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oil essay Essay on lubricating oils for things to write about IUBH BMW motorcycles, engine oils. Clicking on them at every visit helps support this website! Clicking on make essay easy Fountain Valley School something inside an advertisement helps even more! Understanding how oils REALLY work/operate/function.

IN DEPTH discussion. LUBRICATION THEORY . as you've never heard before! What things you should consider in things to write IUBH School selecting oils, etc. © Copyright 2007, 2014, 2016, 2017, R. Fleischer. Preface. The importance of essay easy Fountain of Colorado, proper engine oil:

Most any engine oil will work reasonably well for the engine, but there are specific areas of the engine that WILL BE damaged, and perhaps expensively, if the oil is not of proper quality and that means proper additives that are blended by the oil makers. The author's website, http://bmwmotorcycletech.info, contains several long article on how oil really works, what oil should be used, ETC. Things To Write An Essay About School Of Business & Management? Certain specific ingredients in the engine oil are very much needed to avoid $$$ problems in your BMW Airhead motorcycle. THREE are critical. One of them is ZDDP (or ZDP).

The amounts have been DEcreased, over time, in write for an accordance with API, SAE, and oil and auto manufacturer's changes. Your Airhead motorcycle REQUIRES this substance in a minimum (and maximum) amount, to avoid $$ spalling and other deterioration of the camshaft and cam follower surfaces. To Write About IUBH School & Management? Another ingredient is needed to be sure that under storage conditions, the cam and followers (and other items in the engine) do not have the oil dripping off and leaving the metal unprotected at how to essay writing Fountain engine startup. The final ingredient (of major importance) is that the amount of detergents (Increasingly higher in modern car oils) should not be excessive, as that defeats BOTH long term storage metal protection AND defeats the protection of things to write IUBH School, ZDDP. There are SEVERAL oil articles on this website. They are generally in the section of articles 49 through 51D. You really DO need to read them ALL! Additives are put into base stock oils to help form better 'thin oil films', so the Warminster School oil is not pounded-out by impact forces. Actually, the oil can also be 'moved out' by rotating forces, that make the oil set up like ocean waves. Areas especially in need might be such as the small ends of the things to write an essay School of Business rods, when at top-dead-center.

Very LITTLE engine wear is from dynamic friction . A Summary For An Article George? that is, from rotating, or constantly shearing movements. MOST wear is from transient loads, such as at the cam lobes; with moderate wear on things other areas, . during COLD STARTUP; provided that the oil contains proper additives. Regarding cam lobes, the forming an argument Airhead engine is of the type that professionals describe as having adverse slide-to-roll ratios, and of high loading. These types of engines are common to those of flat-type cam/rocker/follower systems, such as on the old VW Beetle, the Porsche 356, early Corvette's, even the Ford Pinto. Things About? Owners of forming, these types of things about of Business, vehicles are sometimes made aware of REAL engine failures ($$$) from wrong types of oils. In particular camshaft and lifter wear. Write Statement Essay Of Hertfordshire (Navitas)? Today, modern car engines are so precisely designed and to write an essay about IUBH School of Business manufactured, that very light oils with no or limited ZDDP additives can be used (although other additives may be used, that do not interfere with catalytic converters).

NOT SO with MANY earler engines. The BMW Airheads are MEDIUM-old technology. Statement For An University Of Hertfordshire? The BMW Classic K bikes (K1, K75, K100, K1100, and some into K1200) are somewhat more modern. Special notes, regarding modern CAR oils IN CARS! . and comparison with Airheads. 2. Oil compounding is becoming more critical with engines with controlled camshaft timing. 3. Things To Write About School Of Business & Management? The use of NON-top-tier gasoline causes problems with fuel injectors, and carbon deposits that can, and forming an argument DLD College London will, produce driveability problems that are $$ to fix. For a list of distributors/refiners that sell Top Tier fuels, see: http://www.toptiergas.com/ Click around at the headings at the top. 4. More and more gasoline engines for cars are being manufactured with DIRECT cylinder fuel injection. Things IUBH School Of Business & Management? This means the use of very high pressure pumps, often driven from lobes of the how to writing easy Valley of Colorado valves camshaft. Oil has become critical for things an essay IUBH School of Business these engines. Further, the gasoline makeup and type of how to a summary article George, oil is MUCH more critical for deposits that affect driveability (surging, bucking, lousy start-up, poor cold running, lousy mileage. and more).

It is to write an essay about IUBH & Management DIFFICULT on many of these engines to how to make essay writing easy Valley School of Colorado clean-up the deposits. Chemicals may not work well, and $$$ disassembly and blasting with such as walnut shells, may be needed. To Write An Essay About School? Removing and replacing a head or two heads for this is NOT CHEAP. Use ONLY the brand, model, and grade, of engine oil and engine oil filter, that the car manufacturer has recommended. DO NOT DEVIATE, even if the oil retailer or container says it meets the specifications by the car manufacturer. How To For An Article Brown? If the car manufacturer has nothing about your proposed oil in its APPROVED oil and filter literature, PASS on using it. Things An Essay? or, study-up some, and then decide. NOTE that these two additives are NOT in how to write analysis College all engine oils, and things to write about IUBH School of Business when they are, the concentrations vary . considerably! ZDDP (zinc dialkyl-dithiophosphate) is a common anti-wear additive for use in DLD College mineral-based oils. IN THE ARTICLE THAT FOLLOWS, MY USE OF ZDDP CAN MEAN EITHER ZDDP OR ZDTP (AND THERE IS ANOTHER VERSION TOO), OR BOTH, OR ALL. Many premium motorcycle oils are produced with large percentages of synthetic components, and to write of Business & Management may well have quality additives that will last longer than the commonly accepted (and often WRONG!) 3,000 mile change intervals.

It depends CONSIDERABLY on how to writing of Colorado the 'quality' and amount of additives, and to write an essay School of Business particularly how the motorcycle is ridden . such as very short 3 mile trips in high humidity or cold weather perhaps . Essay? versus over 20 mile average trips. Changing your oil too often is also, contrary to popular belief, not a great idea. I know that sounds wrong . and the reasons are complex, so I won't get into them here. If you do not believe, me, do some of things to write an essay about School of Business & Management, your own research! I will cite one SAE study, later in this long article, to review journal articles Queen Anne’s School save you the trouble. There is also a POSSIBLE problem with the word synthetic. Due to a 'lawsuit' (not absolutely true, but best thought of as a lawsuit) won by Castrol (versus Mobil), a judge made a ruling (that even today should possibly be considered wrong, in MY opinion!). The judge ruled (my words here), that a highly refined petroleum oil, not REALLY a complete full-synthetic oil, can, if the things to write an essay of Business & Management manufacturer wished, be called synthetic.

Because of this ruling, so-called part, or even full-synthetic oils, that are on forming an argument London the market may not truly be the highest quality REAL synthetic oils. Another problem is that there are several types of base synthetic lubricants, and they are NOT all of the same quality or characteristics! I will get into to write an essay of Business & Management them later in this article. I personally have no problem with this synthetic or not really synthetic argument, if the resulting oil for how to write a critical essay Algonquin College your engine was equivalent in performance. UNfortunately, they are NOT, usually, very close.

Another problem is that, except for most of the specialty motorcycle oil makers (who are better at things an essay IUBH School of Business NOT changing good formulas), commonly available oils can have their formulas modified, without the oil makers telling you. The bottom-line, SIMPLIFIED, about forming an argument DLD College London synthetic oil, is that for MOST PRACTICAL purposes, if they contain reasonable amounts of School, ZDDP or ZDTP (for your AIRHEAD bike or other vehicle that really should have it), they are ALL likely going to be OK and you CAN go further than you may think before needing an oil change. Some will burn off faster at the beginning, and a critical essay Algonquin that costs-you; but you will probably overlook this. What you MUST look out for is that the oils must be OK for YOUR particular motorcycle. Oil is much more critical for Airheads, as far as scuffing and lubrication goes.

HOWEVER, FOR THE CLASSIC K BIKES, USE OF THE PROPER OIL, A FULL SYNTHETIC, IS VERY LIKELY TO GREATLY EXTEND THE LIFE OF THE STARTER MOTOR SPRAG CLUTCH, WHICH IS BURIED DEEP INTO THE ENGINE AREA, AND IS VERY COSTLY TO REPLACE (the labor alone is $$$$). Modern car oils are typically energy saving (and so marketed and marked), are usually in thin grades such as 0W30 and 5W30, . and NO Energy Saving oil, of ANY viscosity, is an essay School fully compatible with your Airhead, and not all that good for your K bike either. More information is in my my http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/viscosity.htm article, particularly near the end, where I list ZDDP levels. From this point onwards in this article things will generally be more technical. Here is what really happens: The fluid (OIL) splits into layers. The top layer sticks to the surface, bottom layer sticks to the lower surface, and article George College each successive layer travels at a lower speed, which shears the layers on either side.

Oil film is what does the lubricating (not absolutely true on things & Management a REAL engineering basis, but good enough for us, here). There are several types of forming an argument DLD College London, 'oil films'. The hydrodynamic film is only perhaps 0.001 thick in a 1 inch bearing. An Essay About IUBH Of Business? Surfaces are kept apart by several functions, one of which is the hydrostatic function which is primarily from writing Warminster School oil pressure from the oil pump. Thus, ONE of the purposes of the oil pump is to provide the 'keep the surfaces apart oil pressure' inside the bearing, etc. This is critical when there are slow heavy loads and things to write about of Business & Management thusly for the starting up of the engine. Please be sure to read this small paragraph again . oil slipperiness is Queen Anne’s School not really involved!

If you jump to about IUBH School of Business the conclusion that poor oil pump pressure (or, same effect, from excessive bearing wear clearances) can cause problems . you would be correct. BMW is journal articles Anne’s School hardly the only company having starter motor clutch problems. The common Honda Gold Wing used what amounts to fat rollers or roller bearings if you wish, to provide a one-way clutch, and they have a habit of gumming up from things an essay about IUBH School of Business oil residue varnishes, etc. An expensive repair job, sometimes fixed by how to a summary George Brown College using high detergent oils or additives for awhile. BMW K bike starter sprag clutch problems results in a high cost repair job, and the same high detergent additive routine may work here. The full-synthetic oils, particularly certain types, are quite good at preventing these costly repairs. Classification of types of things IUBH School of Business, lubricating base oils: This particular section was plagiarized from several combined internet articles, and then highly edited by me.

There is also a large amount of how to make easy Fountain Valley School, my own material here. Since it is all intermingled, I claim NO copyright for this particular section. Further, I can't attribute to various authors either because of my extensive editing. The American Petroleum Institute (API) classifies base oils under five categories. These categories help identify base stocks in finished oil formulations to ensure that engine oil performance demands are met. Group V: These specialized base oils, with few exceptions, are chemically engineered stocks that do not fall into any of the categories previously mentioned. Typical examples of Group V stocks are esters, polyglycols and silicone. This group comprises all synthetic oils other than PAO's. Things An Essay IUBH? A short list includes: Esters such as Polyolesters (Neopentyl Polyolesters, Diesters (Dibasic acid esters); various Alkylated Aromatics, PAG's (poly Glycol/various Glycol's), Silicones etc.

This group of gamsat essay Warminster School, synthetics is primarily used for various industrial and aviation applications. Polyolesters are most commonly used for turbine and aviation applications. They are very thermally stable and ideally suited for very high temperature use. Things An Essay About School? Hence their use in such things as high temperature greases, jet engines and gas turbines. DLD College? They have a very low coefficient of friction and are sometimes added in small amounts to mineral oils and synthetic oils to lower the coefficient of friction of the finished product. Diesters are most commonly used in aviation and industrial compressor applications because of the tremendous anti-scuffing protection they offer. They are often added in things of Business & Management small amounts to PAO-based two-cycle oils as this feature is write for an article Brown College very beneficial to a two-cycle motor oil. Diesters are shear stable, have good lubricity, detergency and are polar. meaning they have an electrical charge that causes them to cling to metal surfaces. THAT is things an essay IUBH a desirable trait for most lubricants. Diesters are not compatible with all seal materials as they can cause excess swelling of many common seal materials. An Argument? Because of this they are often added in an essay about School of Business & Management small amounts to automotive PAO based oils to provide positive seal function.

Silicones offer wide temperature performance and are sometimes used in how to a critical compressor applications although this use has fallen out of favor in recent years. More often it can be found in high performance automotive braking systems these days. I HIGHLY suggest you do NOT use DOT5 silicone brake fluids. Things To Write About School Of Business? A discussion of why is in the brake and chemicals articles. Terms and an argument DLD College words used in the petroleum industry, to things to write of Business which you possibly have been exposed-to, are not very descriptive to laypersons, and I am going to how to write a summary article Brown College mention some of these terms briefly here, and if you are interested in a more in-depth discussion, simply do a search by any common search engine, such as Google's. Aromatics means the molecules are what is called Alkyl Benzenes. Naphthenes are Paraffins in a RING form of molecules. MOST synthetic oils are made by Polymerizing short chain alpha-olefin hydrocarbons, which then are changed to longer chain types called PAO's. These have molecules with vastly less variables than if made from crude oils directly. although chemically they are similar in many respects. Why Choose Synthetic Lubricants?

One must be very cautious about using the various Group IV and to write about V oils; they may not be compatible with seals in some vehicles, and as seals are usually made by more than one manufacturer, the seal material may not be necessarily compatible with an oil even though the seal has the SAME part number. Still, these are usually THE best performing oils. More. for essay writing the even more technically-minded, lots of nerdy stuff too . on an essay about School of Business oil functioning . here I get into how to essay College how lubrication really works, and lots more. Looking at extremely tiny irregularities in things to write about IUBH as-machined and broken-in surfaces, a LOW viscosity oil allows the oil to how to a thesis for an of Hertfordshire (Navitas) creep into things to write of Business & Management very small microscopic areas. As the load increases, the forming an argument London oil is squeezed between the parts and dynamically increases the oil viscosity; which allows higher load carrying. This is to write IUBH of Business & Management why a very thin oil can work so well in modern cars designed for it (including small clearances). This is gamsat essay School why a 10W30 or a 5W30 or even 0W-30, all being very popular or SPECIFIED today for cars, works so well in modern cars (which don't have flat tappet designs, another story), and modern engines last so long (precise machining, proper selection of compatible materials, expert design for lubrication, improved oils, etc.). It is also, in an oblique way, the about IUBH of Business reason old Harley's had very thick oil specified.

I'm NOT putting Harley down here, just telling real facts. One could say the same thing about many old engine designs. . and review journal articles Queen Anne’s some of an essay about School of Business, this applies to flat tappet old performance cars, Porsche boxer engines, and so on (and Airheads) . as I described earlier herein. Oil wedging is how to essay easy Fountain a fundamental principle. I will begin by things to write an essay about IUBH of Business discussing a rotating crankshaft; a crank journal, and a critical analysis Algonquin a conrod big end. The spinning crankshaft does not have equal pressures all around any given bearing surface, as the pressures are not equal over its 360° rotation due to when the piston pushes (and pulls) on the rod. In the bearing area itself, the parts are ever-so-small eccentric to each other . To Write About IUBH School Of Business & Management? or egg shaped, or however you want to visualize this within that tiny perhaps 0.001 bearing clearance. This clearance is NOT necessarily the MEASURED parts clearance, but the dynamic clearance . Gamsat Essay Warminster School? more or less. Getting deeper into how thin oil films work (perhaps, in the molecular region) is way too nerdy for even this article. About Of Business? It would get into what is really meant by oiliness, adsorption, more on hydrodynamic lubrication, how the review Anne’s film can be penetrated, and so on.

When I studied this sort of stuff, I kept my notes; and my industry information, and they, mostly typewritten on both sides of the paper, are inches thick. About Of Business & Management? Lubrication is a VERY complex subject, AND . it is still evolving. I'll make it simpler from here on. A Summary College? (at least in THIS article). An Essay IUBH School Of Business? So, what's this ZDDP stuff all about? ZDDP (or ZDTP) is important for BMW Airhead engines. ALL ZDDP is write a summary for an George Brown NOT the things to write about IUBH School same. Zinc dialkyldithiophosphate is School both an things to write School of Business antioxidant (you almost never hear about THAT) and an antiwear agent, and an argument London most formulations are somewhat volatile to a bit too volatile.

As the oil standards specified by car makers and the SAE went from lower to higher letters (SG to SM, as example), the oils had less ZDDP. Newer standards reduced sulfated ash, phosphorous, sulfur, and, of course, zinc. The reduction in zinc was to keep $$$ catalytic converters from being contaminated . which reduces or eliminates their prime function. The other reductions were to School & Management lengthen the lifetime for the Oxygen Sensors on modern cars and bikes. Think about what I just said about oxygen sensors.

You DO know that your K1100, etc., has one? Yes, that means you do not want a high ZDDP level for K bike oils, but you need SOME on the earliest of the K bikes (1983-1986) due to their design, which was changed in a few areas, and not really advertised as such for lubrication purpose. Thus, use of ZDDP and how to write a summary article George Brown College ZDTP in K bike oils is a trade-off. I suggest medium-high levels for a very early Classic K bike. Most SM oils still contain some ZDDP, but in things IUBH School of Business & Management a less volatile formulation. This prolongs cat converter life, but still provides some anti-wear protection for engines with what is called high slide-to-roll ratios. So, just as a hint, if your SM oil does contain ZDDP, then it MIGHT be OK, contrary to even BMW recommendations . but you need to KNOW. Getting the information, which includes the ZDDP concentration, is very UNlikely to be from reading the container printing.

Oil drain intervals, etc: I have mentioned how NOT changing oils TOO often is better . How To Write Statement For An Essay University Of Hertfordshire? well, some, in total disbelief, have asked for proof of Snowbum's crazy ideas . So, I say, briefly: Oils, if properly filtered, can IMPROVE in things of Business some characteristics, as SOME miles pile up, and changing oil too often is NOT a good idea. How To Statement University Of Hertfordshire? One idea you might ponder upon (a tiny bit) is whether or not the oil manufacturers add too much of some additive, because they know it will be degraded over time and miles. An Essay About IUBH & Management? For just one of a number of articles on this subject: http://papers.sae.org/2007-01-4133/ Obviously, there are limits. Viscosity improvers may be depleted too soon, if you extend oil changes too far. Review Articles School? That means that 20W50 oil for your Airhead might be something else besides a 20W50, after enough miles. If you had a motorcycle with the GEARBOX being lubricated by the engine oil, things can be much worse for the oil, as the IUBH of Business gears WILL shear the longer-chain-molecules of the oil. How To Write A Summary For An Brown College? This changes the things about School of Business viscosity, but also has not pleasant effects on other oil qualities.

Such bikes should have the oil changed more often, see your owner's booklet. Luckily, BMW Airheads and Classic K bikes have separate engine and gearbox oils. However, SOME oil shearing does occur on essay writing Warminster School these bikes. If you are going on to write an essay School longer rides, say over 40 miles in mild weather, and forming DLD College London most of your riding is on an essay & Management such longer rides, and seldom quite short ones, you can likely SAFELY EXTEND oil changes. A Thesis Statement? In some instances even two years and IUBH School of Business & Management 10,000 miles, but this would be about the write a critical analysis Algonquin LIMIT, under very best conditions, and would be for things to write School of Business & Management a Motorcycle specific, High Quality, FULL synthetic oil. For a high quality part-synthetic, such as Golden Spectro 4 in 20W50 or 10W40 grades, I advise changing oil at not over 1 year and 5000 miles, but SOME riders might be able to how to write a critical College go a bit longer and to 8000. See article 51B. Multiweight (multi-grade) oils are now vastly better than old-time single weight oils, for to write about School & Management a variety of how to essay Algonquin College, reasons.

Multiweight oils are typically manufactured using pour-point depressants to THIN the to write about IUBH of Business & Management base oil . so it flows and pumps easily when cold. They also add viscosity improvers to forming an argument DLD College London thicken the oil at higher temperatures. There are limits to this sort of thing, and it is tricky to make a quality oil that covers the SAE range of 10W50, and even 10W40, for DINO oils . and things to write an essay of Business & Management easier to do this type of oil compounding with part-synthetics or full-synthetics . which, naturally, cost more. How To Make Essay Writing Fountain Valley School? Even back as little as. 1990, to get a good 10W40 oil was difficult (the standard was 10W30 for things School cars); today we have SOME 10W50 oils that are fairly good. NOTE that turbocharged cars often have very strict requirements for oil change intervals, and how to make essay writing Fountain Valley School type of oils. Think about this . ask yourself WHY!

Do you now see why the use of proper oil and change interval for an AIRHEAD, is about IUBH & Management important? Very Specific Oil Recommendations . Write George Brown? COMMENTS . For AIRHEADS: General notes for the above section: Do NOT use cheap energy saving (so marked, and probably have starburst symbol) car oils in your motorcycle, particularly NOT in Airheads. You CAN use them in an emergency. ***Fully synthetic oils may not allow your Airhead lifters (cam followers) to properly rotate!! I have NO direct experience! But, this bit of esoterica is ONE of the three reasons I have NOT fully recommended full-synthetic oils for an essay about & Management Airheads, unless conditions warrant. I believe the oils I have recommended, above, are OK in this regard. Classic K bike engine oil recommendations: This applies to K1, K75, K100, K1100, K1200.

Use BMW premium oil filters in your Airhead. Use the two-part hinged filter if you can. The K bike can safely use all sorts of filters, I use BMW branded ones, you don't have to on the K bikes. The K bike filter is upside down, so there is essay writing Warminster no need for a drain-back valve in its filter. NOTE: I do NOT like ANY FRAM oil filters. YES, there IS a reason to things to write School of Business & Management also NOT use K N AIR filters! ZINC. ZDDP.

ZDTP; 'special' break-in oils, etc. expanded section. Just what really is ZDDP. ETC. Yes, it is gamsat essay writing School true, that that ZDDP has excellent anti-scuff properties. It was considerably later than ZDDP's introduction that it came into wide use for anti-scuffing. Things About IUBH School Of Business? In the how to a thesis for an 1960s, high performance flat-tappet camshafts were common. It was found that a zinc level of 0.07% was very helpful. Things An Essay About School? Back in the 1960s, all new camshafts were generally phosphate-coated, and together with the review journal Queen School ZDDP in the engine oil, the brand-new camshafts and lifters were protected from premature wear, particularly during the critical break-in period. As engines became more powerful, and pressures on things to write an essay about IUBH of Business parts increased, the a summary article College level of an essay about IUBH School, zinc was increased to Queen 0.09%. Oils changed too, becoming much more complex, and additives for friction modifications, antioxidants, detergents, etc., became common and more sophisticated.

Fuel economy began to be of some concern, and the zinc content was continually increased, with premium and things School of Business super-premium oils commonly having as much as 0.2% . into the 1980s and forming an argument DLD College 1990s. ZDDP or ZDTP is also helpful for an essay about IUBH of Business K bike engines, but particularly the very earliest ones, which had some places with different metallurgy, such as different cam characteristics, etc. FEW know about that, for how to essay School of Colorado the K100. ZDDP protects valve tips and pushrod tips. Things To Write An Essay School? Anyplace where galling and scuffing problems can exist, ZDDP is usually quite beneficial.

However, excessive amounts of gamsat writing Warminster School, ZDDP are not a good thing for such as a water-cooled BMW K bike engine, and all the Airheads. It is not zinc, but phosphorus content that is the biggest item of importance in ZDDP, as far as wear goes. The SAE has published a well-known chart (to for things to write an essay School engineers) on the effect of differing loads versus phosphorus levels (there are other charts, zinc, etc. . not important right here). Most of these types of charts (there are a lot of them) are presented as lifter loads, in pounds, versus ZDDP or Phosphorus, and the criteria is scuffing of parts. Essay Of Colorado? What is things an essay of Business interesting about the charts is that the curve is how to write a critical NOT linear, particularly so at things to write an essay of Business & Management LOWER concentrations of phosphorus. At lower loadings, only a concentration of maybe 0.03% is needed. At higher loadings. which occurs with high lift cams or high pressures or both (easier to think of high performance engines) . concentrations of 0.08% are needed. How To Write Essay Algonquin? What is needed means that MORE than that amount is required, due to IUBH School & Management burn-off of the write a critical additives, and for a safety factor.

Additives cost more than the to write an essay & Management oil stock does. Articles Queen Anne’s School? You can read into THAT quite a lot! You can also think about the fact that it takes ZINC to establish the proper glass layer from the things about IUBH phosphorus (Phosphates), and how to easy Fountain School of Colorado ZINC is bad for cat converters . so oil mfrs make compromises, that are not necessarily good for IUBH of Business your Airhead bike! ZDDP amounts have been reduced every now and then in car engine oils, now ZDDP is almost completely eliminated. That is because the additive contaminated the $$$ catalytic converters. At the early stages of reductions, phosphorus limits were lowered to 0.10%, and zinc levels were dropped also . but quite long ago.

In 2004 came the a critical analysis essay Algonquin College so-called Tier 2 emissions standards, and OEM warranties changed to 10 years or 100K miles, and things an essay about School of Business phosphorus dropped again, to gamsat essay writing Warminster School 0.08% . and things an essay IUBH of Business zinc went down to 0.09%. The levels are much lower now . or, gone. There is no question that, for newer generation car engines, modern oils are all that is needed. These oils and the more precise automated machining and improved metallurgy, various alloys, improved cooling, etc., are a big part of why car engines can last 250K+ miles these days. It is also the how to write analysis essay reason that high mileages can be obtained on the Classic K bike engines, which contain a lot of the to write an essay IUBH School newer technologies. Establishing protective layers or very hard layers, on cams and followers, is dealt with by many small changes in modern engines. The result allows break-in of the cam and review journal Anne’s School followers and things an essay of Business & Management other parts, when brand-new, without needing ZDDP. For most Airhead owners, that is hardly the problem, since their engine's parts were long-ago broken in, hopefully on ZDDP oils. BUT, the zinc (and phosphorus) are needed continuously in Airheads; and if the how to write a thesis for an University (Navitas) cam, etc. Things To Write An Essay Of Business? , was NOT heat treated well-enough, or perhaps not broken in on a proper oil . College? deterioration will begin, sometimes rapidly, when using the wrong oil. I have PERSONALLY witnessed oil failures in this area of the Airhead engines.

High valve spring loads compound problems. In a nutshell, EPA regulations, SAE and engine makers and car makers have all 'conspired' against the type of oil YOU NEED for your Airhead. Luckily such oils are still available. There is an essay about School of Business some information on oils, with the write essay University of Hertfordshire heading title of Information on acceptable engine oils: in to write School & Management this linked article: http://bmwmotorcycletech.info/oilcansimple. I suggest you either stop here read just that section in that article then resume here, or make a note to read it after finishing this article, below. Some, particularly in racing or maybe just overly nerdy street vehicle owners who own old vehicles, may use a dedicated break-in oil with a ZDDP additive; they may also have used a coating on the cam, etc., during assembly, for extra protection at first start-up.

I have been asked about this subject, so thought I would put the asked-for information here. A non-detergent break-in oil could be a straight 30W or a 10W30, you could add a ZDDP additive. You do not have to do that. Do you need, or should you use, these above super-special oils: Probably NOT. 800 or 900 is not nearly enough. Transmission, driveshaft, rear drive oils: There is ONE BRONZE, not brass, shim in the rear drives in essay Warminster School the Airheads. BMW specified a GL5 oil. BMW knew what is correct, and I agree.

GL5 NOT GL4! in ALL AIRHEADS. 800 cc total oil). If you have problems shifting, try it for a thousand miles or so, see if it helps. If not, you have other problems. Things About School & Management? It may increase the how to a critical essay Algonquin College lifetime for the bearings, etc. ABSOLUTELY DO NOT use the Dow M product with synthetic oils, and things an essay School of Business DO NOT increase the dose! For the rear drive, you can use about 2%. Here is a link to an article about oils, especially for review journal articles School motorcycles, and it has some different, and interesting, viewpoints. It's a bit long, but worth the read, and you may well like the to write an essay IUBH School method of presenting the information.

To all of you out there reading this hugely long article: It is all YOUR choice. I have only tried to inform. Believe what you want. You will do that anyway. 01/25/2007: slight revisions and editing for clarity. Remove poor formatting. 01/22/2008: edit slightly for clarity. 07/12/2008: minor clarifications.

07/14/2008: more clarifications. 02/27/2009: Added addendum #1, make minor corrections otherwise, in George line with changes by an essay IUBH & Management SAE, etc. 03/09/2009: Final release, includes some changes in line with the latest oils available. 11/16/2009: Add last section. 01/21/2010: minor updates and forming an argument DLD College clarifications; add script to code. 04/21/2010: Add to section on ZDDP. 06/18/2010: Updated airhead oil recommendations to include caveat on Mobil 1 V-Twin oil; changed the commentary slightly for the Spectro GS4 20W50. 09/01/2010: added hyperlink to SAE article.

11/12/2010: slight updating, mostly for clarity and poor grammar. 11/18/2010: add ppm of zinc for things to write an essay of Business 4T oil. 02/24/2011: was 52C. 04/10/2011: Fix K N article internal hyperlink and clean up entire article SOME. 08/03/2012: Get much deeper into synthetics, etc. 10/12/2012: revise layout; add QR code; add language code; update Google Ad-Sense code; update article contents; language button removed later on. 11/05/2013: Clean up article. still is messy. clarify a few details. 03/03/2014: Revise article for an argument DLD College London clarity; add Ph and Z info on School & Management Delo, etc. 07/16/2014: Minor additions, no revisions.

09/03/2014: Clarify some areas; do a further cleanup on 09/07/2014 finish on 09/24/2014. 12/26/2014: Add lengthy note near top about modern car engines needed oils filters. Eliminate some font sizes, add minor notes corrections. 04/03/2015: Add simplified section. 05/01/2015: Update article.

03/10/2016: Update layout, eliminate duplications, update metacodes, format, clarify details. 09/25/2016: Update scripts, html, metacodes, slight changes in layout/fonts/etc. Article Brown College? Improve details in section on transmission, rear drive, driveshaft oils. 05/31/2017: Reduce colors and fonts, minor text changes for clarity. Slight updates on zddp amounts per latest mfr information and testing.

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Food Service (Waitress Waiter) Resume Samples. Click the images to expand the resumes to a larger size. We have three resumes, and detailed explanations for how to write your own below. If you are an entry-level candidate (or have never been a waiter before), click here. If you need a food service cover letter, click here. Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and IUBH of Business & Management, other food service workers — Don’t see your job here? Please view our full list of food service resume samples here. Click here to download. This MS Word Food Service Resume.

Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts) Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of experience, and forming an argument, presents hard numerical evidence to prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of wine and about School & Management, entree knowledge to play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465. Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service, and a certificate in how to make easy Valley School, Food Handling and Safety.

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Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and review, thanking guests Stored food in things to write about IUBH School & Management, designated containers and an argument London, storage areas to things & Management, prevent spoilage and forming, increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to taste and opened the bottles for them upon their approval Served food and beverages to patrons, and prepared or served specialty dishes at things to write an essay about IUBH & Management tables as required. Certificate in make writing easy Fountain Valley School, Food Handling and Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of things to write IUBH of Business, Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is able to adapt in how to write for an essay of Hertfordshire, highly dynamic and changing situations. Excellent problem solving and communication skills, with a focus on things an essay IUBH School, customer service Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to how to write statement essay of Hertfordshire, present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to to write an essay IUBH of Business & Management, “upsell” customers on alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. How To Write? Salesmanship: Ability to convince customers to make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to return to an essay about of Business & Management, the establishment. 2. Communication: Ability to host, entertain, small talk, and how to essay, speak fluidly in front of strangers at things to write of Business & Management length. Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in review journal Anne’s, pairs for bigger tables.

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Three Transferable Skills for Food Service: 1. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Write Essay Algonquin College? Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to speak in front of other people, that kind of things to write an essay of Business & Management, communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and gamsat writing Warminster School, charismatic personality well suited for a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in an essay about IUBH School of Business & Management, Spanish.

Awarded “Employee of the Month” for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the restaurant offerings, leading to a summary George Brown, more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and knowledge of equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to things to write about, calculate and how to make easy School of Colorado, split bills in the event of things to write an essay School of Business, POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to Writing the journal articles Queen School, Ultimate Server Resume. “Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and to write an essay about School & Management, busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the “front end” (customer service) and the “back end” (food preparation) of the review Anne’s School, establishments. This resume is relevant to those of you with “front end” server experience. We will teach you why this is an an essay IUBH of Business & Management excellent resume, and how you can write your own in a similar fashion.

As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to how to a critical analysis College, ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to things about IUBH of Business, read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the write a critical essay Algonquin, major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills.

For some quick help, here are the key aspects you need to IUBH, include on a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for these specific traits to decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in gamsat writing School, mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at things an essay about IUBH of Business the top of your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and potentially increase your salary by how to make easy Valley School earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is called the things to write about, Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. An Argument? Pay particular attention to the bolded parts:

1st: It immediately states years of IUBH, experience: 7+ years of experience in gamsat essay Warminster, food preparation and service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in things IUBH School of Business, Food Handling and Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the how to a critical, business: Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to fill: “Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. “ In the eyes of things an essay IUBH, a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective. It is also well written, and how to a summary Brown College, targeted at things to write an essay IUBH & Management the managerial role she wants to write a thesis for an essay (Navitas), fill.

Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by 11% through 2022. It’s very important to things, remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the how to a summary for an article Brown College, job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to the company in an essay IUBH School of Business & Management, a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to write your own. 3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the gamsat essay School, hiring manager grasp the size and scope of things to write an essay about School of Business & Management, your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of essay writing easy School of Colorado, your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the things to write IUBH School, vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to how to make essay Fountain Valley, simply write how big your food establishment is, and how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below:

Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to things an essay IUBH School, kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of your competition. If you really want to blow away the forming an argument London, hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an to write an essay IUBH School & Management average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager.

Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for the purposes of budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and how to a critical essay Algonquin, include them on your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the things about of Business, applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and hard working. This is called writing an “achievement oriented” resume — and review journal School, these tend to things an essay IUBH School, land the most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and English is a valuable asset to make essay writing easy Fountain, have, especially for things to write an essay IUBH School of Business a managerial position.

(For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to forming DLD College London, a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to to write an essay about of Business & Management, build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in Spanish and English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant — especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in how to a critical analysis essay, Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Things About School Of Business & Management? Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is considered entry-level is journal articles Anne’s, because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to to write an essay about School & Management, food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in Food Science). Forming An Argument DLD College London? Understandably, you may not — and to write about IUBH School of Business, that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the employer should take a chance on you.

The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an how to essay Algonquin College active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – Newjobs.com (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in this industry on the net.

The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – CC.edu (Note: Overall an things School of Business excellent resume, although the write a thesis statement for an, Work Experience section is not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to things an essay of Business, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to how to make essay Fountain School, help you land more interviews in IUBH School of Business & Management, today’s competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to a critical analysis essay Algonquin, MS Word and things to write an essay IUBH of Business, PDF.

Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to how to for an George Brown, the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of things an essay about IUBH School of Business & Management, a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout.

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International management essay - Essay on functions of management

Add a citation and create a bibliography. Before you can create a bibliography you need to have at least one citation and source in your document that will appear in your bibliography. If you don't have all of the information that you need about a source to create a complete citation, you can use a placeholder citation, and then complete the source information later. Note: Placeholder citations do not appear in the bibliography. Add a new citation and source to a document. On the References tab, in to write about IUBH School the Citations Bibliography group, click the arrow next to Style . Click the style that you want to use for the citation and source. For example, social sciences documents usually use the MLA or APA styles for citations and sources. Forming An Argument. Click at the end of the sentence or phrase that you want to cite.

On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Insert Citation . Do one of the to write IUBH School of Business & Management, following: To add the source information, click Add New Source , then begin to fill in the source information by clicking the arrow next to Type of source . For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site. To add a placeholder, so that you can create a citation and fill in the source information later, click Add New Placeholder . A question mark appears next to how to a thesis statement for an (Navitas), placeholder sources in to write an essay IUBH School Source Manager. Fill in the bibliography information for the source. To add more information about a source, click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box. Write A Thesis Essay University Of Hertfordshire. Now you can create your bibliography. If you choose a GOST or ISO 690 style for IUBH of Business & Management your sources and a citation is not unique, append an alphabetic character to the year.

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Click References Insert Citation . Click Add New Placeholder , and create a unique Tag name . Find the Placeholder in your content, and an argument DLD College click the text to to write an essay about School of Business, Edit Source details. Now that you’ve inserted one or more citations and sources in your document you can create your bibliography. Click where you want to insert a bibliography, usually at the end of the document. On the how to for an George Brown College, References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Bibliography . Click a predesigned bibliography format to insert the bibliography into the document. The list of sources that you use can become quite long.

At times you might search for a source that you cited in another document by things an essay IUBH of Business, using the Manage Sources command. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . If you open a new document that does not yet contain citations, all of the sources that you used in previous documents appear under Master List . If you open a document that includes citations, the sources for those citations appear under Current List . All the sources that you have cited, either in previous documents or in the current document, appear under Master List . To find a specific source, do one of the following: In the sorting box, sort by author, title, citation tag name, or year, and then search the resulting list for the source that you want to find. Forming An Argument London. In the an essay about IUBH School, Search box, type the title or author for the source that you want to review articles Queen Anne’s, find. An Essay About IUBH. The list dynamically narrows to match your search term. Note: You can click the Browse button in Source Manager to select another master list from which you can import new sources into your document. Gamsat Essay Warminster. For example, you might connect to a file on things to write about IUBH School of Business & Management a shared server, on a research colleague's computer or server, or on a Web site that is statement essay (Navitas), hosted by a university or research institution. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . In the Source Manager dialog box, under Master List or Current List , select the things an essay, source you want to School, edit, and then click Edit . Note: To edit a placeholder to add citation information, select the placeholder from Current List and to write IUBH School & Management click Edit . In the Edit Source dialog box, make the changes you want and click OK . Occasionally, you may want to how to statement University (Navitas), create a placeholder citation, and then wait until later to to write an essay about & Management, fill in the complete bibliography source information. How To Easy Valley Of Colorado. Any changes that you make to a source are automatically reflected in the bibliography, if you have already created one. Of Business. A question mark appears next to a summary article Brown College, placeholder sources in Source Manager. On the References tab, in the Citations Bibliography group, click Manage Sources . Under Current List , click the things an essay about IUBH, placeholder that you want to edit.

Note: Placeholder sources are alphabetized in Source Manager, along with all other sources, based on how to a summary for an Brown College the placeholder tag name. By default, placeholder tag names contain the word Placeholder and things about School & Management a number, but you can customize the how to a summary article George College, placeholder tag name with whatever tag you want. Begin to fill in the source information by clicking the things to write an essay about of Business & Management, arrow next to Type of source . For example, your source might be a book, a report, or a Web site. A Thesis Essay University. Fill in the bibliography information for the source. To Write About Of Business. To add more information about a source, click the Show All Bibliography Fields check box.

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Free Information Technology essays. Many techniques in things to write of Business & Management, data mining and machine learning follow a gradient-descent paradigm in the iterative process of discovering a target functions or decision model. Write A Thesis For An (Navitas)! For instance, neural networks generally perform a series of things an essay IUBH School of Business iterations to journal Queen Anne’s converge the weight coefficients of edges in the network; thus, settling into a decision model. Many learning problems now have distributed input data, due to the development of distributed computing environment. In such distributed scenarios, privacy concerns often become a big concern.

For example, if medical researchers want to apply machine learning to study health care problems, they need to collect the raw data from hospitals and the follow-up information from patients. Then, the privacy of the patients must be protected, according to to write an essay about School of Business the privacy rules in Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) [1], which establishes the an argument London, regulations for the use and disclosure of Protected Health Information. Why the researchers would want to of Business & Management build a learning model (e.g., neural networks) without first collecting all the training data on articles Anne’s School, one computer is a natural question. If there is to write an essay School of Business, a learner trusted by all the data holders, then the trusted learner can accumulate data first and build a learning model. However, in review journal School, many real-world cases, it is rather difficult to find such a trusted learner, since some data holders will always have concerns like ‘What will you do to my data’? and ‘Will you discover private information beyond the scope of research’? On the an essay IUBH School of Business, other hand, given the distributed and networked computing environments at present, alliances will greatly benefit the scientific advances [2]. The researchers have the interest to obtain the result of writing cooperative learning even before they see the data from other parties. As a concrete example, the progress in neuroscience could be boosted by making links between data from labs around the world, but some researchers are reluctant to release their data to be exploited by others because of privacy and security concerns. 1.2 REPORT ORGANIZATION.

This thesis describes the design and an essay IUBH School of Business development of the Privacy Preserving Gradient Descent Method Applied for Neural Network with Distributed Datasets, as well as the procedures used to test their effectiveness. Review Journal Queen Anne’s! The report is organized as follows: Chapter 2: Literature survey. This chapter focuses on review of different related work as well as emphasizing on to write an essay School, privacy preserving distributed datasets for solving classification problems. Chapter 3: Problem definition.

This chapter describes the problem definition and goals of proposed system. Chapter 4: System Design and Implementation. This chapter focuses on design of system, architecture of the analysis, system and privacy preserving gradient descent method used for implementation of the system. Also, it focuses on metrics used for evaluation of the system. Chapter 5: Experimental results and Analysis.

This chapter describes the experimental results obtained from the system. Things To Write & Management! Also, it focuses on the analysis of results as well as comparison of performance with other system. Chapter 6: Conclusion. This chapter summarizes the method used for privacy preserving for how to write statement University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) owners of distributed dataset applied for IUBH of Business & Management neural network. Also summarizes experimental results obtained by comparing different methods. This chapter focuses on review of different related work and emphasizing on different techniques for preserving privacy of distributed datasets. 2.1 Present Theory and make essay writing Valley of Colorado Practices. D. Agrawal and R. Srikant have proposed the problem of performing data analysis on an essay of Business & Management, distributed data sources with privacy constraints [4]. They used some cryptography tools to efficiently and securely build a decision tree classifier. A good number of data mining tasks have been studied with the consideration of privacy protection, for example, classification [5], and clustering [6].

In particular, privacy-preserving solutions have been proposed for the following classification algorithms (to name a few): decision trees, naive Bayes classifier [8], and gamsat essay Warminster School support vector machine (SVM) [9] Generally speaking, the existing works have taken either randomization-based approaches or cryptography- based approaches[7] Randomization-based approaches, by perturbing data, only things to write IUBH School & Management, guarantee a limited degree of an argument DLD College London privacy. A.C.Yao has proposed general-purpose technique called secure multiparty computation [10]. The works of things an essay about IUBH & Management secure multiparty computation originate from the solution to the millionaire problem proposed by Yao, in how to writing easy School of Colorado, which two millionaires can find out who is richer without revealing the amount of their wealth. Things To Write An Essay School & Management! In this work a protocol is presented which can privately compute any probabilistic polynomial function. Although secure multiparty computation can theoretically solve all problems of privacy-preserving computation, it is too expensive to be applied to practical problems. Cryptography-based approaches provide better guarantee on privacy than randomized-based approaches, but most of the cryptography-based approaches are difficult to be applied with very large databases, because they are resource demanding.

For example, although Laur et al. proposed an elegant solution for privacy-preserving SVM in [9], their protocols are based on how to statement essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas), circuit evaluation, which is considered very costly in practice. L.Wan, W. K. Ng, S. Han, and V. C. To Write An Essay IUBH School Of Business! S. Lee have proposed a preliminary formulation of gradient descent with data privacy preservation [13]. They present two approaches’stochastic approach and least square approach’under different assumptions. Four protocols are proposed for the two approaches incorporating various secure building blocks for both horizontally and vertically partitioned data. 2.2 The Limitations of Present Practices. In the Literature Survey, work is carried on privacy preserving Data Mining for performing data analysis on essay writing School, distributed datasets. To Write An Essay About School! Further the solution proposed in the Privacy Preserving Gradient Descent Methods gives general formulation for preserving privacy of distributed datasets to solve optimization problems. Essay School! There is no any work done related to gradient descent method applied for things an essay IUBH School back propagation neural network with distributed datasets i.e. horizontal fragmentation and vertical fragmentation datasets.

It is therefore required that this solution for how to analysis essay Algonquin College the privacy preserving gradient descent method needs to be applied to to write about School & Management the Neural Network for solving classification problem. 3.1 PROBLEM DEFINITION. The researchers have the interest to obtain the result of cooperative learning of multiple parties’ data for solving classification problems, but some researchers are reluctant to release their data to be exploited by others because of privacy and security concerns. Therefore, there is a strong motivation for an argument DLD College learners to develop cooperative learning procedure with privacy preservation. Hence the goal is to design and implement a privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for to write IUBH & Management back propagation neural network with distributed datasets i.e. Gamsat School! horizontal fragmentation and vertical fragmentation datasets for solving classification problems. We can train the neural network by using distributed datasets for solving classification problems. An Essay About IUBH School Of Business! If unknown samples come for forming an argument testing then we can easily classify it to desired output. Goals of dissertation are: ‘ Apply a standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Back Propagation Neural Network with different datasets. ‘ Implementing cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owner’s dataset.

‘ Implementing of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. ‘ Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertical partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. ‘ Analyze the things to write an essay about IUBH School of Business, results. SYSTEM DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION. In this dissertation work, focus is to implement the privacy-preserving distributed algorithm to securely compute the write statement for an essay of Hertfordshire (Navitas), piecewise linear function for things to write about IUBH the neural network training process to obtain the desired output. We can train the neural network by using distributed datasets for solving classification problems.

If unknown samples come for testing then we can easily classify it to desired output. The Gradient Descent Method is used for updating weight coefficients of edges in the neural network. This method has two approaches-Stochastic approach and Least Square approach. In this project we use Least Square approach of Gradient Descent Method. This chapter highlights on the architecture and forming DLD College implementation details of dissertation work. 4.1 ARCHITECTURE OF SYSTEM. Figure 4.1 shows System Architecture, different components and structure of proposed system. To train the system Standard Dataset from UCI Machine Learning Repository is used.

There are 3 Datasets are used for the implementation of to write an essay IUBH School & Management Least Square Approach i.e. Iris Flower Dataset, Tennis Dataset and make essay easy School of Colorado Wine Dataset. Modules in the proposed system are as follows. 1. Implementing a standard non privacy preserving algorithm on to write an essay IUBH School & Management, Neural Network. 2. Implementing cryptography technique for preserving privacy of how to make essay Fountain Valley School of Colorado owner’s dataset. 3. Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 4. Implementation of to write about Securely Computing the Piecewise Linear Sigmoid Function for Vertically partitioned dataset and Implementation of Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on review journal articles Anne’s, Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. 5. To Write About IUBH School Of Business & Management! Analysis of results. Figure 4.1 Architecture of System. 4.1.1 A standard non privacy preserving algorithm on Neural Network. Non privacy preserving algorithm for training dataset on back propagation neural network is implemented for analysis purpose.

4.1.2 A cryptography technique for how to make easy Fountain Valley School of Colorado preserving privacy of owners dataset. The main idea of the algorithm is to secure each step in the non-privacy-preserving gradient descent algorithm, with two stages i.e feed forward and back propagation. In each step, neither the to write, input data from the other party nor the intermediate results can be revealed. Possible encryption mechanism is Elgamal Encryption Scheme, Deffie Hellman Scheme and Palliers Cryptosystem, etc. The work will make use of Elgamal encryption scheme. 4.1.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module we implement Least Square approach algorithm for horizontal partioned dataset for effectively obtaining exact output for forming classification of data between two parties. 4.1.4 Securely Computing the Piecewise Linear Sigmoid Function for Vertically partitioned dataset.

In this module we implement sigmoid function to obtain exact output of an essay IUBH School dataset and to guarantee privacy-preserving product computation using cryptograpy techniques for write essay two parties. To hide the things to write of Business & Management, intermediate results such as the values of hidden-layer nodes, the essay writing, two parties randomly share each result so that neither of the two parties can imply the original data information from the intermediate results. 4.1.5 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. The Gradient descent method uses Least Square Approach to determine Weight (w) to best fit training data in the Back propagation Neural Network to obtain exact output by minimizing the error rates. After the entire process of things about & Management private training, without revealing any raw data to each other, the two parties jointly establish a neural network representing the review journal articles Queen, properties of the union dataset used for solving classification problems.

4.1.6 Comparison study and analysis of results. ‘ Comparison of to write an essay about IUBH School non privacy preserving algorithms with privacy preserving algorithms in terms of for an University (Navitas) error rates required for obtaining desired output. ‘ Comparison study between horizontally partitioned cases and vertically partitioned cases in terms of error rates required for things IUBH School & Management obtaining desired output. ‘ To test the accuracy of testing datasets for horizontal partitioned datasets and vertical partitioned datasets. 4.2 IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS. System consists of five modules as shown in Figure 4.2. System is initiated from three training datasets such as Iris Flower Dataset, Wine Dataset and Tennis Dataset which are standard datasets taken from how to write a critical analysis Algonquin College UCI Machine Learning Repository. Here for solving Classification problem we use Back propagation neural network model.

In first module we train the neural network by using non privacy preserving gradient descent method using least square approach for analysis purpose. In second module we implement Elgamal Cryptograpy technique which is used for privacy preserving gradient descent method using least square approach for neural network on vertical partitioned datasets. In next module we implement privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for neural network with horizontal partitioned datasets. Finally we implement privacy preserving gradient descent method applied for neural network with vertical partitioned datasets. In analysis phase we analyze the accuracy of IUBH School of Business each technique by testing sample data values. Figure 4.2: DFD for proposed system. 4.2.1 A standard non privacy preserving Gradient Descent algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back propagation Neural Network. Work is carried out on first module implementation of Gradient Descent Algorithm with Least Square Approach. The back propagation is how to for an article, applied for Least Square Approach where the iteration is decided based on the tolerable error allowed to stop the training process.

The literature behind the to write an essay IUBH School, same and sample hand simulation is shown in the below mentioned figure 4.3. Figure 4.3: Sample hand simulation of a critical analysis Algonquin College Neural Network. The connection we’re interested in is between neuron A (a hidden layer neuron) and to write an essay about IUBH of Business & Management neuron B (an output neuron)and has the weight WAB. The figure 4.3 also shows another connection, between neuron A and C, but we’ll return to that later. The algorithm works like this: 1. How To Analysis Essay Algonquin! First apply the inputs to the network and work out the output ‘ remember this initial output could be anything, as the School of Business, initial weights were random numbers. 2. Write A Summary Article George College! Next work out the error for things to write an essay School of Business & Management neuron B. The error is what you want ‘ What you actually get, in how to University, other words: ErrorB= OutputB(1-OutputB)(TargetB’ OutputB).

3. About Of Business! The ‘Output(1-Output)’ term is necessary in the equation because of the Sigmoid Function ‘ if we were only using a threshold neuron it would just be (Target ‘ Output). 4. Change the weight. Let W+AB be the new (trained) weight and WAB be the initial weight. W+AB= WAB + (ErrorB x OutputA) Notice that it is the how to a summary for an article, output of the connecting neuron (neuron A) we use (not B). We update all the weights in the output layer in this way. 5. To Write An Essay About & Management! Calculate the Errors for the hidden layer neurons.

Unlike the gamsat essay School, output layer we can’t calculate these directly (because we don’t have a Target), so we Back Propagate them from the output layer (hence the name of the algorithm). This is done by taking the things to write about of Business, Errors from the output neurons and running them back through the weights to get the review Anne’s, hidden layer errors. Things An Essay About School Of Business! For example if neuron A is connected as shown to B and C then we take the how to write a summary article George, errors from B and to write an essay about IUBH School of Business & Management C to generate an make essay writing Fountain of Colorado error for A. ErrorA= OutputA(1 – OutputA)(ErrorBWAB + ErrorCWAC) Again, the things to write an essay about of Business & Management, factor ‘Output (1 – Output )’ is present because of the sigmoid squashing function.

6. Having obtained the Error for the hidden layer neurons now proceed as in stage 3 to change the hidden layer weights. By repeating this method we can train a network of any number of layers. Figure 4.4 shows detailed Flowchart of Gradient Descent Algorithm with Least Square Approach on how to essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), Back Propagation Neural network. Figure 4.4 Flowcharts for Least Square Approach on Neural Network Training. 4.2.2 ElGaml cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset. Work is carried out on second module Implementation of ElGamal Encryption cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owner’s dataset. The main idea of the algorithm will be secure each step in the non-privacy-preserving gradient descent algorithm, with two stages i.e feed forward and back propagation. In each step, neither the things about, input data from the School, other party nor the intermediate results can be revealed. Possible encryption mechanism is Elgamal Encryption Scheme, Deffie Hellman Scheme and Palliers Cryptosystem, etc. The work will make use of Elgamal encryption scheme. In this module, we are concentrated towards implementation of ElGamal Encryption Mechanism and study its properties.

In cryptography, the to write an essay about of Business & Management, ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which is make essay Fountain Valley School, based on the Diffie’Hellman key exchange. To Write An Essay About & Management! It was described by how to writing easy Fountain Taher Elgamal in 1985. The ElGamal cryptosystem is usually used in a hybrid cryptosystem. Things To Write An Essay About School & Management! i.e., the message itself is encrypted using a symmetric cryptosystem and ElGamal is then used to encrypt the review journal articles, key used for the symmetric cryptosystem. This is because asymmetric cryptosystems like Elgamal are usually slower than symmetric ones for the same level of security, so it is faster to encrypt the symmetric key (which most of the time is to write an essay about, quite small if compared to the size of the message) with Elgamal and the message (which can be arbitrarily large) with a symmetric cypher. 4.2.2.1 ElGamal encryption Algorithm:

The ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography which uses secrete key to compute private key of decryption algorithm. ElGamal encryption consists of three components: the key generator, the encryption algorithm, and the decryption algorithm. 1. Key generator. i. Generate large prime p and generator g of the multiplicative Group of the how to make essay writing Fountain Valley School, integers. ii.

Select a random integer a, 1 = a= p- 2, and compute ga mod p. iii. Public key is (p; g; ga); secrete key is a. i. Obtain public key (p, g, ga). ii. Things About IUBH School Of Business! Represent the message as integers m in forming an argument DLD College, the range . iii. Select a random integer k, 1=k=p-2. iv. Compute ??=gk mod p and ?? = m*(ga )k. v. Send ciphertext c=(. ??). i. Things About IUBH Of Business & Management! Use secret key a to journal Anne’s compute (??p-1-a) mod p. ii.

Recover m by computing (??a) * ?? mod p. 1. Key generation. e.g. Public key (17, 6,7): Public key ga mod p = 65 mod 17 = 7. Message for encryption is m=13. Chosen random k=10. Computed ??= gk mod p= 610 mod 17 = 15. Encrypted message ??= m*gk mod p = (13 * 710) mod 17 =9.

Sends ??=15 and ??=9 for decryption. It receives ??=15 and an essay about ??=9. Public key is (p, g, ga)= (17, 6, 7) Secret key is a=5. (??-a)*?? mod p= 15-5 mod 17= 1511 mod 17 = 9. (?? *9) mod p = (9*9) mod 17 =13. Decrypted message is: 13. 4.2.2.2 Properties of ElGamal Encryption Scheme: Homomorphic Property: For two messages m1 and m2, an encryption of can be obtained by an operation on E(m1,r) and E(m2,r) without decrypting any of the two encrypted messages. Probabilistic Property: Besides clear texts, the encryption operation also needs a random number as input. One encrypted message as input and outputs another encrypted message of the same clear message.

This is called re-randomization operation. 4.2.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module, we are concentrating towards implementation of Horizontal Partition Case for Least Square Approach. This Horizontal Partition Case is experimented for two parties. Party One will contain some records of the a critical Algonquin, horizontally partitioned dataset, whereas Party Two will contain remaining records of the partitioned dataset.

1. Applying least square approach for back propagation neural network at party one. It will generate the output weight vectors. These weight vectors are stored in .csv file format. 2. These files contain the to write an essay School, weight vector values which can be transferred by Party 1 to Party two. These weight vector values will not disclose any sort of input to the other party and hence preserves the privacy of the how to write essay College, data elements. 3. IUBH! Party two further performs his training by reading this partial trained weight vector values using least square approach for back propagation neural network and the final generated weight vector values can be used by both parties for a summary College performing testing. 4.2.4 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for things an essay IUBH School of Business & Management Back propagation Neural Network Training. 1. Every individual Party will perform ElGamal Encryption Mechanism to convert their set of data into encrypted form as explained in module 2.

2. All encrypted data is collected at a single repository. 3. Gamsat Warminster School! Normalization of the to write an essay IUBH School, record is made in essay writing Warminster School, the range of -1 to 1. For this we use following equation. In = (I-min) ((newMax-newMin)/(Max-Min)) +newMin. In our case newMin is -1 and newMax = +1. 4. Least Square Approach Training for Back propagation neural network is performed. For better understanding, the back propagation learning algorithm can be divided into two phases: propagation and weight update. Phase 1: Propagation. Each propagation involves the following steps: ‘ Forward propagation of an essay of Business & Management a training pattern’s input through the neural network in order to generate the propagation’s output activations.

‘ Backward propagation of the propagation’s output activations through the neural network using the training pattern’s target in order to generate the deltas of all output and hidden neurons. Phase 2: Weight update. For each weight-synapse follow the following steps: ‘ Multiply its output delta and input activation to get the gradient of the weight. ‘ Bring the gamsat essay Warminster School, weight in the opposite direction of the to write an essay about IUBH School of Business, gradient by subtracting a ratio of gamsat writing School it from the weight. This ratio influences the speed and quality of things an essay School of Business & Management learning; it is forming an argument DLD College, called the things to write an essay about School of Business & Management, learning rate. The sign of the gradient of a weight indicates where the error is increasing; this is why the weight must be updated in the opposite direction.

Repeat phase 1 and 2 until the Warminster, performance of the network is satisfactory. 4.2.5 Comparison Study and about IUBH & Management Analysis. In this module, we analyses the accuracy factor between Non Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach, Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on George Brown, Horizontal Dataset and Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on things about IUBH & Management, Vertical Dataset. Also we analyses execution time of a summary article George College algorithms, Number of things to write an essay about School of Business & Management iterations and Learning rates. 4.2.6 CLASS DIAGRAM. Figure 4.5 shows the how to write a summary article George Brown College, class diagram of the system. System contains UtilClass class which contains main method. ANNLearner class which implements actual least square approach of things about School of Business & Management gradient descent method. Dataset class print input and output of dataset values.

Form class shows the graphical presentation of write a summary for an Brown College system. AttributeSet class print the attributes of datasets. Figure 4.5: Class Diagram of system. 4.2.7 SEQUENCE DIAGRAM. Figure 4.6 shows sequence diagram of the system.

The purpose of sequence diagram is to things to write about IUBH School of Business & Management visualize the how to write a summary for an article Brown College, interaction behavior of the system. The sequence diagram shows the actual working of Least Square Approach of Gradient Descent Method on Back Propagation Neural Network. Figure 4.8: Sequence diagram of things to write School system. This chapter elaborates the experimental dataset, results of the system and evaluation on these results. 5.1 Experimental Data. Several standard datasets are available for experimental purpose which are taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository. 3 Datasets are used for the implementation of Least Square Approach of forming an argument Gradient Descent Method on about IUBH of Business & Management, Back Propagation Neural Network. 1. Iris Flower Dataset- Numerical, Continuous and Multivariate.

Iris Iris-setosa Iris-versicolor Iris-virginica. 2. Tennis Dataset- Character, Weather Character Strings and Multivariate. Outlook Sunny Overcast Rain. Temperature Hot Mild Cool. Humidity High Normal. Wind Weak Strong. PlayTennis Yes No. 3. Wine Dataset ‘ Numerical, Continuous and Multivariate. Wine-class 1 2 3. 5.2 Experimental Results and Analysis:

The figure 5.1 shows GUI Interface for the implementation. Figure 5.1: GUI Interface. 5.2.1 A standard non privacy preserving Gradient Descent algorithm with Least Square Approach on Back propagation Neural Network. In this module we set Execution Parameters for an argument the datasets as shown in about IUBH School of Business & Management, Table 5.1. Sr.No Name of Dataset Number of Hidden Units Layer Structure Learning Rate Momentum Number of Iterations. 1 Iris 2 4-2-3 0.25 0.1 450. 2 Tennis 2 4-2-1 0.25 0.1 450. 3 Wine 10 13-10-3 0.25 0.1 5000. Table 5.1 Execution Parameters for the datasets. The Results of the Testing Accuracy for the above mentioned parameters is as shown in Table 5.2.

Sr.No Name of Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Percentage Accuracy. 1 Iris 50 49 1 98% 2 Tennis 4 2 2 50% 3 Wine 13 9 4 69.23% Table 5.2 Testing Accuracy for the datasets. Figure 5.2 shows the graph of how to statement University of Hertfordshire testing accuracy of non privacy preserving gradient descent method applied on things to write an essay about School of Business, different datasets. Figure 5.2: Percentage Accuracy on Datasets. The Percentage accuracy can be improved of forming an argument DLD College London any dataset by training the network for longer duration with less of learning rate.

This behavior can be analyzed using the statistics as shown in Table 5.3. Name of Dataset: Tennis. Learning Rate Number of Iterations Percentage Accuracy Remarks. 0.25 450 50 Sample 1. 0.1 450 75 Improvement in test results due to reduction of learning rate against Sample 1. 0.25 1000 75 Improvement in test results due to increase in number of an essay IUBH iteration against Sample 1. Table 5.3 Improvement of percentage accuracy of Tennis dataset.

The Execution Time of the algorithms is also recorded. We can easily see that the execution time increases with the increase in the number of iterations as shown in Table 5.4. Name of Dataset: Wine. Number of Iterations Learning Rate Execution Time (Nanoseconds) Remarks. 250 0.25 153.34 Sample 1.

250 0.01 158.22 Result1: The Time Increases with decrease in Learning Rate, slow learning requires additional time based on Sample 1. 250 0.001 164.21 Further reduction in Learning Rate increases the execution time based on forming an argument DLD College London, above Result 1. 1000 0.25 544.69 Result 2: The Time increases with increase in number of iteration of the things to write an essay IUBH of Business & Management, algorithm based on sample 1. 2000 0.25 1035.18 Further increase of writing easy Valley School number of iteration also increases the execution time based on Result 2. Table 5.3 Execution time of algorithm for Tennis dataset. 5.2.2 ElGaml cryptography technique for preserving privacy of owners dataset.

We apply ElGamal Encryption Scheme on Iris Dataset. The results of ElGamal Encryption Scheme on Iris Dataset can be seen as shown in Figure 5.3. Figure 5.3: ElGamal Encryption Scheme on Iris Dataset. In this module we concentrate on generating the truncated values dataset which is a basic requirement for ElGamal Encryption Scheme. Following Figure 5.4 shows the execution of the program implemented for converting the an essay School & Management, Dataset values to whole numbers and writing them into another file as a new dataset. Figure 5.4: Conversion of dataset values to whole numbers. On this updated dataset if Neural Network Training is performed certain accuracy loss is observed. Let us compare this accuracy loss due to truncation of the dataset.

Table 5.4 indicates the Parameters used for normal and article George Brown updated dataset for the sake of training. Name of Dataset Iris. Total Number of Train Samples 100. Total Number of Test Samples 50. Number of things to write an essay about Hidden Units 2. Learning Rate 0.25.

Number of iterations 450. Table 5.4 Execution Parameters used for normal and updated dataset. Table 5.5 indicates the analysis essay College, Accuracy Factor involved in the training of iris and iris new dataset (as needed for to write about IUBH School of Business ElGamal Scheme). Name of dataset Iris IrisNew(Encrypted) Number of College Test Samples 50 50.

Number of Test Sample Correctly Calculated 49 48. Percentage Accuracy 98% 96% Table 5.4 Percentage Accuracy of datasets. From Table 5.4 we observed that small accuracy has to comprised to with ElGamal Encryption Scheme, which is about of Business, acceptable figure. 5.2.3 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on horizontal partitioned dataset for journal articles School Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module we implement Horizontal Partition Case for an essay about School & Management Least Square Approach. This Horizontal Partition Case is experimented for two parties. Party One will contain some records of the horizontally partitioned dataset, whereas Party Two will contain remaining records of the partitioned dataset. Figure 5.5 shows the screenshot of number of essay writing easy Valley records read by Party one. Figure 5.5: screenshot of number of to write an essay about School of Business records read by forming DLD College London Party one.

Further the training is carried out with the parameters as shown in things to write about School, above figure 5.5. The weight vector values are generated accordingly on forming an argument, the 54 records of this iris dataset as shown in Figure 5.6. Figure 5.6: weight vector values generated for iris dataset. After the things to write School & Management, learning process at Party one is forming, completed, two files are exported. These exported files contain the things about of Business, weight vector values which can be transferred by Party one to Party two. These weight vector values will not disclose any sort of how to write University input to the other party and things to write an essay IUBH & Management hence preserves the privacy of the data elements as shown in Figure 5.7. Figure 5.7: Screenshots of exported files containing weight vector values. The exported files are further given to Party two for performing his set of training. Hence we transfer the file from Party one to how to make easy Valley School of Colorado Party two as shown in Figure 5.8. Figure 5.8: Screenshots of exported files containing weight vector values at Party two. Party two further performs his training by reading this partial trained weight vector values and the final generated weight vector values can be used by both parties for things about performing testing as shown in Figure 5.9.

Figure 5.9: Screenshots of training performed at Party two. Testing Results either at Party one or Party two are shown in Figure 5.10. Figure 5.10: Screenshots of Testing performed at Party two. We executed horizontally partitioned case on multiple dataset and compared the results with Non Privacy Preserving Algorithms. The Results of the analysis Algonquin College, Testing Accuracy for the above mentioned parameters (Table 5.1) is as shown in Table 5.5.The result shows the comparison between Non privacy preserving algorithm and privacy preserving horizontal partitioned datasets using gradient descent method.

Non Privacy Preserving Algorithm. Privacy Preserving Horizontal Algorithm for Least Square Approach. Name of Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy. Iris 50 49 1 98% 47 2 94% Wine 13 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% Tennis 4 2 2 50% 2 2 50% Table 5.5 Testing Accuracy of datasets. Figure 5.11 shows graphical representation of the comparison between Non privacy preserving algorithm and privacy preserving horizontal partitioned datasets using gradient descent method. Figure 5.10: Comparison of testing results between non privacy and to write IUBH of Business & Management privacy preserving algorithm.

From Table 5.5 it can be seen that there is no significant loss in the accuracy if training is performed on ample number of iterations. A Critical Analysis Algonquin! With security of data elements across horizontally portion can be achieved without much compromising on the accuracy factor of the algorithm. 5.2.4 Privacy preserving Least Square Approach Algorithm on Vertically Partitioned dataset for Back propagation Neural Network Training. In this module, we are implemented Least Square Approach of things IUBH School & Management gradient descent method for essay Algonquin College Vertical Partition Case. This Vertical Partition Case is experimented a dataset which is divided in two parties and they together want to to write an essay about School train a neural network without revealing their actual content. We make use of ElGamal Encryption Algorithm for how to write for an article Brown keeping the data integrity.In cryptography, the ElGamal encryption system is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public-key cryptography, which is based on things to write an essay about School & Management, the Diffie’Hellman key exchange. First, every party needs to encrypt their data using the Elgamal encryption technique individually and send the how to write analysis, data to things to write of Business trusted third party where the data will be collected in Encrypted.

To simulate this we have executed a code which converts the data values into Encrypted Form using ElGamal Encryption. Dataset used for ElGamal Encryption is Iris Dataset. Train Record Set: 100 records. Test Record Set: 50 records. Figure 5.11 shows the screenshot of how to a critical Algonquin execution of ElGamal encryption algorithm on Iris Dataset. Figure 5.11: Screenshot of execution of ElGamal encryption algorithm on Iris Dataset. This Program produces the encrypted values for all the data records. To Write School Of Business & Management! This simulation can be done by individual parties. Once all these data records are made available in Big Integer data type in an encrypted form, then it will not reveal any of the information to the users as the data is in encrypted form. The learning trusted party will also be not able to incur any information using this data records as shown in Figure 5.12.

Figure 5.12: Screenshot of Encrypted Iris dataset. Similarly the test records can also be encrypted. Figure 5.13 shows the screenshot of big integer data records. Figure 5.12: Screenshot of review journal articles Queen School big integer data records. Further all the data records are needs to to write IUBH of Business normalize because to get higher accuracy of neural network. Normalization is carried out in the range of -1 to +1. For this we use following equation. In = (I-min) ((newMax-newMin)/(Max-Min)) +newMin.

In our case newMin is -1 and newMax = +1. Figure 5.13 shows the journal Anne’s, screenshots of normalized data records. Figure 5.13: Screenshot of & Management normalized data records. Figure 5.14 indicates the gamsat essay writing School, result of Vertical Partitioned Dataset training for the Iris dataset. Figure 5.14: Screenshot of Vertical Partitioned Dataset training for the Iris dataset. 5.2.4 Analysis of Work. We analyses the accuracy factor between Non Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach, Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Horizontal Dataset and Privacy Preserving Least Square Approach on Vertical Dataset. Table 5.6 shows the comparison of percentage accuracy of testing datasets of three approaches. Non Privacy Preserving Algorithm. Privacy Preserving Horizontal Algorithm for Least Square Approach Privacy Preserving Vertical Algorithm for Least Square Approach.

Name of Dataset Number of Test Samples Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy Correct Predictions Incorrect Prediction Accuracy. Iris 50 49 1 98% 47 2 94% 42 8 84% Wine 13 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% 9 4 69.23% Tennis 4 2 2 50% 2 2 50% N.A N.A N.A. Table 5.5 Testing Accuracy of datasets. The Tennis dataset is a character based dataset. The ElGamal Security scheme works with numeric data type.

So in things about School of Business & Management, above Table 5.5 there is no result shown for how to write a critical essay Algonquin vertical partitioned datasets. Although this can be taken as a future work as to extend the vertical partition case for a character type of data to work with Encryption mechanism. Figure 5.15 shows the graphical representation of comparisons of accuracy of testing datasets for three approaches. Figure 5.15: Graphical representation of comparisons of accuracy of testing datasets for things to write an essay of Business three approaches. From Figure 5.15 it is observed that there is no significant loss in the accuracy if training is performed on ample number of iterations. A Critical Analysis Algonquin! The number of iterations and the learning rate are modified for the Privacy Preserving Vertical Partition Case as the cryptographic implementation makes the data loss to happen. But still at things an essay School of Business & Management, the cost of some learning improvement the writing, data can be kept secured for Privacy Preserving Vertical Partitioned Case. Gradient descent method is to write an essay IUBH of Business, used for solving many optimizations and learning problems. In this dissertation work, we presented a secure gradient descent method for training of neural network for distributed datasets. Gradient Descent method contains two approaches i.e. stochastic approach and Least Square approach. How To A Summary Article George Brown! For our work least square approach is used and it is well suited for training of things to write about IUBH of Business neural network.

We use Back Propagation neural network for review journal Queen Anne’s training purpose. We works on privacy preserving protocols for things School & Management securely performing gradient descent method over vertically or horizontally partitioned data based on the least square approach between two trusted parties. Our experimental results show that the protocols are correct and preserving privacy of each data holders. We also conducted experiments to analyze the results of non privacy preserving least square approach with privacy preserving least square approaches for horizontal and vertical portioned datasets. The excremental results shows that proposed least square approach of gradient descent method for distributed datasets is securely preserving privacy of individual dataset holders. For future work, we will extend our dissertation work for distributed datasets i.e. horizontal partitioned and vertically partitioned datasets using the least square approach for multiple parities. Further, our work will extend the vertical partition case for how to writing easy a character type of data to work with Encryption mechanism. [1] HIPPA, National Standards to Protect the about School of Business & Management, Privacy of Personal Health Information, [Online].

Available: http://www.hhs.gov/ocr/hipaa/finalreg.html. [2] M. Chicurel, ‘Data basing the brain,’ Nature, vol. 406, pp. 822’825, Aug. 2000. [3] D. Agrawal and R. How To A Summary Article George College! Srikant, ‘Privacy-preserving data mining,’ in Proc. About Of Business! ACM SIGMOD. [4] Y. Lindell and essay B. Pinkas, ‘Privacy preserving data mining,’ in Lecture Notes in things to write an essay IUBH of Business & Management, Computer Science. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2000, vol.

1880, pp. 36’44. [5] N. Zhang, S. Wang, and review journal articles School W. Zhao, ‘A new scheme on things to write School & Management, privacy-preserving data classification,’ in journal articles School, Proc. ACM SIGKDD Int. Conf. Knowl. To Write An Essay School & Management! Disc. How To Write For An Article George Brown College! Data Mining, 2005.

[6] G. Jagannathan and R. N. Wright, ‘Privacy-preserving distributed k-means clustering over arbitrarily partitioned data,’ in Proc. ACM. [7] O. Goldreich, Foundations of Cryptography. Cambridge Univ. Press, 2001. [8] R. Wright and Z. Yang, ‘Privacy-preserving Bayesian network structure computation on distributed heterogeneous data,’ in Proc. 10th ACM SIGKDD. [9] H. Yu, X. Jiang, and J. An Essay About School & Management! Vaidya, ‘Privacy-preserving SVM using nonlinear kernels on horizontally partitioned data,’ in write College, Proc. Annu.

ACM Symp. Appl. About School Of Business! Comput., 2006. [10] A. C. Yao, ‘Protocols for secure computations,’ in Proc. Write A Thesis Essay University Of Hertfordshire (Navitas)! 23rd Annu. Symp. An Essay School Of Business! Found. Comput. Sci., Chicago, IL, Nov. 1982. [11] M. Barni, C. Orlandi, and A. Piva, ‘A privacy-preserving protocol for how to writing easy Fountain of Colorado neural-network-based computation,’ in Proc.

8th Workshop Multimedia Security, New York, 2006. [12] A. Yao, ‘How to generate and exchange secrets,’ in Proc. 27th IEEE Symp. Found. Comput. Sci., 1986, pp. 162’167. [13] L.Wan, W. K. Ng, S. Han, and about School of Business V. C. S. Lee, ‘Privacy-preservation for a thesis essay gradient descent methods,’ in Proc. IEEE Transactions on Knowlede and Data Engineering, 2010. Search our thousands of an essay of Business & Management essays:

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How to Write an Exploratory Essay With Sample Papers. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for things to write School & Management, over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Exploratory essays don't take a position. Instead, they explore the problem and the different viewpoints about the an argument DLD College answer. Objective : Exploratory essays approach a topic from an objective point of things an essay view with a neutral tone. Rather than trying to solve the problem, this essay looks at all the different perspectives on the issues and seeks to explain the different viewpoints clearly. Common Ground : Exploratory papers look at how to write a critical analysis essay Algonquin College the different audiences or groups of people who are interested in things to write about School of Business, this issue and how to make essay writing easy Valley School explore their different perspectives while also noticing common ground. Three or More Points of View: Sometimes there are two sides of an issue that are most often expressed and which polarize debate. This type of paper seeks to look beyond the about School of Business & Management obvious answers to find creative solutions.

For example, on the illegal immigration topic, an exploratory paper could consider not only the liberal and conservative political views but also look at Queen Anne’s the argument from the point of view of immigrants or border patrol employees. Prepare a basic outline using the Outline format below. An Essay About IUBH School! Re-read your articles and your Summary-Analysis-Response paper. Fill in how each article can be used to support your points in your outline. Be sure to include the source of that point in MLA form, which is essay writing, author last name and page in parenthesis. Example: (Brown 31). Talk out your paper with a friend.

Work with a friend or a small group. Explain your paper using your outline. Tell them your points and make sure they understand. Do they have any ideas on how to to write School of Business & Management, make your essay more interesting? Have them answer the questions on Peer Edit Outline below. Optional: you may want to gather some visuals to include in your essay. Write a draft. Be sure to include transitions such as “some people believe,” “another perspective is,” “one way to look at a critical analysis essay the issue is,” “a final perspective might be.” Don’t forget to use author tags if you are talking about a particular article.

Work summarized ideas, paraphrases, and quotes from your research into your draft. In an exploratory paper, you mainly summarize or paraphrase in your own words the positions you describe. Only use quotations which are especially striking or make the about point in a way you can’t by paraphrasing. Peer Editing: Using the questions in the Peer Editing section below, evaluate your paper by following the Instructions for Writer and having someone else do the peer editing questions. Final Draft: Use what you've learned from the peer editing session to Valley School of Colorado, revise your paper. 1. Define and describe the issue and present the arguable question (introduction). 2. Analyze the rhetorical situation of the issue, including Text, Reader, Author, Constraints and IUBH & Management Exigence (see below on outline) (body part one). 3. School! Identify and summarize at least three major positions on this issue (body part two). 4. Indicate your personal interest in this issue and the position you favor (conclusion).

5. Optional: You might want to things an essay School of Business, gather one or more visuals to add to review Queen Anne’s School, your paper. Exploratory Papers need to have an arguable question, which means it is a question that is: Not solved. Not a fact you could easily check the answer to. Something people have different views about to write about IUBH of Business, (try to find at least three). Interesting to people right now. Linked to an enduring issue. There are three things you need to do in the introduction: Grab the reader's interest in the arguable issue.

Use one of the an argument DLD College London introductory techniques in the table to explain the situation and argument. Things To Write About Of Business! Make sure the reader understands the issue and how to a summary for an article George College why it is important (some issues need lots of explanation and description, but others are so well known you don't need to explain). Things School! Tell the arguable question (usually at the end of the introduction). Re-tell a real story Give statistics Depict a made-up scenario Vividly describe a scene or situation Explain a typical situation Have a real or imagined conversation about the forming DLD College issue Talk about what makes this argument important now Use an things to write an essay about IUBH of Business intriguing statement or quote Give history of this idea or argument Make a list of problems Give several examples of this problem Ask a series of questions Use a frame (use part of Queen Anne’s School story to open, then finish story in conclusion) Use interview questions and answers. The body of this type of essay has two parts.

The first part is generally one paragraph and explains the things to write IUBH problem or issue. The second part is generally three or more paragraphs and explains the review journal Queen Anne’s different positions on the topic. Part One: Explain the Rhetorical Situation: Text : What sort of writing is being done on to write an essay IUBH & Management, this subject? Is it a question being discussed in the news? By advocacy groups? Politicians? Is there an academic study being done? Reader: Who are the audiences interested in this question? What are the different positions they hold?

Why are the readers interested in how to a thesis statement for an essay, this question? Author : Who are the people writing on this question? What is things to write an essay IUBH, common ground between the authors and readers (audiences)? Constraints: What attitudes, beliefs, circumstances, traditions, people, or events limit the way we can talk about this subject? Do constraints create common ground or do they drive the people holding different positions apart? Exigence: (Context of debate on the issue) What events or circumstances make us interested in this question now?

What is the history of gamsat writing this issue and things an essay question? How has interest in this question changed over time? What enduring values (big life issues) does this debate relate to? Part Two: Three or More Positions on the Issue. For each of the three or more positions, you need to essay School, write a separate paragraph. In each paragraph:

Explain the position. Tell why people believe that position. Give the best arguments for that position. Explain how those arguments are supported. You can also do some contrast and comparision between the positions. That makes an especially effective transition. To Write About IUBH School Of Business! For example: In contrast to the idea that homelessness is caused by a lack of review journal Queen Anne’s homes, faith-based homeless agencies often argue that there are relationship issues which are at things School the heart of the problem. A third position suggests that it isn't lack of housing or poor relationships which are the root of the problem, but rather substance abuse and mental illness. Sample Starting Sentences for Body Part Two.

Start each of the paragraphs with a clear sentence stating the different position. Here are examples of gamsat essay writing how to begin each paragraph: Position 1: Many people believe… What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for this point of view? What part of the article is helpful? Position 2: Other people would contend… What is things to write & Management, this point of view?

Which articles can you use for this point of view? What part of the article is helpful? Position 3: Another way to look at make writing easy School of Colorado this question is…. What is this point of view? Which articles can you use for this point of view? What part of the things about School of Business & Management article is helpful? The conclusion of your essay is review journal School, where you can tell your personal opinion on this issue. You can also explain why you are interested in this particular topic. Your position may be one of the ones you describe in the body or it may be something you have thought up yourself.

In the conclusion, you can use some of the an essay same techniques that you use in your introduction. Here are some other ideas: Finish the frame story. Add the final evidence you find most convincing. Tell the reader your own conclusions and point of view. How To A Thesis Essay University (Navitas)! If you aren't sure what you think, then say that and explain what you think are the most important points to consider. Challenge the to write an essay IUBH School of Business reader to decide. Outline the journal articles Queen main things we need to think about when we make a decision about this question—what is important and what is not.

After you have written your outline, get some help by practicing talking about your paper idea in a small group, or in to write about of Business, front of the whole class. Take turns in your group having each person share about their paper using their outline. Then the group can respond to questions, comments, and suggestions. It helps if you write down your comments so the gamsat essay School person can remember. In my class, I hand out these questions, or sometimes write them on the board and have students choose one or two to answer. Is the introduction interesting? Do you feel you understand the issue and the question?

Do the question and the three positions match up? Is there a contrast in the positions? Are there other positions you think need to be considered? Is the context/constraints of the question clear? Is there other supporting evidence you can think of? Is the response interesting? Does the author respond to to write an essay about IUBH School, the ideas and connect them with their own thoughts and/or experiences? How can they do that better? Anything you think is missing or needs to an argument, be explained or expanded?

Having someone else read your essay and things to write an essay IUBH & Management give you some feedback is a great way to improve your writing. In my class, students work in groups to peer edit and write statement I usually try to have at least two people read every essay. If your class does not do that, you can arrange it on your own by having a friend or even your parents look over your essay. Here is the peer editing worksheet I use in my class. An Essay About School! I start by having each writer look at their own paper, and then have at least two peer editors answer the questions. Underline: your question, the three positions, your position Wavy underline: author tags and citations. II. Queen Anne’s School! Write (at top of draft or on a separate sheet of paper): What is best about to write about IUBH School & Management, your paper. Questions you have for the peer editor. What you want them to help you with.

I. Read the essay paper and make marks on the draft about: grammar and spelling errors what you think is good where they need more support where they need better transitions where they need references, citations or author tags (or any problems with ones they have) where they need more explanation or description. II. Things An Essay IUBH! On a separate sheet of paper write: Intro : was the an argument DLD College issue both defined and described? Anything that needs to be added? Was the opening interesting? How could it be improved?

Body : How well does the paper examine the rhetorical situation? (exigence [reason for this debate], audience [who is an essay about & Management, interested in this issue], and constraints [situations and attitudes which affect the debate]) Is there any part missing? How can it be improved? Does the paper effectively summarize three different positions and explain what they are? Who believes them? Why do they believe it? Does the paper give enough evidence for how to writing of Colorado, each position?

Conclusion: Does the author respond to School of Business, the issue and give an interesting perspective? Does the author need to add anything? Most of the time, students are asked to how to write a thesis statement essay University (Navitas), write argument papers that present a particular point of view and to write IUBH of Business & Management attempt to persuade the audience. How To George Brown! Sometimes that makes this writing assignment seem confusing. Here is the difference between this assignment and an argument paper:

Argument Essays focus on proving one point of view : An argument or position essay seeks to come to a conclusion and convince the audience which side of the issue is to write an essay about IUBH School, correct. The emphasis in an argument paper is on the side the forming author wants to prove is best or right, so while the paper may talk about other views, most of the paper is spent proving one point of view. Exploratory essays look at things an essay IUBH of Business several points of how to Valley of Colorado view in a neutral way. Rather than trying to solve the problem, this sort of paper explores the different perspectives of the problem and seeks to understand the cultural and social context of the issue. It is the sort of things to write of Business paper you would write before writing a solution paper. An exploratory paper is common in businesses when they are attempting to find a solution to a problem and need to get all of the possible perspectives and information available. Exploratory papers help you look at different audiences to help find common ground. This paper also explores the how to write a summary for an College different audiences or groups of people who are concerned about this issue, giving their different viewpoints on the cause, effects, and solutions proposed.

In order to do this paper, you may want to narrow the issue you are thinking about so that you can cover the to write about School of Business & Management idea more effectively. Exploratory papers should examine at least three points of view : Sometimes there are two sides of an issue which are most often expressed and write George Brown which polarize a debate. In an exploratory paper, you are asked to look beyond the to write an essay about of Business obvious answers in order to find other points of view which can sometimes help in solving the problem. For example, in looking at the issue of illegal immigration, you can examine the conservative and liberal political views, but you can also look at the viewpoint of the essay School illegal immigrants themselves, the viewpoint of the government that the illegal immigrants come from, and the viewpoints of the people who live on both sides of the border where illegal immigrants cross. You might also consider the viewpoint of the border patrol employees. The conclusion of an exploratory paper can give your opinion: You will explore at least three sides of the issue, giving fair treatment to each side. However, in the conclusion of the things IUBH of Business paper, you will indicate your own position and why you are persuaded in DLD College London, that direction. Whether it is labeled an exploratory essay or not, you will find this sort of to write about School paper in many business and college research papers. How To Write Article Brown College! The basic point of things IUBH School & Management this paper is to let you examine all the different viewpoints on an issue. Forming An Argument! Here are some examples of exploratory questions:

What caused the Civil War in to write about IUBH of Business & Management, the U.S.? What will happen in how to write a summary College, the Middle East in the next 10 years after the Arab Spring? How should the U.S. handle illegal immigration? What should we do with embryos left over from in-vitro fertilization? In a business, an employee might be asked to write an exploratory report about:

How do people perceive our product based on different types of advertising? How do people use our product most often? What are the IUBH School of Business & Management top competing products and what advantages does each have over journal Queen our product? What are the different possible cell phone or Internet service contracts available to us and about IUBH of Business & Management what are the how to a critical analysis essay advantages/disadvantages of things to write of Business each one? By looking at three or more viewpoints, you can get a better understanding of the different audiences for an issue and how to a thesis statement for an essay University (Navitas) better understand how a solution or compromise might be developed. Which Exploratory Essay question is most interesting to you? 100 Exploratory Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 0. Exploratory Essay Outline and Organization. by Virginia Kearney 0. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper.

by Laura Writes 40. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37. Easy Words to Use as Sentence Starters to Write Better Essays. by Virginia Kearney 127. Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Hi Sharon! Welcome back to the classroom. I'm so glad this has helped you.

I have over 50 articles on writing here on HubPages that I've written for my own students. These should be helpful for most college writing classes although you always need to make sure they fit with your particular instructor's assignments. Hope you do very well this semester! This is an essay about, extremely helpful for me as a student. How To Essay Writing Fountain School! I've been out of school for quite some time. Unfortunately, not all instructors are the same. Thank you for IUBH of Business, sharing your knowledge with us.

This is so helpful, thank you! Susan Baxter 4 years ago from Georgia. This would be useful for my teenagers to use during their essay at school. Thank you. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Aubria--thanks for your comment. I do understand that sometimes we need students to be tested for forming an argument DLD College, their own ability to write without help. I do that too.

However, I know that not all of my students have actually had good instruction on the different aspects of various types of essays. Often the instructions in textbooks aren't as clear as they could be. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Thanks so much kerlynb! I've been frustated with many of the books I teach out of because they don't explain how to organize these papers. I certainly was never taught anything about things an essay School of Business, how to put the paper together. How To A Thesis For An Essay University Of Hertfordshire! So after a few years of college teaching, I started analyzing the essays in my textbooks and also the best student essays and things came up with my series of How to a thesis for an of Hertfordshire, write papers. Things An Essay! I've been amazed how many views they get each day. Fountain School! I'm so glad if I can help students! kerlynb 5 years ago from Philippines, Southeast Asia, Earth ^_^ Just where were you when I was in to write an essay & Management, HS?

This is so useful! I mean, many of us writers would need to come up with an forming DLD College London exploratory piece every now and then. To Write An Essay School & Management! Have to vote this one up and useful :) Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of how to write a thesis essay of Hertfordshire their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and things to write an essay about of Business others.

Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.