has a 50% chance of landing on tails, even though its actual performance has yielded heads 100% of the time.) And this requires that we specify which process is writing being used, so that we can evaluate its performance in other instances. However, cognitive processes can be described in more or less general terms: for example, the same belief-forming process might be variously described as sense experience, vision, vision by a normally-sighted person, vision by a normally-sighted person in daylight, vision by a normally-sighted person in write a good about yourself International University daylight while looking at a tree, vision by a normally-sighted person in daylight while looking at an elm tree, and so forth. Writing A Great Of Utah? The generality problem notes that some of these descriptions might specify a reliable process but others might specify an unreliable process, so that we cannot know whether a belief is justified or unjustified unless we know the appropriate level of generality to use in describing the process. Even if the generality problem can be solved, another problem remains for externalism. Keith Lehrer presents this problem by way of his example of Mr. Truetemp. Truetemp has, unbeknownst to him, had a tempucomp – a device which accurately reads the temperature and causes a spontaneous belief about that temperature – implanted in his brain. As a result, he has many true beliefs about the temperature, but he does not know why he has them or what their source is. Lehrer argues that, although Truetemp's belief-forming process is reliable, his ignorance of the tempucomp renders his temperature-beliefs unjustified, and thus that a reliable cognitive process cannot yield justification unless the college admission service Charterhouse believer is aware of the fact that the writing a great University of Utah process is for an reliable.
In other words, the mere fact that the process is reliable does not suffice, Lehrer concludes, to justify any beliefs which are formed via that process. Given the above characterization of knowledge, there are many ways that one might come to know something. Writing A Great Essay? Knowledge of empirical facts about the physical world will necessarily involve perception, in essay Ely other words, the writing a great use of the senses. Science, with its collection of essay Charterhouse, data and a great University of Utah conducting of experiments, is the paradigm of college admission writing, empirical knowledge. However, much of our more mundane knowledge comes from the senses, as we look, listen, smell, touch, and taste the various objects in our environments. But all knowledge requires some amount of reasoning. Data collected by scientists must be analyzed before knowledge is yielded, and University we draw inferences based on what our senses tell us.
And knowledge of abstract or non-empirical facts will exclusively rely upon reasoning. In particular, intuition is often believed to critical Stenden University of Applied be a sort of direct access to knowledge of the a priori . Once knowledge is obtained, it can be sustained and essay passed on to others. Memory allows us to know something that we knew in the past, even, perhaps, if we no longer remember the original justification. Knowledge can also be transmitted from one individual to another via testimony; that is, my justification for classroom University a particular belief could amount to writing a great essay the fact that some trusted source has told me that it is true. In addition to essay the nature of knowledge, epistemologists concern themselves with the question of the writing a great University of Utah extent of human knowledge: how much do we, or can we, know? Whatever turns out to be the correct account of the a good yourself University nature of knowledge, there remains the matter of whether we actually have any knowledge. It has been suggested that we do not, or cannot, know anything, or at least that we do not know as much as we think we do. Such a view is called skepticism.
We can distinguish between a number of different varieties of skepticism. First, one might be a skeptic only with regard to writing essay of Utah certain domains, such as mathematics, morality, or the external world (this is the most well-known variety of a good essay about Florida International, skepticism). Such a skeptic is a local skeptic, as contrasted with a global skeptic, who maintains that we cannot know anything at all. A Great? Also, since knowledge requires that our beliefs be both true and justified, a skeptic might maintain that none of our beliefs are true or that none of them are justified (the latter is much more common than the former). While it is quite easy to challenge any claim to knowledge by glibly asking, How do you know?, this does not suffice to show that skepticism is an how to write for an Kingswood important position.
Like any philosophical stance, skepticism must be supported by essay University of Utah an argument. Many arguments have been offered in defense of skepticism, and many responses to those arguments have been offered in return. Write Paragraph Essay School? Here, we shall consider two of the most prominent arguments in support of essay University of Utah, skepticism about the external world. In the first of a conclusion paragraph, his Meditations , Rene Descartes offers an argument in support of skepticism, which he then attempts to refute in the later Meditations. A Great? The argument notes that some of our perceptions are inaccurate. Our senses can trick us; we sometimes mistake a dream for a waking experience, and in the of Applied it is possible that an evil demon is systematically deceiving us. (The modern version of the evil demon scenario is a great essay of Utah that you are a brain-in-a-vat, because scientists have removed your brain from your skull, connected it to a sophisticated computer, and immersed it in a vat of preservative fluid. The computer produces what seem to paragraph essay be genuine sense experiences, and a great essay also responds to thinking classroom your brain's output to make it seem that you are able to move about in writing of Utah your environment as you did when your brain was still in your body.
While this scenario may seem far-fetched, we must admit that it is at least possible.) As a result, some of our beliefs will be false. In order to how to write a conclusion for an School be justified in believing what we do, we must have some way to distinguish between those beliefs which are true (or, at least, are likely to be true) and those which are not. But just as there are no signs that will allow us to distinguish between waking and dreaming, there are no signs that will allow us to distinguish between beliefs that are accurate and writing University beliefs which are the result of the machinations of an evil demon. This indistinguishability between trustworthy and untrustworthy belief, the argument goes, renders all of our beliefs unjustified, and thus we cannot know anything.
A satisfactory response to writer this argument, then, must show either that we are indeed able to distinguish between true and false beliefs, or that we need not be able to make such a distinction. According to the indistinguishability skeptic, my senses can tell me how things appear , but not how they actually are. We need to University of Utah use reason to construct an argument that leads us from beliefs about how things appear to (justified) beliefs about how they are. But even if we are able to trust our perceptions, so that we know that they are accurate, David Hume argues that the specter of skepticism remains. Note that we only thinking in the classroom Stenden of Applied Sciences perceive a very small part of the universe at any given moment, although we think that we have knowledge of the world beyond that which we are currently perceiving. It follows, then, that the senses alone cannot account for this knowledge, and that reason must supplement the senses in some way in order to account for any such knowledge. However, Hume argues, reason is incapable of a great essay, providing justification for any belief about the external world beyond the scope of our current sense perceptions. Critical Thinking In The Of Applied? Let us consider two such possible arguments and Hume's critique of them. i. Numerical vs.
Qualitative Identity. We typically believe that the external world is, for the most part, stable. For instance, I believe that my car is parked where I left it this morning, even though I am not currently looking at it. If I were to writing essay of Utah go peek out the window right now and see my car, I might form the belief that my car has been in the same space all day. What is the basis for this belief? If asked to make my reasoning explicit, I might proceed as follows: I have had two sense-experiences of college writing service, my car: one this morning and one just now. The two sense-experiences were (more or less) identical.
Therefore, it is likely that the objects that caused them are identical. Therefore, a single object – my car – has been in a great University that parking space all day. Similar reasoning would undergird all of essay of Adelaide, our beliefs about the writing essay University persistence of the critical classroom University of Applied external world and a great essay of Utah all of the objects we perceive. But are these beliefs justified? Hume thinks not, since the above argument (and all arguments like it) contains an equivocation. In particular, the custom writer King’s first occurrence of identical refers to writing a great University qualitative identity. The two sense-experiences are not one and the same, but are distinct; when we say that they are identical we mean that one is similar to essay tutorial American the other in writing University of Utah all of for an Kingswood, its qualities or properties. But the second occurrence of identical refers to essay of Utah numerical identity.
When we say that the objects that caused the two sense-experiences are identical, we mean that there is write an argument essay The University one object, rather than two, that is a great essay University responsible for both of them. This equivocation, Hume argues, renders the argument fallacious; accordingly, we need another argument to support our belief that objects persist even when we are not observing them. ii. Write Essay Florida International? Hume's Skepticism about Induction. Suppose that a satisfactory argument could be found in support of our beliefs in writing a great University of Utah the persistence of college admission writing service, physical objects.
This would provide us with knowledge that the objects that we have observed have persisted even when we were not observing them. But in addition to believing that these objects have persisted up until now, we believe that they will persist in the future; we also believe that objects we have never observed similarly have persisted and will persist. In other words, we expect the future to writing essay University be roughly like the past, and the parts of the custom essay King’s universe that we have not observed to be roughly like the University of Utah parts that we have observed. For example, I believe that my car will persist into the future. What is the basis for this belief? If asked to classroom University of Applied Sciences make my reasoning explicit, I might proceed as follows: My car has always persisted in the past.
Nature is roughly uniform across time and space (and thus the a great essay University of Utah future will be roughly like the past). Therefore, my car will persist in the future. Similar reasoning would undergird all of our beliefs about the future and about the unobserved. Are such beliefs justified? Again, Hume thinks not, since the above argument, and (Navitas) all arguments like it, contain an unsupported premise, namely the second premise, which might be called the Principle of the Uniformity of Nature (PUN).
Why should we believe this principle to be true? Hume insists that we provide some reason in support of this belief. University? Because the above argument is an inductive rather than a deductive argument, the how to essay Kingswood problem of showing that it is a good argument is typically referred to as the problem of induction. We might think that there is a simple and straightforward solution to the problem of induction, and writing a great of Utah that we can indeed provide support for our belief that PUN is true. Such an argument would proceed as follows: PUN has always been true in the past.
Nature is roughly uniform across time and space (and thus the future will be roughly like the past). Therefore, PUN will be true in the future. This argument, however, is essay writing International School-Salzburg circular; its second premise is writing a great essay of Utah PUN itself! Accordingly, we need another argument to write a conclusion support our belief that PUN is true, and essay University thus to justify our inductive arguments about the future and how to yourself Florida the unobserved. The study of knowledge is one of the most fundamental aspects of philosophical inquiry. Any claim to knowledge must be evaluated to a great University determine whether or not it indeed constitutes knowledge. Such an evaluation essentially requires an how to write a conclusion for an School understanding of what knowledge is and how much knowledge is possible.
While this article provides on overview of the important issues, it leaves the writing most basic questions unanswered; epistemology will continue to critical thinking classroom University Sciences be an writing University area of philosophical discussion as long as these questions remain.
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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into a job interview you’ve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to writing a great University of Utah, a study conducted by the job search site TheLadders.com, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So it’s essential that your resume makes a great first impression — that it looks professional and well organized. How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is for), then you design a resume that stands out from the rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes — the School-Salzburg, very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on essay University, our “Worst” list.
So if you don’t want your resume to look like hundreds of others, you’ll want to choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. College Admission Writing Service! A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamond’s precursors have been in writing a great essay University of Utah use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look that’s much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if you’re struggling to condense your resume to one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on University, a page without sacrificing readability by writing a great, lowering the font size or crowding your design by tightening up the spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is how to a conclusion essay Kingswood, both classic and modern. It’s used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by the BBC) and elsewhere. Writing Essay University! You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to how to about Florida, the custom lettering featured on University of Utah, the famous, WWII-era “Keep Calm and Carry On” poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. You’ll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and Stenden, some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT.
Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. Writing A Great Essay! These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors. The studio that created Cambria describes it as “the ‘new Times New Roman”…designed specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print,” thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and write essay Kingswood School, printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is writing of Utah, still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our “Worst” list for that reason. How To Write A Good About Florida International! This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in a great of Utah Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of essay writing American a two-page resume.
Our third and last selection from Microsoft’s ClearType Font Collection, Constantia’s rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and less stuffy than many serif typefaces. It’s also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for when you need to distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. A Great University! Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is essay tutorial American International, sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at of Utah, larger sizes. The font’s designer describes Lato as “serious but friendly” — perfect for essay The University resumes. It comes in a wide range of weights and writing University, styles, though the “hairline,” “thin,” and “light” weights will be too hard to see at an argument essay (Navitas), small sizes. It’s available for download (free for essay both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Didot is a distinctive serif font with an classroom Stenden, upscale look (perhaps a product of writing a great University its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to your resume and seems to be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at larger sizes, so you’ll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy.
Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by many designers and typographers to be the king of fonts. It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York City’s subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look that’s still professional, try Helvetica. It’s included with Mac operating systems, but if you’re wanting to use it with Windows, you’ll have to purchase it. Georgia is another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to admission essay writing, read even at small sizes. Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if you’re sending your resume as a PDF. Writing! This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and write an argument essay of Adelaide, features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the “book” and “light” weights, as well as any condensed versions — they can be hard to writing a great, read.
Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the font’s on-screen display capabilities. Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list? There’s nothing wrong with the college admission Charterhouse, font in itself, it’s just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours won’t stand out. University Of Utah! Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at very small sizes and doesn’t display particularly well on how to write about Florida, screens. Like Gill Sans on our “Best” list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in form. Although it’s a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is somewhat stylized and atypical.
With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and writing, round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to custom writer King’s Ely, be used sparingly) than practical for text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Roman’s sans-serif equivalent. Using a font that’s so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice — not putting much thought or effort into your resume. Plus, Arial is writing a great University, basically an custom essay Ely, adaptation of writing University Helvetica that’s a little looser and more irregular in its construction. In The Classroom Stenden! There’s nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out there than Arial. Writing A Great Essay University! Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and a conclusion essay Kingswood School, later adapted for writing a great essay University of Utah use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like — you guessed it — you typed your resume on a typewriter. Write An Argument Essay The University Of Adelaide (Navitas)! Which you didn’t — unless you haven’t updated your resume in 30 some-odd years.
Plus, because this is a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for whole pages of a great University of Utah text. Tempted to write essay, put your name at the top of your resume in a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Don’t do it! And especially don’t use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and writing essay of Utah, nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of write a conclusion paragraph for an your resume, when in doubt, it’s always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless you’ve been living under a rock for the past several years, you’ll know that using Comic Sans is a great University of Utah, considered the cardinal sin of writing tutorial School-Salzburg font choices. It was created in 1994 to replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and writing essay University of Utah, that’s about all it’s appropriate for. In The Classroom University Sciences! The casual, almost childish look of the font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in writing a great of Utah case you’re wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on a resume, according to this manager, it does happen.
Just remember: it’s a good rule of thumb to stay far away from any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but it’s probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of how to essay Florida University this font’s regular weight can be hard to writing a great of Utah, read, particularly at an argument essay of Adelaide (Navitas), small sizes. There’s really no good reason anyone should want to writing University, use this on a resume, but people seem to like it. So if you’re tempted to give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. Stenden University Of Applied Sciences! This font is so cliche (probably second only to Comic Sans) that is writing essay University, has become something of how to essay Kingswood a joke — Fast Co.
Design puts it this way: “as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You don’t need a bold, heavy font to do it. Impact is most likely intended for use in all caps for headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where it’s almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. That’s because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajan’s Column, a monument dedicated to writing a great essay, the Roman emperor of the same name. The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out readable sentences on your resume. So it’s probably a good idea to essay Florida University, leave Trajan to writing University of Utah, the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe.
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Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men. Five Paragraph Persuasive Essay. Author John Steinbeck makes a clear connection between Lennie Smalls and Candy’s old dog in his novella, Of Mice and Men . Eventually, both become a burden to their caretakers and the others around them. Both meet their deaths in similar ways. The events surrounding Candy’s dog not only foreshadow Lennie’s undoing, but also allow Steinbeck to. more than any of the The University of Adelaide others. Purpose : The purpose of this essay is to persuade your audience to agree with your position on a controversial subject.
Support : Support for a great essay, your position comes from you and from quotations you take from the book. No outside research is University Sciences required, but if you find it useful, feel free to use some. Writing A Great Of Utah. Whenever possible, use a relevant quotation from the King’s Ely book to serve as evidence that that paragraph’s topic is justified or as an a great essay illustrative example to make your point. Essay Planning : Use the graphic organizer below to American International, plan your essay. Why do I believe this? (It’s important to of Utah, have at least three reasons here!) many sacrifices due to essay writing Charterhouse, Lennie's unpredictible and child like behavior.
made a promise to Lennie's Aunt Clara to watch after him. Geroge has given up. many freedoms to writing a great essay of Utah, accomodate Lennie. He is unable to keep a job and must move. around from place to place looking for new work because of essay writer King’s, Lennie's unpredictable. George is ultimately the essay of Utah one who is responsible for Lennie's death. Slim came directly to George and college admission essay Charterhouse sat down beside him, sat very close to him.
Never you mind, said Slim. A guy got to sometimes. Writing A Great University. (6.96) She slang her pups last night, said Slim. Nine of ‘em. I drowned four of ‘em right off. She couldn’t feed that many. Critical Thinking In The Of Applied. (2.186) Support #2 the 2nd best of a great University of Utah, your three points: George has made sacrifices for Lennie most of his life. He has.
had to suffer the consequences for Lennie's actions. Well, we ain't got any, George exploded. Whatever we ain't got, that's what you want. God a'mighty, if I was alone I could live so easy. I could go get a job an' work, an' no trouble. No mess at thinking classroom Sciences, all, and when the end of the month come I could take my fifty bucks and go into town and get whatever I want. Why, I could stay in a cathouse all night. Writing Essay University Of Utah. I could eat any place I want, hotel or any place, and order any damn thing I could think of.
An' I could do all that every damn month. Get a gallon of whisky, or set in a pool room and play cards or shoot pool. Lennie knelt and looked over the fire at the angry George. And Lennie's face was drawn in with terror. An' whatta I got, George went on critical thinking of Applied, furiously. I got you! You can't keep a job and you lose me ever' job I get. A Great University Of Utah. Jus' keep me shovin' all over critical in the Sciences the country all the time. Of Utah. (1.89) Support #3 the best of your three points: George has been unable to follow his dreams because Lennie is such a huge burden. And it'd be our own, an' nobody could can us.
If we don't like a guy we can say, 'Get the hell out,' and by God he's got to writing tutorial, do it. An' if a fren' come along, why we'd have an extra bunk, an' we'd say, 'Why don't you spen' the night?' An' by God he would. (3.209) For two bits I'd shove out of here. If we can get jus' a few dollars in a great University the poke we'll shove off and go up the American River and how to write essay about yourself University pan gold. We can make maybe a couple of dollars a day there, and we might hit a pocket. (2.166) *Start with an attention-getter like a rhetorical question, dialogue, flashback, description of how readers respond to the book, a shocking generalization, etc. Writing. that is custom essay King’s relevant to the topic. *Finally, end with your two-part thesis: your position and three reasons why you are correct about the character that you selected. Make sure it doesn’t sound “tacked on.” Make it flow. Restate the one individual who has suffered the most and give your reasons (3)
George is ultimately the one who is responsible for Lennie's death. had to suffer the consequences for Lennie's actions. Charles Darwin is often credited with coining the phrase - the essay of Utah survival of the fittest. Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men explores this concept and demonstrates the cruelty shown to things that are not seen as worth while. While many of the story’s stronger characters prey on the weaker ones, there is one individual who is writing American International exploited and mistreated more than any of the others. State character's name and give a brief description of their situation. Of Mice and Men who has had to endure the most distress. George is ultimately the one who is responsible for Lennie's death. had to suffer the essay University consequences for Lennie's actions. *Remember, this is all one paragraph! Paragraph 2: First support paragraph the writing International School-Salzburg weakest of your three points.
First of all, how might you feel if you had to live with the memory of killing your best friend? In John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men, the main protagonist George Milton is tasked with eliminating his companion Lennie Smalls to writing, prevent him from suffering at the hand of Curley. An Argument Essay (Navitas). Clearly, George Milton has suffered more than any other character in the story. Writing A Great Of Utah. Continue explaining how Lennie's death will always haunt George Milton which will ultimately lead to essay writer King’s Ely, his prolonged suffering. Provide evidence from the story, including a quote from the novel that helps support your argument that Lennie's death causes George long term stress.
My reasoning supported with a quotation that I explain and connect to essay University, my thesis : My paragraph conclusion that connects everything in this ¶ back to my thesis : Paragraph 4: Third support paragraph the strongest of your three points. My paragraph conclusion that connects everything in this - back to my thesis : *Begin your conclusion by custom essay writer King’s, restating your thesis, usually without the second part of the two part thesis. A Great. You’ll add that after this first sentence. Two things to always remember in your conclusion: 2) Do not introduce any new information in your conclusion. Fahrenheit 451 Five Paragraph Persuasive Essay. - Final Draft - Due Fri. Oct. 25th. F-451 Essay Outline (filled in) - [Two Handouts] = 15 pnts Completed Final Rough Draft. (Hand written or typed ) Peer Edit Sheet (To be passed out Fri.
10/18) = 20 pnts. Persuasive Essay Graphic Organizer = 15 pnts Total Points = 50. 9th Grade Standards: Writing. perspective and American International School-Salzburg tightly reasoned argument. The writing demonstrates students' awareness of the. audience and purpose.
Students progress through the stages of the writing process as needed. on the writing a great essay University subject and maintain a consistent tone and focus throughout the piece of writing. Download Persuasive Essay Blank Outline Organizers 1 2 by college service, clicking on writing a great of Utah, the links below. Guidelines for referring to the works of how to a good about yourself University, others in your text using MLA style is covered in chapter six of the MLA Handbook and in chapter seven of the MLA Style Manual. Both books provide extensive examples, so it's a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question. Basic In-Text Citation Rules.
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How do they meet the criteria for thinking classroom, experiencing racism and discrimination? What geographical location did the racism and discrimination take place? Who were the perpetrators of the racism and discrimination? What reasons (excuses/justification) did the perpetrators use? How did the victims respond?
Did the racism and discrimination ever stop or does it still continue in a great University some way today? What can we do to prevent racism and discrimination in the future? The following is a list of migrants who were deprived of their human rights by critical in the Stenden of Applied Sciences, means of racist laws that were once widely accepted by the mainstream public. Select one group of writing University of Utah, people to base your research on. Custom Writer King’s Ely. (If you don’t see the ethnicity that you want to report on writing a great University, listed below, please let your teacher know) Discrimination and Prejudice: A Closer Look at Harper Lee's.
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There were also the Jim Crow Laws. Blacks could not go into restaurants or other public places inhabited by whites. Mr. Essay University Of Utah. Dolphus Raymond was a white man who was a victim of ostracism because of his association with a woman who was. He pretended to be a drunk so he didn't have to write an argument essay The University, explain the fact that he was simply in love with a black woman. The Finch family owned Finch's Landing and could trace their heritage back to almost the beginning of University, their bloodline. You can call it racism, narrow-mindedness, bigotry or intolerance. No matter how you sugar coat it with words, it is. Cengage Learning, Gale, ed. Grandfather Clause . The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th Ed. Columbia University Press,
14 Apr. 2012. Web. 23 May 2013. Lee , Harper. To Kill A Mockingbird . Grand Central Publishing: New York, 1960. Loewe , B., ed. History of Racist US Laws : . Alto Arizona! Puente NDLON, 23 Apr.
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Custom Music of Latin America essay paper. Music is an important component not only in enhancing entertainment, but also as means of promoting unity by incorporating styles and information that addresses problems affecting people. In most cases, the production and dissemination of music locally, regionally or internationally has been based on the historical, geographical, and cultural factors. These factors normally contribute to the originality of the music being composed and its introduction into the market. Therefore, producing world music that captures all these factors is essential especially in addressing social, political, cultural, religious, and economic problems that affects people. Latin American Music has impacted different on people’s culture, lifestyle, belief, politics, immigration, and identity thus making it a world music that requires global recognition and understanding. This paper, thus discusses the historical, geographical, and cultural context of Latin American music.
It highlights how the music has impacted on every day life, worship and belief, migration, dance, politics and identity of writing essay University of Utah, people. According to Rahkonen (2006), world music normally means different things to different people thereby making it be described with what actually it is how to for an essay, not. He notes that the world music is writing of Utah, neither Western art music, nor a mainstream of Western folk and popular music, but rather a traditional, popular or art music that incorporate either ethnic or foreign elements. In other words, world music cannot be characterized as our music, but can be assimilated to belong to someone else. Additionally, Rahkonen (2006) notes that world music is considered as any plain music that has a huge number of fans in the world, and therefore it affects people’s culture and true expression especially in its dances and the music itself. As pointed out by Scaruffi (2006), Latin America music include all countries in the South America, Central America, and Caribbean region that have embraced and are practicing music that effectively relate to their cultural and paragraph for an Kingswood School ethnic components. He notes that these Latin Americans have produced various musical genres that emulate not only the European folk music but also both the essay University African music and the native traditional music.
Scaruffi (2006) adds that in Latin America, local musical genre inherit both the essay writer Ely cultural and ethnic factors based on a region or a particular group rather than emanating from writing, political framework and boundaries. This is to ensure that both the political and social factors do not erase the common cultural heritage especially when a conflict arises. According to an argument essay of Adelaide (Navitas), him, this is why the a great essay University cultures shared among the writing School-Salzburg Latin Americans have survived for long irrespective of the growth in music. The impact of Latin American Music on writing University, their culture, lifestyle, belief, politics, immigration, and identity makes it to be a world music that requires global recognition and thinking in the classroom Stenden University of Applied Sciences understanding. This paper, thus discusses the essay University of Utah historical, geographical, and cultural context of Latin American music. It highlights how the music has impacted on every day life, worship and belief, migration, dance, politics and how to write University identity of people. Historical, Cultural and Geographical Context of Latin American Music. According to Hampson Maria (2008), music was used in writing University of Utah Latin America not only college admission essay service Charterhouse, as a link between the white and the black, but as a folk tradition that was developing into a great University, an art of traditional music. They points out that with the intertwinement of the indigenous and European musical roots, rich and diversify music were produced that were distinctive and illustrated the cultural and beliefs of Latin Americans. In this respect, both hymns and work songs were produced.
These forms of music depicted that interminglement between European and essay School-Salzburg African sounds rich of traditions and culture. Additionally, they note that Latin American music is normally produced based on musical style being used, geographical set up, and the language of the composer. As pointed out by Olsen Sheehy (2008), during the colonial, revolutionary, and a great essay University federal period in the sixteenth and eighteenth century, most of the a good yourself University Amerindian population who occupied South America was decimated by the presence of European, Iberian, and a great of Utah African slaves. They note that this led to the destruction of Amerindian musical culture especially by thinking Stenden University the dominating Iberian. For instance, hymn tunes, theater songs, and writing University ballads were not only imported from England, but were modeled in English musical genre (Scaruffi, 2006). Additionally, he notes that Latin American had been polarized by social, cultural, and economic factors that affected the evolution of music in the region. Therefore, the Latin Americans resorted to locally use their music in enhancing the how to write a good about cultural norms and beliefs. This limited the faster and widespread growth of the music. Scaruffi (2006) notes that, before the Spanish conquest, the Amerindian population which comprised of Mayan, Aztec, and Olmec among others, used music for sacrifices or rituals in enhancing their culture and beliefs.
However, he points out that post contemporary movements in Latin America, for example the writing University of Utah Hispanic revolution in Mexico, helped revolutionize the essay Latin America music. This came about as a result of the promotion of a perfect blend of writing University, both European and local music. As the thinking in the Stenden Sciences revolutionary movements became more active, people begun to feel their influence in the field of essay, music as this enabled the musicians to come up with a regional based folk music. According to him, Mariachi, a famous regional musical genre used by revolutionary movements, and which became popular during the time, incorporated both the narrative and University of Applied Sciences folk music. This was partly a strategy by the revolutionary movements to enable them participate in determining their country’s involvement in current affairs pertaining to war and politics as well as those of the larger society. According to Miller, Vandome McBrewster (2009), rock music was not a popular music in Latin America during early ages. But, they point out that, just like the white people stole the pop music from the black Americans, the Latin Americans did so from the white Americans. They note that in the late 50s, Latin Americans had not mastered the writing a great essay University of Utah English language, and an argument The University therefore sung the covers of the pop music in Spanish.
Miller, Vandome McBrewster (2009) add that this led to the establishment of notable rock and roll bands such as Los Rebeldes del Rock and Los Locos del Ritmo in essay of Utah Mexico. These bands largely performed and The University of Adelaide produced rock n roll music in the urban areas such as in the Mexico City. Scaruffi (2006) on the other hands notes that popular rock artists such as Carlos Santana incorporated the rock n roll music with other musical styles such as blues. This enabled such artists to writing a great essay University of Utah, blend their music with social problems and cultural issues without the essay writing tutorial American School-Salzburg music losing its humor. This was to improve their cultural heritage. Moreover, Scaruffi (2006) points out that the evolution of internet and the establishment of Northern America Free Trade Agreement brought together most of the a great essay of Utah world music in writing service Charterhouse Latin America. A Great Essay University? This also acted as a catalyst to their musical composition. For instance, he note that the 90’s prominent Mexican rock bands, Caf and Tacuba, composed their music from custom King’s, a mixture of regional folk and rock music. Scaruffi (2006) adds that evolution of technology has enabled most of the writing essay University Latin American artist to electronically mix mariachi, banda, regional folk songs, with popular rhythms in adapting to college admission service, current world music. It is thus clear that it was the geographical and writing essay cultural contexts which were the main factors that contribute to the kind of music that was being written, recorded, and an argument (Navitas) produced in Latin America.
According to Stienstra, Nigro Clemente (2011), Spanish music and Latin rhythms are the a great essay of Utah basic musical styles that describe the type of writing, music that comes from broadcasting stations in the region. They note that most bands were regional and therefore did not cater for the immigrant minorities. This was clearly evident as music being played was selected based on the majority population. Writing A Great University Of Utah? For instance, the Argentinean chacareras is insignificantly played where the majority of population composed of Mexicans (Stienstra, Nigro Clemente, 2011). Latin America Music Styles and Dances. As pointed out by Stienstra, Nigro Clemente (2011), the critical in the classroom Stenden insurgence of writing University of Utah, Iberian and African populations in Latin America adversely affected the musical style of the write a conclusion for an region. For instance, they note that the Mesoamerica Indians in the regions now produce their music by playing harps, guitars, and fiddles that emanate from Spanish model. Some have also started to play Marimbas which is of African origin. According to Scaruffi (2006), the a great effect of this was also widely experienced in 1890s. This was when the Argentinean working class, Boca, invented a musical rhythm known as tango; the name which was derived from the essay tutorial School-Salzburg drums of the writing a great University African slaves.
Campbell (2012) notes that the style of the tango music and choreography normally aroused pessimistic mood and college service sorrow that was enhanced by writing a great essay University the melancholy sound of the traditional bandoneon. He points out that the choreography of the music originated from an obscene scene of mimicry which depicted a disjoint in relationship between a prostitute, her bodily gestures, and how to write essay Florida International her male rival. Accompanied by suggestive Argentina dance that involves a series of steps that melancholy the tango beats, people would dance to the tune of the music (Scaruffi, 2006). He adds that it is such choreographic characteristics of the tango music, in addressing the incoherency in daily human social activities that, the essay enabled it to become a popular dance in Europe and U.S. Similarly, most of the Latin American music developed out of immigration practices such as slavery and even religious outstanding. For instance, mambo and rumba musical form and dances styles best captured the daily activities and religious beliefs that characterized the Latin America society. According to Truly (2009), mambo music was a Cuban musical rhythm whose name derived from the in the Stenden of Applied Sciences language of writing a great essay University of Utah, African slaves who were being imported to Caribbean denoting a conversation with gods. How To Write Essay About Florida International University? He notes that the music was a fusion of rumba rhythm and jazz music which created a new musical genre for the working classes during the colonial era in Latin America.
For instance, Perez Prado smoothly introduced jazz sound accompanied by rumba tunes that created an writing essay University of Utah appealing mambo dance which was dynamic with compelling styles of pelvis swinging that were in unison with the Latin music (Truly, 2009). According to Drake (2011), rumba music was another type of music and dance that was developed in the Latin America. She notes that the medium to essay American, fast polyrhythmic music was first adopted by Cuban popular musician as a fusion of both the Spanish music and African rhythms. She points out that the term rumba refers to various Afro-Cuban musical and dancing styles in the United States during the early 30’s and 40’s. She notes that rumba music improvised a call to response. This was especially so with the writing essay University of Utah musical verses that were repetitive and essay combined both the European harmonic musical instruments with the African percussion. Essay Of Utah? Drake (2011) adds that the rumba music such as guaracha and son of Cuba, were widely performed to people of International University, upper class.
Therefore, it acted as an identity that separated the poor from their rich colonial bosses. Additionally, Miller, Vandome McBrewster (2009) identified calypso as another important music that was developed in Latin America. Writing A Great Essay? They note that the music was developed at Trinidad in Caribbean. It deployed witty and humorous styles that highlighted people’s attitudes regarding the writing American International School-Salzburg social, political, and economic issues they were faced with. They point out that calypso music was very important to Africa slaves as they were only allowed to communicate to each other through such music. According to Drake (2011), calypso music was used to counter the colonial forces by creating a sense of community among the enslaved African society. The rhythm of the music was normally developed from steel band instruments made out of writing University of Utah, oil drum tops accompanied by ballroom dance similar to writing School-Salzburg, rumba. The musicians would thus provide carnival performance based on African religions and taboo in writing essay of Utah order to critical thinking in the Sciences, enhance their identity in countering colonial forces. Another popular music and dance style that is performed across the writing a great Latin America is salsa.
As pointed out by Quintero (2011), salsa music depicts one of the Iberian influences to the Latin America especially by incorporating shoe tapping and scarf waving music style to Latin music. She notes that salsa incorporates multiple musical and dancing styles that are diverse and inhibit Spanish Caribbean genre. According Miller, Vandome McBrewster (2009), salsa was formed to fight the predominance social classes in Latin America that were seen to undermine the writing American rights of other people. Therefore, following the establishment of salsa music and writing essay University of Utah dance by Cuban immigrants and Puerto Rican migrants in late 60’s, the world started emulating and performing the music and dance. Essay Writing Service Charterhouse? Quintero (2011) notes that this was evident by New York based musician; Ruben Blades blended who blended his salsa music with rock n roll musical style. He also incorporated political issues in 1978. A Great Essay University? His music was thus able to trigger some level of agitation for the need of political stability. Custom Essay Ely? She adds that this album which was called Buscando America was one of the best selling salsa music that gave him popularity. Records have shown that he almost won it in 1994 as Panama president. In conclusion, Latin America music is thus a fundamental factor that has contributed to the region’s political, cultural and religious beliefs.
It has been established that most of the world music and dances such as salsa and rumba originated from Latin America as a result of historical colonial ruling that had undermined democracy. The study has thus pointed out the need for artists and musicians to develop music and dances that addresses their daily human activities and writing a great essay University encounters in promoting not only their identities, but also culture.