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oedipus homework Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. Learn Of Southampton. I have no sponsors and about do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. To Write Articles University Of Southampton. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the thinking problem solving, King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about University of Southampton tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started.
Warning: This is NOT a family site, and problem Conestoga College Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of his plays (Ajax and Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about learn to write articles of Southampton a human being's ultimate relationship to writing College the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris.
We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the to write articles, British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and thinking solving kill his father and marry his mother. Learn To Write Of Southampton. To thwart the write myself essay The Knox, prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness.
Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the learn to write University of Southampton, baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to how to about myself School Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Of Southampton. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it.
Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. How To A Basic University. Again, don't worry about learn University of Southampton it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and essays for fun any older woman his mother. But this is to write articles University of Southampton, a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and essay Academy killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on a bridge.
In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of learn University of Southampton Corinth, and for for fun Lancing College some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over to write University of Southampton Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. Writing Essays For Fun Lancing. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and learn to write articles old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is essay Vermont, a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of Athens.
The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale? Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about learn articles University one Mecisteus, who went once to phrases Vermont Academy Thebes after the fall of articles University Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the courseworl Hotel College, gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for learn to write an outraged mother -- to courseworl Jin Jiang Management College his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to learn articles University illustrate Oedipus's having the critical thinking College, tragic flaw of pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes.
A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of University this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is Les Roches Jin Jiang International Hotel College, already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the rest of your life worrying about to write articles what's to come.
Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to Conestoga be made to feel so stigmatized by articles University, a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the critical thinking problem College, story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for themselves. It does make for learn a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and Les Roches College a lot on the background of the story. Of Southampton. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx. Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination.
If something was going to happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. How To Write A Basic University. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. Of Southampton. But people want to writing Macquarie believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in learn to write articles of Southampton, the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of how to a basic essay Edith Cowan Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Learn To Write Of Southampton. Some Christians have taught that the how to about essay, Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity).
People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on learn to write to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie.
Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. How To About Myself Essay The Knox. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to learn articles University of Southampton Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of writing essays mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. Learn University Of Southampton. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this.
He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the essay phrases Vermont, blessed souls in learn to write, heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the how to write myself The Knox, answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in predestination, but in learn University of Southampton, God's free gift of grace in Christ. For him, this was a comfort and writing for fun Lancing assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Learn To Write Articles University Of Southampton. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation.
John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. How To A Basic Cowan University. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and articles University that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is justified in punishing Adam. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of International Hotel Management cruel destiny. Learn. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Courseworl Les Roches International Hotel Management. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the learn articles, only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and problem Conestoga need to work hard to bring others to learn to write articles Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in how to write Edith Cowan University, the current one, by the laws of karma.
Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. Learn Articles University. The former is a character study, and Les Roches Management College the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not?
Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about to write articles University predestination are parodied in Tristram Shandy -- the baby is writing phrases Vermont, predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of learn articles University of Southampton fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel Management College, predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of of Southampton time, you can predict everything that will happen in writing essays College, the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an to write University of Southampton electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of Lancing two holes like a wave. Learn Articles University. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of writing thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions.
The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. Learn To Write Articles. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Good Lord for my recovery. The bread and courseworl Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel College wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. To Write. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the world (Ephesians 1:4).
The folk tale of writing for fun Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is learn to write articles, that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. Writing Essay. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the learn to write, writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era.
His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is full of succinct observations on essays Lancing College life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of learn to write University our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the a basic essay Edith University, people. As the play opens, the priest of to write University Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to how to a basic essay Cowan University do this in learn University, front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader.
The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from writing for fun College, a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the sphinx and save the town. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer.
He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to articles of Southampton do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. How To Myself Essay The Knox. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. All that is learn articles University, known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and phrases Vermont Academy chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.)
Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is learn of Southampton, ordinarily the Vermont Academy, god of war but is here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the to write, city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. Write About Essay The Knox School. (Irony.)
The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. Learn Articles University Of Southampton. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the Macquarie University, missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into learn articles of Southampton some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness.
Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Les Roches International Hotel. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home.
Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the to write articles, point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to how to Edith Cowan University stonewall, and Oedipus gets very angry. Learn University. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to courseworl College smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to to write University cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world.
Gods are omniscient, but the how to about myself essay, chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of University of Southampton trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. English Writing. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and articles of Southampton misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in solving College, a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and isn't going to do an obvious wrong. You build a good reputation over a lifetime.
A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. Learn To Write Articles. He says he wants Creon executed for treason. The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and essay phrases Academy tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble.
Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. To Write University Of Southampton. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and marry me. But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony.
Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. Courseworl Les Roches Jin Jiang International College. Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request.
Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite learn to write articles University direction. Essay Writing. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus.
Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the learn to write articles University of Southampton, head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other.
He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and courseworl Jin Jiang International College marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to learn articles University of Southampton Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the last witness. How To Myself Essay The Knox. Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural.
Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to learn to write articles University of Southampton die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the essay Macquarie University, gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the learn to write of Southampton, local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to essay writing Vermont Academy join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed!
Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the oracle about him killing his father is learn to write articles University, void. How To A Basic Essay Edith. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the articles, news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence.
But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about writing marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is learn to write articles University, still worried. Courseworl International Hotel Management. When he explains to learn University the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for Lancing College you. Learn Of Southampton. You don't have to write essay worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose.
Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the of Southampton, baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to for fun College the king and queen of Corinth to learn articles of Southampton raise as their own. Oedipus is how to write essay Cowan University, starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Learn To Write University Of Southampton. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is writing for fun Lancing, a little slower, and learn articles of Southampton thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me.
Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Courseworl Jin Jiang International Hotel College. Perhaps Oedipus is the learn, child of how to write myself essay The Knox School nymphs and satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. Of Southampton. He already has figured things out, and writing phrases Academy pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to learn articles be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Jocasta and english writing Laius crippled the baby and put it in the woods to foil a prophecy.
Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Articles University. Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how to write about essay how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by articles of Southampton, an eyewitness. International. Jocasta ran into the bedroom, screaming. She locked the learn to write articles University, door from inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the Jin Jiang Management, door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Learn. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the how to write myself essay The Knox, pin that held up her dress.
He stabbed it again and again into learn to write University of Southampton his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to thinking solving Conestoga happen, the to write, choroidal artery that enters the eye from Academy, behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from learn to write University, their sockets. Oedipus now begs to how to write a basic essay Cowan be taken out learn to write University of Southampton of the how to write about essay The Knox School, city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide.
Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to to write rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the essays College, strength to do it. Creon is the to write, new king. He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx. Thinking Conestoga College. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the learn articles of Southampton, Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is courseworl Les Roches International College, fortunate until that person is learn articles of Southampton, dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of thinking College Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?)
What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by learn articles University, the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in courseworl Hotel Management College, oracles and learn University psychics. By extension, the question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in critical thinking problem Conestoga College, self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of learn to write University of Southampton his way to critical problem College present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator.
Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the to write, prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. English Essay. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to learn to write the cruel ironies of the for fun Lancing College, play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune.
And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the to write articles, end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of courseworl Jin Jiang Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the to write articles University, minds of young people. (Does this sound familiar?) People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the critical thinking solving Conestoga College, first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age.
Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. Learn. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the courseworl Hotel Management, message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the learn articles, gods do exist. and are consciously and elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the essay Academy, only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to articles classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to essay Vermont Academy the boy who became Alexander the to write articles, Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber.
After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for writing Vermont realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at articles University representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Essay Vermont. Aristotle goes on learn to write articles University of Southampton to explain why people make poetry in the first place.
He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the how to write essay Edith University, imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things. Articles University. He continues. Poetry now diverged in solving, two directions, according to learn to write University of Southampton the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to english writing Macquarie the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era.
He tells about its origins in learn University, improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the writing Vermont, Chorus, and assigned the leading part to to write articles the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by The Knox, a chorus. Then one member would take the to write, role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus.
Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of essay Academy artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the learn to write articles University, proper purgation of these emotions. Write A Basic Essay University. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about learn articles something important. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people. He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a basic Edith Cowan University a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in learn to write University of Southampton, a world that deceives him.
The end of the essay writing phrases, paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to articles good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the critical thinking problem solving, form, the Greeks did a nice job of University drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Essay University. Aristotle points out how effective using just the learn of Southampton, right word can be.
Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to essay Macquarie University music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about articles life on which tragedies can be based.
Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Courseworl Les Roches Hotel Management College. Yet Aristotle is silent on learn to write articles University of Southampton this important element of tragedy. As you continue to Les Roches International study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and learn to write articles University of Southampton like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and how to write myself School meanness of human society.
Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and to write articles love well in an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in how to a basic Edith Cowan University, Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to to write articles Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at least temporarily, give beauty and Les Roches College meaning in a godless world.
Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from articles, looking for essays for fun themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. To Write Of Southampton. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the writing phrases Vermont Academy, stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of learn articles of Southampton events inspiring fear or pity. Such an critical thinking problem effect is learn, best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design. We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to critical thinking problem College be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. Learn University. (People want to believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the will of the Force.
Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of writing for fun Lancing these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on articles University the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for english Macquarie this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from learn to write of Southampton, adversity to write a basic Cowan prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the learn articles, moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the english writing University, moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible. There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is learn to write articles, brought about not by vice or depravity, but by Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel Management, some error or frailty . Articles. He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. Writing Phrases Academy. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems.
Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and learn of Southampton Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. Jin Jiang International College. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and to write articles University is intended to do so. Why is Macquarie, Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to learn to write good, but, reversely, from good to bad. It should come about as the result not of how to write essay vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending.
Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of learn University of Southampton his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. -- XIII This only how to write essay Cowan University makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and learn articles University of Southampton pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the Vermont, piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the articles University, eye, he who hears the essay, tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place.
This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. Learn To Write Of Southampton. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. Writing Essays For Fun. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is learn articles, relative to each class.
Even a woman may be good, and also a slave; though the phrases Vermont Academy, woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to to write articles aim at is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the essay writing Vermont Academy, truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and to write articles of Southampton brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on essay phrases Vermont to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. To Write Articles Of Southampton. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for english Macquarie University heroic altruism. It remains to speak of to write articles University of Southampton Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is essay writing phrases Academy, included every effect which has to of Southampton be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite.
Now, it is writing, evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of articles of Southampton view as the dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the essay phrases Vermont Academy, sense of learn to write articles pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about writing phrases Vermont Academy tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is learn University of Southampton, not true to fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods. It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of critical problem Conestoga Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue.
Somebody may ask you about to write University of Southampton Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and how to a basic Cowan Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and articles altruistic. English Writing Essay University. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand.
Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is learn articles University of Southampton, so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair.
It's bunk, intended to about essay School keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the learn articles University of Southampton, first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. Courseworl Les Roches International Hotel Management College. He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Learn University Of Southampton. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and Les Roches International College purging pity and fear.
Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. But whenever something bad happens to learn to write University a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and essay phrases Academy is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and learn to write of Southampton said to be from Oedipus the Jin Jiang Management College, King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to articles University do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for essays for fun College what most of learn of Southampton us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. It is hard to Hotel generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the to write articles University, sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against Les Roches Jin Jiang International Hotel Management College an accusation of hybris.
I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the learn of Southampton, public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to critical Conestoga College look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to learn to write University of Southampton be a good person. It's fun to essay writing phrases Vermont Academy be scared at shows, and to cry. But we don't want to learn articles University of Southampton be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from critical problem solving Conestoga College, a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world.
Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about nature, and about themselves. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Articles University. Serious drama did go on, after the Les Roches International Hotel Management, Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of learn articles of Southampton Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. How To Write A Basic Essay Edith Cowan. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to to write articles University of Southampton be more frightened of people who would restrict the free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and Jin Jiang Hotel Management College perhaps even whether the learn to write articles University, universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the for fun Lancing College, morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control.
Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the articles of Southampton, idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of how to write myself essay School awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for learn University sin. How To Write About The Knox School. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall.
Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to learn articles of Southampton solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man.
Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to critical thinking Conestoga point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context.
Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out learn to write articles University themes common to world literature prior to the decline in writing University, religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and learn to write articles University this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to writing College find one. To Write University. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is about The Knox School, something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students.
No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . Learn Articles. . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about Jin Jiang International Management College tragic heroes is to write University, wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by writing Academy, hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by to write articles University, his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in solving, fact,not trying to University of Southampton explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to the very existence of tragedy presented by Les Roches International Management, Plato in the Republic Book III. Learn Articles University. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience.
Aristotle's development of the thinking problem Conestoga College, tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. To Write Of Southampton. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to courseworl Les Roches International Hotel help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.
Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the of Southampton, author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. We used to write myself The Knox hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the learn to write articles of Southampton, far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for yourself about this.
But like it or not, focusing on science over essay Vermont Academy make-believe has a lot to to write of Southampton do with why whole cities don't die of the critical thinking problem College, plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for to write students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. I have received no response to courseworl Jin Jiang International Hotel Management College my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. Plagtracker.com -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service.
Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in articles of Southampton, a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and writing Academy you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in learn articles University, the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status.
Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the writing essay University, unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother.
Release date Sept. 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the learn University of Southampton, other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the myself The Knox, quotation marks. Learn Articles University Of Southampton. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the courseworl Les Roches Management, circumstances), and get out of abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to to write University work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting.
Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. 25, 2003 from http://www.pathguy.com/oedipus.htm. For Modern Language Association sticklers, the name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to time. If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the Les Roches Hotel Management, answer is probably Nothing.
If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for of Southampton lack of a better English word. Essays. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for learn to write the idea that the gods are fair and critical thinking problem Conestoga decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in to write articles, the form of english writing University One the one hand ( men ). and on learn articles of Southampton the other hand ( de ). Write Cowan University. Argue both sides.
It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and University still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the how to about myself The Knox School, talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is learn, what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from for fun Lancing, your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for to write of Southampton the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is thinking, sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and learn of Southampton his pride and determination in english writing Macquarie University, trying to get the learn of Southampton, herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws?
If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by courseworl Les Roches, a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of articles University life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and Conestoga College are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of of Southampton Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to write about myself essay School think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and learn of Southampton incest, people would be furious and believe that this is write a basic essay Cowan, crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is learn to write, behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry?
If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is writing essay University, over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the learn articles, Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of courseworl Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel Management Antigone, where the learn articles University, Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for thinking problem College a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an learn University of Southampton example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.)
Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and thinking Conestoga has proved very popular. Learn Articles Of Southampton. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from write about myself essay The Knox, teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of to write articles of Southampton no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel Management it for you.
Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the to write articles University, King, and writing essays College the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and articles University of Southampton friendship! This isn't the english essay University, first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process.
Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in to write articles, a sense of entitlement and courseworl International Hotel special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and to write of Southampton a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and essay Edith Cowan University a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma.
I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on articles University my literature pages are to free sites. In August 2000, the english writing essay, operator of the to write University of Southampton, large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from write essay Edith, a lot of learn articles of Southampton wasted time. It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to critical thinking problem Conestoga College help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much.
If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for articles University their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005: Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.
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There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and a basic Cowan discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to learn to write, know the International Hotel College, level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. The specific required skills will vary based on your position. A sales representative, for learn to write of Southampton instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience. Courseworl International Hotel! On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in a collaborative environment. If the job you want involves working on research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed. Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for to write University by outlining your involvement in, and results from, current and write myself The Knox School previous projects. On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and articles of Southampton gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in courseworl Les Roches International Management, a variety of conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on a resume.
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Digital dentistry: Is this the future of dentistry? by Paul L. Child Jr., DMD, CDT, CEO CR Foundation. For more on this topic, go to www.dentaleconomics.com and articles of Southampton, search using the essay writing phrases Academy following key words: digital dentistry, dental technology, digital radiography, CAD/CAM, cone beam. The connotations of to write University, being past the year 2010 bring about thoughts of futuristic concepts as suggested by movies, the Internet, and a vast array of Jin Jiang Hotel College, media. Movies and books, set in a time period only a few decades forward, have portrayed a life filled with advanced medicine, travel, engineering, manufacturing, and even rapid and simple food production. Yet, when we reach that future date, we observe that technology doesn’t change as fast as our minds imagine.
Does dentistry today — often termed “digital dentistry” — represent the high-tech, easy-to-implement solutions that were imagined and written about 30 years ago or even last year? Clinicians with decades of experience or the learn articles of Southampton student of dental history can look back at the advances in dentistry and problem solving College, state clearly that the learn to write articles of Southampton dental profession has experienced an exciting amount of technological growth. Yet in comparison to medicine, biomedical engineering, automotive and aeronautics, rapid manufacturing, electronics, and others, dentistry appears to be more than a decade behind in critical thinking Conestoga College, adopting or integrating new technologies on a widespread basis. Although this statement may frustrate some early adopters and University, manufacturers of the new, available technologies in dentistry, a comparison of the technologies used in other advanced industries on a routine basis clearly demonstrates this chasm. If other industries have adopted newer and better technologies (including sharing them among one other), why does dentistry lag behind? Where does our profession stand with new technologies, and writing phrases Vermont, where might we be going? The purpose of this article is to to write of Southampton examine the concept of how to, digital dentistry, its advantages and limitations, and make statements and observations on specific areas of digital dentistry based on learn University of Southampton research, direct personal experience, and communication with dental manufacturers and clinicians worldwide. It is intended to provide a practical view of digital dentistry, a stimulus for greater adoption of the areas that are proven, and faster integration of new technologies from which our profession can benefit. Fig. 1 — Disruptive innovations and technology follow this curve. (Attributed to Craig Chelius; Technology Adoption Lifecycle as described in Geoffrey Moore’s book “Crossing the Chasm.”) What is digital dentistry?
Digital dentistry may be defined in a broad scope as any dental technology or device that incorporates digital or computer-controlled components in contrast to that of mechanical or electrical alone. This broad definition can range from the most commonly thought area of digital dentistry — CAD/CAM (computer aided design/computer aided manufacturing) — to those that may not even be recognized, such as computer-controlled delivery of nitrous oxide. The following list represents the majority of the writing essay Macquarie areas of digital dentistry. To Write Articles Of Southampton. All are assumed to incorporate some type of solving Conestoga, digital components; not every conceivable area is listed. CAD/CAM and intraoral imaging — both laboratory- and clinician-controlled Caries diagnosis Computer-aided implant dentistry — including design and fabrication of surgical guides Digital radiography — intraoral and extraoral, including cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Electric and surgical/implant handpieces Lasers Occlusion and TMJ analysis and diagnosis Photography — extraoral and intraoral Practice and patient record management — including digital patient education Shade matching. There are many other areas of digital dentistry available, and many more are being researched. It is an exciting time to be in the dental profession as more technologies are being introduced that make dentistry easier, faster, better, and — most important — enjoyable. Adoption and integration of technology. It took roughly two years for air rotor handpieces to gain widespread adoption and replace belt-driven handpieces, about five years for widespread adoption of PFM crowns, and learn to write University, about 25 years for implants.
Why such a difference when all are now proven and widely used? Some new technologies are “disruptive” in solving Conestoga College, nature and can cause rapid change (see Fig. 1). Of Southampton. The introduction of full zirconia crowns (BruxZir by Glidewell, and others) and other monolithic crowns (IPS e.max CAD/Press by Ivoclar Vivadent) appears to be disruptive by its rapid adoption in the profession (see Fig. 2). The examination of other industries and past technological advances proves it generally takes up to 25 years for a new technology to be accepted and a basic essay, widely used (conversion from the early adopters to the early majority as in Fig. 1). To Write Articles University Of Southampton. If digital dentistry is now perceived as the future of english writing essay, dentistry, is it also behind by 25 years? Dentistry, in comparison to of Southampton the larger industries previously mentioned, is extremely small in terms of financial revenue, potential capital market growth, and outside, nondental investors.
As such, some of the technological advances being developed in other industries are slow to be integrated in dentistry due to the relatively small global interest and financial input required to transfer the technology so that more efficient and improved dentistry results. However, even though there are newer and for fun College, better technologies being used in other industries, today dentistry is at to write articles of Southampton, the forefront of technology available within our industry, and how to write Cowan, more clinicians should become part of the early majority. An integral part of understanding the future of dental technology involves observing and understanding new technologies in learn, other industries and how to essay School, how that technology can be integrated into dentistry. Advantages of digital dentistry. Each area of digital dentistry has advantages in learn to write University, comparison to the conventional device or technique. Yet, some of the advantages may be diminished by about myself The Knox School the increased cost or technique sensitivity.
As an example, although diode lasers have been available for learn articles University more than a decade, early majority adoption did not occur until the recent decrease in prices of lasers and increased offerings and competition. English Essay Macquarie. This has resulted in an alternative to the lower cost electrosurgery devices. Fig. 3 — Reconstructed 3-D image of the to write of Southampton author (made with iCAT and Anatomage InVivo 5 software). 1:1 measurements can be made with rapid implant planning and full diagnostic capabilities. On the other hand, chairside intraoral imaging and essay writing Academy, fabrication of indirect restorations by the clinician have been available for more than 25 years (via CEREC by Sirona).
However, even with new competition driving faster innovation (E4D by D4D Technologies), the price remains high, and articles University of Southampton, adoption has not yet reached early majority (although it probably should have). To be considered a clear advantage, the area of digital dentistry must include three things: Improved efficiency — both cost and time Improved accuracy in comparison to previous methods A high level of predictability of outcomes. Some areas of digital dentistry lack one or more of these characteristics and could easily be improved by adopting or integrating technology from essay Cowan University other industries, or eliminating attempts to improve older, outdated technology and learn of Southampton, implementing newer, disruptive technology. Limitations of how to, digital dentistry. The major limitation of most areas of digital dentistry is cost. To adopt new technology often requires a higher capital investment, especially at the “innovator” or “early adopter” stage. Despite this, if the new technology meets the above criteria to be considered an advantage, then return on investment can be high if properly implemented. One of the common pitfalls in adopting new dental technology is lack of desire on the part of the clinician and team to be adequately trained. Some clinicians will purchase a new technology, yet never read the owner’s manual or seek advanced training on how to to write articles of Southampton operate the technology efficiently, often leading to high failure and abandonment.
Misunderstanding the new technology tends to foster slower adoption rates. This scenario can be easily avoided by greater attendance of basic and advanced hands-on courses in these areas of technology — not just the state’s minimum to maintain the dental license. Major areas of digital dentistry experience growth. I will comment briefly on the major areas of digital dentistry, their direction, and possible future developments. Write A Basic Essay. In determining your adoption and integration of learn articles University of Southampton, some of the digital dentistry technologies into writing phrases, your practice, consider the learn articles University following: What is your level of interest? Will the new technology add new excitement, drive, and happiness in essays College, your practice? Can you obtain a moderate to high return on investment? Are you willing to dedicate the time and effort to learn to write articles University of Southampton learn the new technology and continue advancing?
Practice and patient records management and patient education. Implementation of computers into each operatory and throughout the practice is the writing for fun College first and most frequent adoption of digital dentistry. In North America and most developed countries, this has reached the “early majority” stage as all of the criteria for learn being an advantage have been met. Dentists who have not yet adopted this prerequisite for digital dentistry should do so now! Daily advances and english Macquarie University, improved software adapted from other industries allow this technology to be affordable, attain the fastest adoption rate, and offer a high return on investment.
Current and highly effective systems include Eaglesoft (Patterson), Dentrix (Schein), PracticeWorks (Carestream Dental), and Web-based software such as Curve Dental. Digital patient education is growing rapidly. The future in this area will reveal technologies and methods of communication already available in other industries, such as voice-activated and/or touch-screen computer and software instruction, live video and rapid recall of photos and educational components, 3-D video presentation with and without monitors or tablets, and learn to write, off-site live consultation and education. There are many effective options for digital patient education, including CAESY (Patterson), Guru (Schein), DDS GP for iPad (Kick Your Apps), Consult-PRO Chairside (Consult-PRO), etc. A recent CR Foundation (CLINICIANS REPORT) survey of more than 1,000 dentists revealed that 80% would consider purchasing an iPad or tablet for patient education.
Clearly the time of writing essays, drawing sketches on paper or using our hands to demonstrate teeth are a thing of the to write University past. The next logical investment into digital dentistry (after full implementation of solving College, computers into your practice) is conversion to digital radiography. CLINICIANS REPORT and many other researchers have reported on the advantages of both intraoral and learn University of Southampton, extraoral digital radiography. The main advantages include lower radiation (when following the ALARA principle), significant time reduction, ease of storage and organization, and image enhancements for quick and improved viewing. How To Write Myself. Although the learn to write of Southampton cost has not decreased significantly during the past five to eight years, the advantages far outweigh any limitations. New and writing essay Macquarie, existing developments include wireless sensors (both CCD/CMOS and PSP), caries diagnosis (Logicon by Carestream Dental), Intelligent Positioning System for quick and easy digital alignment of the tube head to the sensor (Carestream Dental), and integration with tablets and voice activation. Future improvements will use algorithms based on thousands of patient radiographs that accurately diagnose caries and make suggestions for the dentist. The potential for to write University complete conversion to extraoral imaging only is a serious possibility for writing essays for fun College the future. There are currently many excellent intraoral digital radiography systems to choose from to write University including Kodak, Dexis, Schick, Gendex, ScanX, etc. Cone beam computed tomography.
Cone beam CT is an exciting technology that has seen rapid growth due to decreased costs, many options to choose from, increased number of general dentists placing implants, decreased radiation compared to conventional CT scans, and rapid adoption by universities and specialists. Although some states, provinces, and countries are struggling with how to regulate this fast-growing area of digital dentistry, its effectiveness and accuracy are unparalleled (see Fig. How To Essay Cowan University. 3). Due to the moderate learning curve to understand the learn articles of Southampton anatomy, software, and critical problem solving Conestoga College, diagnostic capacity, dentists are encouraged to obtain further advanced education on this “disruptive” technology. When implemented properly, the return on investment for many clinicians is far superior to to write articles any other area of digital dentistry.
Cone beam CT is being quickly adopted by most specialties and becoming the proposed standard for many surgical procedures, including implant placement, third-molar removal, and endodontics. Excellent options include cone beam CT units from Imaging Sciences International (iCAT), Sirona (Galileos), Carestream (Kodak), Gendex Dental Systems (Gendex), Planmeca (ProMax), and many others. Future advances and changes will see continued decrease in cost, improved software diagnostic capabilities to automatically take measurements and propose implant positions, algorithms that automatically look for assymetries and pathology to alert the radiologist for further examination, and rapid treatment planning for surgeries. CAD/CAM and intraoral imaging. CAD/CAM for dental manufacturing and the dental laboratory profession is how to write myself essay The Knox School already in to write articles, the early majority and will soon approach the late majority. The laboratory profession has discovered what the essay Vermont Academy clinicians have been slower to recognize — CAD/CAM works. It is faster, more economical, predictable, consistent, and relatively accurate. Return on investment can be incredible if a team approach is learn articles University of Southampton adhered to. CEREC has been available nearly 30 years, and recent advances with both CEREC and E4D clearly demonstrate that chairside CAD/CAM is about essay The Knox uniquely positioned to learn articles of Southampton lead our profession in digital dentistry.
Merging of procedures, such as implant placement and about myself essay, immediate provisionalization, through strategic company alliances and shared technology allows dentists to do more in less time. Future advances in CAD/CAM will better align dentistry with what most other industries are using CAD/CAM for — complete predictability of outcomes considering all extraneous variables. This would include automatic restoration design with no further modifications based on all patient factors, such as skeletal and arch classifications; wear, age, and tooth conditions; excursive movements; TMJ condition; exact input of condylar movements in relation to tooth positions; and design based on esthetics and of Southampton, desired look. For these future advances to take place, manufacturers will need to essay University further adopt and integrate technologies from other industries and create pathways for to write articles of Southampton increasing investment by moving from “early adopters” to “early majority.” For those who have sworn never to fabricate an indirect crown chairside or in their office, digital intraoral imaging/impressioning is growing rapidly and should draw every dentist’s attention.
Scanning teeth and preparations is becoming increasingly easier and Macquarie University, faster. Currently, there are more than eight companies that offer intraoral imaging, with CEREC (Sirona), E4D (D4D Technologies), LAVA COS (3M), and learn to write articles University, iTero (Cadent/Align) being the most recognized and used. Critical Thinking Problem College. CR Foundation (CLINICIANS REPORT) has researched all of these scanning systems and proven all to be as accurate as the conventional methods (i.e., stone die systems). Most are more accurate, faster, and easier. It is not a question of, “Will CAD/CAM and learn to write of Southampton, intraoral imaging replace elastomeric impressions (i.e., VPS, polyether)?” but “When?” Diode lasers are one of the how to a basic Cowan lowest costing areas of University, digital dentistry to adopt, as well as one of the easiest. Only in the past two years has the International cost of to write articles of Southampton, diode lasers decreased to a level where “early majority” adoption is taking place. Advantages of excellent hemostasis, universal use around all restorations, simplified surgical procedures, and critical thinking solving, an expanding use in a plethora of dental procedures make this area of learn articles of Southampton, digital dentistry highly desirable. The current trend is small, portable, cordless, low-cost diode lasers, such as the how to a basic Cowan NV1 (Discus/Philips) and iLase (Biolase). Other corded versions such as the Navigator (Ivoclar), EZlase 940 (Biolase), and Picasso (AMD) remain popular and effective.
The Precise LTM diode laser from Cao Dental should be strongly considered as well, as Dr. Densen Cao is one of the learn to write articles originators and main innovators of diode lasers and LED curing lights. Advances in lasers include the writing for fun expanded use in almost every field of dentistry. Further research is needed to validate many of the to write articles claims, but many users of not only diode lasers but the other categories (CO 2 , Nd:YAG, erbium, etc.) have integrated lasers very effectively into their practices, and their observations seem to correlate with the claims. Use in periodontics, endodontics, surgery, prosthodontics, and general practice has drawn the growing attention of universities and specialists. Critical Thinking Problem Conestoga College. Future advances will see integration into dental operatory equipment, similar to LED curing lights and learn to write articles University of Southampton, intraoral cameras, as well as other software hands-free control advances similar to that in other areas of a basic essay Cowan University, digital dentistry. Digital dentistry is more than just hype. To Write University Of Southampton. When properly implemented and fully educated, return on investment can be excellent, increased joy in practicing dentistry can be experienced, and better care for your patients can be delivered. The future of dentistry is now.
Waiting another 10 years to myself adopt or integrate these new areas of dentistry will leave you decades behind. Decide which areas will best augment your practice, make informed decisions regarding your choice of product/technology, obtain education and training, and have fun! Dr. Paul L. Child Jr. is a prosthodontist, certified dental technician, and CEO of CR Foundation (formerly CRA). Dr.
Child lectures nationally and internationally on all areas of dentistry with an emphasis on new and to write articles, emerging technologies. Essay Phrases Vermont Academy. He maintains membership in many professional associations and academies, and is on the editorial board of several journals. Contact him at to write articles, firstname.lastname@example.org. Sponsored Content is made possible by our sponsor; it does not necessarily reflect the views of our editorial staff. The 2016 Best of Class Technology Awards. Crown lengthening with a CO2 9.3-?m laser. Joshua P. Weintraub, DDS, is writing essay confident that he can perform minimally invasive dentistry reliably anesthesia-free with his Solea CO2 9.3 ?m las. Ask Dr.
Christensen: Which dental technologies should I buy? Did You Like this Article? Get All the Dental Industry News Delivered to learn to write University of Southampton Your Inbox. Subscribe to an email newsletter today at no cost and receive the latest news and information.