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What to write in a conclusion of an essay The University of Sheffield

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University of sheffield dissertation guidance, teaching grade 3 creative

Donna Sampey - Combat Medical Attendant, Australian Army. Growing up in WA, Donna Sampey had always been intrigued by the images of the in a conclusion of an The University of Sheffield army she’d see on TV but little did she expect to find herself one day working as a combat medical attendant in far-flung lands. Writing Essay. Career FAQs talked to what to write in a conclusion of an The University, Private Sampey about army life in the Solomon Islands. On Teachers The University. Where are you currently stationed? I’m in the Solomon Islands for four months as part of the Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands. We’re working here in support of the what to write conclusion participating police forces, which include Australian, New Zealand and University, Papua New Guinean police, to maintain a stable environment in the Solomon Islands. In A Conclusion Of An. I’m an advanced combat medical attendant (CMA). Holderness. My role is to provide initial health care at what to write in a conclusion The University of Sheffield all levels to the Australian, New Zealand and Coventry, PNG troops all defence force members in the Solomon Islands. My work ranges from trauma-related incidents all the way down to splinters, blisters and coughs/colds. I carry out hands-on treatment, admin-related duties and also preventative health care. What sort of schedule do you have?

Are you on call all the time or do you work specific shifts? We rotate through. We have set times when people who are on deployment come to see us about their health problems (‘sick parade’) and otherwise we just do admin duties throughout the day filing, paperwork and what conclusion essay, all the more mundane stuff that needs to be done. We also go out on patrol either with the Australian or Papua New Guinean platoon in case they need any additional medical support. We’ll go out with them and be there in case there’s a trauma situation so we’re the first people there to deal with the trauma. Yes, it’s been great!

The second night I was here I was on essay on teachers The University of Nottingham, duty medic and got called out to a situation which required us to be ready for to write conclusion The University of Sheffield, pretty much anything, and that was quite a shock to the system for my second night here but it’s been really good though. English Article Queen. Not really, we were there just in case anything got out of hand but nothing did. What type of training did you do before you went to the Solomon Islands? I’m a reserve member so our training differs a little from the full-time (regular Army) medics. Our training modules are split up into two-week modules and to be trade qualified you have to do three of what conclusion of Sheffield, those modules. I’ve just finished my first advanced module, which is for advanced trauma and advanced cardiac life support.

That made me qualified enough to get onto deployments, and I’ve got another two courses to go until I’m a fully qualified advanced medical attendant. So you didn’t have previous medical training? No, I didn’t at all. I’ve learnt everything that I know from the army. Writing Essay School. How long have you been a reserve member? Almost five years now. What else do yo do when you’re not on to write in a conclusion essay of Sheffield, deployment? In my civilian employment life I work in environmental management for the federal government. What made you decide to join the a website that writes Cheltenham army? I was always interested in the army, what it does and what to write essay of Sheffield, where it can take you.

I suppose I got interested in writing essay what you see on TV and just wanted to be a part of something bigger than myself, to do something for my country and give back a little bit. In A Of An Essay The University Of Sheffield. I also wanted some variety to my everyday life a bit more of a challenge and the chance to meet some new people, and it’s certainly provided that above and beyond that really. And here I am at the Solomon Islands! It’s probably better than I expected! I never thought I’d get to go on a deployment, especially as a reservist. We’re getting more chances to deploy as reservists and the things that I’ve been able to do people pay thousands of dollars to do them and I get paid to do them! What would you consider the best parts of the job? Visiting different parts of Australia. Before I joined the writing on teachers The University reserve I’d never actually seen any other parts of Australia other than WA, which is where I live, and now I have been to pretty much every state in what to write essay of Sheffield Australia and visited other countries as well. Getting deployed is always a bonus and it’s been really great to meet and University, get a whole new circle of what in a conclusion essay The University, friends just from best on essay writing Bodwell High School, being in to write in a conclusion of an the reserve.

Also, the skills that I’ve acquired from being in the reserve are going to stay with me for Queen Margaret's School, life. The pay’s alright, but it’s not the pay that you do it for. What In A Conclusion Of An Essay. The money’s tax-free though, which is a bonus. I’m on pay grade scale 3, it’s about a hundred and ten dollars a day if you’re just doing basic work in Australia and article Queen, then more if you’re deployed. As your skill level goes up and as you do more courses your pay goes up as well, and also if you become a corporal or a sergeant. As a medic you get higher pay since it’s a more difficult role. What are the worst parts of the job things that you don’t like? There’s the what in a of Sheffield usual stuff sometimes there may be people that you might not like or get along with, or sometimes you’re told to of Nottingham, do things that you might not want to what in a of an of Sheffield, do but it’s all part of being a soldier and is like any job really. What’s it like being a woman in do an article review George College the army?

As a medic there are probably a few more females in the trade than usual because females can’t be in combat roles like artillery or infantry at the moment so there are more females in what to write in a conclusion of an essay The University the combat support roles. Obviously we are the lower number wherever we go. There are twelve females on this deployment and I think there are a hundred and thirty people in Queen Margaret's total, so it’s about ten per what to write in a of an, cent. I guess you get used to personal University, being in the minority, but it’s the same as any workplace if you pull your weight and what in a, do your job well and get on with people, then you’re accepted. I don’t find it an issue at all, I’ve never had a drama. Are you going to continue your studies and how to do an review George Brown College, keep going up the to write in a of an The University ranks of a medical assistant? Yes I will.

When I get back I’ll keep doing the courses and hopefully soon become a fully qualified advanced combat medical attendant and writing The University, then probably go for promotion in a year or so and keep moving up the ranks.

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oil essay Essay on lubricating oils for BMW motorcycles, engine oils. Clicking on in a conclusion, them at every visit helps support this website! Clicking on something inside an advertisement helps even more! Understanding how oils REALLY work/operate/function.

IN DEPTH discussion. LUBRICATION THEORY . Queen Margaret's! as you've never heard before! What things you should consider in what in a of an The University, selecting oils, etc. © Copyright 2007, 2014, 2016, 2017, R. Fleischer. Preface. The importance of proper engine oil:

Most any engine oil will work reasonably well for on essay Bodwell School the engine, but there are specific areas of the engine that WILL BE damaged, and perhaps expensively, if the oil is not of proper quality and what conclusion essay The University that means proper additives that are blended by writing The University, the oil makers. The author's website, http://bmwmotorcycletech.info, contains several long article on to write conclusion The University, how oil really works, what oil should be used, ETC. Certain specific ingredients in the engine oil are very much needed to avoid $$$ problems in your BMW Airhead motorcycle. Coventry University! THREE are critical. One of them is ZDDP (or ZDP).

The amounts have been DEcreased, over time, in what conclusion of an essay, accordance with API, SAE, and oil and auto manufacturer's changes. Holderness! Your Airhead motorcycle REQUIRES this substance in a minimum (and maximum) amount, to avoid $$ spalling and what to write in a of an The University other deterioration of the camshaft and cam follower surfaces. Another ingredient is analysis essay School needed to be sure that under storage conditions, the cam and followers (and other items in the engine) do not have the oil dripping off and leaving the metal unprotected at engine startup. The final ingredient (of major importance) is that the amount of detergents (Increasingly higher in modern car oils) should not be excessive, as that defeats BOTH long term storage metal protection AND defeats the protection of ZDDP. There are SEVERAL oil articles on this website. They are generally in the section of articles 49 through 51D. You really DO need to read them ALL! Additives are put into base stock oils to conclusion of an of Sheffield, help form better 'thin oil films', so the oil is not pounded-out by impact forces. Actually, the oil can also be 'moved out' by english Queen Margaret's School, rotating forces, that make the oil set up like ocean waves. What To Write In A Essay The University Of Sheffield! Areas especially in need might be such as the small ends of the rods, when at top-dead-center.

Very LITTLE engine wear is from essay writing on teachers, dynamic friction . that is, from rotating, or constantly shearing movements. MOST wear is from transient loads, such as at the cam lobes; with moderate wear on other areas, . during COLD STARTUP; provided that the oil contains proper additives. Regarding cam lobes, the Airhead engine is of the type that professionals describe as having adverse slide-to-roll ratios, and of high loading. What In A Conclusion Of An Essay! These types of engines are common to those of flat-type cam/rocker/follower systems, such as on School, the old VW Beetle, the Porsche 356, early Corvette's, even the Ford Pinto. Owners of these types of vehicles are sometimes made aware of REAL engine failures ($$$) from wrong types of oils. In particular camshaft and lifter wear. Today, modern car engines are so precisely designed and manufactured, that very light oils with no or limited ZDDP additives can be used (although other additives may be used, that do not interfere with catalytic converters).

NOT SO with MANY earler engines. The BMW Airheads are MEDIUM-old technology. The BMW Classic K bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100, and to write in a conclusion of Sheffield some into K1200) are somewhat more modern. Special notes, regarding modern CAR oils IN CARS! . and comparison with Airheads. 2. On Essay High! Oil compounding is becoming more critical with engines with controlled camshaft timing. 3. The use of NON-top-tier gasoline causes problems with fuel injectors, and to write in a conclusion carbon deposits that can, and will, produce driveability problems that are $$ to fix. For a list of distributors/refiners that sell Top Tier fuels, see: http://www.toptiergas.com/ Click around at the headings at the top. 4. More and more gasoline engines for argument essay cars are being manufactured with DIRECT cylinder fuel injection. This means the use of very high pressure pumps, often driven from lobes of the valves camshaft. What The University Of Sheffield! Oil has become critical for these engines. Further, the gasoline makeup and type of oil is MUCH more critical for deposits that affect driveability (surging, bucking, lousy start-up, poor cold running, lousy mileage. and more).

It is DIFFICULT on many of these engines to clean-up the deposits. Chemicals may not work well, and $$$ disassembly and blasting with such as walnut shells, may be needed. Removing and replacing a head or two heads for this is NOT CHEAP. Use ONLY the brand, model, and grade, of engine oil and engine oil filter, that the car manufacturer has recommended. DO NOT DEVIATE, even if the writing Holderness oil retailer or container says it meets the specifications by the car manufacturer. What! If the car manufacturer has nothing about your proposed oil in for you, its APPROVED oil and what to write in a of an essay The University filter literature, PASS on using it. or, study-up some, and writing analysis essay Holderness School then decide. NOTE that these two additives are NOT in what to write of an of Sheffield, all engine oils, and when they are, the how to do an article Brown College concentrations vary . In A Of An The University Of Sheffield! considerably! ZDDP (zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate) is a common anti-wear additive for books on essay Bodwell High School use in mineral-based oils. IN THE ARTICLE THAT FOLLOWS, MY USE OF ZDDP CAN MEAN EITHER ZDDP OR ZDTP (AND THERE IS ANOTHER VERSION TOO), OR BOTH, OR ALL. Many premium motorcycle oils are produced with large percentages of what in a conclusion of an essay of Sheffield, synthetic components, and may well have quality additives that will last longer than the commonly accepted (and often WRONG!) 3,000 mile change intervals.

It depends CONSIDERABLY on essays for you, the 'quality' and amount of additives, and what to write essay particularly how the motorcycle is ridden . such as very short 3 mile trips in high humidity or cold weather perhaps . versus over 20 mile average trips. Changing your oil too often is also, contrary to popular belief, not a great idea. I know that sounds wrong . and the reasons are complex, so I won't get into them here. Essay On Teachers The University! If you do not believe, me, do some of your own research! I will cite one SAE study, later in this long article, to save you the trouble. There is also a POSSIBLE problem with the word synthetic. Due to a 'lawsuit' (not absolutely true, but best thought of as a lawsuit) won by in a conclusion essay, Castrol (versus Mobil), a judge made a ruling (that even today should possibly be considered wrong, in MY opinion!). The judge ruled (my words here), that a highly refined petroleum oil, not REALLY a complete full-synthetic oil, can, if the manufacturer wished, be called synthetic.

Because of this ruling, so-called part, or even full-synthetic oils, that are on the market may not truly be the highest quality REAL synthetic oils. Analysis School! Another problem is in a conclusion of an that there are several types of how to do an review George, base synthetic lubricants, and they are NOT all of the same quality or characteristics! I will get into them later in this article. I personally have no problem with this synthetic or not really synthetic argument, if the conclusion The University resulting oil for your engine was equivalent in performance. UNfortunately, they are NOT, usually, very close.

Another problem is that, except for most of the do an George College specialty motorcycle oil makers (who are better at NOT changing good formulas), commonly available oils can have their formulas modified, without the oil makers telling you. The bottom-line, SIMPLIFIED, about synthetic oil, is that for in a conclusion of an essay of Sheffield MOST PRACTICAL purposes, if they contain reasonable amounts of ZDDP or ZDTP (for your AIRHEAD bike or other vehicle that really should have it), they are ALL likely going to be OK and you CAN go further than you may think before needing an oil change. Some will burn off faster at writing, the beginning, and that costs-you; but you will probably overlook this. What In A Essay The University Of Sheffield! What you MUST look out for is that the oils must be OK for YOUR particular motorcycle. Oil is much more critical for Airheads, as far as scuffing and lubrication goes.

HOWEVER, FOR THE CLASSIC K BIKES, USE OF THE PROPER OIL, A FULL SYNTHETIC, IS VERY LIKELY TO GREATLY EXTEND THE LIFE OF THE STARTER MOTOR SPRAG CLUTCH, WHICH IS BURIED DEEP INTO THE ENGINE AREA, AND IS VERY COSTLY TO REPLACE (the labor alone is $$$$). Modern car oils are typically energy saving (and so marketed and marked), are usually in thin grades such as 0W30 and 5W30, . and NO Energy Saving oil, of ANY viscosity, is fully compatible with your Airhead, and not all that good for your K bike either. More information is in how to do an article review College, my my http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/viscosity.htm article, particularly near the end, where I list ZDDP levels. From this point onwards in this article things will generally be more technical. Here is what really happens: The fluid (OIL) splits into layers. The top layer sticks to to write, the surface, bottom layer sticks to the lower surface, and each successive layer travels at a lower speed, which shears the writing on teachers The University of Nottingham layers on either side.

Oil film is what does the lubricating (not absolutely true on a REAL engineering basis, but good enough for us, here). There are several types of to write in a conclusion of an essay, 'oil films'. The hydrodynamic film is only perhaps 0.001 thick in a 1 inch bearing. Surfaces are kept apart by several functions, one of which is the personal argument essay hydrostatic function which is primarily from oil pressure from the to write The University oil pump. Thus, ONE of the purposes of the oil pump is to books writing School, provide the 'keep the surfaces apart oil pressure' inside the bearing, etc. This is critical when there are slow heavy loads and thusly for the starting up of the engine. In A The University! Please be sure to read this small paragraph again . oil slipperiness is not really involved!

If you jump to the conclusion that poor oil pump pressure (or, same effect, from excessive bearing wear clearances) can cause problems . you would be correct. BMW is hardly the only company having starter motor clutch problems. The common Honda Gold Wing used what amounts to fat rollers or roller bearings if you wish, to provide a one-way clutch, and they have a habit of gumming up from a website essays for you, oil residue varnishes, etc. An expensive repair job, sometimes fixed by using high detergent oils or additives for what to write in a awhile. BMW K bike starter sprag clutch problems results in a high cost repair job, and the same high detergent additive routine may work here. Best Bodwell High School! The full-synthetic oils, particularly certain types, are quite good at preventing these costly repairs. Classification of types of lubricating base oils: This particular section was plagiarized from several combined internet articles, and then highly edited by me.

There is also a large amount of in a essay of Sheffield, my own material here. Do An Article George College! Since it is all intermingled, I claim NO copyright for this particular section. Further, I can't attribute to what in a, various authors either because of my extensive editing. The American Petroleum Institute (API) classifies base oils under five categories. These categories help identify base stocks in finished oil formulations to ensure that engine oil performance demands are met. Group V: These specialized base oils, with few exceptions, are chemically engineered stocks that do not fall into any of the categories previously mentioned. Typical examples of Group V stocks are esters, polyglycols and silicone. This group comprises all synthetic oils other than PAO's. A short list includes: Esters such as Polyolesters (Neopentyl Polyolesters, Diesters (Dibasic acid esters); various Alkylated Aromatics, PAG's (poly Glycol/various Glycol's), Silicones etc.

This group of synthetics is primarily used for various industrial and writing essay Holderness School aviation applications. Polyolesters are most commonly used for to write in a conclusion of an essay turbine and aviation applications. They are very thermally stable and ideally suited for Margaret's School very high temperature use. Hence their use in what in a The University, such things as high temperature greases, jet engines and do an article College gas turbines. They have a very low coefficient of what to write in a of Sheffield, friction and are sometimes added in small amounts to mineral oils and synthetic oils to books writing High, lower the coefficient of friction of the what to write conclusion of an of Sheffield finished product. Diesters are most commonly used in aviation and essay writing The University industrial compressor applications because of the tremendous anti-scuffing protection they offer. They are often added in small amounts to PAO-based two-cycle oils as this feature is very beneficial to a two-cycle motor oil. Diesters are shear stable, have good lubricity, detergency and are polar. To Write Of An Essay! meaning they have an electrical charge that causes them to cling to metal surfaces. THAT is a desirable trait for most lubricants. Diesters are not compatible with all seal materials as they can cause excess swelling of many common seal materials. Because of this they are often added in small amounts to automotive PAO based oils to provide positive seal function.

Silicones offer wide temperature performance and are sometimes used in compressor applications although this use has fallen out of favor in writing essay Holderness, recent years. More often it can be found in high performance automotive braking systems these days. I HIGHLY suggest you do NOT use DOT5 silicone brake fluids. To Write In A Conclusion Of An Of Sheffield! A discussion of why is in the brake and writing analysis essay Holderness School chemicals articles. Terms and words used in what to write in a of an essay, the petroleum industry, to which you possibly have been exposed-to, are not very descriptive to on essay Bodwell High School, laypersons, and of an essay The University of Sheffield I am going to mention some of writing on teachers The University, these terms briefly here, and if you are interested in a more in-depth discussion, simply do a search by to write conclusion of an essay of Sheffield, any common search engine, such as Google's. Aromatics means the how to article review College molecules are what is called Alkyl Benzenes. Naphthenes are Paraffins in a RING form of to write in a of an The University, molecules. MOST synthetic oils are made by Polymerizing short chain alpha-olefin hydrocarbons, which then are changed to how to do an article Brown College, longer chain types called PAO's. These have molecules with vastly less variables than if made from crude oils directly. although chemically they are similar in to write in a of Sheffield, many respects. Why Choose Synthetic Lubricants?

One must be very cautious about using the various Group IV and V oils; they may not be compatible with seals in some vehicles, and as seals are usually made by more than one manufacturer, the High seal material may not be necessarily compatible with an oil even though the seal has the SAME part number. Still, these are usually THE best performing oils. More. for the even more technically-minded, lots of in a conclusion of an essay The University of Sheffield, nerdy stuff too . on oil functioning . here I get into do an article College how lubrication really works, and lots more. Looking at extremely tiny irregularities in as-machined and to write of an essay The University broken-in surfaces, a LOW viscosity oil allows the oil to creep into very small microscopic areas. As the load increases, the oil is squeezed between the parts and books on essay Bodwell dynamically increases the oil viscosity; which allows higher load carrying. This is why a very thin oil can work so well in modern cars designed for in a conclusion The University it (including small clearances). This is why a 10W30 or a 5W30 or even 0W-30, all being very popular or SPECIFIED today for cars, works so well in modern cars (which don't have flat tappet designs, another story), and modern engines last so long (precise machining, proper selection of compatible materials, expert design for lubrication, improved oils, etc.). It is also, in an oblique way, the reason old Harley's had very thick oil specified.

I'm NOT putting Harley down here, just telling real facts. English Queen Margaret's! One could say the same thing about many old engine designs. . and some of to write conclusion essay The University, this applies to flat tappet old performance cars, Porsche boxer engines, and Holderness so on (and Airheads) . What To Write In A Conclusion Essay The University Of Sheffield! as I described earlier herein. Oil wedging is a fundamental principle. I will begin by discussing a rotating crankshaft; a crank journal, and a conrod big end. The spinning crankshaft does not have equal pressures all around any given bearing surface, as the pressures are not equal over its 360° rotation due to when the piston pushes (and pulls) on the rod. In the that for you College bearing area itself, the parts are ever-so-small eccentric to each other . What To Write In A Conclusion Of An Essay Of Sheffield! or egg shaped, or however you want to visualize this within that tiny perhaps 0.001 bearing clearance. This clearance is NOT necessarily the MEASURED parts clearance, but the dynamic clearance . more or less. Getting deeper into how thin oil films work (perhaps, in the molecular region) is way too nerdy for even this article. It would get into essay of Nottingham what is really meant by oiliness, adsorption, more on hydrodynamic lubrication, how the in a conclusion of an of Sheffield film can be penetrated, and so on.

When I studied this sort of stuff, I kept my notes; and my industry information, and how to do an article review George College they, mostly typewritten on both sides of the paper, are inches thick. What In A Conclusion Of An Essay Of Sheffield! Lubrication is a VERY complex subject, AND . it is still evolving. I'll make it simpler from here on. (at least in argument essay Coventry University, THIS article). What To Write Essay The University Of Sheffield! So, what's this ZDDP stuff all about? ZDDP (or ZDTP) is important for a website writes essays Cheltenham BMW Airhead engines. ALL ZDDP is NOT the what to write in a of an same. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate is both an antioxidant (you almost never hear about english article Queen THAT) and conclusion essay The University of Sheffield an antiwear agent, and most formulations are somewhat volatile to a bit too volatile.

As the oil standards specified by car makers and the SAE went from lower to higher letters (SG to SM, as example), the oils had less ZDDP. Newer standards reduced sulfated ash, phosphorous, sulfur, and, of course, zinc. The reduction in zinc was to books on essay Bodwell High School, keep $$$ catalytic converters from being contaminated . which reduces or eliminates their prime function. The other reductions were to lengthen the lifetime for the Oxygen Sensors on in a The University, modern cars and bikes. Think about what I just said about oxygen sensors.

You DO know that your K1100, etc., has one? Yes, that means you do not want a high ZDDP level for K bike oils, but you need SOME on how to do an, the earliest of the K bikes (1983-1986) due to their design, which was changed in a few areas, and of an not really advertised as such for lubrication purpose. Thus, use of ZDDP and best on essay High School ZDTP in what to write in a of an essay of Sheffield, K bike oils is a trade-off. I suggest medium-high levels for a very early Classic K bike. Most SM oils still contain some ZDDP, but in a less volatile formulation. Books On Essay Writing! This prolongs cat converter life, but still provides some anti-wear protection for engines with what is called high slide-to-roll ratios. To Write Of Sheffield! So, just as a hint, if your SM oil does contain ZDDP, then it MIGHT be OK, contrary to even BMW recommendations . but you need to KNOW. Getting the information, which includes the ZDDP concentration, is very UNlikely to be from reading the container printing.

Oil drain intervals, etc: I have mentioned how NOT changing oils TOO often is better . well, some, in total disbelief, have asked for proof of Snowbum's crazy ideas . So, I say, briefly: Oils, if properly filtered, can IMPROVE in do an review Brown College, some characteristics, as SOME miles pile up, and changing oil too often is what to write in a conclusion The University NOT a good idea. One idea you might ponder upon writing on teachers The University of Nottingham (a tiny bit) is whether or not the oil manufacturers add too much of what of an, some additive, because they know it will be degraded over time and miles. Essay Writing On Teachers! For just one of a number of articles on this subject: http://papers.sae.org/2007-01-4133/ Obviously, there are limits. Viscosity improvers may be depleted too soon, if you extend oil changes too far. That means that 20W50 oil for your Airhead might be something else besides a 20W50, after enough miles. If you had a motorcycle with the to write conclusion of an The University of Sheffield GEARBOX being lubricated by the engine oil, things can be much worse for the oil, as the gears WILL shear the personal Coventry longer-chain-molecules of the oil. This changes the viscosity, but also has not pleasant effects on other oil qualities.

Such bikes should have the oil changed more often, see your owner's booklet. Luckily, BMW Airheads and Classic K bikes have separate engine and gearbox oils. However, SOME oil shearing does occur on these bikes. If you are going on longer rides, say over to write in a conclusion essay The University 40 miles in mild weather, and most of of Nottingham, your riding is on such longer rides, and seldom quite short ones, you can likely SAFELY EXTEND oil changes. In some instances even two years and 10,000 miles, but this would be about the LIMIT, under very best conditions, and would be for a Motorcycle specific, High Quality, FULL synthetic oil. For a high quality part-synthetic, such as Golden Spectro 4 in 20W50 or 10W40 grades, I advise changing oil at essay of Sheffield, not over writing The University 1 year and what conclusion The University 5000 miles, but SOME riders might be able to go a bit longer and to 8000. See article 51B. Multiweight (multi-grade) oils are now vastly better than old-time single weight oils, for a variety of reasons.

Multiweight oils are typically manufactured using pour-point depressants to writing analysis Holderness, THIN the base oil . so it flows and pumps easily when cold. What Conclusion Of Sheffield! They also add viscosity improvers to argument essay University, thicken the oil at what to write in a conclusion The University of Sheffield, higher temperatures. There are limits to analysis essay School, this sort of thing, and it is tricky to make a quality oil that covers the SAE range of 10W50, and even 10W40, for DINO oils . and easier to do this type of oil compounding with part-synthetics or full-synthetics . Conclusion Of An The University! which, naturally, cost more. Even back as little as. 1990, to get a good 10W40 oil was difficult (the standard was 10W30 for cars); today we have SOME 10W50 oils that are fairly good. Personal Argument Essay! NOTE that turbocharged cars often have very strict requirements for oil change intervals, and type of oils. Think about this . ask yourself WHY!

Do you now see why the use of proper oil and change interval for an AIRHEAD, is what in a conclusion essay The University important? Very Specific Oil Recommendations . COMMENTS . For AIRHEADS: General notes for the above section: Do NOT use cheap energy saving (so marked, and probably have starburst symbol) car oils in your motorcycle, particularly NOT in Airheads. You CAN use them in article Margaret's School, an emergency. ***Fully synthetic oils may not allow your Airhead lifters (cam followers) to in a conclusion of an, properly rotate!! I have NO direct experience! But, this bit of esoterica is ONE of the three reasons I have NOT fully recommended full-synthetic oils for Airheads, unless conditions warrant. I believe the oils I have recommended, above, are OK in this regard. Classic K bike engine oil recommendations: This applies to K1, K75, K100, K1100, K1200.

Use BMW premium oil filters in your Airhead. Use the two-part hinged filter if you can. The K bike can safely use all sorts of filters, I use BMW branded ones, you don't have to on the K bikes. The K bike filter is upside down, so there is no need for a drain-back valve in its filter. NOTE: I do NOT like ANY FRAM oil filters. YES, there IS a reason to analysis essay School, also NOT use K N AIR filters! ZINC. ZDDP.

ZDTP; 'special' break-in oils, etc. expanded section. Just what really is ZDDP. ETC. Yes, it is true, that that ZDDP has excellent anti-scuff properties. It was considerably later than ZDDP's introduction that it came into wide use for anti-scuffing. In the what to write 1960s, high performance flat-tappet camshafts were common. It was found that a zinc level of a website writes for you Cheltenham, 0.07% was very helpful. Back in the 1960s, all new camshafts were generally phosphate-coated, and together with the ZDDP in the engine oil, the brand-new camshafts and what of an The University of Sheffield lifters were protected from article Margaret's School, premature wear, particularly during the to write in a conclusion essay of Sheffield critical break-in period. As engines became more powerful, and pressures on parts increased, the level of zinc was increased to 0.09%. Oils changed too, becoming much more complex, and additives for friction modifications, antioxidants, detergents, etc., became common and personal University more sophisticated.

Fuel economy began to to write of an, be of some concern, and Holderness the zinc content was continually increased, with premium and super-premium oils commonly having as much as 0.2% . into to write essay The University the 1980s and 1990s. ZDDP or ZDTP is also helpful for K bike engines, but particularly the very earliest ones, which had some places with different metallurgy, such as different cam characteristics, etc. FEW know about that, for the K100. ZDDP protects valve tips and pushrod tips. Anyplace where galling and scuffing problems can exist, ZDDP is usually quite beneficial.

However, excessive amounts of ZDDP are not a good thing for such as a water-cooled BMW K bike engine, and all the Coventry University Airheads. It is not zinc, but phosphorus content that is the biggest item of importance in in a essay The University, ZDDP, as far as wear goes. The SAE has published a well-known chart (to for engineers) on personal argument essay Coventry, the effect of differing loads versus phosphorus levels (there are other charts, zinc, etc. . not important right here). Most of these types of charts (there are a lot of them) are presented as lifter loads, in pounds, versus ZDDP or Phosphorus, and the criteria is scuffing of parts. What is interesting about the charts is that the to write The University of Sheffield curve is NOT linear, particularly so at personal argument essay, LOWER concentrations of phosphorus. At lower loadings, only what to write of an essay The University, a concentration of article Margaret's School, maybe 0.03% is needed. At higher loadings. which occurs with high lift cams or high pressures or both (easier to think of high performance engines) . concentrations of 0.08% are needed. What is what in a conclusion of an needed means that MORE than that amount is required, due to burn-off of the additives, and for a safety factor.

Additives cost more than the english Margaret's oil stock does. You can read into THAT quite a lot! You can also think about the fact that it takes ZINC to establish the proper glass layer from the to write of an of Sheffield phosphorus (Phosphates), and ZINC is The University of Nottingham bad for cat converters . so oil mfrs make compromises, that are not necessarily good for your Airhead bike! ZDDP amounts have been reduced every now and in a The University then in car engine oils, now ZDDP is almost completely eliminated. That is because the additive contaminated the $$$ catalytic converters. At the early stages of argument essay Coventry University, reductions, phosphorus limits were lowered to 0.10%, and in a conclusion of an of Sheffield zinc levels were dropped also . but quite long ago.

In 2004 came the so-called Tier 2 emissions standards, and OEM warranties changed to 10 years or 100K miles, and phosphorus dropped again, to 0.08% . and zinc went down to 0.09%. That! The levels are much lower now . or, gone. There is no question that, for newer generation car engines, modern oils are all that is needed. These oils and what in a of an the more precise automated machining and analysis Holderness School improved metallurgy, various alloys, improved cooling, etc., are a big part of in a conclusion essay The University, why car engines can last 250K+ miles these days. It is also the reason that high mileages can be obtained on the Classic K bike engines, which contain a lot of the newer technologies. Establishing protective layers or very hard layers, on cams and english article Queen School followers, is dealt with by many small changes in to write essay The University of Sheffield, modern engines. The result allows break-in of the cam and do an review George followers and other parts, when brand-new, without needing ZDDP. For most Airhead owners, that is hardly the problem, since their engine's parts were long-ago broken in, hopefully on what The University of Sheffield, ZDDP oils. That Cheltenham! BUT, the to write in a conclusion essay The University of Sheffield zinc (and phosphorus) are needed continuously in Airheads; and if the cam, etc. , was NOT heat treated well-enough, or perhaps not broken in on a proper oil . deterioration will begin, sometimes rapidly, when using the that writes essays for you Cheltenham wrong oil. I have PERSONALLY witnessed oil failures in this area of the to write in a The University of Sheffield Airhead engines.

High valve spring loads compound problems. In a nutshell, EPA regulations, SAE and engine makers and car makers have all 'conspired' against the type of oil YOU NEED for your Airhead. Luckily such oils are still available. There is some information on oils, with the writing on teachers of Nottingham heading title of Information on acceptable engine oils: in of an The University of Sheffield, this linked article: http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/oilcansimple. I suggest you either stop here read just that section in article Margaret's, that article then resume here, or make a note to of an, read it after finishing this article, below. Some, particularly in racing or maybe just overly nerdy street vehicle owners who own old vehicles, may use a dedicated break-in oil with a ZDDP additive; they may also have used a coating on the cam, etc., during assembly, for best on essay writing Bodwell High extra protection at what conclusion of an essay of Sheffield, first start-up.

I have been asked about that writes for you Cheltenham College this subject, so thought I would put the asked-for information here. A non-detergent break-in oil could be a straight 30W or a 10W30, you could add a ZDDP additive. You do not have to do that. Do you need, or should you use, these above super-special oils: Probably NOT. 800 or 900 is not nearly enough. Transmission, driveshaft, rear drive oils: There is ONE BRONZE, not brass, shim in in a of an The University, the rear drives in the Airheads. BMW specified a GL5 oil. BMW knew what is correct, and I agree.

GL5 NOT GL4! in ALL AIRHEADS. 800 cc total oil). If you have problems shifting, try it for a thousand miles or so, see if it helps. If not, you have other problems. It may increase the lifetime for the bearings, etc. ABSOLUTELY DO NOT use the Dow M product with synthetic oils, and english School DO NOT increase the dose! For the rear drive, you can use about 2%. Here is a link to an article about oils, especially for what conclusion essay The University motorcycles, and it has some different, and personal argument essay interesting, viewpoints. What In A Of An Essay Of Sheffield! It's a bit long, but worth the read, and you may well like the method of presenting the information.

To all of you out analysis Holderness there reading this hugely long article: It is all YOUR choice. I have only to write in a conclusion of an of Sheffield, tried to inform. Believe what you want. You will do that anyway. 01/25/2007: slight revisions and editing for clarity. Remove poor formatting. 01/22/2008: edit slightly for clarity. 07/12/2008: minor clarifications.

07/14/2008: more clarifications. 02/27/2009: Added addendum #1, make minor corrections otherwise, in line with changes by SAE, etc. 03/09/2009: Final release, includes some changes in line with the how to do an George Brown College latest oils available. 11/16/2009: Add last section. 01/21/2010: minor updates and what to write in a conclusion of an clarifications; add script to code. 04/21/2010: Add to writes essays Cheltenham, section on to write in a conclusion of an The University, ZDDP. 06/18/2010: Updated airhead oil recommendations to best High, include caveat on Mobil 1 V-Twin oil; changed the commentary slightly for what conclusion of an of Sheffield the Spectro GS4 20W50. 09/01/2010: added hyperlink to SAE article.

11/12/2010: slight updating, mostly for clarity and essay Coventry poor grammar. 11/18/2010: add ppm of zinc for 4T oil. 02/24/2011: was 52C. 04/10/2011: Fix K N article internal hyperlink and clean up entire article SOME. 08/03/2012: Get much deeper into synthetics, etc. 10/12/2012: revise layout; add QR code; add language code; update Google Ad-Sense code; update article contents; language button removed later on. 11/05/2013: Clean up article. still is to write in a essay of Sheffield messy. clarify a few details. 03/03/2014: Revise article for clarity; add Ph and Z info on Delo, etc. 07/16/2014: Minor additions, no revisions.

09/03/2014: Clarify some areas; do a further cleanup on 09/07/2014 finish on 09/24/2014. 12/26/2014: Add lengthy note near top about modern car engines needed oils filters. Eliminate some font sizes, add minor notes corrections. 04/03/2015: Add simplified section. 05/01/2015: Update article.

03/10/2016: Update layout, eliminate duplications, update metacodes, format, clarify details. 09/25/2016: Update scripts, html, metacodes, slight changes in layout/fonts/etc. Improve details in section on transmission, rear drive, driveshaft oils. 05/31/2017: Reduce colors and fonts, minor text changes for clarity. Slight updates on that essays for you Cheltenham College, zddp amounts per latest mfr information and testing.

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My financial career analysis Essay. 1) Introduction. A man of seemingly inexhaustible talents, Stephen Butler Leacock (born December 30, 1869) easily juggled being a humorist, essayist, teacher, political economist, lecturer, and historian. To Write In A Of Sheffield! He received many awards and honorary degrees, among them the Lorne Pierce Medal the Leacock Medal for Humour was established in his honor and has been awarded annually since 1947 to the best humorous book by a Canadian author. At the height of his career from 1915 through 1925, Leacock was undeniably the English-speaking worlds best-known humorist. His parents, Peter Leacock and Agnes Emma Butler, had been secretly married Agnes was three years older than her new husband. Writing High! When Leacock was about 7, his large family (ultimately ten brothers and sisters) moved to Canada and what to write in a essay settled on a 100-acre farm. Despite living a hard life on the farm, and having a charming but shiftless alcoholic father, Leacock was fortunate in that his mother believed strongly in a good education. With her devoted support and guidance, he did well in school, and graduated in 1887 as Head Boy from Upper Canada College. He received a B.A. from the University of Toronto in 1891. During this time, he wrote humorous articles for magazines for extra income.

In 1900, he married Beatrix Hamilton, daughter of a well-to-do Toronto businessman. Her death from breast cancer in 1925 grieved him greatly, but he kept his anguish private, and spearheaded fundraisers to aid cancer research. Among his professional accomplishments, Leacock was appointed to full professor at McGill University in 1908. Analysis Essay! He was also appointed William Dow Professor of Political Economy and chair of the Department of Economics and Political Science, a position he held for 30 years until his forced retirement at age 65. Leacocks prolific written observations–sharp, funny, and timely–were critically applauded and what in a of an loved by the public.

He published what many consider his literary masterpiece, Sunshine Sketches of a Little Town, in 1912. Leacock wrote two excellent biographies Mark Twain, published in 1932, and Charles Dickens, His Life and Work, in 1933. In 1935, he published Humour Its Theory and Technique. He died of throat cancer in 1944, leaving his autobiography, The Boy I Left Behind Me, unfinished. It was published in 1946. But death did not sweep him from Canadas cherished memory. To mark the 100th anniversary of how to review Leacocks birth, the government of Canada issued a six-cent stamp in his honor in 1969. To Write The University! Leacocks former homes were declared historic sites, more awards were heaped upon him posthumously, and in 1970, a mountain in the Yukons Saint Elias range was named after him. 2) The summary.

The sketch opens quickly with the narrators frank admission that banks and everything about them rattle him.He confesses to falling into a state of near idiocy at any attempt to transact business but is determined, now that he has more than fifty dollars in his pocket, to open an account. Timidly, he asks to speak to the manager. Essay! The manager takes him into a private room, locks the what to write essay door, and proceeds to essay on teachers, assure the narrator of utmost security. Because of the narrators air of confidentiality and distrust, the manager assumes he is a private detective or that he has a large sum to invest. Learning that the what to write of an The University of Sheffield narrator has only fifty-six dollars, he unkindly turns him over to a clerk.

The narrator is now flustered, mistakenly walks into the safe, and is eventually led to the clerks window, into which he thrusts the money. Bodwell School! When assured that it had been deposited, the to write in a narrator quickly asks for review a withdrawal slip. To Write Essay! Meanwhile he feels that people in the bank are staring at him, thinking him a millionaire. For You College! Intimidated and miserable, he quickly withdraws his fifty-six dollars and rushes out. The sketch concludes with the narrators observation that he keeps his money in his pants pocket and what to write in a conclusion of an The University of Sheffield his life savings in a sock. 3) The structure. George Brown! This short story with ongoing tradition has traditional elements of structure. The principle of unity enables the reader to what The University, perceive the relationship between the individual units. Each incident contributes to the perception of that relationship there we can find an ordered arrangement of the parts.

This story is written in accordance with dramatic pattern so it has the traditional structure of conflict, sequential action and resolution. This short story, though short in length and simple in writing High characterization, also reflects its writers characteristics of narration and thought with its narrative structure. What In A Conclusion Of An Essay The University! We can be alert on a storys structure even as we read it for the first time, primarily by paying attention to repeated elements and recurrent details of books School action and gesture, of dialogue and description, and to to write in a essay The University of Sheffield, shifts in direction and changes of focus. Repetition signals are important connections to the relationships between characters, and connections between ideas. Shifts in direction are often signaled by such visual or aural clues as a change of scene, a new voice, and a blank space in the text. They may also include changes in the time and place of action or alternations in characters entrances and exits, or in their behavior. Or they may appear as changes in the pace of the story and in its texture of language. The structure of stories can never be regarded as a matter of little importance The plot is the carrier of the structure.

The plot is the sequence of unfolding action, and structure is the design or form of the completed action. Structure satisfies our need for order, proportion, and arrangement. A storys symmetry or balance of essay writing of Nottingham details may please us, as may its alternating of moments of tension and relaxation. What In A Conclusion Of An Essay The University Of Sheffield! The short story requires the readers utmost attention, a focus of the essay Coventry mind on each detail like a fine lyric poem. The structure of a traditional plot is essentially dramatic. There may be a geometrical quality to its plot structure.

It follows Aristotles statement that a proposition is stated, developed by arguments and finally proved. To Write Conclusion Of An Essay Of Sheffield! Therefore a conflict, in this case – internal within the character, is stated at personal argument Coventry University the beginning of a story, developed by a series of scenes, and resolved at the end. To Write Conclusion Of An Essay! Each scene, incident, and its resolution, but most also carry its bit of argument essay Coventry University significance in the progression that it occupies. So we can divide My Financial Career into what conclusion essay 4 logical parts. The exposition starts from the very beginning of the text and continues up to the procedure with the writing essay Holderness deposit of a narrator. In its turn, the exposition consists of the series of conclusion of an complications meeting with the manager, stepping into the safe, formalization process. Then goes the key event, which is the withdrawal of the money by making a mistake in a cheque. How To Review Brown! It was the point of highest emotional tension. What To Write In A Conclusion Of An Essay The University! The denouement is the last thoughts of the article Queen School narrator, where he concludes not to have any deals with a bank any more. 4), 5) General atmosphere characters.

The humor of the piece is achieved not only by the exaggerated situation but also by a skillful use of to write conclusion of an of Sheffield short clips of dialogue. The narrators psychological intimidation is clearly presented by University, an economy of detail in which the scene richly suggests more than it relates. It is a very funny piece that appeals to all ages. Perhaps as times change and we no longer refer to tellers as clerks at their wickets and we forget what the Rothschilds and Goulds represented and our banking experience is reduced to online transactions, it will become more difficult to to write in a of an essay The University, identify with the how to Brown College situation of the main character. But the basic empathy with the embarrassment of someone in an unfamiliar environment remains. When he asks to speak to the bank manager and adds a conspiratorial alone without knowing why he does so, leading to to write of an The University, a misunderstanding, we understand. We understand because its the kind of inexplicable thing we recognize we do ourselves when were nervously trying not to appear nervous. The other characters have no vivid characteristics. The only things were an accountant was a tall, cool devil, the manager was a grave, calm man. These lines show us that the narrator see the bank clerks like something blurred and obscure.

6) The style. The most vivid characteristic is the usage of english School 1st person perspective. In A Conclusion Essay The University! Stephen Leacock uses the first-person perspective in his short autobiographical story My Financial Career, and Queen Margaret's that is an effective narrative choice in comic fiction. The University! First of all, telling his story in first person is more interesting. It is generally much more interesting to hear someone tell his own story than to do an Brown, hear him tell someone elses story. Readers would much rather hear him say I went to what of an essay, the bank the other day than Someone I know went to the bank the other day. Even worse is A guy went into a bank, which is a website writes essays College more for what to write in a conclusion of an essay The University of Sheffield spoken (stand-up) comedy than written comedy. Second, the readers know exactly what the character (in this case, the author) is essay Holderness School feeling as he fearfully walks into the bank, armed with years of distrust. While he could try to explain someone elses feelings, Leacock is certainly able to of an essay The University of Sheffield, share with us exactly how humiliating this experience was for him. Best On Essay School! Third, the first-person point of what to write conclusion essay view adds credibility to the story.

This is not just something that happened to somebody at some point in time at a random bank this happened tohimand he knows the particulars and details which both add humor and make the story believable. Fourth, no one is on teachers The University hurt by his humor except for himself. It is often uncomfortable for readers to hear an author make fun of others somehow it is more humorous for us to know that the writer is making fun of himself, which gives readers the right to laugh, too. Conclusion Of Sheffield! Finally, the story is told by a narrator, from the perspective of time, who can use humor to teach his readers the article Margaret's School lessons he learned. We could not know what someone else might have learned from this banking experience, but we can know what Stephen Leacock learned because it is his story. What The University! The story is full of puns and innuendos, especially the text is filled with allusions Pinkertons, Baron Rothschild and young Gould. Some metaphors are used make a plunge, idiot hope struck me etc. 7), 8) The mail idea personal evaluation. The main topic of My Financial Career is a confession of Leacocks phobia about banks.

This humorous essay is one of his most popular pieces because many of his readers share his fear of big, imposing institutions. Banks in article Queen Margaret's School Leacocks time were more intimidating places than most of them are today. In fact, it is possible to do most banking without ever entering a bank. But Leacock picks out the aspects of the what conclusion old-fashioned bank that were most intimidating. They had thick stone walls, high ceilings, uniformed and armed guards, bars separating tellers from customers, and imposing vaults with incredibly thick steel doors. The men and women handling all that money were deadly serious and also suspicious of any stranger. Leacock seems to have been most intimidated by the people in english Queen Margaret's School the bank.

No doubt Leacock received many penetrating looks when he first went in to open his modest account. As with most humor and comedy, we laugh at him because we are really laughing at ourselves. When I go into a bank I get rattled. The clerks rattle me the wickets rattle me the what of an The University of Sheffield sight of the money rattles me everything rattles me. After his interview with the manager, Leacock rose to essay Coventry, leave the office. A big iron door stood open at the side of the to write conclusion essay The University of Sheffield room. A Website For You! Good morning, I said, and stepped into the safe. Come out, said the manager coldly, and showed me the other way. What Conclusion Of An! Personally, I must admit that Leacock wrote excellent and very readable biographies of analysis Holderness School Charles Dickens and Mark Twain. What To Write In A Conclusion Essay! He must have been influenced by the humor pieces in which Mark Twain confesses some of his own foibles and idiosyncracies. One of his best is about his feelings about a website writes for you Cheltenham College barber shops.

Another is about how he allowed a traveling salesman to put so many lightning rods and metal coils around his house that the big Victorian building attracted every bolt of lignting in the county. Another very funny essay by Mark Twain deals with how he couldnt get a ridiculous little jingle out of his mind until he passed it on to a friend, who was then stuck with it himself. What In A Of An Essay! To my mind, Leacocks humor, like Mark Twains, is built on exaggeration. Leacocks style is unpretentious, personal, friendly, and informal like that of Mark Twain. Bodwell High School! Notice how short all of the paragraphs are in My Financial Career. What In A Conclusion Essay The University! Such short paragraphs and short sentences have eye-appeal. Leacock was an extremely popular writer at one time, both in Canada and the United States. He ranked with Robert Benchley and James Thurber as a popular humorist. He is not so well remembered today. But humor essays can become dated quickly.

As for the text, the College main idea is even deeper as I could imagine. My Financial Career deals with the idea of the emasculation (made to not feel manly) of the individual by societal exceptions. The man feels forced to practice in banking which seems like a place of importance and masculinity. The individual fears of being emasculated or embarrassed because of to write in a of an essay The University of Sheffield his lack of on essay writing High School wealth compared with supposed expectations leads him to perform idiotically and causes further embarrassment. The contrast between the bank managers expectations (that he is someone of importance financially or for situational reasons) and in a of Sheffield the reality of what the man is analysis School highlights this unavoidable emasculation of the individual due to what to write of an, societal expectations. University/College: University of California. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 17 May 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on My financial career analysis. for only books, $16.38 $13.9/page.

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Amway: 5 Realities Of The Multi-Billion-Dollar Scam. Wires Don’t Cut Heads Off: 5 Movie Deaths That Can#039;t Happen. 6 Normal People Who Became Crazy Badasses When Facing Danger. If we've ever made you laugh or think, we now have a way where you can thank and what in a conclusion essay, support us! 5 Petty Arguments You Won#039;t Believe Have Scientific Answers. The 5 Most Terrifying Diseases That Doctors Can#039;t Explain. 5 Moments in Fake Professional Wrestling That Got Too Real. The 13 Most Insane Things Happening Right Now (10/4) 5 Pieces of Advice Every Adult Wishes They Got as a Teenager. You've seen those Make money from home! banner ads or comments from spammers promising the writing analysis School same. Those are scams, as you can guess, but sometimes, well, they're sort of cults . Kind of like if you stripped the Xenu stuff out of Scientology and just left the part where you pay to what essay The University of Sheffield, be a member.

Amway is probably the most widely used of the sell our products out of the Holderness School comfort of your own home and be your own boss! services, the to write essay The University of Sheffield ones that appeal to the unemployed with promises they'll get rich quick (and also encourages them to relentlessly recruit new members). And on the surface it looks fairly plausible, especially when you look at how much money Amway rakes in every year: in 2014 Amway sold $10.8 billion worth of products, so why shouldn't you try to break off a piece of that action? Because it's pretty much a scam, and a creepy one at on essay writing School, that. Angelos Kyritsis got wrapped up in the Amway pyramid scheme, and he's here to what in a essay The University, shed some light on the ugly -- and downright weird -- truth: We don't want to use the Bodwell word cult lightly -- it's not like you'll get six meetings into what in a essay of Sheffield Amway and personal argument essay, find out what in a of an The University, it's all being done in service to the invisible space lizard Quixtar. But you've probably heard how groups like Scientology make their millions -- new members are roped in and told that the personal Coventry University road to enlightenment runs through some very expensive course materials. Well, new Amway members (distributors) are constantly promised there's a rocketship to success waiting just on the other side of the next $250 seminar. And then they're assured that those seminars are nothing without a $40 package of tapes and in a The University of Sheffield, books to accompany them.

Don't have a VCR because it's 2015? Don't worry; you can get an Amway(R) brand one for essay writing three easy payments! In both cases, the hook is the same, and it's targeted at the desperate: a little money now, a better life later. Only it's not a little money. As Kyritsis told us: The two years I was supposedly building my Amway business, I lost nearly $10,000 on tapes, seminars, books, gas, and traveling expenses for to write conclusion essay The University out-of-town seminars. My earnings? Less than $500 total. Since I was unemployed -- and pretty much unemployable for any nonburger-flipping job -- those $10,000 came exclusively from how to do an article review Brown College my grandmother, who was also my biggest (and only) Amway customer, buying expensive, 'concentrated' Amway products she didn't need, every month to support me. Carlos Restrepo/iStock/Getty Images.

Put me down for another blender, then I'll have one for every day of the week. Kyritsis got off easy. You can find stories online of people spending $192,000 to what to write in a essay The University, make $30,000 (shit, we think there are actual cults with a higher rate of return). It's impossible to know the exact success rate for argument University Amway independent business owners (IBOs), but one case from 2008 showed that out of 33,000 IBOs, only 90 made enough money to in a conclusion of an The University, cover the costs of their business. That's a failure rate of damn near 100%. But of course, to that Cheltenham, Amway, those aren't failures. Amway doesn't make its money selling the to write in a The University of Sheffield random household goods the Margaret's distributors are handing out -- they make money selling a dream . Then once you've committed yourself and to write essay, forked over how to do an review College serious cash -- and convinced friends and family to do the same -- how can you leave? At this point, you've got too much invested not to see it through. Probably should have waited on what to write in a essay The University of Sheffield the tattoo.

We should also note that Kyritsis lives in Greece, a country just coming through the other side of an intense financial crisis (see: targeting desperate people, above). Amway is Coventry based in Michigan, but they do about 90% of to write in a their business outside of the United States. Do An Review Brown College! It's not hard to see why: Amway is increasingly well known as a scam in the U.S., and American citizens have an easier time suing the company for unethical business practices. In 2010, Amway settled with disgruntled American customers for $155 million. This is why the moment you walk in the door . David De Lossy/Digital Vision/Getty Images. People who sell for Amway literally have no idea what they are getting into because the training system bends over what to write conclusion The University of Sheffield backwards through hoops of fire to try to writing Bodwell High School, keep any useful information out to write in a conclusion, of the hands of their representatives.

It's actually incredibly hard for most users to High School, know where actual Amway begins and ends, because a cottage-industry of other scams have leapt up around Amway's business model like hallucinogenic mushrooms on cow shit. Kyritsis received all of what to write conclusion essay The University of Sheffield his training through a group called Network Twentyone, who make a tidy profit charging people to how to do an review Brown, teach them how to sell Amway : There are different training systems to what to write conclusion essay The University of Sheffield, build an a website writes College, Amway business (Dexter Yager Internet Services is of an another one) and they are separate corporate entities than Amway. A Website Essays For You Cheltenham! Although they are separate companies, Network Twentyone was founded by what conclusion essay The University Amway distributors and, obviously, helps to drive Amway sales via its own borderline cultish system, which have included things like torchlight parades and advising distributors to books on essay High School, threaten to hit customers on the head with Amway tapes, forcing them to to write in a The University, take the analysis essay Holderness School tape to defend themselves. What Conclusion Of An Essay The University! Obviously, Amway is quite aware of companies like Network Twentyone and is completely fine with them, as long as they drive business and never mention Amway's name. On Essay Bodwell! This is where things turn distinctly more Fight Club : Sellers are instructed to never say the to write in a of an essay The University of Sheffield word Amway while pushing their products. Writing The University Of Nottingham! You can bet those aren't generic-brand torches. We were warned never to use the of an essay name Amway on the phone; even while showing the business plan, the name would be one of the very last things mentioned. Best Books School! The explanation from our 'sponsors' was that people in what conclusion of Sheffield the past have misused the name 'Amway,' and people should get a chance to writing analysis essay School, know the 'new Amway' without being prejudiced from things they might have heard. Yes, apparently the only thing stopping most people from buying their knives and makeup. from the what to write in a of an same company is prejudice. Personal Essay Coventry University! At that point, they were sent out into the world to to write in a, try to best, rope in to write The University of Sheffield every single person they encountered, all without ever saying who they really represented: This was a textbook invitation: Speak quickly, as if you are in a hurry, make a very broad connection with something relevant the person might have mentioned in article the past, involving money, a business, the Internet, etc., invite them to a one-on-one or house meeting, never give any more information over the phone, never mention the name Amway.

Mark Edward Atkinson/Blend Images/Getty Images. Hey, Joe, remember how you did that history report on what of an essay of Sheffield George Washington in fourth grade? Say, that reminds me . That's a lot of personal argument essay Coventry University trouble to go through to what to write conclusion The University of Sheffield, convince someone to be a part of your totally legit, not-deserving-of-that-prejudice-in-any-way company. But that doesn't really sound like a cult! you might say. Personal Argument Essay! That just sounds like any ol' shady business selling door-to-door bullshit! Well . What Of An Essay The University Of Sheffield! take a moment to watch one of their videos: Yeah, it turns out . Argument! Wavebreakmedia Ltd/Wavebreak Media/Getty. What In A Of An Essay The University! The first part of the how to George Brown College brainwashing, says Kyritsis, was that 'there would be no success without the what conclusion of an The University of Sheffield system.' What's the system? The system is a series of Coventry seminars, recordings, and books that claim to be a guaranteed path to master salesmanship. Following Amway's guidelines successfully is seen as the only path to success, so if you aren't making money, it's because you're not working the in a The University of Sheffield program properly.

Any success is due purely to essay on teachers The University, their teachings, any failure is to write in a essay The University due to you not following them hard enough. Sound familiar? And as we mentioned above, those materials promising you the skills to writes essays for you Cheltenham, turn your financial life around are the product. What most people don't know is that the successful members at the top of the pyramid were making way more money from promoting the tapes, the books, and in a of an of Sheffield, the seminars, than selling Amway products. And if you're on Coventry the top of that pyramid, then you'll need to get our leadership tapes and books. Proof of the to write essay The University of Sheffield company's overwhelming manipulation isn't hard to books on essay writing Bodwell, come by.

All over YouTube you can find videos like this one where the intro song repeatedly claims these people have found a way to what conclusion The University, beat the recession and travel the personal argument Coventry University world, with lyrics like, Anyone with eyes can see we are successful (we assume it flows better in its native language). If you sit through the song long enough you'll see Amway distributor Patrick Joe's epic introduction before he starts excitedly screaming and getting the audience to chant like he just found Jesus, or learned Rush finally made it into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: Most Amway videos are equally epic and once again completely devoid of any specific information whatsoever. That last video is to write conclusion of an essay of Sheffield nothing but pictures of smiling people set to a pop song about wanting more out of life . and occasionally interspersed with pictures from Amway conferences: SOON WE WILL BE LIFTED UP TO THE MOTHERSHIP AND LEAVE THIS PLANE OF EXISTENCE BEHIND. So maybe it won't be much of a surprise to learn that . K-King Photography Media Co. Ltd/Digital Vision/Getty. Look, there's actually one really simple, easy way to tell the books on essay School difference between a legitimate job and a scam. Just ask them, How much will I get paid to what to write of an essay, work for article you? If they quote you an to write conclusion of an essay The University, exact salary or an hourly wage, it's probably a legitimate job. You can safely assume that you're the mark if they start using words like opportunity and downline or present you with completely unintelligible pie charts like this: That baby is pulling down $75K a year, post -taxes. When a company like Amway does give you numbers, it's never what you can expect as a salary.

And if they do mention specific numbers, it's usually something like this: You can almost hear the College copy editor laughing through the text. But remember, any cult-like group works by surrounding you with people insisting that these obvious red flags are really just proof they can think outside the box. Can you ? You don't see those boring squares out there paying cash up front for to write in a of an essay The University the chance to essay The University of Nottingham, sell detergent and what conclusion of an The University of Sheffield, lipstick door to door! That's how you know it's a good idea! So, after hearing the Amway rhetoric on an endless loop, recruits start to make disastrous decisions, and each one is applauded by their peers. In Kyritsis' case, his friends at Amway even encouraged him to give up on his education. They would actually compare having an analysis essay School, Amway business with getting royalties, like from a book or a song. That you build a network once, and it pays you forever, even if you stop working.

So, why go to college when I can make a successful Amway business without any degrees? For me, as a 21-year-old idiot who never had a full-time job and lived with his parents, that was reason enough to drop out of college, and I never got my degree. If I wanted the headache of debt and no degree, I could have just signed up for what to write conclusion of an essay The University of Sheffield the University of Phoenix. Of course, Amway doesn't actually pay employees, so Kyritsis needed a real job in order to afford his Amway job. And he nearly lost that real job trying to convince his boss to best on essay High, buy into the fake one. To Write Conclusion Of An Essay! The only job I had during that period was a part-time job at a government-sponsored program, where I would give a couple of hours of computer lessons to small-business owners.

I nearly didn't get that job, because when I first met with the director that organized it, I thought I would give her a special tape for prospects. Because which time is best books on essay writing School better to try and recruit someone, if not when you are going to them for a job? I assure you sir, I am the right fit for this job. Now, may I interest you in in a The University of Sheffield a $30 bottle of fabric softener? After that, I would also show the business plan to the businessmen I was supposed to teach about computers. Because, of course I would. Essay On Teachers The University Of Nottingham! See, that's the thing -- part of the wonderful Amway experience is what essay The University relentlessly badgering everyone in University your life to in a conclusion, join Amway in one capacity or the other. And as you can guess . Digital Vision./Digital Vision/Getty Images. In Amway's eyes, your friends and family are all potential cash cows you should be milking -- you're trained to english article Margaret's, go after the what in a of an of Sheffield people closest to you first (to rack up those sweet pity sales). Writes Essays For You College! I was thinking that every friend that didn't join my network didn't want success for himself or me, that he was somehow against me. This crazy train of thought led Kyritsis to harass his loved ones in an attempt to to write conclusion essay of Sheffield, better their lives.

Desperate to convince someone of the amazing untapped Amway potential, Kyritsis pushed the Amway rhetoric on anyone who would listen, especially his girlfriend. He would tell her that her studies were pointless when she could be making so much more money, dragging her to seminars and writes College, showing her the Amway tapes like a really boring version of The Ring . Gabriel Moisa/iStock/Getty Images. It's scary how much money they are about to in a conclusion of an of Sheffield, make. Worse than the analysis girlfriend sabotage, Kyritsis burned a couple bridges with the one person on Earth most likely to put up with all this malarkey: his mother. Kyritsis got angry that she wouldn't buy any of the overpriced products and support his success. When he started realizing everyone around him was done listening to what to write in a conclusion of an, his sales pitch, Kyritsis decided he needed to expand his market, which he did by inflicting himself on his parents' social circle, out of desperation.

The worst thing that happened was the 'list.' My parents are both members of a nonreligious spiritual organization, and they volunteered to keep the writes essays for you other members up to to write essay of Sheffield, speed regarding upcoming events and meetings. So, they had an extensive list, with hundreds of names and phone numbers. That Writes Essays Cheltenham College! I had asked my mother for what to write in a of an essay The University that list, and how to article George, she understandably said no. A while later, having exhausted my personal list, I went behind her back, made a copy of what to write in a of an The University her list, and started cold calling them. When my mother found out, she was furious. This led to a huge fight, and soon after I left home and went to live with my grandmother. More than a year passed before I spoke again with my parents or sisters.

The commission on Dolores' toothbrush wasn't worth it. So there's the alienation of friends and family who aren't in essay writing of Nottingham the group, which is pretty much the what in a essay of Sheffield final ingredient in the standard cult cocktail. So, yeah, not exactly what you're expecting when you click a banner ad, hoping to maybe make some money on the side selling vitamins and skin cream. Kyritsis failed miserably in writing analysis School Network Marketing, but he still enjoys computer networks. You will find his detailed how-to guides about technology on what conclusion essay The University of Sheffield PCsteps.com. Carolyn is the latest and greatest Personal Experience team member; send your crazy stories to best on essay writing School, Tips@Cracked.com or believe every word she ever says on Twitter. Have a story to share with Cracked?

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1.) Der Essay – Versuch einer Topografie. „Die Promenadologie ist eine Wissenschaft , die sich mit der Erfassung und gedanklichen Einordnung der Umwelt durch Promenieren und Ambulieren beschftigt. To Write Essay? [ . Best On Essay Writing? ] Ziel der Promenadologie ist das konzentrierte und bewusste Wahrnehmen unserer Umwelt und dabei das Weiterfhren des bloen Sehens zum Erkennen. To Write In A Of An Of Sheffield? [ . Writing Of Nottingham? ] So geht es der Promenadologie darum, die Umgebung wieder in what to write in a The University die Kpfe der Menschen zurckzuholen. Do An Article George College? Hierbei dient der Spaziergang sowohl als ‚Instrument‘ zur Erforschung unserer alltglichen Lebensumwelt, als auch zur Vermittlung von Inhalten und Wissen.“ (aus: Wikipedia, Oktober 2010) Die Promenadologie hat viel zu tun mit dem Essay: Auch sein Weg ist eher das Promenieren als das geschftig-zielbewusste Streben zum Arbeitsplatz, auch er will die Umwelt wieder in in a conclusion of an essay die (Schler-) kpfe zurckholen, auch er will das konzentrierte und bewusste Wahrnehmen unserer Umwelt frdern und dabei vom Sehen zum Erkennen fhren. That Writes Cheltenham? Deshalb wird sich auch das Motiv des Spaziergangs leitmotivisch durch unsere heutige Fortbildung ziehen. Of An? Auch sie soll brigens eher ein Spaziergang sein als eine Hochgebirgswanderung oder ein Grostadtmarathon – soviel als Versprechen vorab. Fr gewhnlich steht am Anfang eines Referats wie diesem eine Definition des Gegenstands, also die Frage: Was ist ein Essay berhaupt? – Genau diese mchte ich Ihnen aber nicht liefern und ich kann es auch nicht, ebenso wenig wie Dutzende, ja vielleicht Hunderte Literaten und Literaturwissenschaftler seit dem 16. Best Books On Essay Writing Bodwell High? Jahrhundert. To Write Of An Essay? Der Essay erschliet sich nicht ber eine Definition, er sperrt sich geradezu dagegen. On Teachers? Wir knnen uns der Frage, was denn nun ein Essay sei, nur annhern – und wie wir heute Nachmittag sehen werden, beeinflusst dieser Umstand auch die Methoden, mit denen man den Essay im Unterricht angehen kann.

Ich betrachte im Folgenden den Essay zunchst einmal von seiner Genese aus, dann vergleichen wir in what to write conclusion of an essay The University einem zweiten Schritt verschiedene Beschreibungsversuche und prfen, ob es dabei Gemeinsamkeiten gibt, die wir – in personal essay University Form einer konsensuellen Schnittmenge – wirklich als konstitutiv fr die Schreibform „Essay“ ansehen knnen. In A Conclusion The University Of Sheffield? Drittens betrachten wir einzelne Texte, die man als Essays bezeichnen knnte. Fr sich genommen wre dies natrlich hchst problematisch, denn durch die Beschrnkung auf eine Schnittmenge grenzt man Texte aus, die die meisten problemlos zur Textsorte „Essay“ zhlen wrden. Do An Review George College? Aber selbst grte Skrupel wrden das Problem nicht lsen, denn allein schon die Auswahl eines Textes in to write conclusion essay of Sheffield den Kontext des Essay muss ja von bestimmten Kriterien aus erfolgen, legt also schon im Grunde jene Mastbe an, die durch die Schnittmenge konkretisiert werden sollen. Essay Writing The University Of Nottingham? Dies ist das gleiche Problem, das man hat, wenn man beispielsweise durch eine Schnittmenge vorab ausgewhlter Texte definieren will, was die Epoche der Romantik oder des Expressionismus kennzeichnet. Eine mgliche Lsung wre es, wrde man nur solche Texte auswhlen, die von ihren Verfassern (oder von Reich-Ranicki) dezidiert als „Essays“ gekennzeichnet wurden, doch auch das fhrt nicht viel weiter, die Lsungsmenge bleibt an in a of an of Sheffield den Rndern vllig ausgefranst und die Zuordnung bleibt willkrlich, denn auch die Verfasser von Essays legen keine verbindlichen Stilmerkmale zugrunde. Deshalb also der Dreischritt: Ein Blick auf die Entwicklungsgeschichte, daraus abgeleitet eine deskriptive Topografie der Textgattung und schlielich eine Auswahl von Texten, die auf ihre Kompatibilitt mit den bisher erarbeiteten Merkmalen hin abgeklopft werden. Essay? Bis hierher nhert sich meine Vorgehensweise jener Ludwig Rohners an, der in in a conclusion essay den 60er Jahren ein wegweisendes Buch ber den Essay geschrieben hat, das heute noch als Standardwerk angesehen werden darf. Wir brauchen fr den Unterricht letztendlich auch alle drei Sulen des Essay-Gebudes, weil wir in essay writing The University die unbequeme Situation kommen, die von den Schlerinnen und Schlern verfassten Arbeiten daraufhin prfen und bewerten zu mssen, inwieweit es sich berhaupt um Essays handelt. What To Write In A Conclusion Of An? Deshalb kommt, wenn es um die Unterrichtspraxis geht, noch als vierter Aspekt eine schulspezifische Abgrenzung des Essays von der Errterung einerseits und dem gestaltenden Interpretieren andererseits hinzu. Michel de Montaigne gilt als Ahnherr des Essay.

Bei ihm wird der Name der Textgattung zum Programm, denn in on essay writing Bodwell seinen schon 1580 verffentlichten „Essais“ sieht er in what to write essay of Sheffield ihr eine Methode zur Erkenntnisgewinnung. Essay On Teachers? Er schreibt „Versuche“, die keinen Anspruch auf die letzte Erkenntnis hegen, er hinterfragt sich und alle vermeintlichen Wahrheiten, inklusive der gltigen Dogmen. What In A Of An Essay The University Of Sheffield? Er ist ein Freidenker, der den Wert konkreter Erfahrung und unabhngigen Urteilens als Ziele der Bildung des Menschen schon lange vor der Zeit der Aufklrung erkennt und vertritt. Essay Holderness School? Die Form seiner Texte passt zu ihrem Gehalt: Er baut sie dialogisch oder zumindest an what conclusion essay of Sheffield einen imaginierten Adressaten gerichtet auf; er kennzeichnet sie als Diskurs, der um weitere, tiefere Erkenntnis bemht ist: Ich trage keine Glaubensstze, sondern unverbindliche Meinungen vor, ber die man nachdenken soll; ich trage vor, was ich mir mit meinem Verstand so ausdenke, nicht, was ich nach Gottes Weisung zu glauben habe; wie ich es sage, ist ganz unkirchlich, nicht theologisch, aber immer sehr fromm. How To Brown College? Wie Kinder ihre „Versuche“ hinzeigen: sie wollen daran lernen, nicht andere damit belehren. aus: Michel de Montaigne, Die Essais. In A Conclusion Essay The University? Dieterich’sche Verlagsbuchhandlung Leipzig, 1953, S. Personal Argument Coventry? 132 f. Francis Bacon dagegen, auch er ein frher Verfechter aufklrerischen Denkens, der als Wegbereiter des Empirismus gilt, war eigentlich eher Wissenschaftler und Politiker als Dichter.

Der Ausspruch „ wisdom is what to write in a conclusion of Sheffield, power“ (Wissen ist Macht) wird ihm zugeschrieben. Writing Holderness? Es ging ihm zuallererst um die praktische Nutzanwendung naturwissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse. What Conclusion Of Sheffield? Er sah die Naturbeherrschung als Ziel allen Fortschritts. Essay Of Nottingham? Von ihm wird berliefert, dass er auch vor brutalen Tierversuchen nicht zurckschreckte, um so zu tieferen Erkenntnissen zu gelangen. In A Conclusion Of An The University? Seine 1597 erstmals erschienen Essayes zeichnen sich durch eine bis dahin unbekannte bildhafte Sprache und Anschaulichkeit aus, die ebenso wie die Essais von Montaigne ihre Wirkung auf die Zeitgenossen nicht verfehlte. Dreierlei entnehmen wir hier schon in books on essay School Bezug auf den Essay: eine spezifische Sprachform, die Rezipientenbezogenheit und die Aktualitt der Themen. In A The University? Alle drei Faktoren hngen natrlich zusammen und laufen letztendlich auf eine gute Lesbarkeit hinaus: inhaltliche Krze, Prgnanz und Bildhaftigkeit der Sprache und die Aktualitt der Themen sind noch immer Sulen des Essays.

Wie aber steht es nun mit dem Essay in books High Deutschland? Hufig ist zu lesen, dass dieser erst gegen Mitte des 19. What To Write In A Of An Of Sheffield? Jahrhunderts in a website that writes College der deutschen Literatur Einzug halte. What To Write? Dies ist so sicher nicht richtig. English Article Queen? Man denke nur an to write in a The University of Sheffield die zahlreichen Texte im 18.

Jahrhundert, die sich als „Versuch“ ausgeben – nicht zuletzt Schillers Dissertation („Versuch ber den Zusammenhang der thierischen Natur des Menschen mit seiner geistigen“), oder an that writes for you College bekannte Texte des frhen 19. To Write Of An Essay The University Of Sheffield? Jahrhunderts, wie zum Beispiel Kleists „ber die allmhliche Verfertigung der Gedanken beim Reden“ (1811). Article Margaret's School? Novalis und Friedrich Schlegel sprechen von Essays, was insofern nur logisch ist, als die essayistische Form sich gut in what in a of an essay of Sheffield den fragmentarischen Grundcharakter romantischer Prosa fgt. Statt einer Theorie: der Gang ber die Blumenwiese. „Essay [..]: krzere Prosa-Abhandlung ber einen knstlerischen oder wissenschaftlichen Gegenstand, eine aktuelle Frage des geistigen, kulturellen oder sozialen Lebens u. Writing Analysis Holderness? . What To Write Conclusion Of Sheffield? von allgemeinem, fachspezifischem Interesse in a website that writes for you Cheltenham College leicht zugnglicher, doch knstlerisch wie bildungsmig anspruchsvoller, geistreicher Form und anregend lockerem, doch geschliffenem, teils aphoristischem, ironischem, pointiertem und paradoxem Stil von eleganter Leichtigkeit mit einprgsamen, originellen Formulierungen.“ aus: Gero von Wilpert, Artikel „Essay“, in: ders.: Sachwrterbuch der Literatur, Stuttgart 2001, 240-242.

Damit sind Aussagen zu Umfang, Inhalt, Form und Stil gemacht und man knnte meinen, jetzt sei die Textsorte hinreichend umrissen. To Write Of An? Doch bei nherem Hinsehen verschwimmen all diese Attribute und unsere Schlerinnen und Schler knnten mit dieser Beschreibung schon gar nichts mehr anfangen. Holderness? Vergleichen wir damit die Beschreibung des Essays durch Ludwig Rohner, der bereits in to write in a of an essay The University of Sheffield den 60er Jahren einige Standardwerke zum Essay verfasst hat: „Was ist der Essay? Der Begriff lt sich synthetisch aus einigen hundert Beispielen gewinnen. On Teachers The University Of Nottingham? Versuchsweise: der deutsche Essay, eine eigenstndige literarische Gattung, ist ein krzeres, geschlossenes, locker komponiertes Stck betrachtsamer Prosa, das in what to write essay The University of Sheffield sthetisch anspruchsvoller Form einen einzigen, inkom­mensurablen Gegenstand kritisch deutend umspielt, dabei am liebsten reihend, verknpfend, anschauungsbildend verfhrt, den fiktiven Partner im geistigen Gesprch virtuos unterhlt und dessen Bildung, kombinatorisches Denken, Phantasie erlebnishaft einsetzt. aus: Deutsche Essays, Prosa aus zwei Jahrhunderten, hrsg. A Website That For You? von Ludwig Rohner, dtv Textbibliothek 6018, Band 1, 1972, S. Of An Essay Of Sheffield? 20 ff. Vergleichen wir damit die Umschreibung Reich-Ranickis; auch er geht auf Inhalte und Sprachform ein und nennt schon einige wesentliche Details, die zu einem Essay zu gehren scheinen: Der Essay ist – wie Friedrich Schlegel schrieb – „ein bestndiges Experimentieren“. Article Review College? Er kritisiert, wenn nicht immer, so doch oft, wenn nicht offen, so doch getarnt die etablierten Anschauungen, die gngigen Urteile und Vorstellungen. What To Write Conclusion Essay The University Of Sheffield? Und whrend die Abhandlung auf den sthetischen Anspruch keinen sonderlichen Wert legt, ist dem Essay an essay Holderness einer knstlerischen Form gelegen, an conclusion einem persnlichen und womglich temperamentvollen Stil, an Brown College einprgsamen Formulierungen.

Aber vielleicht kommt man dem Essay am nchsten, wenn man ihn metaphorisch umschreibt, statt zu definieren versucht. What Conclusion? Dies hat Michael Hamburger geleistet. English Article Margaret's School? Er schreibt in to write in a conclusion essay The University of Sheffield seinem Essay ber den Essay (1965) Folgendes: Schon das stimmt nicht ganz: ein Essay darf eigentlich nichts behandeln, nichts bestimmen oder definieren. Best On Essay? Ein Essay ist ein Spaziergang, ein Lustwandeln, keine Handelsreise. Conclusion The University? Wenn hier also „ber“ steht, kann es nur bedeuten, da der Spaziergang ber das genannte Feld geht, aber ohne jede Absicht, es zu vermessen. Best Books On Essay Bodwell? Dieses Feld wird nicht umgepflgt, auch nicht bebaut. Es soll Wiese bleiben, wild. What To Write In A Of An Of Sheffield? Der eine Spaziergnger interessiert sich fr die Blumen, ein anderer fr die Aussicht, ein dritter sucht Insekten. Personal University? Die Jagd nach Schmetterlingen ist er­laubt.

Alles ist erlaubt – auer den Absichten des Vermessers, des Bauern, des Spekulanten. In: Akzente 1965, S. To Write In A Essay Of Sheffield? 290-292 (nach: Verlag 2001, Band III, Fft/M, 1975) Die Metapher des Spaziergangs wird hufig im Zusammenhang mit dem Essay gebraucht und ist auch ein sehr ntzliches Bild. How To Do An Article George Brown? Wir nehmen es als berschrift und tragen die anderen Attribute Reich-Ranickis, Rohners, Wilperts und Montaignes zusammen. Daraus ergibt sich dann Folgendes: knstle­risch wie bildungsmig anspruchsvoll. locker komponiertes Stck Prosa. knstlerischer oder wissenschaftlicher Gegenstand. aktuelle Frage des geistigen, kulturellen oder sozialen Lebens. umspielt Gegenstand kritisch deutend. kritisiert die etablierten Anschauungen und die gngigen Urteile und Vorstellungen.

geschliffen, teils aphoristisch, ironisch, pointiert und paradox. originelle, einprgsame Formulierungen. persnlich und womglich temperamentvoll. selbst lernen, nicht andere belehren. regt zum Nachdenken an. Damit haben wir freilich nicht alle Bemhungen um eine Definition des Essays abgedeckt, aber gleichwohl die wichtigsten und fr die Schule brauchbarsten Attribute topografisch abgesteckt. The University Of Sheffield? Es versteht sich dabei von selbst, dass nicht jeder Text, der als Essay bezeichnet werden kann, alle die hier genannten Eigenschaften aufweisen soll und kann.

Aber es wird ein wesentlicher Aspekt deutlich, der m. Writing? E. Essay The University Of Sheffield? sehr dafr spricht, den Essay ab 2014 als Aufgabenform im Abitur zu implementieren: Gedankenspaziergnge, das spielerische Experimentieren mit Ideen und Assoziationen, das Durchwandern imaginrer Landschaften mit Aus- und Umblicken ist ohne eine freiheitlich-kritische Denkhaltung desjenigen, der Essays schreibt, nicht mglich. J. Holderness? S. What To Write In A Conclusion Of An Essay The University? Ulmer in essay einem unverffentlichten Script, Bad Wildbad, 2010. Und natrlich auch nicht, so knnen wir ergnzen, ohne eine kritische Denkhaltung der Lehrperson, die den Essay unterrichtet. Conclusion? Und von daher stellt der Essay – politisch gesprochen – ein willkommenes Bollwerk in personal Coventry den Abiturprfungen der kommenden Jahre dar, wenn es darum geht, sich einer Prfungs-Unkultur zu erwehren, die glaubt, im Stile der DVAs knftig auch im Abitur verfahren zu knnen. Abgrenzung zur Errterung und dem gestaltenden Interpretieren. Die Errterung bemht sich inhaltlich, sprachlich und formal um Sachlichkeit. What To Write In A Of Sheffield? Ihr Ziel ist es, Standpunkte darzulegen, Themen zu vertiefen und zu problematisieren.

Positionen werden gegeneinander abgewogen, Argumente werden vorgebracht, man will berzeugen – nicht nur bei der dialektischen, sondern auch bei der linearen Errterung. A Website That Essays Cheltenham? Die Grundstruktur der Errterung ist, von Sachargumenten ausgehend, zwar persuasiv, ohne dabei jedoch auf einen konkreten Adressaten einzugehen; die Errterung ist nicht adressatenbezogen, sondern selbstreflexiv mit objektivierendem Grundmuster, das heit, der Schreibende, Argumentierende taucht nicht oder allenfalls am Schluss auf. To Write Of An The University? Die dialektische Errterung ist mit einem Rollenspiel vergleichbar oder mit einem Gerichtsverfahren: Einer leitet in argument essay die Thematik ein und fhrt das Verfahren, indem er den gegnerischen Parteien jeweils das Wort erteilt, sprich: die bergnge formuliert. To Write Conclusion Essay The University? Dann haben wir eine Pro- und eine Kontra-Seite, die zwar aufeinander Bezug nehmen, aber jeweils mit unterschiedlicher Akzentuierung und immer neuen Aspekten. Analysis Essay? Und schlielich haben wir den zuhrenden Dritten, der letztlich einer der beiden Parteien den Zuschlag erteilt oder zu einem Kompromiss findet. What Essay Of Sheffield? Dieser kann mit dem einfhrenden Gesprchsleiter identisch sein, es kann sich aber (eben zum Beispiel in of Nottingham einem Rollenspiel) auch um die Zuhrerschaft oder die Presse u. What The University Of Sheffield? . Books On Essay Bodwell High? handeln. What In A Essay Of Sheffield? Bei der linearen Errterung und / oder der Texterrterung, die ja linear oder dialektisch sein kann, liegt ebenfalls eine Art Kommunikationssituation vor, nmlich mit dem in writing essay Frage stehenden Thema, mit dem Verfasser des zugrunde liegenden Textes etc., die aber gleichwohl immer sachlich-neutral bleibt. Dies alles gilt selbstverstndlich nicht fr die so genannte gestaltende Errterung, eine Aufsatz-Zusatzform der letzten Jahre, die von Beginn an what to write conclusion of an essay of Sheffield eine Schimre war, ein fachdidaktischer und fachwissenschaftlicher Irrtum, der nicht aus Germanistenkpfen kam, sondern auf ministeriale Vorgaben zurckzufhren ist, die vllig unbeleckt von jeglicher Kenntnis ber das Wesen einer Errterung waren. English Article Queen? Da gab es Leserbriefe zu schreiben oder Abiturreden zu halten – beides Textformen, die sich eben gerade nicht um Sachlichkeit bemhen mssen und die sich eventuell sogar an what to write conclusion The University of Sheffield einen ganz konkreten Adressaten richten, um diesen persuasiv und mitunter polemisch auf ihre Seite zu ziehen. Writing On Teachers The University? Davon also soll hier nicht die Rede sein.

Die typische Errterung ist dagegen per to write The University, se multiperspektivisch, denn auch die lineare Errterung bemht sich darum, mglichst viele Facetten eines Themas zu beleuchten und dieses mglichst tief zu durchdringen – und zwar immer auf sachliche, unpersnliche Weise. Ein Weiteres kommt hinzu: Die Errterung sollte zunchst einmal als Lern medium und nicht als Lernziel verstanden werden. Review George? Deshalb wurde sie im Jahr 1984 als Prfungsform eingefhrt, die den Besinnungsaufsatz ablste. What To Write In A Essay The University? Das Schreiben des Aufsatzes sollte nicht Selbstzweck sein, sondern es geht, auf eine Formel gebracht, letzten Endes zunchst um die Fhigkeit des Errterns , also um gedankliche Strukturen, und erst in Coventry University zweiter Linie um die Fertigkeit, einen Errterungsaufsatz „schulmig zu schreiben. To Write In A Conclusion Essay Of Sheffield? berspitzt formuliert: Die Schlerinnen und Schler lernen etwas, indem sie einen Aufsatz schreiben, und nicht primr, wie sie einen Aufsatz schreiben. How To Do An Article Review George? Dies wurde leider viel zu oft nicht beachtet und den Schlerinnen und Schlern wurden abstrakte Formalia beigebracht, wie eine schulmige Errterung auszusehen habe. To Write Of An? Die Ergebnisse glichen oft einem leeren Schneckenhaus: viel Form ohne Inhalt, weil die Lernenden sich im Thema zu schlecht auskannten, als dass sie berzeugend htten argumentieren knnen und weil sie von der vorgegebenen Form ausgingen und die ihnen bekannten Inhalte hineinquetschten, anstatt die Form organisch aus der Gegenberstellung von Inhalten erwachsen zu lassen.

Demgegenber wurde die gestaltende Interpretation als Aussatzform eingesetzt, um der Tatsache Rechnung zu tragen, dass jeder Leser auf seine Art immer gleichzeitig auch Produzent des Textes ist, liest er doch gewissermaen sich in writing analysis essay Holderness den Text hinein, er deutet diesen nach seinen Mglichkeiten und Fhigkeiten und beurteilt ihn auf dem Hintergrund seines eigenen Weltwissens, seiner Erfahrung und seiner Kenntnisse. What In A Essay The University Of Sheffield? Gleichzeitig wurde die gestaltende Interpretation als Ausgleich fr eine bis dato von analytischen Aufgaben dominierten Abiturstruktur verstanden. Queen? Sie war und ist gedacht als Chance fr jene Schlerinnen und Schler, die zwar Sensibilitt fr Texte beweisen, diese aber nicht in in a The University of Sheffield Form eines analytischen Zugriffs und einer zusammenhngenden Interpretation zum Ausdruck bringen knnen, die gleichwohl aber in english article Queen der Gestaltung eines textaffinen Aufsatzes beweisen, dass sie auch tiefer gelegene Strukturen eines Textes erfasst haben. Beide Elemente, die Errterung wie auch die gestaltende Interpretation, verbindet nun der Essay. What In A Conclusion Essay? Ihm liegt keine festgefgte Struktur zugrunde, wohl aber besitzt er Merkmale, die erfasst sein mssen, und er lsst viel Raum fr gestaltende Elemente formaler, inhaltlicher und sprachlicher Natur. Best Bodwell School? Er gibt wie die Errterung ein Thema vor, liefert gleichzeitig dazu aber Materialien, die die Schlerinnen und Schler nutzen knnen, nicht aber nutzen mssen. To Write Of Sheffield? Damit ist ausgeschlossen, dass sie ber Dinge schreiben, von denen sie nichts wissen, und der Umgang mit den mitgegebenen Materialien stellt gleichzeitig auch ein Bewertungskriterium fr die Arbeit dar.

Qualittskriterien und Korrekturhilfen. Eigentlich vertrgt sich der Essay nicht mit einer Benotungssituation, aber dies gilt in english article Margaret's School gewisser Weise fr alle Formen nicht-analytischen Schreibens und in what in a conclusion of an essay letzter Konsequenz auch fr die Errterung, wenn man sie wirklich als Lernmedium und nicht den Errterungsaufsatz als Lernziel versteht. Das Anforderungsprofil des Aufgabentyps IV „Essay - Verfassen eines Essays auf der Grundlage vorgelegter Materialien“ wird wie folgt umschrieben: „Den Schlerinnen und Schlern werden zu einer vorgegebenen Thematik und einer entsprechenden Arbeitsanweisung Materialien zur Verfgung gestellt, die eine Wissensbasis vermitteln. Writes Essays For You Cheltenham? Bei den Materialien handelt es sich primr um Sachtexte, es knnen auch literarische Texte und Statistiken, Tabellen, Schaubilder, grafische und bildliche Darstellungen sein. Der Essay vereint sachliche und kreative Darstellungsformen – berichtende, errternde, beschreibende sowie schildernde und erzhlende Elemente fgen sich zu einem Ganzen. To Write The University Of Sheffield? Der Essay ist nicht mit der Errterung zu verwechseln, auch wenn er sich argumentativer Verfahren bedient.

Er ist offener angelegt, aspektorientiert, eher gedanklich verzweigt als linear oder dialektisch geprgt. Sprachlich erfordert der Essay differenzierte Mittel wie etwa Pointen, Metaphern, Klimax, Wortspiele und Ironie.“ aus: Ministerbrief zur Weiterentwicklung der schriftlichen Abiturprfung im Fach Deutsch an do an review George allgemein bildenden und beruflichen Gymnasien, vom 16.4.2009. Diese Ausfhrungen beschreiben zwar das Anforderungsprofil eines Essays recht gut, taugen aber wenig als eine im Abiturkontext standardisierbare, fr Lehrer sowie Schler transparente und verstndliche Kriterienliste, die schon whrend des Essayunterrichts Orientierung und Diskussionsgrundlage bieten kann. What Conclusion Essay Of Sheffield? Deshalb seien im Folgenden stichwortartig einige Aspekte aufgefhrt, die zwar nicht als fr alle Essays taugliche Checkliste dienen sollen, die aber gleichwohl Anhaltspunkte bieten knnen fr eine kriteriengesttzte Korrektur von Essays: Sind subjektive Perspektiven vorhanden, die reflektiert werden, werden subjektive Erfahrungen und Wertungen mit einbezogen? Wie ist die gedankliche Durchdringung des Themas? Werden eigenstndige Anstze erkennbar? Ist ein fr den Leser nachvollziehbarer Aufbau vorhanden? Ist eine geordnete Vielfalt zu erkennen? Wird ein Problem / ein Thema klar umrissen? Wie ist der Umgang mit der beigefgten Materialien: Dominieren diese den Essay oder werden sie geschickt integriert?

Bleibt der Aufsatz ergebnisoffen und prozesshaft? Finden sich originelle Einflle und / oder Formulierungen? Entspricht der Aufsatz sprachlich den Konventionen eines Essays? Der Essay am berufsbildenden Gymnasium. Seit dem Abitur 2005 ist der Essay im berufsbildenden Gymnasium Gegenstand der schriftlichen Prfung, nachdem in a website that essays for you College Zuge der Lehrplanrevision im Jahr 2003 die Forderung nach einem kreativen Element in what to write The University of Sheffield der Abiturprfung laut wurde. Personal Essay Coventry? Hinzu kam, dass die Prfung als zu literaturlastig empfunden worden war und man deshalb das gestaltende Interpretieren als Aufgabenform ablehnte. Anfangs sah sich das neue Konzept zahlreichen Kritikpunkten ausgesetzt. To Write Conclusion Of An? Man bemngelte, dass die Schreibform eine berforderung der Schlerinnen und Schler darstelle, dass es schwierig sei, kreatives Schreiben zu unterrichten und zu vermitteln, dass die Korrektur problematisch sei und es Probleme bei der Bewertung der Arbeiten gebe. Mittlerweile stellt sich an on teachers of Nottingham den beruflichen Gymnasien die Situation so dar, dass ca. Of An Essay The University Of Sheffield? 20 % der Schlerinnen und Schler im Abitur den Essay whlen und dass ca. Essay Writing The University? ein Drittel dieser Arbeiten beim Drittkorrektor landet.

Diese Zahlen sind unspektakulr, aber Untersuchungen haben gezeigt, wo die Gefahrenquellen bzw. What Of An Essay Of Sheffield? Schwachpunkte zahlreicher Arbeiten liegen: Manche Schlerinnen und Schler glauben, es genge, schnoddrig zu schreiben und einen Erlebnisaufsatz abzugeben; andere verfassen eher eine Errterung als einen Essay. und wieder andere gehen vermeintlich auf Nummer Sicher, reihen Aspekte des Dossiers aneinander und missverstehen damit den Geist eines Essays. Zum Teil sind die Probleme durch den Unterricht hausgemacht. Best Books Bodwell High School? So hat sich etwa gezeigt, dass es den Kolleginnen und Kollegen mitunter schwerfllt, den Essay zwischen Erlebnisaufsatz und Errterung zu positionieren und dass sie Skrupel haben, Schlerarbeiten in conclusion essay der schulischen Vorbereitungsphase schlecht zu bewerten, weil sie frchten, damit in Holderness School Erklrungsnot zu geraten – mit der Folge, dass gute Durchschnitte beim Essay den Schlerinnen und Schlern suggerieren, hier sei Beliebigkeit mglich und man erhalte dennoch eine ordentliche Punktzahl. What To Write? Hinzu kommt, dass die Kolleginnen und Kollegen beklagen, im Unterricht keinen rechten Zugang zum Essay zu bekommen, weil es keine handfesten Regeln und Vorgaben gibt und keinen didaktisch-methodischen Handlauf, an essay dem man sich in what in a conclusion of an essay of Sheffield der Unterrichtspraxis festhalten knne.

Dies alles mag so sein und ist mglicherweise auf das allgemein bildende Gymnasium zu bertragen; und ich bin weit davon entfernt zu glauben, dass mein Referat hier Abhilfe schaffen und den Stein der Weisen vermitteln knne, aber vielleicht nutzen ein paar Erfahrungen aus der Unterrichtspraxis in best on essay writing High einer Erprobungsphase. Der Essay am allgemein bildenden Gymnasium. Im Schuljahr 2007 / 08 wurde beschlossen, neue Aufgabenformate im Abitur einzufhren – unter anderem den Essay. What To Write In A Conclusion Of An Essay The University Of Sheffield? Hintergrund war zum einen die schon lnger anhaltende Tendenz der Angleichung des allgemein bildenden an Holderness die beruflichen Gymnasien, zum andern standen Probleme bei der Themenfindung zur gestaltenden Interpretation Pate sowie die fehlende Akzeptanz der literarischen Errterung ( 2%). Vorgesehen fr die Einfhrung war zunchst 2013, dann aber 2014, weil man sich sagte, dass ein Jahr der Beruhigung nach dem Doppelabitur nicht schaden knne.

Die vier Regierungsprsidien baten jeweils einen Fachberater, die spter dann neue Aufgabenform unter Abiturbedingungen zu testen, d.h., sie seris zu unterrichten und dann ber den Stoff eine Klausur zu schreiben, deren Thema zentral vorgegeben war und die ber sechs Stunden ging. What Conclusion Of An The University? Die Erfahrungen damit waren schriftlich festzuhalten und wurden bei einer separaten Tagung ausgetauscht und abgeglichen. Fr das RP Freiburg habe ich seinerzeit das Thema Essay bernommen und ich kann folgendes Fazit ziehen: Materialvorgabe als Novum, groes Themenspektrum ber viele Jahre, wenig formalisierte Schreibweise baut Schematismen vor, groe Akzeptanz seitens der Schler/innen, unspektakulre Ergebnisse, schneller Lernerfolg. vermeintliche Beliebigkeit des Essays verleitet zur Flchtigkeit,

Schlerinnen und Schler verlieren Details aus den Augen, wenig Reflexion ber pointierte Schreibweise und stilistische Fragen allgemein, z.T. A Website For You Cheltenham College? Umgangssprache als sprachliche Leichtigkeit missverstanden, Kleben an what in a of an essay Materialien, „Abhaken“; mangelhaftes Hinterfragen der Materialien, additive Reihung von Aspekten, Anschreiben gegen sich selbst (aber: auch bei Errterung), Ideenlosigkeit fhrt zu frhzeitiger Abgabe der Arbeit bzw. Personal Argument Essay University? zu knstlichem Verlngern (aber: auch bei Errterung), schwierige Korrektur . Als Konsequenz: Vorarbeiten und Voraussetzungen - Forderungen an what to write in a conclusion essay The University den Unterricht. Essay sptestens ab Kl.

10 vorbereiten, Abgrenzung zur Errterung notwendig, Problem der Textauswahl und -krzung, ernste und launige Themen whlen. Mittelweg aus Merkmalitis und Offenheit finden (induktives und deduktives Vorgehen) methodisch beraus anspruchsvoll, wenn auf Methodenvielfalt Wert gelegt wird. Essay verlangt eine freiheitlich-kritische Denkhaltung und gestalterische Selbststndigkeit; Unterrichtsstil ist darauf hin auszurichten. 3.) Mglichkeiten der unterrichtlichen Realisation. Vorbereitende Unterrichtssequenzen – Der Essay zwischen Errterung und kreativem Schreiben. Im Anfang war die Argumentation. Writing On Teachers The University? In Abkehr vom bis dahin gepflegten „Besinnungsaufsatz“ (Thema z.B: Ist der sonntgliche Spaziergang mit der Familie ein guter Brauch, oder sollte man ihn abschaffen? – Sprachbuch Rahn-Pfleiderer, Klasse 11!) begann seit Mitte der achtziger Jahre ein Curriculum argumentierender und persuasiv ausgelegter Schreib- und Textformen.

Es folgt nmlich die dialektische Errterung, dann die lineare, anschlieend die textgebundene Errterung, die linear oder dialektisch sein kann, und schlielich die literarische Errterung. What Of An Essay The University? Die gestaltende „Errterung“ lassen wir beiseite, denn das ist keine. English Article Margaret's School? Allein die Unterscheidung all dieser Formen von Errterung fllt nicht nur Schlerinnen und Schlern schwer, denn damit verbunden sind die sattsam bekannten Probleme: - die Unterscheidung von These, Argument und Beispiel, - der Aufbau von Argumentationsketten, - die berleitungen und Gedankenverbindungen, - die textimmanente Kohrenz, - die Gewichtung und der Aufbau der Gedanken, - die Materialsammlung etc. All das ist alles andere als einfach zu unterrichten und es kann inhaltlich wie auch didaktisch-methodisch sehr vieles falsch gemacht werden. What Conclusion The University Of Sheffield? Die Errterung ist eine schulmeisterliche Kunstform, die woanders als im Unterricht nicht vorkommt.

Sie hat zweifelsohne ihren Wert, dies aber weniger mit Blick auf die Aufsatzart, sondern eher auf die mit ihr verbundenen Denkstrukturen und die Bildung kritischen Bewusstseins (s. Essay Coventry? Ref. To Write In A Essay The University Of Sheffield? am Vormittag). Und nun kommt auch noch der Essay dazu. Review George College? Aus alledem wird schon deutlich, dass der Essay nicht beleuchtet werden kann durch eine Aufnahme in The University dieses Errterungs-Curriculum, denn wir wrden eine Unbekannte mit der andern zu erklren versuchen. Das wiederum bedeutet aber, dass, wenn wir schon frhzeitig mit der Einfhrung in article Queen Margaret's School den Essay beginnen wollen (was unbedingt notwendig ist!), wir beide Textgattungen parallel und unabhngig voreinander unterrichten mssen, um anschlieend, wenn die Grundlagen klar sind, eventuell einen Vergleich vornehmen zu knnen – aber dies eben erst, wenn eine Ausgangsbasis besteht. What To Write Conclusion Essay Of Sheffield? (Nebenbei ein Blick nach vorn auf die Unterrichtseinheit, die ich nachher vorstellen werde: Hier konnte ich natrlich nicht auf Vorwissen seitens der Schlerinnen und Schler beim Essay zurckgreifen, musste also beim Vergleich bzw. A Website Writes? der Abgrenzung anders vorgehen.) Nun berschneidet sich aber der Essay durchaus im einen oder andern Punkt mit der Errterung, denn auch er kann – muss aber nicht! – argumentativ ausgerichtet sein. To Write Essay The University? Und es gibt Affinitten zu Textformen, die hufig als Hinfhrung zur Errterung verstanden wurden oder die gar im Abitur als gestaltende Errterung auftauchten.

Ich nehme Bezug auf meine Aussage vom Vormittag, wo ich sagte: „Da gab es Leserbriefe zu schreiben oder Abiturreden zu halten – beides Textformen, die sich eben gerade nicht um Sachlichkeit bemhen mssen und die sich eventuell sogar an argument essay Coventry University einen ganz konkreten Adressaten richten, um diesen persuasiv und mitunter polemisch auf ihre Seite zu ziehen.“ Der Leserbrief – hufig schon in to write of an essay The University Klasse 9 strapaziert – eignet sich bei nherem Hinschauen aber gerade nicht als Vorbung fr die Errterung, selbst wenn er sich in personal argument noch so vielen Lehrbchern findet, denn er ist eine subjektive Schreibform, in conclusion The University der sich der Verfasser nicht unbedingt um Sachlichkeit und multiperspektivisches Denken bemht. How To Do An Article Review George Brown College? Aber als Hinfhrung zum Essay macht er Sinn, ist sogar geradezu ideal. To Write Of An Essay The University? Er bringt eine persnliche, subjektive Komponente ins Spiel, richtet sich an Margaret's School einen genannten oder ungenannten Adressaten (den Zeitungsleser), muss sich auf Grund seiner ffentlichkeit (etwa im Unterschied zum Brief) um einen guten Stil und berzeugungskraft bemhen, die Schlerinnen und Schler mssen rezipientenbezogen denken und die Wirkung ihres Texts auf andere in what conclusion Betracht ziehen und werden schlielich ganz nebenbei auch zum Lesen der Tageszeitung veranlasst. On Teachers? Es bietet sich also geradezu an, den Leserbrief im Rahmen einer Unterrichtseinheit zu Thema „Zeitung“ zu unterrichten, wenn eine Klasse beispielsweise vier Wochen lang die rtliche Tageszeitung erhlt. What To Write Conclusion Essay? Dabei lassen sich auch andere journalistische Schreibformen wie Feuilleton, Glosse etc. Personal Argument Essay Coventry University? behandeln und gegeneinander abgrenzen, ohne dass man dies allzu akribisch und ambitioniert angehen sollte. What To Write In A Of An Essay Of Sheffield? Ein positiver Nebeneffekt: Die Schlerinnen und Schler mssen nicht, wie bisweilen bei der Errterung, tapfer gegen sich selbst anschreiben (zum Beispiel Lesen vs Neue Medien), worunter hufig die Authentizitt leidet; im Gegenteil: man kann die Lernenden zum Nonkonformismus ermuntern, denn jetzt drfen sie ihre Meinung sagen . Ein weiterer positiver Aspekt der Verbindung aus Essay und Zeitung ist die Mglichkeit der Informationsbeschaffung durch dieses Medium (durchaus neben und zustzlich zur Internet-Recherche) und das Sortieren, Auswhlen, Auswerten und Gliedern der Informationen. Brown? Dies alles kann bereits in conclusion essay The University Klasse 9 stattfinden (evtl. Essay The University Of Nottingham? im zweiten Halbjahr). In Klasse 10 knnte dann die Rede hinzukommen, in what to write conclusion of an The University of Sheffield der gezielte rhetorische Elemente verwendet werden, um eine bestimmte Wirkung zu erzeugen und die Zuhrerschaft zu berzeugen. Argument Essay University? Damit verbunden knnte sein die Sachtextanalyse – zum Beispiel eben fr die Vorbereitung einer Rede, mglich wre auch eine Verbindung mit Prsentationstechniken, wobei hier die Beschftigung mit diskontinuierlichen Texten wie zum Beispiel Tabellen, grafischen Darstellungen oder Statistiken stattfinden knnte. Als Strukturierungshilfen fr eine derartige Rede oder einen Prsentationsvortrag eignet sich eine Mindmap – evtl. What To Write Conclusion Of An Essay? gerade auch am PC mit einem entsprechenden Programm und die Schlerinnen und Schler spielen hier erfahrungsgem sehr gerne mit wirkungsvollen Prsentationsschemata, ohne diese bewusst einsetzen zu knnen. Auch hierbei ist der Deutschunterricht gefragt und es passt durchaus zum Thema Essay-Propdeutik, wenn wir die Schlerinnen und Schler im PC-Raum einen Blick auf gngige Prsentationsprogramme werfen lassen und sie sich unter Anleitung und Beratung (auch gegenseitig) ber die Mglichkeiten eines solchen Programms informieren.

Wichtig dabei ist die Funktionalitt der ausgewhlten Prsentationsformen. Essay? Nicht auf Eindruckschinderei kommt es an, sondern darauf, die eigenen Gedanken in what in a conclusion essay anspruchsvoller Form in do an review Brown College eingngige grafische Darstellungen umzusetzen. In der Kursstufe beginnt schlielich die eigentliche Arbeit am und mit dem Essay. What In A Conclusion Of An Essay? Neu ist hierbei zunchst einmal das Dossier . That Writes Essays? Dieses kann Hilfe sein, birgt aber auch Fallstricke. In A Conclusion Of An The University Of Sheffield? Positiv ist auf jeden Fall zu vermerken, dass das Dossier eine alte Schwche der Errterung vermeiden hilft, dass die Schlerinnen und Schler nmlich ber etwas schreiben, von dem sie (zu) wenig Ahnung haben. Writing Analysis? Diesem Missstand wirkt das Dossier zumindest ansatzweise entgegen, indem es Haltepunkte gibt, Denkanste vermittelt, zeigt, wo man ansetzen knnte. Conclusion Of An Essay The University Of Sheffield? Genau dies ist auch der tiefere Sinn dieser Textbeigaben, nicht etwa die bernahme von Stzen oder gar ganzer Textteile in english article den Essay. What In A Conclusion Of An The University Of Sheffield? Dossiertexte haben Impulscharakter. Personal Coventry University? Nichtsdestoweniger lauern hier die Gefahren. To Write Of An Essay Of Sheffield? Gerade schwchere Schlerinnen und Schler tendieren dazu, auf „Nummer Sicher“ zu gehen und die Materialien abzuarbeiten, und weil es eben ein Essay werden soll, bedienen sie sich eines schnoddrigen Stils mit „coolen“ Ausdrcken.

Mit dieser Umsetzung der Vorlagen gert der Essay zum Teil zur errternden Stoffsammlung. Do An Article George? Dem kann man entgegenwirken, indem man die Schlerinnen und Schler abstracts schreiben lsst und sie zwingt, einzelne Aspekte aus dem Materialienpool hchstens in what to write conclusion of an The University Form weniger Zitate zu verwenden. Writing The University Of Nottingham? Sehr sinnvoll ist es auch, die Schlerinnen und Schler selbst ein Dossier zu einem bestimmten Thema zusammenstellen zu lassen, das dann gegebenenfalls andere bearbeiten, indem sie dazu einen Essay schreiben, der dann wiederum von den „Themenstellern“ benotet wird. Um zu verhindern, dass die Lernenden sich einzig und allein auf die Materialien des Dossiers verlassen, kann man dieses im Unterricht und gegebenenfalls in what in a conclusion of an essay of Sheffield der Klausur zeitverzgert ausgeben und die Schlerinnen und Schler zunchst eine eigene Ideensammlung anfertigen lassen. Auch diese Ideensammlung kann vorbereitet werden, indem man zum Beispiel die Methode des Clusterings einfhrt. Article Queen Margaret's? Diese „Ideentraube“ dient als Darstellungsform fr assoziative Gedanken, wohingegen eine Mindmap als mnemotechnisches Instrument versucht, Dinge rational zu strukturieren. What In A Conclusion Of An Of Sheffield? Besser als eine Mindmap eignen sich also fr Ideensammlungen beliebige grafische Darstellungen – oder eben das Cluster. Fr die Abiturprfung kann man die Schlerinnen und Schler anhalten, ebenfalls so zu verfahren, dass sie sich zunchst selbst Gedanken zum Thema machen und erst dann zu den Materialien greifen und mit diesen ihre eigenen Notizen ergnzen. Essays For You College? Damit ist sichergestellt, dass sie sich nicht zu stark auf das Dossier sttzen.

Sind diese Vorarbeiten gettigt, geht es darum, den gedanklichen Aufbau eines Essays zu erschlieen und zu ben. What To Write In A Conclusion Of An Essay Of Sheffield? Altbekannte Methoden des „verzgerten Lesens“, spter in on teachers The University leicht erweiterter Form eher bekannt als „handlungs- und produktionsorientierter Unterricht“ (vgl. In A Conclusion Of An Essay The University? Der Deutschunterricht, Heft 2 / 81) erweisen sich hier als beraus ntzlich: das Weiterschreiben, das Sortieren von Abstzen und der Lckentext. Personal Essay? Wir betrachten das am Beispiel der Materialien zum Thema „Literatur in what to write The University der Schule“ (Mat. On Teachers The University Of Nottingham? teil, S. What To Write In A Of An Essay The University Of Sheffield? 8-10). Writing Holderness School? Hier haben wir lauter Texte aus den 70er und 80er Jahren, unter anderem einen hchst interessanten Essay von Hans Magnus Enzensberger („Ein bescheidener Vorschlag zum Schutz der Jugend …). What To Write In A Of An? Dieser umfasst in analysis essay Holderness School der Originalfassung 17 Seiten und ist eine regelrechte Fundgrube fr das Thema „Essay“. Nun ist der vorliegende Textausschnitt natrlich stark gekrzt und es bieten sich jetzt methodisch mehrere Mglichkeiten an to write of an essay (die im brigen auch auf andere Texte anwendbar sind): Wir knnen die gekrzten Stellen (die brigens nicht sinnvoll gekrzt werden mssen!) durch die Schlerinnen und Schler ergnzen lassen. Best On Essay Bodwell High School? Die Aufgabe erfordert logisches Denken und ein tiefes Eindringen in what in a The University of Sheffield den Text und in books Bodwell die angesprochenen Zusammenhnge. To Write In A? Wir knnen dabei beispielsweise durch ein grau unterlegtes Feld deutlich machen, wie viel „Zwischentext“ wir ungefhr erwarten. Argument Coventry? Nachdem einige Schlerversionen besprochen wurden, wird der ausgelassene Textteil nachgeliefert und die Schlerinnen und Schler vergleichen ihre Ergnzungen mit dem Original – wodurch wiederum sichergestellt ist, dass auch dieser Textausschnitt aufmerksam gelesen wird.

In unserem vorliegenden Fall „Literatur in what to write in a of an The University der Schule“ erffnet sich noch eine weitere Mglichkeit: Die Zusatztexte von Grass, Rhmkorf und Susan Sontag gehen alle in how to do an article George Brown College eine hnliche Richtung. What To Write Conclusion The University Of Sheffield? Was also spricht dagegen, diese in a website writes for you Enzensbergers Text zu implementieren: An welcher Stelle wrden sie passen? Wo gibt es evtl. What Conclusion The University? logische Brche? Wie knnten diese sprachlich und inhaltlich ausgemerzt werden? – Auch hier empfiehlt sich die Arbeit am PC und dabei das Abspeichern verschiedener Versionen und das Experimentieren mit Textbausteinen und Sprache. The University? Auch ein Blick auf die Stilebenen ist dabei angebracht: Wo gibt es zum Beispiel in to write of an dieser Hinsicht Brche? Passt Rhmkorfs Begriff „Arschpauker der Poesie“ zur Sprache Enzensbergers oder Grass‘? – Darber kann man kontrovers diskutieren. Noch fr einige weitere methodische Mglichkeiten bietet sich die Arbeit am PC an, so zum Beispiel, wenn wir einen Text in books on essay Bodwell Abstzen ausgeben, die durcheinander gewrfelt sind. To Write Of An? Diese Vorgehensweise empfiehlt sich beispielsweise bei Brechts Text Betrachtung der Kunst und Kunst der Betrachtung – Reflexionen ber die Portrtkunst in on teachers der Bildhauerei (1939). Of Sheffield? Wir geben diesen Text in article Margaret's School vllig vernderter Form aus und lassen ihn durch die Schlerinnen und Schler in essay of Sheffield eine in argument essay Coventry sich logische Form bringen (Tastenkombination Alt-Hoch-Pfeiltasten). What In A Essay Of Sheffield? Wenn dies gemacht ist, knnen wir die Arbeit der einzelnen im Tauschverzeichnis verffentlichen und durch andere bewerten und kommentieren lassen. Wir knnen schlielich den greren Mittelteil eines Essays ausgeben und Anfang und Schluss ergnzen lassen, womit wir gezielt ben, wie man am Anfang die Aufmerksamkeit des Lesers bindet und am Schluss die Klammer zum Anfang schliet und evtl. English Article Margaret's School? mit einer Pointe endet.

In Sprachuntersuchungen knnen wir pointierte Formulierungen extrahieren und / oder die verwendeten Redefiguren und Stilmittel bestimmen. What To Write Conclusion Essay The University? Zwar sollten die Schlerinnen und Schler nicht dem Irrtum verfallen, man msse nun mglichst viele verschiedene Redefiguren unterbringen, aber die Kenntnis einiger rhetorischer Mittel wie der Metapher, der Ellipse, des Euphemismus oder der Hyperbel ist notwendig, um einen Text analysieren und seine sprachlichen Mittel und deren Wirkung in essay Coventry University ein Beziehungsgeflecht setzen zu knnen. What Conclusion Of An The University? Nur wer wei, was es fr rhetorische Mglichkeiten gibt, kann diese anwenden. Einen Essay zu schreiben lernt man – dies hrt sich wie eine Binsenweisheit an essays College – nur durch Schreiben. Conclusion Of An? Unabdingbar sind also zeitintensive Inhalte wie Schreibwerkstatt, Schreibkonferenzen, Stufen- oder klasseninterne Korrektur-workshops etc. Books On Essay High? Der Essay ist weniger als andere Abiturinhalte durch ein starres Unterrichtsschema zu unterrichten, sondern verlangt viel Eigeninitiative von den Schlerinnen und Schlern und Flexibilitt seitens der Lehrkrfte. Vereinfacht wird das Schreiben eines Essays, wenn man die Schlerinnen und Schler von vornherein ermuntert, in what conclusion essay of Sheffield der Ich-Form zu schreiben, dabei zwar assoziativ vorzugehen, aber stringent zu bleiben und – auch eigentlich eine Plattitde! – auf einen passenden Titel des Essays zu achten.

Dieser schildert die Arbeit aus, gibt eine Richtung vor, bndelt die Gedanken. Essay The University Of Nottingham? Daneben ist bei den Schreibbungen zu beachten, dass das Exemplarische den Vorzug vor der ausufernden Vollstndigkeit erhlt. Als Faustregel sollten die Schlerinnen und Schler Folgendes beachten: - Nominalstil und Passiv-Konstruktionen klingen oft brokratisch. -Ein Satz, der lnger als drei Zeilen ist, kann in what to write essay of Sheffield den meisten Fllen aufgeteilt werden; Schachtelstze sind zu vermeiden. - Abtnungspartikel wie „ja“, „eben“, „gerade“ sind oft Ausdruck von Allgemeinpltzen und knnen weggelassen oder durch przisere Ausdrcke ersetzt werden.

- Einklammerungen sollten unterbleiben. Die Planungsphase eines Abituraufsatzes zum Essay darf und muss entsprechend lang sein, der Umfang des Essays ist nicht das Entscheidende. Mit Blick auf die Probleme, die das gestaltende Interpretieren und die gestaltende Errterung gemacht haben und in on essay High School Anbetracht dessen, dass die literarische Errterung immer nur von weniger als 2 % der Schlerinnen und Schler gewhlt wurde, erscheint die neue Form des Essays durchaus ein Gewinn – nicht zuletzt auch deshalb, weil auch beim gestaltenden Interpretieren und der Errterung zum Teil erhebliche Abweichungen zwischen Erst- und Zweitkorrektur zu verzeichnen waren. What In A Conclusion Of An The University Of Sheffield? Der Essay wird viel Ungewohntes bringen: Das Scheitern, Abbrechen, Umdenken als unverzichtbare und lehrreiche Begleiterscheinungen von Lernprozessen werden immer noch zu oft als peinliche und daher zu umgehende Sackgassen betrachtet. Queen Margaret's School? Ergebnis- bzw.

Produktorientierung, Benotbarkeit und das starre Festhalten an to write conclusion of an essay hergebrachten Leistungsmustern stehen einer allgemein notwendigen Flexibilisierung des Deutschunterrichts nicht selten im Wege. ( zit. Essay Writing On Teachers The University? aus einem unverffentlichten Vortrag von Dr. What Essay? J. English Queen Margaret's School? Ulmer am 26.7.2010 in in a Bad Wildbad)