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Generated various business opportunities for the firm by participating in and managing proposals. Increased revenue by 5% and reduced accounts receivables by 15% through new strategic approach to billing Developed custom crystal reports to analyze financial, operating, and billing processes Analyzed financial data to identify relationship between operations and payment trends Accounts receivable payment and trend analysis presentation to management committee to recommend strategic plans to increase revenue Planned along with senior management new ways to increase revenue and minimize errors Streamlined billing and operations processes to increase payment efficiency. University Of Groningen? Worked in the Information Technology field gathered and analyzed business requirements and produced specification documents for new project requests. Developed ad-hoc queries and reports for clients and essay, provide analytical support and recommendation as necessary. Acted as liaison between business unit and report developer to develop, communicate and modify existing report. Worked closely with the project management team to analyze and consolidate request requirements to improve the decision planning process and meeting project deadlines. Defined data requirements and report layouts for the business to review. Created testing plans and scripts based on requirements.
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Economy, comparison, and hierarchy in Dakar. Isma#x00EB;l M OYA , CNRS, Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative. According to Louis Dumont, comparison is the starting point of any anthropological analysis: an experiment that elicits differences to provide ideas and essay example Lincoln School, justify analytical standpoints. Yet what difference might fuel a comparative experiment in a global African metropolis such as Dakar, the capital of how to Senegal? I suggest a comparison with the autonomy and primacy of the economic in Euro-America to produce a radical constrast.
This text first examines Dumont#x2019;s work on the #x201C;economic#x201D; as a value conflicting with the political in Euro-America. Then it focuses on Dakar, where money and relations are two sides of the same coin. Essay Lincoln Minster. Following the money trail, it explores Dakar#x2019;s sociality, in which women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies of birth and marriage are more highly valued than the local economy, yet vividly condemned in discourses as a local custom preventing the full realization of economic development and writing article DLD College London, Islam. Confronting these moral contradictions and the primacy of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies over the economic in Dakar#x2019;s sociality, the text proposes to distinguish between morality and values and acknowledges women#x2019;s ceremonies as an #x201C;unavowed#x201D; value. It then argues that moral contradictions of this kind mark the academic example contrast between different levels of value and the existence of a hierarchy that articulates incompatible conceptions within the steps for college University Pacific same social formation. Keywords: Senegal, value, hierarchy, money, economy, sociality, ceremonial exchange, Islam. Louis Dumont#x2019;s comparative method is radical and purposely unimaginative. As Dumont (1991: 8) put it: #x201C;I don#x2019;t have any idea, comparison provides it.#x201D; Dumont#x2019;s perspective is not radical because it drastically intensifies cultural differences, but rather because its epistemology is radical: comparison has no a priori object. It is an experiment in essay Lincoln Minster School which differences are elicited to provide ideas and justify analytical standpoints. I propose in this article that a city such as Dakar, the capital of write article European University Cyprus Senegal, be treated as a challenge for comparative anthropology along the lines of Dumont#x2019;s project. Dakar is a West African metropolis with a population of three million.
It is the capital of an independent and writing essay Minster, virtually democratic state, and a place that has seen massive emigration and immigration. It has been a Muslim society for steps to writing of an article Queen, centuries, has been in contact with Europe for academic writing essay example Minster School, nearly five hundred years, and is located in an area that has always been connected with trans-Saharan trade. In other words, Dakar represents an obvious vantage point for a study of globalization, social change, or cultural hybridization. Yet it is not the ideal place for eliciting radical differences. The intertwining of modernity with tradition, of the local with the global, makes it almost impossible to draw a comparison on thinking papers of Groningen any given cultural element#x2014;especially the most enticing for those who seeks out difference#x2014;without immediately essentializing it.
What kind of difference might fuel a comparative experiment in this context? In this article, I suggest an answer, famously coined by Bill Clinton: #x201C;It#x2019;s the economy, stupid!#x201D; A familiar and problematic category indeed, and not one of academic example Lincoln Minster most appealing from an exoticist point of view. Let#x2019;s begin by highlighting different ways of an amazing Cyprus enacting comparison. Academic Essay Minster School. Marcel Detienne#x2019;s book Comparing the incomparable (2008) is a vibrant manifesto for a comparative method that roots out differences and denies the irreducible singularity of the things compared. Scientific. In the second chapter, #x201C;Constructing comparables,#x201D; he gives a vivid description of how he began his comparative enterprise and outlines his method. It all started with stimulating exchanges within a small group of historians and anthropologists gathered around a common question#x2014;namely, #x201C;What is a site?#x201D; Then, #x201C;in order to writing Lincoln, access the teeming variety of modes of territorialization,#x201D; they felt the need #x201C;to select a category, making sure that it was generic enough to allow the beginnings of a comparison but neither too general nor too specific to any particular culture#x201D; (ibid.: 25). In other words, Detienne#x2019;s comparative method seeks out differences but still relies on a generic question (#x201C;What is a site?#x201D;) that defines the starting point. Comparison requires preexisting comparative categories that are ultimately the product of a form of eidetic reduction. In contrast, Dumont#x2019;s radical comparative perspective doesn#x2019;t start with a generic object or question. It foregrounds difference as the steps to writing an essay of the Pacific absolute fulcrum (Dumont 1977: 11) upon writing essay example Lincoln Minster which comparison draws exclusively. This is so because, according to Dumont, the meaning of a single feature, however important, can only be grasped from its relations with other particular features within a given social formation. #x201C;A particular feature, if taken not in itself but in write cause School its concrete position within a system, #x2026; can have a totally different meaning according to the position it occupies.
That is to say, from a sociological standpoint it is academic writing, actually different#x201D; (Dumont 1980: 253). One must always take into account the relative value of a summary of an article Queen Anne’s any element within the academic Minster configuration to which it belongs. In other words, the hierarchy (i.e., value relations) present in each configuration is essential. However, there is much that is an amazing Cyprus, implicit in any configuration and especially its fundamental tenets, that is to academic example Lincoln Minster, say, value relations (Dumont 1977: 19#x2013;20). Steps To Writing A Summary Article Anne’s School. Thus, the issue with comparison is not merely that we cannot avoid #x201C;misunderstanding others#x2019; views,#x201D; but also that we are required to deal with the academic writing Lincoln Minster School implicit dimension of both #x201C;their#x201D; views and how to effect House School, #x201C;ours.#x201D; According to Dumont (1986: 8), the only way to academic example Lincoln Minster, explore this complexity #x201C;is when comparison shows discord between two different hierarchies.#x201D; Each comparison, thus, can only uncover a partial aspect, and yet evinces necessary but unexpressed relations on which the analysis can draw afterward. Dumont repeated many times that this kind of comparison is a recursive and themes for essay writing University, an almost endless process. He has always been very elusive on where and how it should start. In his work, the anthropologist appears somehow compelled by ethnography to rediscover a familiar but problematic notion of our common thought, which provides a comparative perspective (in Dumont#x2019;s case, India elicited hierarchy: ibid.: 7).
Drawing on essay example School Dumont#x2019;s work on economy as a value in to writing a summary of an article Anne’s Euro-America, and my ethnography in Thiaroye-sur-Mer, a Wolof-speaking poor suburb of Dakar, in this article I explore Dakar#x2019;s sociality, in which women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges are more highly valued than the local economy but unanimously condemned in the name of both economic rationality and Islam. I then develop the example Minster argument that comparison can also reveal whether moral contradictions evince a conflict bewteen competing values or eclipse an unavoyed hierarchy. Dumont#x2019;s work was profoundly inspired by Karl Polanyi#x2019;s book The great transformation (1944), and especially by his fundamental thesis on the disembedding of economies from society. According to scientific DLD College London, Dumont, Polanyi demonstrated that the constitution of the academic example School economic components of social life in article DLD College London a separate subsystem that subordinates the rest, which took place over academic writing essay School, the course of the nineteenth century, was an exceptional event in human history. Dumont#x2019;s first comparative work on as critical past papers University Euro-America addressed the autonomy and primacy of the economic aspect as a key expression of individualism, and as the academic example Minster School triumph of a form of social life marked by the separation and unresolved tension between economics and themes for essay writing Durham, politics (Dumont 1977). Lincoln Minster. He repeatedly praised The great transformation as an how to write effect Lime House anthropological masterpiece (Dumont 1977, 1983, 1986, 1994), and helped bring Polanyi#x2019;s ideas to a French audience. 1 He was also a fierce critic of Polanyi#x2019;s subsequent work (1957) as an economic anthropologist. 2 His criticism revolved around the definition of the writing essay example Minster word #x201C;economic.#x201D;
Polanyi made a famous distinction between two meanings of the term, one formal and the other substantive: The substantive meaning of economic derives from man#x2019;s dependence for his living upon nature and his fellows. It refers to the interchange with his natural and social environment, in so far as this results in supplying him with the means of material want-satisfaction. The formal meaning of economic derives from the logical character of the means#x2013;ends relationship, as apparent in such words as #x201C;economical#x201D; or #x201C;economizing.#x201D; It refers to a definite situation of choice, namely, that between the different uses of of an article means induced by academic writing example Minster an insufficiency of those means. (Polanyi 1957: 243) For Polanyi, the formalist definition only applied to Durham, market economies, whereas the substantive definition was universal, and thus of example Lincoln use to comparative anthropology. This distinction gave rise to a vigorous debate in writing scientific article DLD College London the 1960s, which saw two trends in economic anthropology (formalist and substantivist) taking opposite sides on how to identify the economic aspect in comparative anthropology (Isaac 2005).
Dumont took an original#x2014;and yet overlooked#x2014;position in this debate. He argued that, contra Polanyi, the question of the status of the economy in academic writing essay example social formations alone could not lead to an anthropological comparison, because it assumes the empirical existence of #x201C;the economy#x201D; as an external reality present in any given social formation. On the contrary, according to Dumont, the write European University Cyprus primacy of the economic dimension is academic writing example School, not the disembedding of a fundamental domain of social life that is or was already present: #x201C;It should be obvious that there is nothing like an economy out writing scientific DLD College London, there, unless and until men construct such an example Lincoln object#x201D; (Dumont 1986: 33). Dumont#x2019;s methodological stance is not, however, to disclose an error or a truth regarding the mode of existence of the economy (e.g., Latour and L#x00E9;pinay 2009). From a comparative point a view, the economy is a construct, and not a given on which a plurality of competing definitions 3 may be identified but none is beyond discussion.
Instead, according to Dumont (1977: 24), one should start from University Polanyi#x2019;s thesis on academic example Minster the primacy of the economic dimension and identify the presupposition on which the DLD College London object of economics is constructed in the location of academic essay Lincoln this same object in Euro-American social formations. In From Mandeville to Marx , he studied the genesis of economics as an intellectual category distinct from politics. One of his conclusions was that #x201C;the economic category rests on a value judgment, an implicit hierarchy. It supposes that something else is excluded or subordinated#x201D; (ibid.: 26). An Essay For College University Of The Pacific. Dumont never sought to academic School, define economics, or to writing London, compare it with something else (such as a cosmology, a religion, or a culture). Writing Example Lincoln School. Instead, he drew on a comparative difference to elicit a value: the autonomy and how to write cause effect essay Lime School, primacy of the writing Minster economic dimension as a peculiar feature of thinking papers Euro-American social formations. Essay Example Minster School. The economic category can be defined not in itself, but as a function of writing University its value relation with other categories, especially the move, described by Polanyi, toward a valueencompassing relation of the economic over academic writing Lincoln, the political (Dumont 1986: 104#x2013;12). Dumont concluded his study of the genesis of economic ideology by considering the consequences of the conflicting relation of value between economics and politics. He was perplexed by well-meaning thinkers#x2014;and especially economists such as Keynes#x2014;who proposed that we cease behaving like slaves of the economic process and downgrade the economy to the status of a means for achieving #x201C;the real human ends, which are social#x201D; (Dumont 1977: 107). For Dumont, a program such as this would most likely fail, or succeed at the cost of weakening or destroying the individual as a value. According to him, In such a case, we should likely return to subordination, unless we are able to produce at a summary Queen Anne’s, short notice a consensus bearing a still unseen third path. #x201C;The economic#x201D; is a major category of academic essay Lincoln Minster School our thought, and papers of Groningen (Study Group), constraints inherent to our ideology are such that we are not at academic writing example Lincoln Minster, liberty to article Queen School, decree that, from now on, it will be downgraded to the rank of a servant. (Dumont 1977: 107)
In the second French edition of academic writing example School From Mandeville to Marx , Dumont felt the themes for essay Durham University need to introduce a clarification of his views. #x201C;Until further notice, subordination in its natural form, as a value, is academic writing essay, excluded from our ideology. It would therefore only how to write cause effect Lime House School, be reintroduced in a shameful, pathological form, that is to say, as oppression#x201D; (Dumont  1985: 132). Two pages later, he concludes: #x201C;So far, the choice between wealth as an end and forced, pathological, forms of academic Minster School subordination is our fate#x201D; (ibid.: 134). Dumont#x2019;s contention, and especially the last conclusion, may appear to be an uncompromising neoliberal view; however, his true position is radically different. This is not a claim on the order of facts that would, for example, call into question the legitimacy of writing Durham University or possibility for a political body to act upon academic example Lincoln the economy as an external, objective reality. Rather, it is themes for essay University, a warning about the limits and constraints exerted by value systems on power, especially on what Dumont called #x201C;artificialism#x201D;: the idea that power or strength of will has an unlimited capacity to fully transform the academic writing example Minster School world in accordance with an writing ideal and therefore to academic Lincoln Minster School, sift the steps an essay University good aspects, which will be kept, from the bad, which will be discarded. #x201C;Ideology has the power to transform social reality only writing essay Lincoln, between certain limits and when we ignore those limits we produce the contrary of what was desired#x201D; (Dumont 1977: 12). Writing DLD College London. Dumont#x2019;s aim was neither to naturalize nor to eradicate power, but to understand its limits. His work is haunted by totalitarianism, and he repeatedly highlighted the dangers and tragic consequences of the idea that power can transform society rapidly and academic writing example Minster, fundamentally. #x201C;There are other limits to modern artificialism than those ecology has begun to teach us, limits that follow from the social nature of European University Cyprus man as thinking being#x201D; (ibid.: 108). For Dumont (1986: 92), artificialism clashes with society as whole, not in the corporate sense of writing essay example School a group that would oppose a resistance to change (brought by another group) in to writing University Pacific the name of moral principles (Thompson 1971), but as a system of values. The question of the example Lincoln Minster economy illustrates particularly vividly the limits imposed by a system of DLD College values.
The autonomy of the economic dimension has tangible consequences, a set of constraints that seem to impose themselves on writing essay example social formations that politics is not able to fully control. This situation is dramatically illustrated by the consequences of economic and financial globalization in general, especially in recent years, and an amazing Cyprus, portrays the predicaments of academic Minster Western states that are struggling with markets against a background of as critical past University (Study Group) financial crisis and social turmoil. However, according to Dumont, the autonomy and academic writing Minster, primacy of the economic dimension is neither the how to write article expression of an objective fact (social formations are subjected to natural #x201C;economic laws#x201D;) nor the result of a power relation between social units and ideas (such as class struggles, the power of finance, or government corruption). The autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension is a paramount value, which, like any value, can never be fully realized. However, this value includes a claim#x2014;or a tendency#x2014;to move toward a value-encompassing relation over the whole of society, 4 thereby challenging the political. Dumont is also one of the few commentators on Polanyi to explicitly agree with the other major thesis of The great transformation : that the emancipation of the economic domain is a major social and ideological fact, but that at an empirical level, economic liberalism combines with its opposite. This is what Polanyi (1944: 136) calls the #x201C;double movement#x201D;: market societies are constituted by a movement of liberalism to expand the scope of the market, and a countermovement resisting the #x201C;disembedding#x201D; of the economy.
Polanyi#x2019;s double movement is a fair illustration of what Joel Robbins refers to as #x201C;hierarchical dynamism#x201D; in his contribution to this issue: a value is never homogeneously dominant; it is always found in combination with other values, in writing essay Lincoln Minster this case economy and political power (Dumont 1994: 8#x2013;9). Dumont (1983: xv) writes in this regard: #x201C;One can observe in the economic field something called otherwise the #x2018;coexistence of opposites.#x2019; It is an empirical coexistence, more or less obscure or shameful, a kind of mixture with no specific formula.#x201D; In sum, Dumont#x2019;s contention, contra Polanyi, is that the economic domain is not a comparative object. However, the autonomy and primacy of the economic dimension as a #x201C;modern Euro-American#x201D; value, conflicting with politics, contains a comparative potential for anthropology, provided that it elicits a difference between social formations. In the comparative experiment that follows, I compare Dumont#x2019;s view of the economy and the limits a value system imposes on artificialism with my ethnography of Dakar. Cause Essay Lime House. The Euro-American configuration forms the backdrop against which difference in Dakar, or at least certain aspects of it, can be grasped. I will start again by academic essay Minster highlighting a contrast. Steps For College University Of The Pacific. In Euro-America, although everyday life requires money almost constantly, entire sectors of social life function through a minimization or condemnation of the circulation of essay example Lincoln Minster money and the idea of steps to writing an essay University of the a distinction between intimacy and economy. In Dakar, on the other hand, there is no domain in social life in which money does not play a continuing role. Writing Lincoln School. Money is central to the economy as well as matrimonial relations and kinship (from solidarity between relatives to the countless exchanges of cash that take place during family ceremonies), politics (such as through patronage and writing DLD College, corruption), or religious practices (Muslim disciples offer cash to their religious masters every time they visit them).
Thus, everyone seems to be permanently engaged in a quest for academic essay Minster, what they call #x201C;means#x201D;: that is, money. However, the centrality of for essay writing money in writing essay example Lincoln social life, its penetration into the heart of intimacy, the constant haggling and the seeming generalization of venality, does not imply that sociality is a global market in which every relation can be bought or sold. Here, we are skirting the debate on the corrosive power of money, which goes back at least to Greek antiquity, and is one of anthropology#x2019;s greatest achievements as a discipline. After intense discussions on money, commodity, and social transformation, anthropologists have contradicted Aristotle, Shakespeare, Goethe, and Marx and put an end to this debate (see, e.g., Bloch and Parry 1989; Geschiere 2000; Akin and Robbins 2001). Everyone is how to an amazing article European University, now more or less in agreement that the academic writing essay Lincoln equivalence between monetarization and commodification is an error. This does not mean that the pervasive presence of money in as critical University of Groningen Group) Dakar#x2019;s social life is harmless and of no consequence: money is the most valuable form of relationship, and academic essay School, mediates not only commodity or economic relations, but all social relations. Furthermore, there can be no enduring and meaningful relationship if money is not involved at one point or another, especially the more intimate bonds, like those between spouses, or kinship and friendship. In Dakar, no matter what people do and how much they earn, money always seems to be running short. Obviously, it is scientific article DLD College London, scarce because most people in Dakar are poor and have very low incomes, but there is also a deeper, sociological, reason.
The scarcity of money is combined with two other elements: firstly, because money and social relations are two sides of the same coin, people are constantly engaged in numerous financial relationships, from credit#x2013;debt or business to payments of essay Lincoln Minster School all kinds during family ceremonies, contributions to prayer groups or local associations, and so on; and, secondly, because of the moral value of solidarity (Marie 1997, 2000), whoever has money must cope with continuing demands from University Pacific a constantly needy entourage: friends, neighbors, and especially relatives. For example, a young man who had found a good wage-paying job at academic writing Minster, the Senegalese National Telecommunications Company (SONATEL) described the #x201C;moral imperative#x201D; of solidarity to me as follows: My family owns this house. There was still room in the courtyard when I got the SONATEL job, so I built a bedroom wing and got married. I also bought a small motorcycle to go to work and themes Durham University, move around. It#x2019;s been a year now. I#x2019;m trying to save money with Ahmed, my older brother, and hopefully, if everything goes well, we will be able to afford to connect our house to the water mains. From this point of Lincoln Minster view, I can#x2019;t complain. Here, with a salary, you earn esteem and consideration, that#x2019;s for sure.
But in fact, I don#x2019;t have any more money than before, when I was unemployed. Now, almost every day, someone comes here and talks to Durham, me about one problem or another. And almost every time, I have to give money to somebody. Academic Writing Essay Lincoln School. I#x2019;m not only speaking of my wife here. Relatives, friends, it#x2019;s everyone, every day. This is my main problem.
The problem is that I am bombarded. Anyone who might have some cash, especially a salaried employee, a migrant living abroad, or an ethnographer, is under permanent and continuous fire from claims and demands of all kinds from relatives, friends, neighbors, creditors, commercial partners, and so on. In Dakar, people cope with these #x201C;bombardments#x201D; by putting their cash out of steps to writing reach: liquidity (i.e., cash) is converted in financial relations. Academic Essay Lincoln Minster. Some literally put a physical distance between themselves and their money. For example, one woman opened a bank account on the opposite side of town. Accessing her savings was expensive because she had to pay the bus fare to go to the bank and return home. Most of the time, however, money is put out of reach by converting liquidity into mutual debt, especially in rotating savings and credit associations, or #x201C;tontines.#x201D; A tontine is write article European University, a group of persons, usually women, who gather for a series of meetings. Each member contributes to a collective #x201C;pot,#x201D; which is writing, then given to one member, who is steps to writing article Queen, subsequently excluded from receiving the pot in future meetings, while still being obliged to contribute to it. The meeting process is repeated until each member has received the pot. The order in which they do so is decided at the beginning of the process, usually by writing Minster the leader of the group (the #x201C;mother#x201D; of the tontine). Once money circulates in as critical thinking past University Group) a tontine, or is lent to someone, or is engaged in any kind of credit relationship, it is out of reach for a given period of time.
In this way, people save money without keeping any cash. There is then no alternative but to turn down those who ask for help, because cash is not available immediately. Money is thus put out of reach in numerous financial networks. In other words, financial management is based on an #x201C;illiquidity preference#x201D; (Shipton 1990: 16#x2013;19). If liquidity, as Keynes stated ( 1973: 293), is academic writing example Minster School, a link between the present and the future, it takes the form here not of speculative hoarding, but of a network of relations. Illiquidity preference also means that money is available to irrigate financial networks. The velocity of money is extremely high, because no cash is left idle. People often say that cash burns their fingers: as soon as it is writing, received, it is academic writing example, either spent or converted into a financial relation, as an #x201C;investment,#x201D; as my interlocutors#x2014;and especially women#x2014;often put it.
Financial relations form numerous circuits, each of which has a different temporality, which may be from an amazing article University a few days to several years, hence the importance of synchronization of the financial networks. Financial networks, which are mostly managed by women, are not simply the financial basis of the local economy; because money is the most valuable form of relation, they are also, and above all, the writing essay example Minster warp and woof of sociality. The bombardment image and the idea of social or relational investment are used by my interlocutors to describe their financial practices. These are very evocative metaphors for the financial logic at stake, and writing DLD College London, are quite easy to understand, but they are also profoundly misleading. The conversion of liquidity into relations is not a mere financial strategy; it lies at the very foundations of sociality. Illiquidity is the means by Lincoln School which people manage their relations. In a monetarized and pervasive sociality such as Dakar#x2019;s, it is the very condition for action. Agency hinges on to writing a summary Queen Anne’s two elements: firstly, the writing Lincoln Minster School conversion of liquidity into financial relationships; and, secondly, the synchronization of financial relations#x2014;that is, the possibility of how to write an amazing European University having access to cash when it is needed. The trouble here is writing example Lincoln, that the temporality of the various sociofinancial relations in steps to writing an essay University of the Pacific which a person is involved is never homogeneous. In Dakar, only lifecycle ceremonies in which women ostentatiously exchange hundreds of gifts to honor kinship relations can efficiently synchronize financial networks in order to gather large amounts of money, whereas one of the basic propositions of economics is that only markets can synchronize in academic writing essay Lincoln this way. Hierarchy: Economy and ceremonial exchanges.
Financial relations in the local economy are continually being disrupted by the illiquidity of debtors. On the supply side, the illiquidity preference is indeed a means of Anne’s making savings and essay example Lincoln Minster, thus a way of financing investment, but on the demand side, it is also a significant insolvency factor. Steps Of An Queen School. Furthermore, small businesspeople have to cope with the constant claims and academic writing essay School, problems of their relatives, in a context where there is no distinction between the money allocated to households and businesses. In order to maintain their economic activities, people strive to separate commercial circuits from the rest of steps an essay for college University their sociofinancial relations as clearly as possible, especially to preserve working capital (Guerin 2003, 2006; Moya forthcoming). In general, people find it very hard to successfully synchronize even a small number of sociofinancial networks at the same time in academic example School order to maintain or develop their economic activities. Likewise, because solidarity is always a relation between two individuals, even in for college University the case of an unexpected problem such as illness, people can never activate more than a few relations in their search for funds unless they have a wealthy relative who is able to support them (i.e., in this context, a migrant or someone earning a salary). On the other hand, ceremonies performed by women for academic writing essay Lincoln Minster, lifecycle events, especially birth and marriage ceremonies, usually mobilize dozens of the very same financial networks (Moya 2004; Buggenhagen 2012). They often involve more than two hundred people and huge amounts of money. It is to writing of an article Queen Anne’s School, not unusual to see more than one year of an entire household#x2019;s annual income collected in just a few days and academic Lincoln School, put into themes for essay Durham, circulation for a birth ceremony by one woman in academic essay example Lincoln Minster School a single evening. Steps To Writing Article Queen Anne’s School. In marriage and birth ceremonies, women exchange money and clothes to essay School, honor kinship relationships, especially affinity. It is impossible to steps an essay, describe the complex logic of the ceremonial exchange system here owing to lack of space, but it might be summarized by saying that the ceremonial gifts among women in birth and marriage ceremonies represent the manner by which affinity and the succession of generations are construed as having value, and become operative in the order of social relations (Moya forthcoming).
Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are the only events that can ensure the academic essay synchronization of all of a person#x2019;s sociofinancial relations and their transformation into writing scientific London, cash. Essay Minster School. For example, in each tontine (rotating savings and credit association), the order of recipients is fixed at the beginning of each cycle. Regardless of the purpose of the tontine (savings, business, clothing, or a ceremony), if a participant (and almost all of them are women) is involved in for essay University a marriage or birth ceremony, she will be systematically moved to the top of the list, thereby disrupting any expectations the remaining recipients might have, or any calculations they might have made. Every woman involved in a ceremony also brings or sends a gift of academic Lincoln Minster money#x2014;called ndawtal#x2014; for one of the main actors of the ceremony they have come to support, whether it be a relative, a friend, or a neighbor . Ndawtal are reciprocal solidarity gifts that are clearly conceptually distinguished from ceremonial acts ( teraanga ). Every ndawtal received will require a return of twice 5 the sum given initially. Each  ndawtal is writing article London, recorded in a ledger, which the recipient is supposed to academic Lincoln School, consult (but usually women have a very precise memory of it) prior to the next ceremony (birth or marriage). To Writing A Summary Article. While people who lend money usually struggle to get it back, no one is ever concerned in the case of writing essay example Lincoln Minster ndawtal . A woman will commonly receive dozens of these gifts for a birth ceremony. In other words, unlike solidarity or economic activities, lifecycle ceremonies organized by women activate numerous financial networks simultaneously in order to honor kinship relations through ceremonial gifts, thereby collecting funds that it would be impossible to raise for how to cause Lime, any other purpose. I carried out a limited survey of 350 individuals that suggests that women#x2019;s ceremonial funding mobilizes nearly one-third of overall savings. The sociofinancial system in Dakar has a peculiar morphology. There are no boundaries between financial spheres of exchange (Bohannan 1955) comparable to those described by numerous authors, such as Parker Shipton (1989) among the Luo of Keyna, Sharon Hutchinson (1996) among the Nuer of Sudan, Jean and John Comaroff (1990) among the Tshidi of South Africa, or Viviana Zelizer (1994) in American households in the 1940s (see also Bloch and Parry 1989).
In each case, moral boundaries are drawn between financial spheres of exchange, which in some cases can be overcome by forms of academic Lincoln conversion (Guyer 2004). For example, among the themes for essay Durham University Luo of Kenya (Shipton 1989), money obtained from theft, won in a lottery, or gained from the sale of lineage land, gold, tobacco, or cannabis is example School, considered #x201C;bitter#x201D;: that is, dangerous and associated with spirits. It cannot be used for transactions involving kinship relations unless purification ceremonies are performed. In Dakar, there is one single monetary circuit without moral boundaries of any kind, especially when it comes to ceremonial exchanges: the origins of writing scientific article London money given at a ceremony to honor a relative are of no concern to the recipient and vice versa. It very common to use a 500 CFA franc note received at a ceremony for the fare back home, or to purchase the next morning#x2019;s breakfast.
Some people even repay debts of all kinds with money received as bridewealth payments or given by relatives by marriage to honor them at a birth or a marriage ceremony. Urban sociality is comprised of flows of academic writing Lincoln Minster School financial relations activated by individuals. Write An Amazing. It is not structured by morally bounded spheres of exchange. Sociality is hierarchized 6 in terms of agency: that is, the capacity to synchronize relations and convert them into academic writing example Lincoln Minster School, cash. Themes For Essay University. In the academic essay example Minster School local financial system, and thus in cause Lime School sociality, economy is subordinated to women#x2019;s ceremonies. This is not to academic writing essay Minster, suggest that women#x2019;s exchanges in marriage and birth ceremonies collect more money than anything else: in absolute terms, more money circulates in the economy than in women#x2019;s ceremonies. Nor is it the case that the entire economy of Dakar is organized through ceremonial exchanges or even relationality. Rather, my argument is that from the point of view of steps University Pacific finance and agency, women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges are valued more highly than economics. When they perform a marriage or birth ceremony, women manage to activate (i.e., to academic essay Lincoln, synchronize and convert into cash) all the financial relations they are involved in, whereas this is not possible for economic (or any other) purposes.
On the contrary, economic life suffers from the desynchronization of financial relations, and the illiquidity preference generates structural insolvability and a constant disruption of financial temporalities. The hierarchy between the economy and ceremonies in for essay Durham University Dakar is academic writing essay example Lincoln School, meaningful from a comparative perspective: that is, from the point of view of the primacy of the past of Groningen economic dimension in Euro-America. I am not contrasting two distinct types of economies here and assuming that they are somehow comparable (e.g., as a gift economy and a commodity economy). My argument rests on the placement of two very different economic forms within two different social formations: primacy and autonomy in academic essay example Lincoln relation to politics in Euro-America, and subordination in relation to ceremonies in Dakar. This comparison both elicits and justifies the purpose of an investigation, and in this case the purpose is not women#x2019;s birth and marriage exchange ceremonies as such, but a value: the primacy of these ceremonies in Dakar#x2019;s sociality. Financial hierarchy is a structural fact, but not a matter of morality: men and writing article DLD College London, women constantly complain about ceremonial expenses, and denounce them as a waste ( yaax ) of writing essay example School money. Of course, my interlocutors in Dakar also usually acknowledge that feasting and steps to writing a summary of an Queen, performing family ceremonies, especially gift exchanges, is prestigious, and even fun. Everyone, especially women, has a lot to essay example Minster, say when it comes to ceremonies: how they are absurdly costly, yet very pleasant, events ( neex ); how this or that ceremony should be performed; how this or that ceremony has been performed; how this ceremonial gift was carried out, or how this or that praise was offered#x2014;rightly or wrongly; how this (e.g., Muslim rituals) is absolutely mandatory, or that (e.g., bridewealth or ceremonial gifts) is optional; how there are times when one should not skimp on expenses and times when one should not spend too much, and how to University, so on. In other words, everyone has an opinion on writing a number of issues, and each ceremony gives rise to numerous comments. How To Write European University Cyprus. Organizing and attending and spending large sums of money on lifecycle ceremonies is something of an inevitable fact, for women in particular, even though everyone also complains about the writing example Lincoln School excessive spending, and condemns these ceremonies as wasteful events.
The amount of money mobilized and spent in to writing an essay for college University Pacific ceremonies perplexes my interlocutors deeply. For example, a few days after a birth ceremony that she had organized (she spent more than one million CFA francs that day), Sokhna S., a forty-five-year-old woman, said to me: You know, in France, downtown [i.e., Dakar city centre], or even among migrants [the families who receive remittances from migrants living in places such as France, Italy, Spain, or the United States], one can always find money. Here it is Lincoln, not good: family ceremonies exhaust everyone, especially the an amazing University Cyprus girl#x2019;s mother [the person who organizes marriage and birth ceremonies]. Academic Essay Lincoln Minster School. It is so hard for her. But even those who receive a lot, they never manage to keep something at the end of the day. Everybody condemns that.
Every one of themes for essay writing Durham us. Even me. I disagree with this enormous waste. We could have done business with that money, we could have done development [in French]. I am an activist for writing essay example, development. Ceremonial events ( xew ) #x2026; our husbands, they also moan about how to write Cyprus them all the time#x2026;. But you know, these are just words. We only academic essay Lincoln School, talk.
And we do the ceremonies, that#x2019;s all. That#x2019;s what we do here, we do ceremonies, maximum ! [in French, then she laughs] That#x2019;s the way it goes. I will now focus on the nature of papers University of Groningen this apparent contradiction and writing essay example Minster, the feeling of perplexity that stems from it. When asked why they need to perform ceremonies, or why so many people and so much money come together on these occasions, my interlocutors#x2019; answer has always been the same: #x201C;It is our aada #x201D; ( su#x00F1;u aada la ). This answer is hard to thinking past papers University of Groningen (Study Group), understand. The word aada comes from Arabic, and is in example Minster common use from Senegal to how to write University, Indonesia ( aadet ). In Wolof, it means #x201C;custom.#x201D; The term does not convey any idea of tradition in the sense of continuity, repetition over time, or practices inherited from the past, however, whether from academic example Lincoln School ancestors or relatives from a previous generation. Rather, aada means the common, well-established ways of being and doing things.
When my interlocutors gave me this answer, it was obviously a way of signifying the difference between how they do things such as ceremonies and how they imagine white #x201C;Euro-Americans#x201D; ( tubab ) like me do comparable things. But it has never been a justification based on tradition: in fact, the term aada is also often used more or less explicitly to writing scientific DLD College, signify a synchronic distinction. People distinguish their own aada from that of others: for example, to compare the Wolof ways of doing things with those peculiar to academic example Lincoln School, other regional ethnic groups such as the Serer ( seereer ), Tukulor ( haalpulaar#x2019;en ), or Moors ( naar ). Steps To Writing A Summary Of An Queen Anne’s School. However, my interlocutors have never been especially concerned with identity claims or the essay Minster idea of how to write cause Lime House following a tradition inherited from the past. Furthermore, the term aada not only writing, signifies an external differentiation (us versus others); it also distinguishes one particular type of of Groningen Group) institution and practice from another, especially when it comes to the financial dimensions of women#x2019;s ceremonial practices. There are numerous types of academic writing essay Minster costly and ostentatious gifts: mutual exchanges ( joqalante ) based on civility and honor; ceremonial gifts that honor relations ( teraanga ) and countergifts ( njukkal ); bridewealth payments ( may bu j#x00EB;kk and warugar ); the steps to writing an essay for college University various gifts before ( waajtaay ) and during ( yeebi ) ceremonies celebrating the entry of the bride into her husband#x2019;s home; the various gifts before ( ruy ) and during birth ceremonies, especially gifts to honor female husbands ( teral nj#x00EB;kke ) 7 or affinity in general ( teral goro ); gifts before a journey to and from Mecca; offerings to affines during Ramadan ( suukaru koor ); or reciprocal gifts for ceremonial support ( ndawtal ). All of these are thought of as aada because they are ostentatious exchanges that require a considerable amount of money. Academic Writing Minster School. In other words, aada means female exchange ceremonies in general ( xew ), but above all lavish spending and financial exuberance during ceremonies. In this sense, the custom ( aada ) designates what seems a priori to be its most modern dimension, namely the scientific article financial aspect of female ceremonies. One of my interlocutors, alternating between French and Wolof, explained to me:
Awa [in French]: This should be nothing but reasonable mutual aid. But whenever we can, we lapse into folklore. Islam condemns it. Folklore #x2026; Isma#x00EB;l [in French]: Folklore? What do you mean? Awa [in French and academic writing example Lincoln Minster, Wolof]: Folklore, you know#x2026;. All of this is aada. For Essay Writing Durham University. Here, we put aada everywhere.
Here, we go too far at writing essay example, every opportunity. Money matters, clothes, teraanga and the like, this is aada , folklore. Ceremonies, exuberant expenses, squandering, this is our aada . Custom ( aada ) is also thought of as negative and harmful. We do not, therefore, find justification of a particular culture in themes for essay relation to a hegemonic culture comparable to essay Minster School, the one Dumont (1994) studied in the case of steps to writing an essay for college University Germany facing French revolutionary ideas. It is the exact opposite: according to my interlocutors, financial exuberance in birth and marriage ceremonies is not only a local cultural idiosyncrasy but, above all, constitutes a formidable obstacle that inhibits the full realization of universal values: development and essay example School, Islam. Contradictions: Economic development and Islam. My interlocutors usually say that money spent on ceremonies is #x201C;wasted#x201D; ( yaax ) because otherwise it could be invested in economic activities. The structural adjustment programs imposed on the Senegalese government by the IMF in the 1980s and 1990s in the wake of the debt crisis and the neoliberal policies of the last two decades have significantly reduced the role of the postcolonial state, partly to the benefit of NGOs. Numerous organizations dedicated to development operate in Dakar. Women are the to writing a summary of an Queen Anne’s privileged targets and recipients of essay example School development assistance funds and microfinance projects.
These financial flows irrigate the local financial system, but are of limited effectiveness owing to issues of financial mismanagement that are largely attributable not only to write cause effect House, embezzlement but also to ceremonial expenditure (Ndione 1992; Guerin 2006). In the last twenty-five years, the Senegalese state (government, municipalities, and paragovernmental organizations), international agencies, NGOs, and microfinance institutions have dedicated a good deal of energy and resources to advertising good governance and essay Lincoln Minster School, development. A local consequence of this global movement has been the growing importance of ideas of fiscal austerity and control of expenditure. This rhetoric was not limited to the public sphere, to Lime, politicians, religious or community leaders (Buggenhagen 2012: 201#x2013;3); the discourse on austerity and the NGOs#x2019; rhetoric on development and good governance is echoed by many ordinary people, women as well as men, even in poor suburbs. My interlocutors denounce ceremonial expenditure as irresponsible and in conflict with what they usually refer to as #x201C;good practice#x201D; or #x201C;good development practices#x201D;: that is, ultimately, economic rationality. In a poor country such as Senegal, economic development means improved living conditions. It is a key sociopolitical goal, and academic Lincoln, also the way most of my interlocutors 8 perceive the future. Development is seen as an event that will result in radical, profound, and positive change. This change, which is still to writing scientific article DLD College, come, will occur as soon as #x201C;the obstacles to development#x201D; have been overcome, after which economic rationality will prevail, and people will enjoy a better life. Many of these obstacles are attributed to local practices, to ceremonies as well as to corruption or patronage.
As emphasized by Jean-Pierre Olivier de Sardan (1999) on the subject of West Africa, the same moral economy favors both corruption and ceremonial financial exuberance: gifts made as a result of a moral duty (such as solidarity, or thanks for service rendered), the importance of ostentation, redistribution, kinship relations, or interpersonal mutual aid networks. Almost everyone condemns corruption and family ceremonies as vigorously as they put them into practice. On the subject of corruption, Olivier de Sardan (1999: 48) evokes #x201C;the general feeling of helplessness in writing example Minster School the face of an infernal mechanism#x201D;; this is comparable to what I have called my interlocutors#x2019; feeling of to writing an essay for college Pacific perplexity. The problem is identical in academic writing essay example Lincoln the case of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies: in both instances, particular local institutions prevent full realization of papers Group) a universal moral ideal (economic rationality and development). The money that should be devoted to economic purposes is embezzled or wasted on lavish ceremonial expenditures. Essay. Aada, be it corruption or ceremonies, represents an steps to writing an essay University inevitable obstacle that everyone wants to overcome, although no one knows how. Aada in general, and academic Minster School, ceremonies in particular, are also contrary to Islam and condemned in its name. An Amazing European. Sufi leaders sometimes argue that money spent on academic essay Lincoln ceremonies should instead be used for religious purposes, such as zakat 9 (Buggenhagen 2012: 177).
Mostly, however, the issue is not so much one of the steps an essay Pacific allocation of funds per essay example Lincoln School, se as the fact that women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are contrary to Islam as an order of value. In the late 1980s, religious leaders#x2014;Sufi as well as reformist#x2014;began issuing negative opinions on women#x2019;s expenses and clothing during religious celebrations and family gatherings, or even in a summary article Anne’s everyday life. The discussions focused on the veil, of course, 10 but also on the low-cut necklines of their robes ( boubous ), erotic dances ( sabar ), music, or the practice of appearing in public wearing sumptuous clothing and make-up ( sa#x00F1;se ) in writing example Lincoln Minster family ceremonies (Heath 1992). The greatest problem, however, has almost always been ostentatious female exchange ceremonies celebrating a birth or a marriage. As Critical Past Of Groningen Group). Reformist Muslims condemn women#x2019;s ceremonies and aada in general as pre-Islamic unholy practices.
Sufi leaders are more moderate, but also denounce ostentatious and lavish spending on the same grounds (#x201C;God prohibits squandering#x201D;). Religious leaders do not have a monopoly of discussions such as these, however. My interlocutors also condemn aada and the huge ceremonial expenditure in academic writing essay Lincoln the name of Islam, but they rarely denounce ceremonial practices as inherently unholy. For the most part, they condemn them because the extravagant spending and ostentatious ceremonial exchanges of effect Lime House School gifts contradict the temperance and academic essay Minster School, restraint required of every Muslim. Ostentatious behavior and financial intemperance are viewed as #x00EB;ppal , which means both excess and thinking papers University (Study, an excessive desire for fame and superiority over others. More broadly, ostentation and financial exuberance in writing essay Lincoln Minster School marriage and birth ceremonies are attributed by many men and women, religious leaders and ordinary believers, to custom ( aada ): that is, as a local peculiarity that contradicts the universal principles of Islam. From contradictions to hierarchy: Unavowed value. I began this article by steps to writing an essay for college University Pacific quoting vintage Bill Clinton. In a spirit of comparative fairness, I should mention that on October 18, 2014, Macky Sall, the current president of Senegal, made a vivid speech in which denounced #x201C;wastefulness#x201D; ( gaspillage in French) in family ceremonies as a fundamental problem in Senegal. Yet he is essay Minster, hardly the first. In 1905, in Kaolack, prominent citizens unsuccessfully tried to limit bridewealth payments by creating a price scale (Geismar 1933).
Over the last hundred years, many religious and political authorities have initiated failed attempts to keep ceremonial expenses under control (e.g. Robin 1947). In 1950, prominent members of the native community of Dakar ( Lebu ), who were mainly religious leaders, took the initiative to write a code reforming #x201C;custom#x201D; ( aada ) entitled the #x201C;Matrimonial Pact of Dakar#x201D; ( Pacte matrimonial de Dakar ), which included, among other things, capping expenses for marriage, birth ceremonies, and funerals (Anonymous 1951). Steps A Summary Of An Queen. Soon after this, the academic writing essay example Minster School colonial administration adopted the code in as critical thinking papers of Groningen (Study the Jacquinot Decree of writing essay Minster September 14, 1951. A few years after independence (in 1961), a law on write effect Lime House School ceremonial spending was passed on February 24, 1967 (Law No. Academic Essay Lincoln. 67-04); this law has been included in the Family Code since 1972.
It is still in effect, even though its lack of effectiveness has never been denied throughout the writing article DLD College past five decades. Not a month goes by in Senegal without heated public discussions launched by a prominent politician or religious leader that condemn ceremonial expenditure. In other words, when it comes to writing essay example, ceremonial expenditure, any power, be it religious or political, local or national, takes a stand against the harsh protraction of women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges in marriages and scientific, birth ceremonies. In this case, artificialism is directed not toward the transformation of society against the goodwill of individuals but to control of one element of local social life in order to realize universal values (economic rationality or Islam). The paradox is that everyone, and not only political or religious leaders, 11 agrees that ceremonial expenditures are harmful to the economic and moral wellbeing of individuals and the future of academic example society in general.
But over the last century, the countless condemnations and numerous attempts to ban or control them have had no effect at how to write an amazing Cyprus, all. So far, the academic writing essay example School situation may seem absolutely paradoxical, unless aada is considered as a sort of mysteriously powerful deus ex machina that pushes everyone to act reprehensibly. Women and men are puzzled by the contradictions at the core of their own social life in the same way, I think, as we #x201C;Euro-Americans#x201D; are affected by the consequences of the scientific article London autonomy and primacy of the economy, be they financial crises, climate change, or other issues. To follow Dumont#x2019;s ideas, I would argue that this apparent paradox, and the profound sense of perplexity and helplessness shown by my interlocutors in writing example Lincoln Minster Dakar, is generated by the impossibility of recognizing value as such in steps to writing Pacific the realm of discourse when it comes to women#x2019;s ceremonies. Or, to put it differently, the paradoxical moral contradictions that result in perplexity on the part of writing example Lincoln Minster School actors facing the limits of artificialism are indicators (for the anthropologist) that values are at stake. Write Cause Effect Essay House. These configurations can#x2019;t simply be described as a contradiction between discourse and practice or even as a situation in which people are caught between competing values (cf. Joel Robbins#x2019; contribution to this issue). Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are explicitly condemned in moral terms as #x201C;wastefulness,#x201D; as a local peculiarity ( aada ) that prevents the full realization of Islam and development. Condemnation of academic example Lincoln School ceremonies represents the way contradiction is resolved in the realm of moral discourse and justification. My interlocutors condemn ceremonies when they have to how to House School, justify them.
Yet the primacy of ceremonies in Dakar#x2019;s sociality suggests that we (anthropologists) nevertheless need to academic Lincoln, acknowledge that women#x2019;s ceremonies relate to effect Lime House, something inescapably valuable, albeit implicit or inarticulate in my interlocutors#x2019; discourse#x2014; an unavowed value#x2014;hence their perplexity. This is a fundamental aspect of what Dumont called #x201C;an ideology.#x201D; In my opinion, Dumont#x2019;s formulas on ideology are usually cryptic and mislead a lot of his readers. However, the originality of academic writing essay Minster School his view is to claim that since the fundamentals aspect of an ideology are likely to be implicit, only comparison can evince the themes Durham University necessary, yet sometimes unavowed, relations by which the different parts of an ideology hang together (Dumont 1977: 19#x2013;20). The discourse that sets ceremonies and economic development against each other is framed as a moral issue relating to the allocation of (scarce) financial resources: money is academic writing Minster, wasted on women#x2019;s ceremonies, whereas it should be devoted to economic development. I described above the intimate link between money and sociality. Because the basic principle of sociality (and thus finance) is the preference for illiquidity, individuals cannot allocate financial resources according to their moral preferences.
Financial resources are elicited from others: the cause Lime House School amount of money collected depends almost entirely on the social actors#x2019; opportunity to synchronize relations for a given purpose. Here, moral discourse and the paradigm of choice eclipse value: from a financial point of view, women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies are more highly valued than economics. As to academic writing example School, Islam, it is not simply opposed to ceremonies as another potential alternative in the allocation of financial resources; the problem is that ostentatious behavior and financial exuberance in women#x2019;s ceremonies contradict the Muslim morality of temperance and writing scientific article London, restraint. Furthermore, the path of Islam 12 ( yoon 13 ) is thought to be universal, but above all represents the academic example Lincoln Minster School highest value order, that of absolute submission of the individual to God. It means abiding by what is as critical thinking past papers of Groningen (Study, commanded in the divine words revealed in the Qur#x2019;an and the five pillars of Islam, and following the #x201C;highly recommended tradition#x201D; of imitation of the Prophet ( sunnah ), which includes lifecycle rituals such as that for a wedding ( takk ) or for naming a newborn ( tuddu ). According to all my interlocutors, the rituals recommended by Islam ( takk and tuddu ) are the only ones that need to be carried out when (respectively) a couple is married or a baby is born.
However, Islam and academic Minster, women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies actually combine in the ritual organization of the lifecycle. On the occasion of a marriage or the birth of write an amazing article European Cyprus a child, particularly a firstborn, a Muslim wedding or a Muslim naming ritual are always followed by costly ceremonies during which women exchange lavish gifts to honor kinship relations. In other words, despite what my interlocutors say (#x201C;the others#x2019; view#x201D;), the recommended rituals of Islam are never enough in themselves. To put it bluntly, ceremonial exchanges among women in birth and marriage rituals are the manner in which affinity and the succession of generations are construed as having value and become operative in the order of social relations (Moya forthcoming). To sum up, not only should we acknowledge the essay value of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies, even though they may be condemned in the name of Islam and economic rationality, but Islam and women#x2019;s ceremonies belong to two complementary orders of value in a hierarchical relation: on the one hand, that of Islam, which is a universal and transcendent order that defines the relationship between the how to individual and God, without whose blessing ( Baraka ) no action or relationship is possible; and on the other hand, at a subordinate level, the ceremonial agency of women, who operate relations, especially kinship. Women#x2019;s ceremonial exchanges of money and clothing implement, as it were, the relations created (among men) in Muslim rituals under the academic writing Lincoln auspices of God#x2019;s blessing ( Baraka ), otherwise the how to article European University Cyprus relations created in the order of Islam will have no value and no effect as relations. Although it is not made explicit by writing School social actors, it is a hierarchical relationship in which each element has to writing DLD College London, play its part, and which structures the sociality of Dakar. This configuration is not a mere #x201C;coexistence of opposites #x2026; with no specific formula#x201D; between competing values, as in Minster School the case of economics and politics in Euro-America. In Dakar, the #x201C;formula#x201D; is themes University, a hierarchical one, even though it is not recognized as such by my interlocutors. Academic Writing Essay Example. In this case, moral contradictions eclipse hierarchy. In other words, the way values relate to each other cannot merely be described as a struggle, that is, a relation of steps power between them, even if moral contradictions dominate in both cases.
From a comparative point of writing example School view, in the Euro-American case, economics and politics have been competing since the nineteenth century to fully realize the individual: that is, for the paramount position within an individualistic configuration. It a question of power. In Senegal, on London the other hand, Islam and ceremonial exchanges in academic writing essay example Minster lifecycle events have been opposed for at least a century, however, individualistic values (Islam and economic development) are superior values that are encompassed in a hierarchical relation. In Senegal, the issue of ever-rising expenditure in for essay writing University family ceremonies is Minster, far from new. As Critical Past Papers University Of Groningen. The phenomenon has been sufficiently striking that for more than a century, religious and political authorities have struggled incessantly (and fruitlessly) to limit them. Ceremonial practices have evolved over time. However, the ethnography of the mid-1970s on writing example Lincoln School the Wolof countryside around Senegal (e.g., Diop 1985; Rabain 1994) suggests that women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies of birth and marriage were far more modest, but already costly, and had a structure that was similar to how to write cause effect essay Lime House, that observed in Dakar since 2000 (Buggenhagen 2012; Moya forthcoming). This does not mean that society does not change, or that urbanization has had only writing essay example, a superficial impact: on the contrary, the steps Queen School transformations brought about by the city are far from writing essay example School superficial or meaningless. For example, in Dakar, the urbanization process has almost wiped out the lineage system that was commonly thought of as the basis of kinship and social organization in this region. Thinking University Group). Kinship is nevertheless still essential in Dakar#x2019;s sociality. The role of kinship networks in African cities is well known in the organization of academic Lincoln School residential systems, the urban integration of writing University migrants, solidarity, or economic activities (Houseman 1995).
In Dakar, however, kinship is not only a network capital that is writing Lincoln, mobilized as a resource to cope with other issues: on the contrary, every sociofinancial network is susceptible to being mobilized to finance women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies. The urban situation did not generate, or even reveal, the write essay House #x201C;ceremonial phenomenon#x201D; itself; the transformations induced by the city fueled, and thus shed light on, a trend in writing School Wolof sociality that was probably already there, albeit far less visible. Firstly, in a metropolis of three million inhabitants, the number of thinking past Group) possible (financial) relations is academic writing essay example Lincoln, extremely high: people can potentially take part in a large number of financial networks of various sizes. Secondly, in Dakar, most women are involved in income-generating activities, and they also manage household finances. Past University Of Groningen Group). Accordingly, the amounts of liquidity managed by women are also very significant.
These two dynamics (more relations and more money) combine with the academic preference for illiquidity. Write House School. Sociofinancial networks developed exponentially, as did the amounts collected by women for birth and academic example Minster School, marriage ceremonies. 14. The amount of money spent on women#x2019;s ceremonies is in itself an isolated feature. It is not proof of thinking of Groningen a fundamental difference between social formations.
In Euro-America, marriage and Lincoln School, birth ceremonies also generate a great deal of expense, but in Dakar, money and relations are two sides of the same coin: the financial system is the other side of sociality. In Dakar#x2019;s pervasive sociality, agency hinges on how to write article European the illiquidity preference and academic writing example Minster School, the synchronization of sociofinancial relations, and only lifecycle ceremonies, in which women honor kinship relations through ceremonial actions, successfully manage to to writing Queen Anne’s, synchronize all types of financial relations. The primacy of ceremonies and the subordinate position of the economic aspect in Dakar#x2019;s sociality elicit an important#x2014;and yet overlooked#x2014;distinction between Senegal and Euro-America. However, following Dumont, this difference is merely a starting point: it needs to be relativized from within, that is, replaced in a broader configuration. Women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies do not appear to be morally valued: on the contrary, they are explicitly condemned. I have suggested that the primacy of women#x2019;s exchange ceremonies over economics in Dakar#x2019;s sociality leads to a distinction between morality and values: women#x2019;s ceremonies are an #x201C;unavowed value.#x201D; Moral contradictions of this kind mark the contrast between the various levels of value and, possibly, the existence of a hierarchy that is a configuration in which partially incompatible conceptions not only coexist or impinge on each other, but are articulated within the same social formation. Finally, the persistence and development of women#x2019;s ceremonies illustrate how value systems actually limit artificialism, especially when it comes to unavowed values. But recognizing hierarchy does not amount to forgoing the will to change, whether it be in regard to essay Minster, lavish spending on women#x2019;s ceremonies in Dakar, the as critical past papers University Group) primacy of the economic dimension in Euro-America, or any other subject. If there is a political stance to be found in Dumont#x2019;s anthropology, it might be that awareness of the limitations that values impose on power (individual will or politics) is the very condition for effective action. It is worth noting that, thirty-six years after the first edition of his first book, La Tarasque , Dumont wrote a postscript (#x201C;Late generalization#x201D;) about the persistence of hierarchical relations in individualist social formations. He concluded with a comment on Gregory Bateson#x2019;s analysis of Alcoholics Anonymous (Bateson 1972: 309#x2013;37).
15 According to Dumont, addiction is an expression of Minster School hierarchy in individualist terms, and how to cause essay School, AA is an example of the limits to and conditions for change. Academic Example Lincoln Minster School. In Dumont#x2019;s terms: The principle is simple: the patient is doomed to fail as long as he feels able to to writing a summary article Anne’s School, tackle the bottle, which is equivalent to academic example Lincoln School, trying to pull oneself up by one#x2019;s bootstraps. The necessary condition for article DLD College London, getting out of this vicious circle is for writing essay example Lincoln, the subject to understand that he cannot be defined independently of his dependency; and cause essay Lime School, that solely the recognition of his self-will, the acceptance of a more comprehensive and Minster School, powerful addiction, can allow him to escape his torment. (Dumont  1987: 237) To summarize, according to Dumont, an alcoholic is for essay writing, confronted by a seeming paradox: on the basis of his ideals, he believes in his own free will and example Minster, independence, but empirically he is an addict.
And Dumont (1987: 238) concludes that #x201C;the necessary condition of his salvation is the full recognition of his addiction, before resting on another to overcome the former. If one can generalize, the lesson is harsh for the modern ego.#x201D; Akin, David, and Joel Robbins, eds. How To Write University. 1999. Money and modernity: State and local currencies in contemporary Melanesia . Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Bateson, Gregory. 1972. Steps to an ecology of example School mind . New York: Ballantine. Bloch, Maurice, and Jonathan Parry, eds. Themes Writing Durham. 1989. Money and the morality of exchange . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bohannan, Paul. 1955. #x201C;Some principles of exchange and investment among the Tiv.#x201D; American Anthropologist 57 (1): 60#x2013;70. Buggenhagen, Beth. 2012. Muslim families in global Senegal: Money takes care of shame . Essay Example Lincoln. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Comaroff, Jean, and John L. Comaroff.
1990, #x201C;Goodly beast, beastly goods: Cattle and commodities in a South African context.#x201D; American Ethnologist 17 (2): 195#x2013;216. Detienne, Marcel. Comparing the article DLD College incomparable . Stanford: Stanford University Press. Diop, Abdoulaye Bara. 1985. Writing Example School. La famille wolof: Tradition et changement . As Critical (Study Group). Paris: Karthala. Dumont, Louis. (1951) 1987.
La Tarasque: Essai de description d#x2019;un fait local d#x2019;un point de vue ethnographique . Academic Writing Essay Example Minster School. Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1977. From Mandeville to Marx: The genesis and triumph of steps to writing a summary Anne’s School economic ideology . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. (1977) 1985. Homo Aequalis I: Gen#x00E8;se et #x00E9;panouissement de l#x2019;id#x00E9;ologie #x00E9;conomique . Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1980. Essay. Homo hierarchicus: The caste system and its implications . Writing. Translated by academic example Lincoln Minster Mark Sainsbury, Louis Dumont, and Basia Gulatit.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1983. Themes Writing University. #x201C;Pr#x00E9;face.#x201D; In La grande transformation: Aux origines politiques et #x00E9;conomiques de notre temps , Karl Polanyi, i#x2013;xx. Essay Lincoln. Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1986. Essays on individualism: Modern ideology in anthropological perspective . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1991.
Homo #x00E6;qualis II: L#x2019;id#x00E9;ologie allemande: France-Allemagne et retour . Paris: Gallimard. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1994. Scientific Article DLD College London. German Ideology: From France to academic writing essay example Lincoln, Germany and to writing University, back . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Geismar, Lucien. 1933.
Recueil des coutumes civiles des races au S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal . Saint-Louis: Imprimerie du Gouvernement. Geschiere, Peter. Example School. 2000. #x201C;Money versus kinship: Subversion or consolidation? Contrasting examples from Africa and the Pacific.#x201D; Asia Pacific Journal of for essay writing Durham University Anthropology 1 (1): 54#x2013;78. Guerin, Isabelle. 2003. Femmes et #x00E9;conomie solidaire . Writing Example Lincoln School. Paris: La Decouverte.
#x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 2006. #x201C;Women and money: Lessons from Senegal#x201D;, Development and Change 37 (3): 549#x2013;70. Guyer, Jane. Steps To Writing Article Anne’s School. 2004. Marginal gains: Monetary transactions in Atlantic Africa . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Heath, Deborah.
1992. #x201C;Fashion, anti-fashion, and heteroglossia in example Minster School urban Senegal.#x201D; American Ethnologist 19 (1): 19#x2013;33. Houseman, Michael. 1995. #x201C;Kinship networks in Africa: Past and future#x201D;, African Anthropology 4: 11#x2013;23. Hutchinson, Sharon Elaine. 1996. Nuer dilemmas: Coping with money, war, and the state . Berkeley: University of California Press.
Isaac, Barry. 2005. #x201C;Karl Polanyi.#x201D; In Handbook of economic anthropology , edited by James G. Carrier, 14#x2013;25. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Keynes, John Maynard. (1936) 1973. The general theory of write an amazing employment, interest, and money . London: Macmillan and Cambridge University Press. Latour, Bruno, and academic writing essay example Lincoln, Vincent A. L#x00E9;pinay. 2009. The science of passionate interests: An introduction to Gabriel Tarde#x2019;s economic anthropology . Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. Marie, Alain, ed. 1997. L#x2019;Afrique des individus: Itin#x00E9;raires citadins d#x2019;Afrique contemporaine (Abidjan, Bamako, Dakar, Niamey) . Paris: Karthala.
#x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 2000. #x201C;Individualization strategies among city dwellers in thinking Group) contemporary Africa: Balancing the shortcomings of community solidarity and the individualism of the academic essay Lincoln School struggle for survival.#x201D; International Review of Social History 45 (S8): 137#x2013;57. Moya, Isma#x00EB;l. 2004. #x201C;Le brouet c#x00E9;r#x00E9;moniel: Jeu financier ou institution sociale? Thiaroye sur Mer (Dakar, S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal).#x201D; In Exclusion et liens financiers , edited by Isabelle Guerin and Jean-Michel Servet, 121#x2013;36. Writing Scientific Article London. Paris: Economica. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Forthcoming. De l#x2019;argent aux valeurs: Economie, genre et islam #x00E0; Dakar . Nanterre: Soci#x00E9;t#x00E9; d#x2019;ethnologie. Ndione, Emmanuel.
1992. Le don et le recours . Dakar: Enda Editions. Olivier de Sardan, Jean-Pierre. 1999. Writing Essay Lincoln. #x201C;A moral economy of corruption in Africa?#x201D; Journal of Modern African Studies 37: 25#x2013;52. Polanyi, Karl. 1944. The great transformation: The political and University, economic origins of our time , Boston: Beacon Press. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. Academic Writing Essay Lincoln School. 1957, #x201C;The economy as an instituted process.#x201D; In Trade and steps a summary of an Queen School, markets in the early empires , edited by Karl Polanyi, Conrad M. Arsenberg, and Harry W. Example Lincoln Minster School. Pearson, 243#x2013;70. New York: Free Press. Rabain, Jacqueline.
1994. L#x2019;enfant du lignage: Du sevrage #x00E0; la classe d#x2019;#x00E2;ge . Paris: Payot. Robin Jacques. 1947. #x201C;L#x2019;#x00E9;volution du mariage coutumier chez les musulmans du S#x00E9;n#x00E9;gal.#x201D; Africa XVII (3): 192#x2013;201. Shipton, Parker. Write Essay Lime. 1989. Academic Writing Example Lincoln Minster School. Bitter money: Cultural economy and some African meanings of forbidden commodities . Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association. #x2014;#x2014;#x2014;. 1990. #x201C;How Gambians save and what their strategies imply for international aid.#x201D; Agriculture and Rural Development Department, World Bank, Washington, DC. Thompson, Edward P. 1971. #x201C;The moral economy of the for essay Durham English crowd in the eighteenth century.#x201D; Past #x0026; Present 50: 76#x2013;136. Zelizer, Viviana A. 1994.
The social meaning of academic essay School money: Pin money, paychecks, poor relief and other currencies . New York: Basic Books. Une valeur inavouable: Economie, comparaison, et hi#x00E9;rarchie #x00E0; Dakar. R#x00E9;sum#x00E9; : Toute analyse anthropologique, selon Louis Dumont, a pour point de d#x00E9;part une comparaison: c#x2019;est une exp#x00E9;rimentation qui, suscitant des diff#x00E9;rences, apporte des id#x00E9;es et justifie un point de vue analytique. Sur quelle sorte de diff#x00E9;rence une exp#x00E9;rience comparative peut-elle s#x2019;appuyer dans une m#x00E9;tropole africaine globalis#x00E9;e comme Dakar ? Je sugg#x00E8;re que l#x2019;autonomie et la primaut#x00E9; de l#x2019;#x00E9;conomique en Euro-Am#x00E9;rique peut fournir le point de d#x00E9;part d#x2019;un contraste radical. How To Cyprus. Ce texte examine tout d#x2019;abord le travail de Louis Dumont sur l#x2019;#x00E9;conomique comme une valeur en Euro-Am#x00E9;rique en relation au politique.
Il porte ensuite sur Dakar, o#x00F9; l#x2019;argent et les relations sont les deux faces de la m#x00EA;me m#x00E9;daille. L#x2019;#x00E9;tude des circuits financiers permet d#x2019;explorer la socialit#x00E9; dakaroise dans laquelle les #x00E9;changes c#x00E9;r#x00E9;moniels entre femmes sont plus valoris#x00E9;s que l#x2019;#x00E9;conomie, tout en #x00E9;tant vivement condamn#x00E9;s comme des pratiques coutumi#x00E8;res emp#x00EA;chant l#x2019;av#x00E8;nement du d#x00E9;veloppement #x00E9;conomique et de l#x2019;islam. En confrontant ces contradictions morales #x00E0; la primaut#x00E9; des c#x00E9;r#x00E9;monies f#x00E9;minines sur l#x2019;#x00E9;conomie, le texte propose de distinguer moralit#x00E9; et valeurs et de reconna#x00EE;tre la valeur #x00AB; inavouable #x00BB; des c#x00E9;r#x00E9;monies f#x00E9;minines. Les contradictions de ce type signalent le contraste entre diff#x00E9;rents niveaux de valeur et l#x2019;existence d#x2019;une hi#x00E9;rarchie qui articule des valeurs contradictoires au sein de la m#x00EA;me soci#x00E9;t#x00E9;. Isma#x00EB;l M OYA is writing Lincoln, a former economist who converted to social anthropology under the influence of his ongoing fieldwork in a poor suburb neighborhood of Dakar, Senegal. He is Charg#x00E9; de Recherche at the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS, France), and a member of the how to Lime House Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative (Universit#x00E9; de Nanterre, France). His current research interests includes ritual, gender, social hierarchies, Islamic reformism, and forms of representation. CNRS, Laboratoire d#x2019;ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative, UMR 7186. Maison Arch#x00E9;ologie #x0026; Ethnologie Ren#x00E9;-Ginouv#x00E8;s. 21, All#x00E9;e de l#x2019;universit#x00E9; 92023 Nanterre cedex.
1. Dumont (1983) wrote the academic essay example Lincoln Minster preface to to writing a summary of an article Queen Anne’s School, the French edition of academic writing essay School The great transformation . 2. Steps To Writing A Summary Of An. The idea of an academic writing Lincoln School economic (or a political) anthropology #x201C;does not make sense with respect to the progress of knowledge#x201D; (Dumont 1986: 105). 3. Many of these assume, for that matter, that #x201C;the economy#x201D; is a given. 4. How To University. Political economy, according to Polanyi (1944: 116#x2013;35), is the School very discovery of the existence of society in the modern sense. Humans are linked by themes Durham relations of economic interdependence. They form an #x201C;economic society,#x201D; subject to laws that are not human, but natural laws. 5. #x201C;Twice#x201D; meaning giving back the initial gift and then honoring ( teral ) the giver for Lincoln Minster, his or her previous gift with an identical one; this is the Wolofs#x2019; concept of reciprocity. 6. In the Dumontian sense that some motives are valued more highly than others (Dumont 1986: 269).
7. In Wolof, a woman calls her husband j#x00EB;kker and his sisters (in a very broad sense; the term for steps of an School, sister being jigeen , which means woman) are called nj#x00EB;kke , or sometimes j#x00EB;kker as well. Both the husband and his #x201C;sisters#x201D; call the writing essay example Minster School wife #x201C; jabar .#x201D; In other words, a marriage relation is composed of steps to writing an essay for college of the Pacific a wife ( jabar ), her husband ( j#x00EB;kker ), and her female husbands ( nj#x00EB;kke ). 8. Writing Example Lincoln. Those who are not reformist Muslims. 9. Zakat ( sarax in Wolof), the obligatory almsgiving to the poor, is the third pillar of Islam. Scientific Article London. In Senegal, Sufi brotherhoods collect zakat for their charity work (e.g., to help health centers, schools, or the poor). 10. Most women in Dakar are not veiled. 11. Such leaders are renowned for the huge birth or marriage ceremonies performed in their families (except in the case of the still very limited numbers of reformist Muslims, such as Salafis).
12. Islam has been a major component of Western Sahel societies for more than five hundred years. 13. In Wolof, yoon means both the way, the law, justice, and religion. 14.
In his contribution to this issue, Andr#x00E9; Iteanu makes a comparable point about how change reinvigorates values that were previously subordinate, dormant, or hidden.
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Plagiarism: Discussion about Stealing Intellectual Property. Defining plagiarism, why it is unethical, and what should be done to help others from stealing intellectual property without proper attribution. I think there was far more plagiarism in the last century. It was almost an accepted part of writing. The ethics of writing has changed. Nobody gets upset about whether Shakespeare plagiarized something. But I think the standards have to be pretty high now, particularly for non-fiction writers.  Introduction to Plagiarism. According to most leading authorities, including The Office of Research Integrity, plagiarism includes both the essay Lincoln Minster School theft or misrepresentation of intellectual property and essay Lime House School the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work.  Because plagiarism is considered to be a factor of academic essay Lincoln Minster a particular culture or a time, identifying plagiarism is not always easily performed. For example, in some cultures, as well as in some other time periods, the idea of how to write Lime House plagiarism is academic writing Lincoln Minster, not always clear; however, in this context, the chief concern is using plagiarism in how to an amazing article European University Cyprus, academic custom writing, which is quite different from academic essay example Minster School what defines plagiarism within different societies. Steps To Writing Of An Article Queen Anne’s School! 
In either situation, plagiarism is considered a wrongful act towards the initial piece of work, and when a writer does not provide adequate credit for the a portion of written material, it can often lead to terrible consequences. Forms of Plagiarism. Essentially, there are three basic forms of plagiarism, according to Lincoln Minster School, the Office of to writing a summary article School Research Integrity: (1) Lifting the words right from the text verbatim without providing the appropriate sources. Academic Essay Lincoln! (2) Paraphrasing the words within a published document without gibing appropriate sources. (3) Summarizing the ideas without providing credit to the author of the original text.  Additionally, plagiarism is a concept that seems to becoming more prevalent in today's society, particularly within the area of a summary of an article Anne’s School Higher Education in the western civilizations where a great deal of research has been competed and academic writing example published.  Because of the increased demands that are placed on students, some authorities cite access to the Internet as one of the chief reasons for such growth in to writing an essay for college of the Pacific, plagiarism.  Cultural Differences that Define Plagiarism. In order to correctly both identify and define plagiarism, it is important to understand that there are different perceptions and opinions with respect to students and the world in essay Lincoln School, which they live. In a research document authored by Macdonald in 2003, any resolution to this dilemma rests within the perceptions and opinions of the students.  For example, during a study reported in the Journal of Phenomenological Psychology, there were twelve students involved in the study who then reported their own individual feelings about plagiarism.
According to some authorities, much of the ideas concerning plagiarism, in fact, are learned early in writing scientific article London, life, when students have no choice but to use what others say to depict their own thoughts.  In the aforementioned study, the twelve students responded to specific questions concerning plagiarism and academic essay Lincoln School each group of students developed different opinions and thoughts concerning the dilemma; these ideas were developed into three major areas of interest with respect to the students. In the first set of students, each one experienced anxiety concerning the morality of past of Groningen (Study Group) stealing another person's work for individual gain; the academic Minster second set of students reflected upon academic development as a movement towards a dependence upon more respected authors to help promote their own gain; and the third set of past papers University of Groningen (Study Group) students were art majors and therefore, they had a self-reliant discipline when it pertains to using another person's art in the promotion of individual art.  Therefore, according to leading authorities, one cannot assume that all students share the same opinions and views with respect to plagiarism because all people have evolved through different histories. Academic Plagiarism and Journalist Plagiarism. Plagiarism is evident in both journalistic work as well as academic work, and each has its own ramifications.  For those who commit plagiarism in journalism, the most obvious course of action is academic essay Minster, immediate dismissal from the company, as the company's reputation is in question with respect to the reading public. One such example (although in the spoken word) is when H. Joachim Maitre, dean of Boston University journalism school delivered a commencement address, using quotations from Michael Medved, a film critic, but without providing proper attribution as to the source of the material. Scientific Article DLD College!  Other examples, especially in the press, have been on the rise of late, specifically when a Washington Post reporter was dismissed when he wrote a story verbatim without giving proper attribution.  However, when plagiarism is found within the academic world, the ramifications can have more dangerous results, as noted in the following passage written in 1999: Plagiarism attacks the fundamental principles of scholarship academics and foundations upon writing essay Lincoln School, which the academic community rests.  Plagiarism from a Historical Perspective. When plagiarism was first identified as a problem in society, it occurred only DLD College London, after the printing press and writing Minster publications were developed. The idea at that time was not to to writing University Pacific, protect the author (as it is today), but to restrict competition among the many publishers then located in or around London.
Cultural history, however, also had an important impact on the use of plagiarized materials. This cannot be more evident than when Haidu, in 1997, made the important observation that plagiarism is more than merely copying another person's art or writing, it also eliminates the need for further development of ideas and perceptions among artists, writers and other similar professions.  Finally, if plagiarism is discussed in terms of history and the cultural identity variations, it would be noteworthy to academic essay example Minster School, mention that Chinese students are expected to learn the article European written word through memorization. Pennycook, in 1996, reported that this approach is similar to the western approach of plagiarism and academic example Lincoln Minster School therefore, although the art is clearly defined as usual in China, the western societies rely on themes Durham, their ability to interpret the material and formulate their own conclusions. Intellectual Ownership and Plagiarism. To define plagiarism clearly from a ownership perspective, anyone who commits plagiarism (to any extent) is robbing himself or herself of the example Minster School ability to develop originality and to writing Anne’s School use history as a guide, not only a map from writing example Lincoln School which an academic piece can be derived. Write Cause Essay Lime House School!  Problems in Defining and Identifying Plagiarism. However wrong plagiarism is, the problem that faces society today, particularly with the advent of the essay Minster Internet, is that society does not appreciate each student's perception of what is and what is as critical papers University of Groningen (Study Group), not plagiarism. For example, there are a number of ways to use historical data in an academic piece without also committing plagiarism. Writing Essay Example Lincoln! When one summarizes a passage or an entire piece of work, he or she must be able to describe the ideas about the text in his or her own words while also providing the proper credit to the person who originally wrote about the specific topic. When developing an overview, the same can also hold true and the writer is writing article London, expected to provide the writing essay Lincoln Minster proper citations and attribution to the person(s) who originally put the ideas on steps for college University, paper in the form or essay, term paper, research paper, book report, or dissertation. Without the use of attribution, the writer is committing plagiarism (even an idea) and academic writing essay Lincoln Minster therefore he or she is also stealing intellectual data from a person who first developed the premise.
Without the thinking University of Groningen (Study rules concerning plagiarism, anyone can state that he or she is the academic example School origin of the work, which, again, is stealing intellectual property.  According to most sources, plagiarism is unethical; however, there is a thick line that divides writers, publishers and others should appropriately deal with the problems. Without any doubt, however, the difference between plagiarisms in journalism is very different from the world of academics. In the world of academics, the writer is usually stealing another's bread and butter; in journalism, where plagiarism is often more convenient, the for college University of the Pacific people soon forget and the damage control continues to modify the employees' education as needed.  In either of the academic essay example School two worlds, however, plagiarism is more than merely a misdemeanor; it is theft of someone's difficult work that once resulted in an original thought from an original mind. Stealing from that is similar to stealing one's identity. The ownership of the intellectual property in many situations is seldom clear, and the collaborative histories among the scientists often support a presumption of how to House School implied consent to writing essay example Lincoln Minster, the products of the writing scientific article DLD College London collaboration by writing example Minster any of the former collaborators. For this reason, the Office of Research Integrity considers many such disputes to be authorship rather than plagiarism.  This is a unique problem among those who have completed research on a collaborative level, and it has little to do with extracting information from text and calling the information a unique idea. This is when plagiarism is very similar to stealing: the process of taking an steps an essay for college item to which one does not belong.  Jensen, Sharna. Essay Lincoln Minster School! Plagiarism by Historians leaves Writers and themes for essay University others divided.
Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service.  ORI Provides Working Definition of Plagiarism. Office of Research Integrity, ORI Newsletter, Vol 3, No. 1.  Macdonald, Ranald. Academic Essay Example School! The Student Life-world and how to an amazing University the meaning of Plagiarism. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology.
 ORI Provides Working Definition of Plagiarism. Office of Research Integrity, ORI Newsletter, Vol 3, No. 1.  Macdonald, Ranald. The Student Life-world and academic writing essay example School the meaning of Plagiarism. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology.  ORI Provides Working Definition of Plagiarism.
Office of Research Integrity, ORI Newsletter, Vol 3, No. 1.  Macdonald, Ranald. The Student Life-world and the meaning of Plagiarism. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology.  Jensen, Sharna. Plagiarism by Historians leaves Writers and others divided. Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service; March 31, 2002.
 Macdonald, Ranald. The Student Life-world and the meaning of Plagiarism. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology September 2002: 90-112.  O'Crowley, Peggy. Said in other Words. An Essay! The Record (Bergen County, NJ). Lifestyle Section.  Macdonald, Ranald. The Student Life-world and the meaning of Plagiarism.
Journal of Phenomenological Psychology.  Kennedy, Mary; Kennedy, William and academic writing example Lincoln School Smith, Hadley. Writers in the Disciplines: A Reader for Writers. Englewood Clifs, NJ: Prentice Hall.  O'Crowley, Peggy. Said in other Words. The Record (Bergen County, NJ). Lifestyle Section.  ORI Provides Working Definition of Plagiarism. Writing Article DLD College London! Office of Research Integrity, ORI Newsletter, Vol 3, No.
1. Jensen, Geeta. Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service. Kennedy, Mary Lynch; Kennedy, William J., and Hadley, Smith. Writing in the Disciplines: A Reader for Writers. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc., pgs.
19, 44, and 49. Macdonald, Ranald. The Student Life and the Meaning of Plagiarism. Journal of Phenomenological Psychology. Office of Research Integrity Newsletter. Academic Writing Lincoln School! Volume 3, No. Writing Scientific London! 1. O'Crowley, Peggy. Said in other words.
The Record (Bergen County, New Jersey). Lifestyle Edition. The Best Ways to Avoid Plagiarism and Academic Dishonesty. Plagiarism is considered as a serious offense because one gets credit of someone else's work without due acknowledgement of their work. A serious concern is given to avoid plagiarism at academic level in order to ensure the fair practice among students. Plagiarism is considered as an unethical practice which gives undue advantage to the person doing it over others.
It is encouraged on many occasions that a person should acknowledge someone else's work if he/she has taken any reference from it. There are laws in context of plagiarism in many countries and if the academic essay example Lincoln plagiarism is proven then heavy penalties are imposed on the wrong doer. Top institutions and European University Cyprus scholars emphasize to avoid plagiarism and academic dishonesty. There are many ways to avoid them and some of the best ways are described below: Plan your paper - Planning is the most important aspect in preparing any form of study paper.
One should pay utmost attention in the planning of writing preparation of the paper. Planning helps in scientific DLD College London, giving clear vision and idea about how to example Lincoln Minster, take your assignment forward, so that there is less chance of consulting other's work because of how to write University Cyprus lack of plan. Cite the sources - One should cite the academic essay Minster School sources used within the context in preparation of the paper. Many standards given by prestigious institutions are present for guidance such as APA, Harvard, MLA etc. (Plagiarism Checker | WriteCheck by Turnitin) Keep sources in correct context - It is very important to keep the sources in correct context.
The ideas taken from the themes for essay writing source should match the objective of your paper. Otherwise meaningful results will be unlikely to achieve. (Isites.harvard.edu) Never cut and paste - Never cut and paste from the sources used as it gives highly unethical and wrong impression of unwillingness of undertaking any study paper. There are tools available to check if the material within the academic Lincoln Minster School paper is plagiarized by copy and paste. This practice is highly discouraged and from the eyes of the marker it is write European Cyprus, considered as a zero and a negative impression is taken from it. (Isites.harvard.edu) Referencing - It is the most important aspect of preparing a study paper. Correct referencing ensures that the due credit and acknowledgment is give to the publisher of such work.
It is also important for marker as they can check that the information obtained can be verified for plagiarism checks. This information is very critical as little omissions can result in deviation. Proper format should be followed for referencing as it contains important details. (Plagiarism - Best Practices for academic essay example Minster School, Ensuring Originality in Written Work) Academic dishonesty is considered as an writing scientific DLD College unethical practice and morally downgraded as it promotes dishonest culture and the wrong doer becomes used to it which can result in a negative prospects for the society. To avoid this one has to become morally honest and should not participate in example School, dishonest practices. One should avoid cheating to achieve good grades with unfair practices as it gives them undue advantage over write cause effect others and concept of fair competition suffers. When a person is not cheating for his own then he should also not promote this activity to help others to make them dependent on their own selves. Workshops should be given to students for awareness to avoid academic dishonesty. The academies are established and working to build the character of students to make them future leaders and responsible person so academic dishonesty is academic essay example Lincoln, discouraged in any form.
Plagiarism and academic dishonesty can lead to write cause effect essay Lime, unfair results and fair competition cannot be achieved. The purpose of education can be suffered because of such practice; that is why it is highly discouraged and considered offensive.
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essay philosophy Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in Minster School the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is to writing a summary Queen Anne’s School, that P. You must say something like: My view is essay Lincoln, that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for as critical University, P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for academic writing example School, the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish.
It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on Durham the table for academic School, consideration. An Essay For College University Pacific? Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the writing essay example School, thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the for essay Durham University, strengths and writing essay Lincoln School, weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the steps to writing a summary article Anne’s, thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the academic essay example School, thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. But it's very easy to how to cause effect essay House, overestimate the strength of academic essay example Lincoln Minster, your own position. After all, you already accept it. You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to how to, have any chance of academic writing essay example Lincoln Minster School, persuading people, you have to start from how to write cause Lime, common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of essay Lincoln School, it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in past University (Study Group) a philosophy paper.
The usual result of academic essay Lincoln School, this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of inadequately defended and as critical past papers (Study Group), poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for you to show that you understand the material and that you're able to academic writing Minster School, think critically about it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to human thought. Lime House School? There will be plenty of time for that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and academic writing essay Lincoln Minster School, straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read.
It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of to writing a summary article Anne’s School, elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at academic writing Lincoln in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is Pacific, important to think about these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write.
This lets you organize the points you want to essay example Lincoln Minster, make in write European Cyprus your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to essay Minster School, say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of to writing of an Queen Anne’s School, your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out writing Lincoln School what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an how to write essay Lime House School outline is at least 80% of the work of writing a good philosophy paper.
If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to academic writing example Minster School, leave yourself enough time to think about the how to write European, topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to academic essay Lincoln School, write a complete draft. Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two. Then you should come back to it and rewrite it. An Essay University? Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time.
So you should start working on your papers as soon as the writing essay example Lincoln Minster, paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of writing article DLD College, basic explanation and academic essay Minster School, write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. An Amazing Article Cyprus? I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. Essay Example Lincoln Minster? So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the how to an amazing article European University Cyprus, structure of essay example Minster, your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of papers University (Study Group), all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on the other hand.
These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Writing Example Lincoln Minster School? Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is as critical thinking past University of Groningen (Study Group), a good reason to academic essay Lincoln, accept Q. To Writing Anne’s School? You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is.
Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. Writing Example Lincoln Minster? You can say things like: I will begin by. To Writing A Summary Of An Article? Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for academic example School, this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P.
My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to for essay, my arguments is by essay School, claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of X's replies to cause School, my argument that not-P succeed.
Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of academic essay Minster, these papers is?
You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in doubt about whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of to writing an essay of the Pacific, your paper obvious if you don't know what the writing essay example Lincoln Minster, structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an steps Pacific outline is academic writing essay School, so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to writing article London, pull in opposite directions. Academic Essay Example School? (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to an amazing article Cyprus, ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to academic example, show how learned and intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem.
Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out everything else. It is always better to steps to writing for college of the Pacific, concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to cram in academic example School too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an an amazing University impenetrable jungle. Formulate the academic Lincoln Minster School, central problem or question you wish to writing scientific article DLD College London, address at example Lincoln Minster School the beginning of your paper, and as critical thinking University (Study, keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the academic writing essay Lincoln School, problem is, and why it is a problem.
Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. In addition, be sure to say in steps to writing an essay for college of the Pacific the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to academic writing example Lincoln, be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that.
Pretend that your reader has not read the how to write cause effect Lime House School, material you're discussing, and essay, has not given the topic much thought in advance. This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to as critical thinking (Study Group), be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for academic essay School, explaining the notions that play a central role in for essay writing Durham University your argument. Writing Essay Lincoln Minster School? You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from thinking papers of Groningen (Study, everyday discourse.
As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. Writing Example Minster? For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to how to cause effect House School, assert the example Lincoln School, claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by writing, a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is academic essay School, a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus.
For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of steps to writing an essay for college Pacific, person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. Academic Example Lincoln? So everything turns here on what the cause essay, author means by person. The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person.
But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by writing example Minster School, it. And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. Scientific Article DLD College? So, for instance, don't start talking about academic essay example Lincoln, Plato's view of the self, and writing Durham, then switch to talking about Plato's view of the soul, and then switch to talking about essay, Plato's view of the mind. If you mean to be talking about the write cause effect essay Lime, same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new.
Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing. Essay Example Lincoln School? So, for of the Pacific, instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like.
Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to writing essay example, explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the same meaning. Writing Scientific DLD College? Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated?
Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the essay example Lincoln Minster School, position you're criticizing says. Students waste a lot of article School, time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the example, views they're supposed to how to write Lime House, be assessing. Lincoln? Remember, philosophy demands a high level of precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument.
You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the work in write effect Lime philosophy is academic example Lincoln Minster, making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the write an amazing European, philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid. Writing Essay Lincoln Minster School? If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. Try harder to figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the to writing a summary of an article Anne’s, view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says.
Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the writing example Lincoln School, philosopher could have had in writing scientific DLD College mind, and direct your arguments against academic essay example Lincoln Minster, that. In your paper, you always have to (Study, explain what a position says before you criticize it. If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to be, your reader cannot judge whether the academic writing Lincoln Minster School, criticism you offer of X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on as critical thinking University (Study a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. Academic Essay Example Minster School? So tell the reader what it is you think X is saying. Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. Writing? You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of writing essay example School, X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. (Study Group)? It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of example Minster, that view in the text.
When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to steps an essay for college University of the, quote the passage directly. (Be sure to academic Lincoln Minster School, specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is seldom necessary to how to write cause effect essay Lime, quote more than a few sentences. Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an academic essay example author, you still have to explain what the steps to writing a summary article Anne’s School, quotation says in academic example Lincoln your own words. If the quoted passage contains an how to write an amazing University Cyprus argument, reconstruct the academic essay example Lincoln School, argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. Write? If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is.
You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to academic writing essay School, distinguish the author's claim from how to write article University Cyprus, other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the essay example, perceptions of the as critical thinking past papers of Groningen (Study, human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and academic essay Minster, violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in the soul. By ideas I mean the thinking papers, faint images of Lincoln School, these in thinking and reasoning. Steps A Summary Of An School? Here's an example of how you don't want to writing example Lincoln School, paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas.
The difference is in how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the write article European Cyprus, first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text.
In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the academic writing Lincoln Minster, meaning of the an essay for college University, text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. Academic Essay Minster School? My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and writing article London, liveliness in our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. Example Minster School? In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . Steps A Summary Of An School? These are not the essay example Lincoln Minster School, same. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in steps to writing of an Anne’s the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the following: Hume says that there are two kinds of 'perceptions,' or mental states.
He calls these impressions and ideas. Essay? An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at a red apple. Writing Scientific DLD College London? An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the writing essay example Lincoln Minster School, idea one has of an how to write effect Lime House apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it. It is not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis. It is better to bring up an academic writing essay Lincoln objection yourself than to hope your reader won't think of it. How To Write Article European University Cyprus? Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to deal with all the writing essay example Lincoln, objections someone might raise; so concentrate on for essay writing the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to writing example Lincoln, ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to them all.
You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to for essay Durham University, the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and about what makes the question interesting and academic writing essay Lincoln Minster School, relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. As Critical Past Of Groningen? Call attention to the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of understanding the view.
Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. Writing Example Lincoln School? It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to thinking past, be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to academic example Lincoln School, be. Write Lime? You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer.
Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to change your thesis to essay example Lincoln Minster, one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. One of these reasons is X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Cause Effect House School? Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the academic essay Lincoln, 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is a very appealing argument. However, this argument is faulty, for scientific article London, the following reasons.
One might try to repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in academic essay example Minster School fact succeed in write an amazing European University Cyprus establishing P. Academic Essay Example Minster School? Writing a paper of scientific London, these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P. They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences?
Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of any which don't. If you can't figure out academic essay example what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it. Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in themes writing University your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean?
So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of essay example Lincoln Minster School, murder. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is writing DLD College, able to figure out academic essay Lincoln what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to cause Lime House, say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of academic example Minster, your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are.
Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is. It's not enough that you know what their point is. Queen? It has to be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and academic writing Lincoln Minster School, mean reader. If you can, show your draft to how to an amazing European Cyprus, your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and advice. I encourage you to writing Lincoln Minster, do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to article DLD College, understand it. Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to essay School, you but not make any sense at all to someone else. Another good way to past papers University (Study, check your draft is to read it out academic example Lincoln loud.
This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on themes writing writing many drafts of writing example Minster School, your paper. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Themes For Essay University? Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for academic writing essay Minster, Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/.
Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Write Article European Cyprus? Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. Academic? They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in article philosophy. It's OK to end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. Writing Essay Example School? (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive. For example, They sought to better equip job candidates who enrolled in an amazing article University their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the writing essay Lincoln, tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out of the how to write cause essay Lime House, way), and the like.
You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the School, reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is or to be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to a summary article School, deserve your full attention, all by themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions.
Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. We prefer to get the academic writing essay Minster School, papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper. And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria:
How well do you understand the issues you're writing about? How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. Scientific Article? But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear?
For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably?
Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from writing example School, what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the for essay writing Durham, need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper.
He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an writing School illegitimate move to make in steps to writing a summary article Queen a debate about whether B is writing essay, true. Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and how to write article University, satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to writing Lincoln Minster, see what your argument was and write article European Cyprus, what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on. You can only correct these sorts of failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. Writing Essay School? (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from how to write essay, that. Keep in essay example School mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the how to write an amazing article Cyprus, first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and academic writing essay Minster School, we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them.
So this is another reason you should try to improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to themes for essay Durham, improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to the next grade level. Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to academic writing essay, rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to scientific article, the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. I'm sure they had a hard time of academic essay Minster, it.
If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to point them here (or to distribute printed copies). How To Write Cause Lime School? It's all in the public good.
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ongoing and highly debated social problem that continues to academic Lincoln Minster School grow in to writing article School our society today is the academic writing essay, gun control epidemic. Gun violence in the United States is how to write effect Lime, a national epidemic. Many people take advantage of guns using and manipulating the writing essay Lincoln School, tool with hardly any thought. Countless lives have been lost due to. ? Should Guns be Banned in the US? The United States Constitution gives us the right to bear arms, but after over 200 years since its ratification, has this Amendment become outdated?
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