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Please check the essays Istituto links on the left side of this page, under Application , and see how you can propose an experiment. How To Write Better International Of Milan. Currently 5 out of 5 Stars. Work Marangoni Paris. 1 2 3 4 5 Rating: 4.8 /5 ( 14 votes cast) Thank you for rating! You have already rated this page, you can only rate it once! Your rating has been changed, thanks for rating! Your chance to spin or drop your thesis! 13 December 2013 Are you a university student who dreams of write article Brookes Lake using a world-class gravitational facility for experiments? If yes then ESA’s Education Office wants to hear from you. All you have to decide is whether you want to go heavy or light. Work Istituto. In other words: hypergra.
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HealthSouth Fraud Investigation Essay Sample. Introduction and essays Istituto Paris, Background. Richard Scrushy founded HealthSouth, formerly known as Amcare, Inc., in writing steps Stenden University Sciences, 1984 in work Paris, Alabama. HealthSouth is a provider of medical rehabilitation services, as well as outpatient surgery and how to a medical article Shawnigan, occupational medical services. The company experienced rapid financial growth and numerous mergers and acquisitions in the mid-1990s, which continued to escalate until the fraudulent activity surfaced in 2002. It was at Istituto Marangoni this time that the food, Enron and WorldCom scandals were discovered and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was created.
Pressure to meet Wall Street expectations pushed Scrushy and other senior management to “cook the books”. Work Istituto Marangoni! Income was artificially inflated, numbers were manipulated, and how to write Firenze, false accounts were created. Numerous red flags occurred but were not investigated such as: disproportionate analytical ratios, exponential earnings growth, letters of concern sent to work Istituto Marangoni the auditors, and consistently meeting market expectations. Collusion, lies, employee unawareness, disregard for red flags, and hiring CFO’s from the auditing firm helped ensure the fraud remained undetected. Auditors failed to follow their legal duties and how to university, lacked professional scepticism in the process. When the scheme began to Istituto Paris unravel, HealthSouth was faced with a financial crisis.
An investigation took place and PwC was hired for audit and essay, reformation. Alvarez and Marsals, a restructuring firm, was crucial to HealthSouth’s continued existence. Charges were made, jobs were lost, and many legal battles arose from the HealthSouth scandal. The fraud at HealthSouth began with small ethical compromises which grew into larger, more aggressive schemes that later became fully intentional fraudulent activity. Istituto Paris! HealthSouth had numerous areas of financial misstatement. Assets and income were immensely overstated, expenses were understated and the revenue account was subject to a medical Brookes Shawnigan “fraudulent reporting of fictitious sales, inaccurate timing of revenue recognition, and work Istituto Marangoni, improper valuation of revenue,” (Weld, Bergevin, Magrath, 2004). HealthSouth’s fraud resembles the fraud at Enron because both were motivated to meet Wall Street expectations, and did so by falsifying revenue. The stock option fraud at HealthSouth further resembles what happened at Enron. Scrushy allegedly abused stock options and writing steps Sciences, was tried but ultimately acquitted of insider trading.
Why it occurred. HealthSouth attempted to meet Wall Street expectations by Istituto, means of english, overstating income, which in turn created a snowball effect of other erroneous transactions. This type of work essays Istituto Paris, fraud involved collusion between the CEO, Richard Scrushy, and other senior management who referred to themselves as “The Family” (Wang, Lin, Ju, 2009). HealthSouth was growing and prosperous for the first decade. It expanded original operations by acquiring and merging with other organizations. Unfortunately, after the expansions revenue no longer exceeded expenses, leaving the company in a deficit.
Management was determined to meet market expectations. HealthSouth was very important to coursework Taunton School Ernst and Young because they were a significant client. This provided management with control over the auditors. Istituto Marangoni! Management used its power to ensure the auditors did not find out about the fraud (William, 2003). Scrushy pressured employees to commit fraud because earning targets were not being met. Wall Street expectations needed to be reached in order to Academy uphold the company’s reputation. Scrushy told the accountants to Paris do whatever they could to ensure earning targets were met (William, 2003). He utilized coercive and legitimate power over how to Istituto his accounting employees. The company had the opportunity to commit fraud because many HealthSouth employees had previously worked at Ernst and Young, including William Owens and work Istituto Marangoni Paris, Weston Smith, who were once CFOs (Stuart, 2005).
These men knew what ratios would be completed, as well as the value of transactions that would trigger investigations. By having this knowledge, they were able to fix the books in a way the auditors would never notice. Employees involved in the fraud rationalized the fraud by telling themselves it would only happen once. Aaron Beam, former CEO, said, “I rationalized that this was a one- time rough spot in coursework, the road and that it would help the company” (New Perspectives, 2012). Another rationalization was that it was okay because Scrushy and other upper management said to do it. The negative culture at the top of the essays Istituto Paris, organization was a significant reason the how to article Shawnigan Lake, fraud was committed.
How it occurred. Scrushy was determined to essays Marangoni Paris be profitable and meet market expectations. He accomplished this by Academy, getting his accountants to Marangoni Paris “fix” the books. Earnings were overstated by $1.4 billion and assets were matched to earnings (SEC charges HealthSouth Corp., CEO Richard Scrushy with $1.4 Billion Accounting Fraud, 2003). Top executives oversaw financial reports before they were published to confirm actual earnings met expectations. If they did not meet expectations, the accounting staff would manipulate the write a medical article Shawnigan Lake, results.
The auditors did not look at transactions over $5,000, so management made certain they were under that value. Essays Paris! It is estimated that there were about samples of essay writing in english ACS Cobham International School 2 million journal entries and falsified documents created in work Istituto Paris, order to meet expectations (Hamilton). The fraud began to occur in mid-1996 when the net income was about 60% below expectations. During the final trial, one of the accountants confessed that revenue was placed into “contractual adjustments” (William, 2003). Contractual adjustments are accounts that “estimate the difference between the amount billing to the patient and the amount paid by insurance” (William, 2003). Revenues were overstated because accountants would also have to credit this contra-revenue account. Bad debt reserves were another tool used in of essay writing School, this fraud. In the fiscal year of work, 1999, the organization took a “big bath” and wrote off $342 million of accounts receivable followed by writing University Sciences, only $98 million in 2000 (William, 2003). These large doubtful account balances did not directly correlate with the increase in accounts receivable.
In 1999, the company was certain to Paris miss earning targets. Writing off a large amount of bad debts in how to write essays better School, the current period allowed them to recognize greater net income in subsequent years (Appendix A). In 1994 and 1995, the allowance for doubtful accounts had gross receivables of about 40%, which was significantly overstated (William, 2003). Appendix B shows that allowance for doubtful accounts was notably higher in comparison to revenue in 1999. Earnings overstatement ensured share prices would continue to grow. Appendix C outlines an example of the income before interest and taxes from Marangoni, 1999-2002. Scrushy made millions of dollars by abusing company stock options. He also received annual bonuses based on these significantly overstated earnings. Write Brookes Lake! (SEC charges HealthSouth Corp., CEO Richard Scrushy with $1.4 Billion Accounting Fraud, 2003). A 2001 report says Scrushy was paid $4 million for salary and got a bonus of $6.5 million (Solomon, Carrns, Terthune, 2003). Scrushy was granted options on 11 dates, often when stock prices were at yearly, quarterly or monthly lows.
He was never charged with backdating stock options, but the act was heavily scrutinized (Forelle Bandler, 2009). The issue of potential insider trading arose in 2002 regarding Scrushy’s stock sellbacks (Appendix D). Scrushy sold over $75 million of his HealthSouth stock back to the company in work essays, May and an additional $25 million in June. In August stock prices fell by more than 50% because of an announcement regarding a reimbursement change in Medicare payment policy (Barry, 2009). Scrushy’s early trading is evidence of stock option abuse. In order to keep the balance sheet balanced, assets were overstated and (to a lesser extent) liabilities were understated.
Senior accountants chose to university Marangoni Firenze primarily misstate the fixed asset accounts to match the equity increase. Non-existent property, plant and equipment were recorded as “AP Summary” on a sub-ledger at varying amounts and kept within specific thresholds to avoid questioning (Barry, 2009). Additionally, disclosure notes were brief and lacked information regarding undesirable operations and essays Istituto, prospects. Red Flags of the Fraud. There were several red flags in HealthSouth’s fraud that were either disregarded or discounted by the internal and external auditors. The company’s net income had increased nearly 500% from 1999-2001, while actual revenues grew only 5% (Bloomberg Businessweek, 2003).
Significant changes in bad debts were another red flag that went unnoticed by auditors. In 1999, when the company wrote off extreme amounts of bad debt, auditors should have investigated further. English Coursework Taunton! During this same period of 1999-2001, cash on work Istituto hand rose by only 40% (Williams, 2003). Steps Of Applied! Cash flows failed to Istituto Paris meet the company’s requirement for sustainable operations (Weld, 2004). How To A Medical Article Shawnigan! The company should have been questioned about how it was actually paying for its operations (Appendix E). HealthSouth had also purchased significant amounts of work Istituto Marangoni, capital items such as rehabilitation clinics and outpatient surgery centers. However, these expenditures did not translate into greater returns of coursework, investments of or additional sales (Williams, 2003). Appendix F identifies the changes in return on investment throughout 1996-2001.
A key red flag should have been that the company earnings consistently and precisely met analysts’ expectations. The organization’s earnings had met Wall Street’s expectations for 48 consecutive periods (Weld, 2004). Work Istituto Marangoni Paris! “The US economy began to sour at the end of 1999, yet HealthSouth’s books showed strong profit growth into 2000 and 2001,” (William, 2003). This should have been a major concern for both the a level coursework, auditors, as well as investors, because not only work Istituto Marangoni, were earnings consistently growing, they also continued to grow when the economy was suffering. Why the Fraud Continued Undetected. In the HealthSouth fraud, two main types of people were involved.
First, there were people who were fully aware and participated in the fraudulent acts. Scrushy used coercive and legitimate power to force management into committing reporting fraud. When the first CFO, Aaron Beam, was on trial he stated that he learned not to question or criticize Scrushy if he wanted to keep his job, and writing an essay of Applied, that financial results could be manipulated without discovery or negative consequences (Hamilton). Secondly, there were individuals who were unaware of the impact of their acts and that they were committing fraud. These individuals got dragged into work essays Istituto Paris the scheme without fully understanding the circumstances. Management used calculated manipulations and food essay writing, falsification of documents in order to deceive auditors (Williams, 2003). Due to the large amount of false entries and documentation, it is evident that the knowledge of the fraud eventually became widespread within the Marangoni Paris, company.
If the auditors questioned any of the employees about he fraudulent entries or documentation, they would lie for their job security as well as their co-workers’. Michael Vines, a HealthSouth bookkeeper, resigned after trying to warn several members on management that assets were being fraudulently overstated. After resigning, he sent an email to the auditors informing them of three accounts that contained fraudulent entries. The auditors only investigated this information to samples of essay in english International School the extent of work essays Istituto Paris, calling the CFO, who replied that Vines was a disgruntled employee (Hamilton). The auditors essentially turned a blind eye. If they would have checked into the accounts, they would have uncovered the fraud. International School! Another explanation regarding why the Istituto Marangoni Paris, fraud went undetected is that Scrushy hired two CFO’s who were previously EY auditors (William, 2003).
Past work experience with an accounting firm gave Owen and Smith knowledge about how to hide the fraud within reporting records. The Auditors Roles and Responsibilities. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was non-existent prior to essays 2002. Paris! Before this time, management chose who performed the audit. If the audit was not done the way management wanted, they had the International School, right to fire the auditors. Having the ability to fire the work essays, auditors gave management legitimate and coercive power over the audit procedures and findings. Write Of Milan! Associated Press (2005) states: EY either intentionally and knowingly turned a blind eye to the accounting fraud, manipulation and misconduct perpetrated by Istituto Paris, Scrushy and an essay Stenden, the pleading officers and employees, or EY negligently, recklessly, wantonly breached its agreements and duties implied in law in work Istituto Marangoni, failing to discover the accounting fraud and to report the fraud to HealthSouth’s board of directors and audit committee. The auditors were given tips by how to write essays better of Milan, employees who had left the company but choose to Marangoni not investigate. If the auditors had performed simple calculations, ratios, and analytics it would have been evident that accounting records were overstated.
Gross margin is a key ratio to calculate, as well as comparing the company performance to others in the same industry. Regardless of whether they turned a blind eye, or truly did not know there was a fraud, the auditors were not performing their duties correctly. If they had done their duties implied by law, the fraud would not have developed as immensely as it had. Fate of Parties Involved. Richard Scrushy was charged with 36 counts, including fraud, money laundering, and conspiracy charges (Crawford, 2005). How To Brookes Shawnigan! He was the first CEO to work essays be charged under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act since it was enacted. Scrushy was acquitted on all 36 charges (Pavlo, 2012).
After Scrushy was found not guilty of the HealthSouth charges, he was impeached on political corruption accusations in essays Marangoni, 2005, which included money laundering, obstruction, racketeering and bribery. Scrushy was found guilty and sentenced to 82 months in prison, which was later reduced to 70 months (Pavlo, 2012). Work Essays Paris! In 2009 Scrushy was brought to civil court and sued by the shareholders of HealthSouth. He was found guilty of the fraud and ordered to pay approximately $2.9 billion to shareholders (Associated Press, 2009). Essays Better! Being tried under the essays Marangoni, Sarbanes-Oxley Act, along with Scrushy, were fifteen other executives including five previous CFO’s. Among them were Aaron Beam, the first CFO of HealthSouth, and William Owen, the how to write Brookes, last CFO before the fraud investigation. Owens received the heaviest conviction, a 5 years prison sentence, while the essays, other 4 CFOs received less than 3 years (Johnson, 2005). All had to pay substantial fines and ended up losing the majority of assets they personally held.
EY paid $109 million to HealthSouth shareholders as a part of a settlement stemming from the accounting scandal. The accounting firm neither admitted nor denied their part in the fraud. HealthSouth replaced their auditors with PwC. HealthSouth shareholders also sued the United Southern Bank, one of their investment banks, for not discovering the fraud that nearly bankrupt the company. English A Level Coursework School! USB settled and paid $100 million for its part in the scandal. (Harris Taub, 2009). Effect of Fraud on HealthSouth.
Immediately after the work essays Istituto, fraud came to light and the FBI was brought in to investigate, trading on HealthSouth stock was suspended from the SP 500 for two days, and delisted the following week. Following the FBI announcement of writing an essay of Applied Sciences, investigation, the Board of essays Istituto Marangoni Paris, Directors placed Scrushy and Owens on administrative leave. The board formed a Special Investigative Committee because of the how to write a medical article Brookes Lake, fraudulent accusations. They also hired accounting firm, PwC, to lead the audit and restructuring firm, Alvaraz Marsals (HealthSouth Press Release, 2003). HealthSouth faced bankruptcy as J.P. Morgan cut off the work Marangoni Paris, company’s access to university essays Istituto Marangoni Firenze its $1.25 billion line of credit. Only $400 million of the line of credit had been accessed at the time of the fraud and a payment of $354 million for convertible bonds was due within the next month (Atlas, 2003).
HealthSouth defaulted on the bond payment but managed to pay investors $60 million for interest payments, sending an indication that they were willing to fight to avoid bankruptcy (Alvaraz Marsal, 2005). In the next few months, Alvaraz Marsals cut expenses by essays Istituto, approximately $110 million and saved cash reserves of approximately $345 million by a level School, July 2003. They did this by selling off assets such as airplanes and land plots (Vogt, HealthSouth Working to Paris Avoid Bankruptcy, 2003). They also sold off under-performing units and renegotiated equipment leases, all while upgrading the accounting and receivables system. HealthSouth managed to receive a loan from Credit Suisse First Boston for how to write university Istituto Marangoni the amount of Paris, $355 million to pay the failed bond payment from 2003 (Alvaraz Marsal, 2005). HealthSouth faced several legal battles stemming from the accounting fraud. They settled several lawsuits by paying over $445 million, and an additional $200 million to how to write university essays Istituto Marangoni Firenze the SEC over two years for civil charges (Harris Taub, 2009). HealthSouth avoided bankruptcy through the help of Alvaraz Marsals and an overhaul of the whole organization.
A monumental point in their recovery was the filing of their first audited financial statements in July of 2005 for Istituto Marangoni the four years ending December 31, 2003 (HealthSouth Press Release, 2005). Write Brookes Lake! As a part of corporate streamlining, HealthSouth sold its surgery center, outpatient rehabilitation division, and diagnostic division with a plan to focus solely on inpatient rehabilitation (Vogt, HealthSouth Pares Down to Inpatient Rehabilitation Care, 2006). Since the accounting scandal, HealthSouth has managed to turn their situation around and become an ethical and successful company. Essays Istituto Marangoni Paris! They seek to continue to improve and provide quality service. The HealthSouth fraud provided short term benefits, but resulted in the near failure of the company.
HealthSouth management faced pressure from Scrushy to meet expectations. Opportunity arose from the auditing firm and procedures, as well as through accounting methods that were largely subject to management discretion. Rationalizations varied among the people involved. Some wanted to appear successful, while others didn’t want to lose their jobs. The tone set by Scrushy acted as a gateway to how to write Istituto Marangoni commit the crime. If red flags had not been ignored, it is highly probable this scheme would have unravelled earlier, and would not have reached the extent that it had. HealthSouth’s existence is able to be continued today because of replacements, tighter controls, and a completely restructured foundation. HealthSouth Press Release. (2003, March 20). Retrieved from HealthSouth: http://apps.shareholder.com/sec/viewerContent.aspx?companyid=HLSSdocid=2212626 SEC charges HealthSouth Corp., CEO Richard Scrushy with $1.4 Billion Accounting Fraud. (2003, March 20).
Retrieved from U.S. Securities and essays Paris, Exchange Commission: http://www.sec.gov/litigation/litreleases/lr18044.htm HealthSouth Press Release. (2005, July 27). Retrieved from HealthSouth Corporation – Annual Report: http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/HLSS/2167424725x0xS1193125%2D05%2D131361/785161/filing.pdf Alvaraz Marsal. How To Write Article Shawnigan Lake! (2005, February). HealthSouth: The Road to essays Recovery. Retrieved from Alvaraz Marsal: http://www.alvarezandmarsal.com/en/industries/healthcare/related_info/documents/HealthSouthWhitepaperUS.pdf Associated Press. How To Write Article Lake! (2009, June 2009). Scrushy Ordered to Istituto Marangoni Pay Investors $2.9 Billion. Retrieved from MSNBC U.S. Business: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/31427676/ns/business-us_business/t/scrushy-ordered-pay-investors-billion/#.UKLag6X3Ds0 Atlas, R. (2003, March 22). English Coursework Taunton! HealthSouth Is Scrambling to essays Istituto Marangoni Arrange Financing to Avert Bankruptcy. University! Retrieved from Istituto Marangoni, The New York Times: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/22/business/healthsouth-is-scrambling-to-arrange-financing-to-avert-bankruptcy.html Barry, K. (2009, June 9). How To Write A Medical Article Lake! HealthSouth’s Corporate Accounting Scandal.
Retrieved from work essays Paris, Scribd.: http://www.scribd.com/doc/16379247/Accounting-Fraud-at-HealthSouth Bloomberg Businessweek. (2003, April 13). Missing the Red Flags. Retrieved from Businessweek: http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2003-04-13/missing-the-red-flags Crawford, K. (2005, June 28). Former HealthSouth CEO Found Not Guilty on All Counts. Retrieved from CNN Money: http://money.cnn.com/2005/06/28/news/newsmakers/scrushy_outcome/index.htm Forelle, C., Bandler, J. (2009, May 31). At HealthSouth, an Options Issue. Retrieved from The Wall Street Journal:
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essay philosophical Your paper must offer an argument. It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in a mere report of the opinions of the philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the claims you make. Istituto Marangoni Paris? You have to offer reasons to believe them. So you can't just say: My view is that P. A Level Coursework School? You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Essays Istituto Marangoni? Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on essay Domus the table for consideration. Then it goes on work essays Istituto to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to of essay School believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the work essays Istituto Marangoni Paris, strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in Domus, the light of some objection. No matter which of these aims you set for yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to work essays Marangoni Paris them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument.
But it's very easy to overestimate the strength of english a level coursework Taunton School your own position. Essays Istituto Paris? After all, you already accept it. Essay Academy? You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to work essays Istituto persuade such an audience. An Essay Steps Stenden? Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to essays Istituto Marangoni reject. If you're to have any chance of write Brookes Shawnigan Lake persuading people, you have to start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and work essays Istituto Marangoni Paris, makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and a level coursework School, it offers good reasons in work essays Istituto Paris, support of it. People very often attempt to essays School accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. The usual result of work Istituto Paris this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of inadequately defended and poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious.
Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in essay Domus Academy, your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at work Istituto Marangoni, a slow pace. The aim of these papers is for you to show that you understand the writing Stenden University, material and work essays Istituto Paris, that you're able to think critically about english Taunton it. To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to work Istituto Paris human thought. ACS Cobham International School? There will be plenty of time for that later on. An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read. It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to talk to each other about what you want to argue in your paper.
When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to someone else, verbally, then you're ready to work essays Istituto Marangoni sit down and start making an outline. The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on samples International School its structure. That is why it is essays Paris important to think about these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of writing International School your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. Essays Istituto Paris? This lets you organize the how to essays Marangoni Firenze, points you want to make in Marangoni Paris, your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of writing an essay Stenden Sciences your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say. Give your outline your full attention. It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.)
I find that making an outline is at least 80% of the work essays Istituto Marangoni, work of writing an essay Stenden Sciences writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the topic and work Marangoni, write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. School Of Milan? Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two. Then you should come back to Marangoni Paris it and steps, rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. If you can, show it to essays Marangoni your friends and writing an essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences, get their reactions to it.
Do they understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them? All of this takes time. Marangoni Paris? So you should start working on how to university essays Istituto Firenze your papers as soon as the work Istituto Marangoni Paris, paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and I already know a lot about this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to another. I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the how to write article Shawnigan Lake, right sort of clarity. In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and frustrating.
The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the Marangoni, structure of your paper obvious. How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on how to write essays International of Milan the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. Istituto? Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is a good reason to accept Q. Steps Stenden University Sciences? You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Work Essays Marangoni? Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to how to university Istituto Firenze make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is.
Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to do next. Essays? You can say things like: I will begin by. Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. Write A Medical Article? I will now present two arguments that not-P. Work Essays Istituto? My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is.
X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because. Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by writing Domus Academy claiming that. This response also fails, because.
So we have seen that none of work Istituto X's replies to my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says.
However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. Isn't it easy to see what the structure of these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and Domus, when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing. The reader should never be in doubt about essays Istituto Paris whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph.
You can't make the how to write better School, structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the work Istituto Marangoni Paris, structure of your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. Of Essay Writing School? That's why making an outline is so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in essays Marangoni, opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to writing an essay Stenden University Sciences meet them both. We tell you to be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to Istituto Marangoni Paris show how learned and intelligent you are. Samples Writing ACS Cobham School? Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem. Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem.
Prune out everything else. It is work always better to concentrate on one or two points and how to write better School, develop them in depth than to work Istituto Paris try to cram in how to essays Istituto, too much. One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the problem is, and why it is a problem.
Be sure that everything you write is relevant to that central problem. Istituto? In addition, be sure to say in the paper how it is better International School of Milan relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in work essays Istituto Marangoni Paris, one sentence. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the steps Stenden University of Applied, point helps your argument.
But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place. Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in advance. This will of essays Paris course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions.
Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from samples of essay International School, everyday discourse. Work Marangoni? As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. Steps Stenden University Of Applied Sciences? For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about abortion, and you want to assert the claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the work essays Istituto, following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is a person.
It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person. On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is food essay writing a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to Marangoni Paris kill persons, in that sense of person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. University Essays Istituto? So everything turns here on what the author means by person. The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used.
You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. Work Essays? For instance, some philosophers use the word person to mean any being which is capable of essay rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person. Work Istituto Marangoni Paris? But it's okay to use person in this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. And likewise for other words. Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and then switch to write School talking about Plato's view of the soul, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the work essays, mind. If you mean to english a level coursework be talking about the Istituto Marangoni, same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name.
In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings. Consult the write essays International School of Milan, handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only essays Istituto Paris, where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on the specific topic you're discussing.
So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like. Even professional philosophers writing for other professional philosophers need to food essay Domus Academy explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the work essays Istituto Marangoni Paris, same meaning. Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them?
Make sure you understand exactly what the position you're criticizing says. Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Remember, philosophy demands a high level of english a level Taunton precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the work Istituto, general idea of somebody else's position or argument. You have to get it exactly right. (In this respect, philosophy is more like a science than the other humanities.) A lot of the work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the views you're discussing as stupid.
If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the view has going for how to write better International School of Milan it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to work essays Istituto Marangoni it. Try harder to figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to Stenden of Applied Sciences a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says. Use your imagination. Work Istituto Paris? Try to english a level Taunton figure out what reasonable position the Istituto Marangoni Paris, philosopher could have had in mind, and writing an essay steps University of Applied Sciences, direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it.
If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to Marangoni Paris be, your reader cannot judge whether the criticism you offer of X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on essay Domus a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of X's views. So tell the essays Marangoni, reader what it is you think X is of essay in english School saying. Don't try to tell the work Istituto Marangoni Paris, reader everything you know about how to better School of Milan X's views, though. Work Istituto Marangoni? You have to go on to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Istituto? Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for work your interpretation of X's view, by citing passages which support your interpretation. How To University Essays Firenze? It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of that view in the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Essays Marangoni? Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because. When a passage from a text is particularly useful in supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to quote the passage directly. (Be sure to specify where the passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. School? It is Paris seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences.
Often it will be more appropriate to how to better of Milan paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for your own explanation. And when you do quote an Istituto Marangoni author, you still have to explain what the of essay International School, quotation says in your own words. If the quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the argument in more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point. Paris? If necessary, you may want to distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused.
Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words. They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the how to university essays Istituto, perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into work essays Marangoni two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon an essay steps Stenden University the mind, and work essays Istituto, make their way into our thought or consciousness. Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in samples writing in english International School, the soul. By ideas I mean the work, faint images of these in thinking and reasoning. Here's an example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and ideas. The difference is in english Taunton, how much force and liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. Marangoni Paris? The perceptions with the most force and coursework Taunton, violence are impressions. These are sensations, passions, and emotions.
Ideas are the faint images of our thinking and reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the essays Marangoni, first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text. In the second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon food essay writing Domus the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. Work Istituto Marangoni? My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and liveliness in our thoughts. It's not clear whether these are the same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the same. How To Write A Medical Lake? So the author of the essays Paris, paraphrase appears not to have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage.
A much better way of how to write essays explaining what Hume says here would be the following: Hume says that there are two kinds of Marangoni Paris 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and how to a medical, ideas. An impression is a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at work essays Marangoni, a red apple. How To Write Shawnigan? An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at essays Paris, it. It is not so clear what Hume means here by write essays better International 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to essays Istituto Marangoni your own thesis. It is better to bring up an objection yourself than to how to university essays Marangoni Firenze hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to work essays deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on the ones that seem strongest or most pressing.
So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to english a level coursework Taunton School them all. You can leave some questions unanswered at the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . Work Essays Paris? And you should say something about how the question might be answered, and english a level Taunton, about what makes the question interesting and essays Istituto Marangoni, relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Samples Writing International School? Call attention to work Marangoni the unclarity. Suggest several different ways of understanding the view. Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced.
But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and essays School of Milan, reasoned defense, just like any other. You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to be. Work Essays Marangoni? You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Steps Stenden University Sciences? Don't panic. Work Paris? If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. Stenden University Of Applied? It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. Essays Istituto Paris? This is a plausible view, for writing Domus the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to be doubtful whether P. Work Essays Marangoni? One of english Taunton School these reasons is essays Paris X. X poses a problem for the view that P because.
It is not clear how the article, defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for P is the work essays Istituto Marangoni Paris, 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows. At first glance, this is write Shawnigan a very appealing argument. However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in work essays Istituto, establishing P. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. After all, neither of these papers commits you to the view that not-P.
They're just honest accounts of how difficult it is to find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to steps Stenden University of Applied Sciences yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of Marangoni it.
Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the writing steps Stenden Sciences, room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. Istituto Marangoni? It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to food writing say. For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different?
Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of work essays Istituto murder. In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is writing an essay steps of Applied Sciences able to figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of your draft. Work Istituto Marangoni Paris? When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on the draft's structure and english Taunton School, overall clarity, than it is to essays Paris clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. An Essay Stenden Of Applied Sciences? Make sure that your reader can tell what the point of every paragraph is.
It's not enough that you know what their point is. It has to be obvious to essays your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and advice. I encourage you to do this. Do your friends understand your main point? Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to them?
If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to university Istituto Firenze understand it. Work Istituto Marangoni Paris? Your paragraphs and your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at all to someone else. Another good way to check your draft is to read it out loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense. You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Reading the samples of essay in english, paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of essays Istituto Paris your paper.
At least 3 or 4!! Check out the following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as. Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in philosophy. It's OK to an essay University Sciences end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to essays Istituto Marangoni split an samples in english infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an work essays infinitive. A Level Taunton? For example, They sought to work better equip job candidates who enrolled in their program.) Efforts to of essay School avoid these often end up just confusing your prose.
Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to essays Istituto tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is or to samples of essay in english School be too much. In a philosophy paper, it's OK to use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. Essays Paris? The point of the how to essays School, papers is to teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for or against some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves.
Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an work Istituto argument abruptly. If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of food essay writing Domus those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins.
We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper. And don't turn in your only copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about?
How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is? Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to the reader what these arguments are?
Is the work Marangoni, structure of your paper clear? For instance, is it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to write university essays Firenze understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions?
Do you say exactly what you mean? Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and Istituto Marangoni, charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from what you said before Not really relevant Give an example?
Try to anticipate these comments and avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in university essays Marangoni Firenze, his paper. He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Work Essays Istituto? Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is an essay steps Stenden University false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an illegitimate move to make in a debate about whether B is true. Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view.
Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to work Marangoni go beyond the food essay, specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an work Marangoni A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to how to write Firenze see what your argument was and work Marangoni Paris, what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on. You can only english a level coursework Taunton, correct these sorts of essays Istituto Marangoni failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and the comments you received on it to construct a new outline, and write from that. Keep in mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in unchanged parts of your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the english a level coursework School, paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about work essays Marangoni Paris fixing them. Writing An Essay Steps? So this is another reason you should try to work improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on.
It is writing steps University Sciences possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to raise it to essays the next grade level. Sometimes that happens. Write Essays Marangoni Firenze? But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to essays Istituto teach yourself to samples writing in english ACS Cobham International School write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded.
Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. Work Istituto Paris? I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to food essay writing Academy point them here (or to Istituto distribute printed copies). It's all in the public good.