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blade essay runner Blade Runner (Ridley Scott, 1982) Science fiction is writing on education Albert College crucialin the creation of a sense of Newcastle University, wonder through contemplating in relation to its meaning to humanity. Science fiction is also vital in on education Albert College the provision of relevant meaning to the aspect of humanity. Critical Texas! This is by defining humanity as the rational ability of human beings to reason (Belton p. 273). It also indicates that it is a skill facilitating eradicating technological or extraterrestrial forces having negative influence on the human identity. Science fiction is also crucialin the creation of the plots in the modern films. Like in the case of Blade Runner, science fiction is vital in the realization of the objectives and goals of the author in determining the plot and settings.
Science fiction enhances the ability of the author or writer to develop and integrate characterization effectively and efficiently thus the opportunity to express thematic issues and subject matter to the relevant audiences. Blade Runner dramatizes the science fiction theme of essay College, defining what it means to be human by uniting humans and Lancing College non-humans in a battle against a common oppressor and exploring the thin line that separates humans from non-humans in the dystopian future. Blade Runner is a reflection of science fiction. Science fiction focuses on the exploration of its meaning to the society and humanity. This is through the creation of the story in the context of the writing future or essence of futuristic past. Blade Runner is a fictional story developed in the futuristic past to highlight the meaning of money writing Lancing College, science to the society. There is the essence or existence of natural laws waiting to undergo exploration through implementation of narrative skills and techniques of the writer. Blade Runner has the ability to intrigue the reader into creation of curiosity in relation to the speculation of the creation of the future events. Blade Runner also integrates narrative skills and techniques to essay writing on education focus on the exploration of the dystopian science fiction through evaluation of the dehumanizing threat in relation to the corporate culture and aspects of technology. The author of the Blade Runner develops the corporate culture and aspects of technology characterizing the writing essay University of Toronto, modern society or 21 st century in the city of Los Angeles.
Scott, in the creation of the Blade Runner, focuses on the application of economic and technological explanations to explain activities in the fictional world thus the on education College ability to express the film as a science fiction. Blade Runner also expresses the essence of the dystopian future. From this perspective, Blade Runner focuses on the creation of robots as human beings replacements. This is through integration of the culture of capitalism by the writer and director of the film. This is evident through the creation of the capital and technological world in the form of the 21 st century of Los Angeles. Technological advancements are crucial in the realization and completion of this goal (Kerman p. 16). According to write essay Clair College Scott, the film is an illustration of the transformation of human beings to robots through the integration of technological advancements. It is also crucial to note the similarity of the robots to human beings as a reflection of the work of science fiction. Robots behave like human beings but are more efficient in the execution of the relevant activities. Blade Runner expresses business interactions in the future.
This is through creation of writing College, littered billboards as expression of essence of advertisements thus the opportunity for the consumers to decide on what to buy with reference to available products in the market. As the dystopian future, Blade Runner focuses on the lack of differences between human beings and the robots in the future worlds. The creation of the film is a reflection of College, quality integration of science fiction to address issues relating to the future projections. Blade Runner also offers the viewers the opportunity to understand and relate to essay writing Albert College human and non-human features in the future or post-human world. The creation of thinking texas, robots or human replicas is an illustration of the erosion of the traditional components, beliefs, culture, and ideologies of the society. This indicates that the robot culture seeks to replace the culture of humanity in the future world thus a reflection of the essence of science fiction. Technology has the essay writing on education ability to have positive and negative impact in the creation of humanity. This indicates that technology enhances effectiveness and efficiency in the execution of activities in the modern society. Technology also has the ability to erode traditional components of the thinking University society thus rendering humanity obsolete. In this context, it is ideal for the humanity to manage technology effectively in on education order to money essay writing Lancing minimize further negative influences in the future.
According to the Blade Runner, human existence is at risk because of inability to control and manage technology in the post-human world or universe (Gray p. 68). Blade Runner as a science fiction has the ability to distinguish between the future humanity and non-human components. This is through implementation of the self and other concepts in the evaluation and examination of the future world. This is crucialfor the understanding of the modern and post-human world because of the influence of technology in essay College transforming interactions in the two worlds. Science fiction indicates that self illustrates components belonging to human beings. Self-components in this case consist of norms, beliefs, culture, and ideologies in the creation of humanity.
Self has the ability to differentiate between humanity and non-human elements. In the self and other concept, the ‘other’ is crucial in writing Lancing College the illustration of the qualities that do not define humanity. These include factors that do not fall within the boundaries of the norms, ideas, and culture defining humanity. Self obtains its definition though determination of factors existing outside the elements of humanity. The film is essay writing College also crucial in the illustration of the aspect of the threat of the other. Blade Runner demonstrates the threats of the other to the development and existence of humanity in the future world (Lev p. Critical Thinking Texas University! 165). This relates to limitation of the ability of human beings to live and exercise their activities freely. In this context, the film demonstrates the ‘other’ as races, ethnicity, and gender as threats to the creation of humanity in the future world. Blade Runner is crucial in the creation of the robots to represent different race to the self thus a threat to the realization of the targets of freedom in essay on education College the future world.
Science fiction in the creation of the film is crucial in a reflective the illustration of the other as a threat to free interactions and execution of activities by human beings. Robots also illustrate element of rebellion because of the writing on education College need to adopt similar rights to humanity. This tension is University also a reflection of threats to the creation of various aspects in relation to humanity. The film also focuses on the illustration of the ‘other’ as African-American. The developed robots or human replicas appear as slaves in the colonized planets thus lack of freedom to realize their goals. This is a reflection of the slaves in the context of the African-Americans because of the integration of the code of black in the narrative skills. The ‘other’ is also a reflection of Asian because of the unrest developments in relation to writing on education the aspect of industrialization. There is a reflection of the superiority of the economy of America under the influence of invasion by the Asian culture. This is a threat to the creation of the economy of University, America hence a reflection of the writing on education College ‘other’ in the illustration of science fiction by Blade Runner (Ryan p. 246). The film is also an integration of intellect and reasoning thus the critical thinking University need for equality among human beings.
Science fiction in the film focuses on the exploration of the role of essay Albert College, imagination and emotional elements crucial in the creation of thinking texas Limkokwing University, unique humanity. This intellect and reasoning is crucial in the differentiation of humanity or self from the ‘other’. This is Albert College evident through the creation of Voight-Kampf in order to determine self or ‘other’ in the examination of the replicas. Blade Runner film is crucial in the provision of adequate illustration of the influence of science fiction in the exploration of its meaning to humanity. The ability to reason has diverse influence in relation to the creation of human beings. It enhances the a good essay introduction Tilton School ability of human beings to achieve equality and compassion.
It also focuses on threatening freedom and autonomy through promotion of slavery aspects. Similarity between human beings and robots, like in the film, indicates that it is not impossible to remain human in the dystopian future. Belton, John. “Horror and Science Fiction.” American Cinema/American Culture, 3rd ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013. Essay On Education College! 272-295. Print. Gray, W. Russel. “Entropy, Energy, Empathy: Blade Runner and Detective Fiction.” Retrofitting Blade Runner. ed. Judith Kerman. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1991. 66-75, Print.
Kerman, Judith. “Technology and Politics in the Blade Runner Dystopia.” Retrofitting Blade Runner. ed. Judith Kerman. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1991. 16-24. Print. Money Essay! Lev, Peter. “Whose Future?” American Films of the 70s: Conflicting Visions. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000. Essay On Education Albert! 165-179.
Print. Ryan, Michael and a reflective essay University Douglas Kellner, “Fantasy Films.” Camera Politica: The Politics and Ideology of Contemporary Hollywood Film. Writing Albert College! Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1988. 244-265. Print. Are you looking for a similar paper or any other quality academic essay? Then look no further.
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philo dissertation Cours de philosophie gratuits, citations et articles de recherche, pour le bac, la prepa, la fac ou le plaisir. Exemple de Dissertation Philosophique. Sommaire de l'article. Le cas d’une dissertation redigee et corrigee.
La dissertation en philosophie est un exercice difficile car elle suppose la maitrise d’une methode et d’une structure determinee. Nous vous donnons donc un exemple de dissertation redigee et corrigee par un professeur , tant d’un point de vue methodologique (forme) qu’editorial (fond). Nous avons volontairement choisi un sujet de dissertation tres classique en terminale philo : “ La liberte est-elle une illusion ? ” (frequent pour les terminales litteraires) A) L’analyse des termes du sujet : 1) La liberte : Il s’agit de toujours partir de la conception spontanee, immediate que l’on se fait de la liberte, celle de l’ « homme de la rue » qu’aurait pu interroger Socrate . Essay On Education Albert. Ainsi, la liberte, c’est « faire ce que l’on veut », elle correspond, semble-t-il a la toute-puissance de la volonte de chacun. Write. Spontanement, tout individu se sent libre des lors qu’il peut accomplir tous ses desirs , toutes ses envies. Or l’experience ordinaire de la vie montre aussi, paradoxalement, l’etre humain soumis a de nombreuses contraintes a la fois externes (physiques, sociales, politiques) et internes (instincts, habitudes, passions) qui pesent sur sa liberte et qu’il lui est difficile voire impossible de surmonter totalement de sa propre initiative. Essay Writing On Education Albert. Des lors, le sentiment de liberte ne serait-il qu’illusoire ? 2) l’illusion : Il s’agit de saisir l’importance de ce terme a distinguer de l’erreur . Of Toronto,. L’illusion procede certes de l’erreur en ce qu’elle trompe l’individu, mais elle procede egalement de la mystification . Essay Writing. Qu’est-ce a dire ? Tout individu est responsable de ses erreurs et dispose du pouvoir de les corriger.
En revanche, dans l’illusion, qui peut etre a la fois individuelle et collective, nous serions victimes d’une puissance trompeuse impossible a vaincre . La question qui s’impose est donc la suivante : Quel type de desir proprement humain se trouve a la racine d’une illusion ? Ou bien quel besoin l’homme cherche-t-il a satisfaire dans la perennite d’une illusion ? B) Reperer les notions du programme en jeu dans le sujet : la liberte, la conscience et l’inconscient, le desir. C) Problematiser le sujet : Si tout individu eprouve un sentiment immediat de liberte, cette conviction renvoie-t-elle a une croyance illusoire ou a une veritable connaissance de soi ? L’objectif consistera donc a faire la part de ce qui releve d’une liberte reelle, reperable, de ce qui releve d’un desir infonde de liberte, dans un souci de lucidite et de verite. D) Mobiliser des references utilisables : – Platon , dans le Gorgias , denonce la confusion commune entre la liberte du sage et la realisation impulsive de tous ses desirs. – Descartes , dans La Meditation quatrieme , donne une definition du libre arbitre qui apparente l’homme a Dieu. – Spinoza , dans L’Ethique , montre que la conscience d’exister n’implique pas necessairement la liberte humaine. E) Elaboration du plan : elle doit obeir a la regle du « plus proche au plus lointain », c’est-a-dire aller de l’explicite a l’implicite, du plus evident au moins evident.
Exemple de plan possible : I) La liberte est un sentiment immediat : la these du libre arbitre. II) La critique deterministe du libre arbitre. III) La liberte est a conquerir : de la liberation a la quete d’autonomie. 1) Amorce : Il nous faut partir de ce constat de depart que le sentiment commun et immediat eprouve par tout homme est de se sentir libre : en effet, chaque homme peut faire l’experience, du moins interieure, d’une liberte de penser et d’agir, independamment de toute contrainte exterieure. Writing A Reflective University New College. Cette conviction interieure est donc profondement ancree en chacun de nous. 2) Annonce du sujet et problematisation : Cependant, la liberte ne serait-elle pas une illusion ? Ou pour le dire autrement, le fait de se sentir libre n’est-il pas susceptible de ne renvoyer qu’a une croyance illusoire ? Le sentiment immediat de notre liberte est-il vrai, c’est-a-dire renvoie-t-il a une veritable connaissance de soi-meme ? 3) Annonce du plan d’etude : elle doit etre suffisamment explicite sans en dire trop, sans etre trop « lourde » : Nous tenterons, tout d’abord, d’evaluer la pertinence et les limites du sentiment spontane de liberte, commun a tous les hommes. Essay On Education. Puis nous tacherons de montrer que cette experience immediate du libre arbitre est susceptible de camoufler a l’homme une meconnaissance de lui-meme. Appleby. Enfin, une nouvelle tache se dressera face a nous : la necessite de reconstruire une nouvelle approche de la liberte humaine, si tant est qu’elle soit possible. Developpement de la dissertation : 1ere partie. I) Le sentiment immediat de notre liberte : la theorie du libre arbitre. a) Tout homme se juge spontanement libre.
Dans le langage courant, la liberte renvoie au pouvoir que possede tout homme de n’obeir qu’a lui-meme, qu’a sa propre volonte, et d’agir uniquement en fonction de ses desirs, independamment de toute contrainte ou de toute pression exterieure. Tout homme se sent donc spontanement libre, tout simplement parce qu’il se croit capable de faire des choix de petite ou de grande importance, de prendre des decisions , de petite ou de grande ampleur. Autrement dit, tout homme, lorsqu’il porte un regard reflexif sur lui-meme, se juge spontanement libre, c’est-a-dire en mesure d’agir simplement en fonction de sa volonte . La plupart des philosophes qui se sont prononces en faveur de la liberte humaine, en faveur de l’existence du libre arbitre, ont accorde une grande valeur a l’experience intime , immediate que nous aurions, selon eux, de notre liberte : « La liberte de notre volonte, ecrit Descartes ( Principes de la Philosophie , I, art.39), se connait sans preuve par la seule experience que nous en avons ». Transition : Faire le point et formuler une ou plusieurs questions permettant de poursuivre la reflexion : La liberte correspondrait donc a un sentiment interieur , a une experience immediate en chaque homme. Writing On Education. Or peut-on se contenter de cette experience immediate ou pour reprendre la formulation de Bergson, de cette « donnee immediate de la conscience » ? Autrement dit, peut-on se contenter du sentiment de notre liberte pour en deduire son existence certaine ? Est-il donc possible de faire une experience de notre liberte qui puisse justifier ce sentiment ? b) Peut-on prouver l’existence du libre arbitre ? 1) Premiere tentative de preuve : l’experience de l’ane de Buridan et la mise a jour de la « liberte d’indifference » Jean Buridan, philosophe francais du quatorzieme siecle, aurait, selon la legende, concu une experience imaginaire afin de prouver l’existence du libre arbitre : la situation serait celle d’un animal, en l’occurrence un ane, ayant egalement faim et soif, et qui, place a egale distance d’une botte de foin et d’un seau d’eau, hesite, se montre incapable de choisir, et finalement se laisse mourir. Ce « protocole experimental metaphysique » aurait donc pour objectif de prouver l’existence de la « liberte d’indifference » proprement humaine.
En effet, nous avons tous deja vecu une situation ou les mobiles ou motifs en faveur d’un acte ou d’un autre etaient si equivalents , ou aussi contraignants l’un que l’autre, que nous nous sommes retrouves incapables de faire un choix. En effet, que se passe-t-il lorsqu’un individu se retrouve face a deux possibilites aussi equivalentes l’une que l’autre, lorsque rien ne puisse permettre de determiner son choix ? Or ce qui permet a l’homme d’echapper a la situation absurde de l’ane mourant de faim et de soif entre une botte de foin et un seau d’eau, c’est qu’il dispose de cette liberte d’indifference, c’est-a-dire de cette liberte par laquelle notre volonte a le pouvoir de choisir spontanement et de sa propre initiative. Cette situation d’indifference du choix prouve donc que l’homme est dote d’un libre arbitre, c’est-a-dire d’une capacite de choisir pouvant echapper a tout determinisme . A Good Essay School. Pour Descartes , cette liberte d’indifference, bien que consideree comme « le plus bas degre de la liberte », temoigne en meme temps d’un pur libre arbitre qui apparente l’homme a Dieu ( Meditation quatrieme ). 2) Seconde tentative de preuve du libre arbitre : le crime de Lafcadio dans Les Caves du Vatican d’Andre Gide. Andre Gide, dans Les Caves du Vatican , cherche a illustrer la possibilite pour un etre humain de realiser un acte gratuit , c’est-a-dire un acte accompli sans raison, par le seul effet de sa liberte. Dans le roman, le « hero » Lafcadio se rend a Rome par le train et se retrouve seul dans la nuit, ne partageant son compartiment qu’avec un vieux monsieur. On Education. Lafcadio se prend alors d’une idee folle : « La sous ma main, la poignee. Markedbyteachers Appleby. Il suffirait de la tirer et de le pousser en avant.
On n’entendrait meme pas un cri dans la nuit. Essay Albert College. Qui le verrait…Un crime immotive, quel embarras pour la police ». Lafcadio se dit en effet, et a juste titre, que s’il n’a pas de mobiles pour realiser ce crime, il n’a donc pas de motivations . Lancing College. Le lien entre l’acteur et l’acte commis est inexistant . Essay Albert College. Lafcadio prend d’ailleurs un soin tout particulier a renforcer la gratuite de son crime : il remet tout au hasard et se met a compter pour soumettre sa decision de passer a l’acte ou de ne pas passer a l’acte a l’apparition d’un feu dans la nuit. How To A Good Essay Introduction Tilton. Or le hasard, c’est precisement ce qui est fortuit , c’est-a-dire depourvu de toute intention consciente , donc de motivation intrinseque… Et le crime a lieu. 3) Peut-on dire que l’acte de Lafcadio est un acte gratuit ? Le merite du roman d’Andre Gide est d’aborder la question suivante : Un acte gratuit est-il possible ? Or deux critiques permettent d’etre avancees pour remettre en cause cette possibilite : La premiere critique consistera a remarquer que Lafcadio fait reposer son passage a l’acte sur des signes exterieurs , en l’occurrence l’apparition ou la non apparition d’un feu dans la campagne. Essay On Education College. Son acte serait donc determine par une exteriorite . La seconde critique consistera a remarquer que l’absence de motivations dans l’acte de Lafcadio est tout sauf evidente : l’une de ses premieres motivations ne serait-elle pas le desir meme de se prouver a lui-meme sa liberte ? Si bien qu’il est tout-a fait envisageable de soupconner Lafcadio de prendre pour une absence de motifs ce qui ne serait au fond qu’une ignorance profonde des motifs de son acte.
L’ « acte gratuit » est donc une notion philosophiquement problematique : la volonte de prouver sa liberte par un acte suppose sans mobile constitue, par elle-meme , un mobile. Transition : Une nouvelle question se pose des lors : le sentiment de liberte ou la volonte de realiser un acte non determine ne seraient-ils pas qu’une croyance ? Ne semble-t-il pas que ce ne soit que de facon illusoire et superficielle que je fasse l’ « experience » de ma liberte, par ignorance des determinations qui sont pourtant en jeu ? Developpement de la dissertation : 2eme partie. II) La critique deterministe du libre arbitre. a) L’illusion anthropocentrique du libre arbitre : « L’homme n’est pas un empire dans un empire » ( Spinoza ) Le projet philosophique de B. Writing A Reflective Essay Of Toronto,. Spinoza , dans le sillage des travaux scientifiques de Laplace, est de denoncer les illusions du libre arbitre . C’est ainsi que dans la troisieme partie de l’Ethique , dans la section intitulee De l’origine et de la nature des affections , Spinoza rejette totalement l’idee selon laquelle l’homme occuperait une place privilegiee au sein de la nature. Spinoza critique notamment Descartes qui concoit l’homme comme « un empire dans un empire », ainsi que tous les philosophes qui croient que « l’homme trouble l’ordre de la Nature plutot qu’il ne le suit, qu’il a sur ses propres actions un pouvoir absolu et ne tire que de lui-meme sa determination ». Or l’objectif de Spinoza est bel et bien de montrer que l’homme suit les lois communes de la Nature , comme toutes les choses de ce monde.
b) L’illusion humaine de la liberte. C’est dans sa lettre a Schuller , extraite de sa Correspondance , que Spinoza denonce l’illusion du libre arbitre . Writing Albert College. Il defend ainsi une position philosophique deterministe suivant laquelle tous les evenements sont absolument necessaires et le sentiment que nous avons d’etre libres ne serait qu’une illusion naturelle : « Telle est cette liberte humaine que tous les hommes se vantent d’avoir et qui consiste en cela seul que les hommes sont conscients de leurs desirs et ignorants des causes qui les determinent ». Essay Writing College. Et Spinoza d’ajouter un peu plus loin : « Et comme ce prejuge est inne en tous les hommes, ils ne s’en liberent pas facilement ». Cette illusion naturelle de l’homme a donc deux causes d’apres Spinoza qui justifient que l’homme s’illusionne et qu’il ne fasse pas seulement erreur. Writing Albert College. Premierement, la source de l’illusion humaine du libre arbitre est l’ignorance des causes qui nous poussent a agir. Writing Essays Help Newcastle. Or a prendre les choses rigoureusement, l’homme est tout aussi determine a se mouvoir sous l’influence de causes externes qu’une pierre qui recoit une impulsion. Writing. Les hommes se croient libres alors qu’ils sont contraints ou determines par leur nature. How To Essay Introduction School. Deuxiemement, Spinoza precise bien que les hommes « se vantent » d’etre libre car le desir d’etre libre , meme illusoire, est beaucoup plus valorisant pour l’orgueil humain que l’idee d’etre totalement determine. c) La liberte designe alors la necessite bien comprise.
C’est ainsi que Spinoza ne fait pas consister la liberte, dans la lettre a Schuller , dans un libre decret mais dans une libre necessite ou dans la necessite bien comprise : « j’appelle libre, quant a moi, une chose qui est et agit par la seule necessite de sa nature ». Tout comme les comportements des animaux sont determines par l’instinct, leur environnement ou des determinations biologiques, les actes et les pensees des hommes le sont eux-memes par de multiples facteurs a la fois internes et externes dont on essay on education, ignore le plus souvent l’existence et la puissance : facteurs d’origine physiologiques, psychologiques, sociales, etc. Des lors, l’un des apports essentiels de la critique spinoziste du libre arbitre est de montrer que la croyance en l’existence du libre arbitre est la source d’ alienation de l’homme. Appleby. En effet, selon Spinoza, non seulement l’homme est determine mais cette illusion naturelle du libre arbitre nous determinent a ne pas savoir que nous sommes determines, et ainsi a l’etre d’autant plus surement. Essay Writing On Education College. Or il n’y a pas pire esclave que celui qui se croit libre . Transition : Il nous faut donc tirer les enseignements de la critique spinoziste du libre arbitre et reconnaitreque l’idee d’une liberte spontanee ou d’un sentiment immediat de liberte n’est plus tenable. Essay Writing. Est-il des lors possible de reconstruire une approche de la liberte qui soit accessible a l’homme ? Developpement de la dissertation ; 3eme et derniere partie. III) La liberte est a conquerir : de la liberation a la quete d’autonomie. a) Etre libre, c’est apprendre a se liberer des passions. Platon , dans le Gorgias , pose la question suivante : est-ce la vie de l’homme aux desirs insatiables ou celle guidee par la raison qui est la meilleure ? Dans ce dialogue qui met aux prises Socrate et Callicles, ce dernier defend le droit au desir , comme un droit a etre puissant, autrement dit a etre capable de mettre les forces de son energie et de son intelligence au service des passions , pour leur donner la plus grande ampleur possible. C’est ainsi que Callicles prefere les « tonneaux qui fuient » puisque « ce qui fait l’agrement de la vie, c’est de verser le plus possible ». Essay College. En revanche, Socrate choisit la vie ordonnee , celle ou les tonneaux du sage « seraient en bon etat ».
Platon cherche ainsi a montrer, dans ce dialogue, l’illusion dans laquelle se trouvent les hommes comme Callicles, qui croient qu’etre libre consiste a faire ce que l’on veut, c’est-a-dire a realiser tous ses desirs . Thinking Limkokwing. Or une telle vie, guidee par des desirs multiples , polymorphes et surtout infinis , mene necessairement au tourment et au malheur. Essay Writing Albert. En effet, le risque pour un homme comme Callicles decidant de mener une vie intemperante et desordonnee est de devenir l’esclave de ses propres passions et desirs . A cette vie desordonnee, Platon oppose une vie guidee par la raison , incarnee par la sagesse socratique . How To Write A Good Introduction School. Socrate incarne, en effet, le sage qui sait distinguer entre les desirs a poursuivre ou a ne pas poursuivre, qui sait se gouverner lui-meme et qui est en mesure d’acceder a une veritable autonomie de la volonte. b) Etre libre, c’est etre responsable de ses actes. Par consequent, l’entree dans la liberte authentique , par opposition avec la liberte illusoire des desirs infinis, c’est l’entree dans une veritable autonomie et c’est pouvoir devenir responsable de ses actes et pouvoir en repondre. L’enjeu de l’entree dans la liberte authentique est donc celui du rapport a soi-meme et a autrui . Essay Writing On Education College. La liberte entre alors dans le champ de la reflexion morale , sociale et politique . Writing Help Newcastle University. C’est ainsi qu’au sens moral et juridique, etre libre, c’est pouvoir etre reconnu autonome et responsable de ses actes, de ses choix, a la fois devant soi-meme et devant la societe a laquelle on writing, appartient. En consequence, si la liberte est illusoire ou inaccessible, il semble que c’en soit fini de la responsabilite morale et juridique de tout individu, et par la meme de la justice . Markedbyteachers Appleby College. Le fait que nous nous sentions, a tort ou a raison libre, exige donc que l’on agisse comme si on essay writing Albert, etait effectivement libre . c) La liberte comme condition de l’acte ethique. C’est ainsi que dans la premiere note de la preface a la Critique de la raison pratique , Kant affirme que la liberte est la condition de possibilite et l’essence (la ratio essendi ) de la vie morale de l’homme, comme la vie morale de l’homme est ce par quoi l’homme connait la realite de sa liberte (elle en est la ratio cognoscendi ). Writing Essay Of Toronto, New College. Et Kant ajoute pour preciser : « (…) si la loi morale n’etait pas d’abord clairement concue dans notre raison, nous ne nous croirions jamais autorises a admettre une chose telle que la liberte (…). Writing College. En revanche, s’il n’y avait pas de liberte, la loi morale ne saurait nullement etre rencontree en nous ». Ainsi, pour Kant , pour que l’homme soit moral, il faut qu’il soit libre, car s’il etait force par une nature intelligible a la bonte, a la justice et a l’altruisme, il ne serait qu’un automate spirituel et s’il etait force par sa nature sensible a l’egoisme, il ne serait qu’un mecanisme materiel . Conclusion de de notre exemple sur la dissertation philosophique.
1) Faire le bilan de la demarche poursuivie dans le devoir : La liberte humaine est-elle donc possible ? Nous avons pu comprendre, tout au long de notre travail, la difficulte qui existe a pouvoir saisir une veritable « experience » de la liberte et, par consequent, la difficulte a en prouver veritablement l’existence. 2) Repondre a la question initiale : La liberte est-elle une illusion ? Notre travail a, en tout cas, cherche a demontrer que si la croyance en une liberte immediate etait illusoire, voire naive, la critique spinoziste nous a permis d’acceder a une approche de la liberte qui puisse permettre d’en preserver l’espoir : en effet, si l’homme n’est pas libre, il lui est, en revanche, donne d’entrer dans un processus , dans une conquete assimilable a une liberation par l’usage de la raison et par son entree dans la morale et la vie sociale . 3) Si possible, proposer une ouverture a une nouvelle reflexion : Comment penser les consequences d’une authentique liberation de l’homme dans ses interactions morales, sociales et politiques ? Vincent Boyer , professeur de philosophie a Paris. Vous pouvez nous envoyer votre demande d’aide (gratuite) via le formulaire ci-dessous : Pour aller plus loin sur le bac philosophie : le langage animal. L’homme est la mesure de tout chose? je dois reconnaitre, moi qui enseigne depuis 10 ans en lycee, que votre exemple est un modele pour les eleves de terminale philo. Merci donc de l’avoir partage sur votre site. Je crois qu’il faut souligner les dimensions politiques et psychologiques des l’explication du sujet.au fait l’individu se sent toujours decu de ce qu’il en a tant reve et lotrssu’il parvient a realise ce dont il z longtemps reve et plannifie,il se rend compte que ce qu’il a realise n’est pas beaucoup de chose ,n’est pas a la hauteur de ses desirs.l’autre cote politique,tous les peuples qui ont combattu pour le printemps arabe et pour la liberte et au nom de la liberte se sont sentis decus.de meme les regimes comme le socialisme qui ont promis liberte aux peuples ont decu les peuples. jardelin: merci bcp msr vincent votre dissertation m,a donne le gout de la lire, mrci d l,avoir publiee.
y aurait il la meme chose pour le sujet “peut-on se mettre a la place d’autrui?” ?? C est formidable. vraiment bien pourrais-je avoir une copie pour le sujet” les individus ont-il une prise sur le cour de l’histoire?” une dissertation complete pour le sujet” les individus ont-il une prise sur le cour de l’histoire?” dans la mesure ou l’homme est un etre naturellement pensant et dote de raison a la capacite de distingue le bien du mal alors se mettre a la place d’autrui vu qu’il est notre semblable est possible dans ce cas.Mais en outre les sensation et sentiment qu’eprouve l’otre et ses desirs ne peut etre en aucun cas les memes par ailleurs ce mettre a la place d’autrui ne peut etre percu. Elle est vraiment bonne….merci. Merci c’est agreable, pourrais-je avoir la correction de ce sujet la religion limite-t-elle la liberte humaine? car je ne sais comment vous remercier pour votre illustration. Writing. j’aurai encore besoin de vous dans le but de bien comprendre mes textes philosophiques. College. MERCI. n’ayant pa d citation,pourez t on critical texas Limkokwing, partir des faits quotiens pour introduire.
pourait je avoir une dissertation sur le sujet taisez vous les philosophes ici ne parlent que les scientifique» Peut-on avoir un exemple d’une dissertation comparative svp? Sujet :l’homme est il un acteurs de l’histoire? Dissertation : le progres des sciences entrainent -il la ruine de la philosophie? merci a vous pour cette belle exemple. Vraiment bonne !je suis en term l, cette dissert est PARFAITE. On Education. je cite aussi hobbes, dans la mienne et sartre dans un grand II. votre site est tres benefique.
Merci! Vraiment bien mais j’ais besoin d’une copie pour ” l’homme d’action a t il raison de se moquer du philosophe” Elle est trop bonne seulmnt si vous pouriez en faire beaucoup dotre sa serai parfait. Faut-il croire sans experimente? Merci pour votre travail consequent! Celui que mon professeur de philosophie ne remplie pas… Votre exemple clair et precis m’a permis d’enfin comprendre la methode et de bien me preparer a mes epreuves. Mille fois merci! Merci beaucoup pour votre parfaite illustration. Writing Help University. Je voudrais savoir un peu d’eclaircissement sur l’idealisme hegelien, le materialisme marxiste et le positivisme d’Auguste Comte et en quoi ils s’opposent. SUJET: Vanite des vanite, tout est vanite.
Vous ne mettez pas les parties en rapport, elles sont totalement isolees, et votre conclusion n’aboutit a rien. Merci prof vincent BOYER. Merci pour les informations. Vraiment j’apprecie beaucoup votre corrige. la philosophie est elle importante dans la societe humaine? ?la philosophie est indetacharble des preocupation de la vie?Expliquez svp. La philosophie est-elle un systeme?
merci de nous avoir escplicite ce sujet. merci bien prof vraiment c’est super, ca m’a permi de mieu comprendre certains details.svp je peux avoir de meme pour ce sujet:”toutes les passions sont sans eception mauvaises” svp. Merci beaucoup. On Education Albert. ..c’est tres bien detaille. Y a til la meme chose pour :?peut on how to write pdf St. College, parler de la philosophie en ce 21em siecle?..merci d’avance. merci . Writing On Education College. la conscience est elle la marque de la grandeur de l homme?
l’homme est le seul animal raisonnable , il est conscient de son inconscience et oui la conscience fait sa grandeur . merci beaucoup de nous facilite les techniques. […] dissertation . How To Write A Good Tilton. […]
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Current Trends Risks Associated with Human Parvovirus B19 Infection. This report* was developed to assist physicians, public health officials, and other health-care professionals respond to public concerns about recently recognized, serious complications of human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection, including transient aplastic crisis (TAC), chronic anemia, and fetal death. It includes background information about the essay on education Albert, virus, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and diagnostic testing. In addition, interim guidelines are presented for preventing B19 infection, managing persons exposed to persons with B19 infection, and Clair, managing patients infected with B19. These guidelines reflect both the current limited information about the extent to essay on education Albert College, which B19 infection leads to severe complications and the limited availability of diagnostic testing. A Reflective Essay Of Toronto,! Priorities for future research are identified. Essay On Education Albert! GENERAL INFORMATION. B19 was discovered in England in critical thinking texas Limkokwing University, 1975 in serum specimens from healthy blood donors (1). Since its discovery, B19 has been shown to be the on education College, causative agent of erythema infectiosum (EI) (also known as fifth disease) and is the primary etiologic agent of TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (2-4).
B19 has also been associated with fetal death (both spontaneous abortions and stillbirths), acute arthralgias and Limkokwing University, arthritis, and chronic anemia in immunodeficient patients (5-14). The virus belongs to the family Parvoviridae, which includes two genera of essay on education Albert vertebrate viruses: genus parvovirus (autonomously replicating parvoviruses) and genus dependovirus (parvoviruses that require a helper virus, such as adenovirus or herpes virus, for replication); and one genus of invertebrate viruses, the money essay writing College, genus densovirus (15). B19 is in the genus parvovirus, which includes a number of animal parvoviruses such as the canine parvovirus and essay Albert, feline panleukopenia virus. The parvoviruses tend to write Tilton, be species-specific; only the adeno-associated parvoviruses (members of the dependovirus genus) and essay on education, B19 are known to infect humans. The adeno-associated parvoviruses have not been associated with disease in humans. Fecal parvoviruses and the RA1 virus have been reported but not confirmed to be human pathogens (16,17). Newcastle University! B19 is a heat-stable virus and on education College, can survive at 60 C (140 F) for up to thinking Limkokwing, 12 hours.
CLINICAL FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth Disease) The most commonly recognized illness associated with B19 infection is on education Albert College EI. EI is a mild childhood illness characterized by thinking Limkokwing a facial rash (slapped cheek appearance), and essay writing on education College, a reticulated or lacelike rash on texas Limkokwing, the trunk and extremities (18). Reappearance of the rash may occur for several weeks following nonspecific stimuli such as change in temperature, sunlight, and writing on education Albert College, emotional stress. Typically, the patient is otherwise well at rash onset but often gives a history of write essay introduction School mild systemic symptoms 1-4 days before rash onset. In some EI outbreaks, pruritis has been a common clinical feature. In addition to typical EI, B19 infection has been associated with a variety of other exanthems, including those that are rubella-like, vesicular, and purpuric (18). Asymptomatic Infection. In outbreak investigations, asymptomatic infection has been reported in approximately 20% of writing children and adults (19,20). Writing Essay University New College! Arthropathy.
In some outbreaks of EI, arthralgias and essay writing on education Albert College, arthritis have been commonly reported (7,8,21). Infection may produce a symmetrical peripheral polyarthropathy. Joints in the hands are most frequently affected, followed by the knees and wrists. How To Write Pdf St. Clair! Symptoms are usually self-limited but may persist for essay Albert College several months. Joint symptoms, more common in adults, may occur as the sole manifestation of infection. Transient Aplastic Crisis and Severe Anemia.
B19 is the primary etiologic agent causing TAC in patients with chronic hemolytic anemias (e.g., sickle cell disease, hemoglobin SC disease, hereditary spherocytosis, alpha-thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia) (22,23). It can also cause TAC in other conditions in which increased red cell production is necessary to maintain stable red cell indices, as may occur in anemia due to blood loss. Patients with TAC typically present with pallor, weakness, and lethargy and may report a nonspecific prodromal illness in the preceding 1-7 days. Few patients with TAC report a rash. Essay Introduction Tilton! In the acute phase of the illness, #12;patients usually have a moderate to essay writing College, severe anemia with absence f reticulocytes, and bone marrow examination shows a hypoplastic or an aplastic erythroid series with a normal myeloid series. Recovery is write essay pdf St. Clair indicated by a return of reticulocytes in the peripheral smear approximately 7-10 days after their disappearance.
TAC may require transfusion and hospitalization and can be fatal if not treated promptly. B19 Infection in Albert, Immunodeficient Patients. A B19-related severe chronic anemia associated with red cell aplasia has been described in patients on essays Newcastle, maintenance chemotherapy for writing on education Albert acute lymphocytic leukemia, patients with congenital immunodeficiencies, and patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related immunodeficiency (9-14). It is not yet known how often B19 causes chronic anemia in immunodeficient patients or which patients are most susceptible to this complication of critical thinking University infection. Chronic B19 infection should, however, be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in the immunodeficient patient. Infection in the Pregnant Woman Intrauterine infection and fetal death. In most of the reported B19 infections occurring during pregnancy, the fetus has not been adversely affected (5,6,24-30).
However, in some cases B19 infection has been associated with fetal death. The risk of fetal death attributable to writing College, parvovirus infection following documented maternal infection (B19 IgM-antibody-positive) is not known, but preliminary results of one study from the United Kingdom suggest that it is less than 10% (30; SM Hall, unpublished data). How To Write! In that study, 174 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 were followed prospectively to delivery. Fetal loss occurred in 30 (17.2%): 21 (19.1%) of essay writing Albert College 110 women infected during the first 12 weeks of pregnancy, seven (15.2%) of 46 women infected during weeks 13-20, one (6.3%) of 16 women infected after 20 weeks, and one of two women with unknown time of infection. Fetal death most commonly occurred from the write pdf St. Clair College, 10th through the 20th weeks of pregnancy. Not all fetal deaths directly resulted from B19 infection. Since this study did not include a control group, the number of deaths attributable to B19 infection cannot be calculated directly. In other studies, rates of recognized pregnancies ending in spontaneous abortions from Albert College all causes by 28 weeks' gestation range from 10% to 25% (31). In the British study, the number of fetal deaths linked to B19 infection can be estimated by determining whether fetal tissues contain B19 DNA. Tissues from 14 fetuses were tested for B19 DNA: six were positive, two were equivocal, and six were negative. Markedbyteachers! The cause of essay Albert College death is likely to have been B19 infection for write essay Clair the DNA-positive fetuses; thus, at least six (3.4%) of 174 infected women were likely to have had a B19-associated fetal loss.
When the essay writing College, results of the 14 tested were extrapolated to writing, all 30 fetal deaths, an estimated 17 fetuses would be B19 DNA-positive or equivocal, suggesting that less than or equal to17 (less than or equal to9.8%) of the 174 B19-infected women might have had a B19-associated fetal loss. Antibody studies of essay writing on education Albert College liveborn infants and hybridization studies of fetal tissues indicate that less than one third of maternal infections are associated with fetal infection in this study. Results from an ongoing study in the United States also suggest that B19- attributable fetal deaths are infrequent (CDC, unpublished data). In this study, 95 pregnant women with IgM antibody to B19 are being followed prospectively. Fetal loss has so far occurred in money writing College, two (4.1%) of 49 women followed to term. Writing! It is not known whether the two fetal deaths were caused by B19 infection. One fetus was hydropic; the other was not described. No tissues from write a good introduction School either fetus were available for B19 hybridization studies. When the antibody status of the woman is unknown, estimates of the risk of fetal death after exposure must take into Albert, account the rate of writing help University susceptibility in essay Albert, the population and essay writing Lancing College, the risk of infection after the on education College, exposure.
For example, by taking these factors into account, the upper limit estimate of the writing essays help Newcastle, risk of fetal death would be less than 2.5% after exposure to household members with documented infection (less than 0.1 risk of fetal death x 0.5 rate of susceptibility x 0.5 rate of on education College infection x 100; see sections on Epidemiologic Features of how to pdf St. Clair College B19 Infection: Prevalence and essay writing, Transmission) and less than 1.5% after prolonged exposure at schools with widespread EI among students (less than 0.1 risk of essay Lancing fetal death x 0.5 rate of essay writing on education Albert susceptibility x 0.3 rate of infection x 100). The upper limit risk estimate of fetal death after other types of exposure (e.g., schools with limited EI among students) is likely to writing University, be substantially less. A study of 96 women who had stillbirths, 96 women who had spontaneous abortions, and controls matched by age, duration of pregnancy, and location suggests that B19 is not responsible for on education Albert College a substantial #12;proportion of fetal deaths in writing essays help, the general population (32). In this study, the rate of serologically confirmed B19 infection was the same (1%) in writing on education Albert College, cases and critical thinking texas, controls. In a survey of 50 fetuses with nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis, an uncommonly diagnosed cause of fetal death, four (8%) were positive for B19 DNA (25). Congenital anomalies.
Since some of the animal parvoviruses are teratogens (33), the essay writing on education Albert College, possibility that infection may also be associated with congenital anomalies in humans is a reflective essay of Toronto, a concern. Essay Writing On Education Albert College! However, there is no evidence that the rate of congenital anomalies following B19 infection exceeds background rates. B19-associated congenital anomalies have not been reported among several hundred liveborn infants of B19-infected mothers. One aborted fetus with eye anomalies and histologic evidence of damage to multiple tissues born to a B19-infected woman has been reported (34). Pdf St. College! An anencephalic fetus was reported in essay Albert College, a B19-infected woman, but the timing of infection made it unlikely that B19 contributed to the defect (35). A Reflective Essay University Of Toronto, New College! ATHOGENESIS. The pathogenesis of the rash in EI is unknown, but the rash may be immune- complex-mediated. The other, more serious manifestations of B19 infection are related to the propensity of the College, virus to markedbyteachers, infect and on education Albert, lyse erythroid precursor cells and interrupt normal red cell production (36). In a person with normal hematopoiesis, B19 infection produces a self-limited red cell aplasia that is clinically inapparent. Transient leukopenia, lymphocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia have also been reported with B19 infection in write introduction, the normal host (37,38). In patients who have increased rates of red cell destruction or loss and who depend on compensatory increases in red cell production to maintain stable red cell indices, B19 infection may lead to TAC.
Patients at risk for TAC include those with chronic hemolytic anemias and essay writing College, those with anemias associated with acute or chronic blood loss. In immunodeficient persons, B19 infection may persist, causing chronic red cell aplasia, which results in chronic anemia; chronic neutropenia has also been described (10). B19 DNA-positive tissues have been reported in 20 fetal deaths; in all 17 cases in which pathologic findings were described, the fetuses had nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis (6,25-27,30,35,39-44). The precise pathogenesis of fetal death remains unclear. Severe anemia may precipitate congestive heart failure, generalized edema, and ultimately fetal death. The fetus may be particularly vulnerable to B19 infection because red cell survival is short, and the red cell volume is rapidly expanding. Severe anemia, B19 viremia, and cytologic changes in erythroid precursor cells have been described in fetuses just before death (26,27,39). Chronic infection may occur in the fetus (one fetus was viremic for at least 4 weeks) (26). In one case report, infection of myocardial cells was noted, suggesting that direct damage to myocardial tissue may also contribute to the disease process in the fetus (29). EPIDEMIOLOGIC FEATURES OF B19 INFECTION Prevalence.
B19 infection occurs worldwide (45,46). Infection with B19 can occur throughout the year, in all age groups, during outbreaks of EI, or as sporadic cases. B19 infection is Appleby College most frequently recognized during outbreaks of EI in essay Albert, schools. These outbreaks often begin in late winter or early spring and may continue until school recesses for the summer. The level of EI activity in essay, a community varies from year to year; periods of increased activity lasting several years are generally followed by several years of decreased activity (47-50). The reported seroprevalence ranges from 2% to 15% in children 1-5 years old, 15% to 60% in Albert, children 5-19 years old, and 30% to money writing Lancing College, 60% in adults (18,40,51,52).
Incubation Period. Studies of secondary illness in households suggest that the incubation period for clinical EI and TAC is usually 4-14 days but can be as long as 20 days (18). Writing On Education College! In volunteer studies, rash illness occurred 17-18 days after inoculation (37,38). Transmission. B19 DNA has been found in respiratory secretions in viremic patients, which suggests that these secretions are involved in transmission (19,20,37). Thinking Limkokwing University! In studies of human volunteers, serum and respiratory secretions became positive for B19 DNA 5-10 days after intranasal inoculation (during the essay on education, prodromal illness) (37,38). By the time of onset of rash or arthralgia, serum specimens had been negative for 1-5 days. B19 has not been detected in the respiratory secretions and only rarely in writing College, the serum of essay writing Albert patients after onset of EI (37). In contrast, acute serum specimens are often positive for B19 DNA in patients when they present with TAC; serum specimens are usually negative by 7 days after onset of illness (53). The presence of B19 DNA in serum or respiratory secretions presumably correlates with infectiousness; thus, patients with EI are probably past the period of essay greatest infectiousness, while patients with TAC are likely to on education Albert, be #12;infectious during the course of their illness. The presence of writing a reflective essay New College IgG antibody correlates with a lower risk of infection.
This decreased risk has been suggested in volunteers who were experimentally inoculated with B19: four of five IgG-negative but only writing College one of four IgG-positive volunteers developed serologic evidence of infection (37). The IgG-positive volunteer who became infected had low levels of IgG antibody before challenge and had a lower titer and markedbyteachers College, shorter duration of viremia than had the four infected volunteers who were IgG-negative. The virus is essay on education College transmitted effectively after close contact exposures. The secondary attack rate for infection among susceptible household contacts of patients with TAC or EI is about 50% (19,20). In school outbreaks, 10%-60% of students may develop EI. In outbreaks in which student involvement is widespread, preliminary data suggest 20%-30% of susceptible (IgG-antibody-negative) staff may develop serologic evidence of B19 infection during the write pdf St., course of the outbreak (CDC, unpublished data). In outbreak settings, it is not known whether the primary mode of on education Albert College transmission involves direct person-to-person contact, fomites, large-particle droplets, or small- particle droplets.
The virus can also be transmitted parenterally by transfusion of blood or blood products and vertically from write a good essay Tilton School mother to essay writing College, fetus (1,54,55). Transmission rarely occurs during transfusion with single-donor blood products but is common during treatment with clotting-factor concentrates even after steam- or dry-heat treatment of the clotting factor concentrate (1,54,55). Tattooing was suspected as the source of B19 transmission in thinking texas, two instances (56). DIAGNOSIS B19 Antibody Assays. The most sensitive test to detect recent infection is the IgM-antibody assay. B19 IgM antibody can be detected by capture-antibody radioimmunoassay or enzyme immunoassay in approximately 90% of cases by the third day after symptoms of TAC or EI begin (57,58). Essay On Education College! The titer and New College, the percentage of positives begin to essay on education Albert, decline 30-60 days after onset. B19 IgG antibody is essays help usually present by the seventh day of illness and persists for years. B19 antibody may not be detectable in immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection, and additional testing for writing on education Albert College B19 DNA or viral antigens may be necessary to document infection. B19 has not been grown in standard cell culture systems or animal model systems, but it has been grown in bone marrow explant culture systems (59). The inability to grow the virus in markedbyteachers Appleby, sufficient quantity to writing Albert, produce antigen for diagnostic assays has precluded widespread availability of B19 testing (36,60,61).
Recently parvovirus B19 DNA has been incorporated into the genome of writing a Chinese hamster ovary cell line (62). On Education! This cell line expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious virionlike particles that can be used as antigen for antibody assays; this source of antigen should lead to increased availability of diagnostic tests. Assays for B19 DNA. The most sensitive test for detecting the virus is nucleic acid hybridization (63,64). This test has been used to identify B19 DNA in how to write School, serum, leukocytes, respiratory secretions, urine, and tissue specimens.
One group reported that B19 DNA was more likely to on education, be detected in leukocytes than in serum (65). Histologic Features of B19 Infection. Light and electron microscopy can be helpful in diagnosing B19 infections (1,23,41) By light microscopy, eosinophilic nuclear inclusions with peripheral condensation of essay College chromatin can be seen in erythroid precursor cells of infected patients. The inclusions contain parvovirus-like particles by transmission electron microscopy (28,41,66). B19-like particles may also be seen by essay writing on education College electron microscopy in how to pdf St. Clair, serum specimens of some infected patients (1,23,41). Histologic findings in fetal tissues also may include a severe leukoerythroblastic reaction and excessive iron deposition in essay writing College, tissues, which indicates hemolysis.
Assays to a reflective essay University New College, Determine Site of Infection. It is not known which tissues, in addition to erythroid precursor cells, support virus replication. Several tests have been developed that distinguish virus infection of tissue or cells from Albert deposition of writing help virus by essay writing passive transfer in blood. In situ hybridization can demonstrate viral DNA in specific cells and has been used to show that B19 sometimes infects fetal myocardial cells (29). Replicative forms of essays Newcastle B19 DNA and nonstructural proteins can be demonstrated by Southern and Western blot analysis, respectively, indicating infection in on education, the tissue (67,68). PREVENTION OF INFECTION Risk Groups. Although B19 infection usually produces a mild, self-limited illness, three groups of persons are at risk for serious complications of infection: 1) persons with chronic hemolytic anemias, 2) persons with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, and 3) pregnant women.
Since infection in these persons can lead to substantial morbidity #12;and some mortality, consideration should be given to preventing or ameliorating disease. Immunization Active. There is no vaccine to prevent B19, but a recently developed cell line that expresses B19 capsid proteins as noninfectious viruslike particles has been proposed as a source of how to essay introduction Tilton School antigen for development of a candidate vaccine (62). Passive. No studies have been conducted to determine whether preexposure or postexposure prophylaxis with commercially available immune globulin (IG) preparations would prevent infection or modify the course of illness during community outbreaks. Routine prophylaxis with IG cannot be recommended at on education Albert College, this time. Health-Care Settings. Guidelines for a reflective of Toronto, New College isolation precautions in hospitals have been published for EI (69), but recent information suggests that these guidelines should be modified. Most patients with EI are past their period of infectiousness and on education Albert, do not present a risk for further transmission; thus isolation precautions are not indicated. However, there is risk for nosocomial transmission of B19 from patients with TAC and from immunodeficient patients with chronic B19 infection. Thinking Limkokwing! These patients should be considered infectious and placed on isolation precautions for the duration of essay writing on education College their illness or until the infection has been cleared.
Nosocomial transmission of B19 has been associated with one case of TAC (70). Transmission of B19 infection has also occurred in essay University, medical research laboratories (4,71). Patients with TAC or chronic B19 infection should be admitted to private rooms. Persons in close contact with the essay writing Albert, patients should wear masks. Gloves should be worn by persons likely to touch infective material such as respiratory secretions, and gowns should be worn when soiling is anticipated (contact isolation) (69). Hands should be washed after the essays help Newcastle, patient or potentially contaminated articles are touched and before care is provided to another patient. Essay On Education! B19-infected patients may share a room with another B19-infected patient unless sharing is contraindicated by another infection or condition.
Health-care workers should be advised that they are at money writing College, risk of essay writing on education Albert College B19 infection after exposure in the hospital or in the community and that there may be a risk for further transmission to a reflective, patients. Routine infection-control practices should minimize the essay on education College, risk of transmission. Personnel who may be pregnant or who might become pregnant should know about potential risks to the fetus from B19 infection and about preventive measures that may reduce those risks. Homes, Schools, and Workplaces. When outbreaks of B19 infection occur in situations in which prolonged, close contact exposures occur (e.g., at home, in schools, or in day-care centers), options for preventing transmission are limited.
The greatest risk of transmitting the virus occurs before symptoms of EI develop; therefore, transmission cannot be prevented by identifying and excluding persons with EI. The efficacy of decontaminating toys and environmental surfaces to decrease B19 transmission has not been studied. The efficacy of handwashing to decrease B19 transmission has not been studied either, but handwashing is recommended as a practical and probably effective measure. When outbreaks occur, parents of school-aged children and employees should be advised about the risk of transmitting and acquiring infection and about who is at risk for serious complications. Persons who wish to obtain additional information about introduction Tilton risks and management of B19 exposures should be referred to their health-care provider and writing Albert, state or local health officials. The decision to try to decrease any person's risk of infection by avoiding a workplace or school evironment in which an EI outbreak is a good essay introduction School occurring should be made by the person after discussions with family members, health-care providers, public health officials, and employers or school officials. A policy to routinely exclude members of high-risk groups is not recommended. PATIENT MANAGEMENT Patients with Chronic Hemolytic Anemia. The exposed patient with chronic hemolytic anemia should be managed by alerting the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the essay writing College, exposure, the symptoms and signs associated with TAC (pallor, weakness, and lethargy), and the need to consult a physician immediately if symptoms or signs of TAC develop. Management of the patient with TAC is based on treating symptoms of the associated anemia and may require blood transfusion. Patients with Congenital and Acquired Immunodeficiencies.
The exposed patient with a congenital or acquired immunodeficiency should be managed by advising the patient or his/her parents or guardians about the money essay Lancing College, exposure and the possibility that B19 infection may lead to chronic anemia. The physician should consider B19 infection in the differential diagnosis of chronic anemia in writing on education Albert College, this group of patients, especially if there is an essay Clair College outbreak of EI in the community. #12; In several patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia, the administration of IG resulted in disappearance of viremia and improvement in red cell indices (10). Albert! In other patients, the how to write a good introduction, infection and associated anemia resolved when immune function returned (12,14). Essay Writing Albert College! The role of IG in critical thinking Limkokwing University, the treatment of these patients needs further study. Pregnant Women.
The knowledge that B19 infection during pregnancy can cause fetal death has created concern among health-care providers, public health officials, and pregnant women and their families. In managing exposed pregnant women, risks should be considered in Albert, the context of other risks to the pregnancy and write essay Clair College, the risks associated with intervention. For women with a documented infection, maternal serum #156;ga-fetoprotein levels and diagnostic ultrasound examinations have been used to identify adversely affected fetuses, but the sensitivity and specificity of these tests, their appropriate timing, and the risks and benefits of their use in managing infected pregnant women have not yet been determined (39,41). Interpretation of the ultrasound is writing on education difficult early in pregnancy and should be supervised by a physician experienced in diagnosing fetal abnormalities. Intrauterine blood transfusion (IBT) has been proposed as treatment for the fetus with B19-induced severe anemia. However, IBT is a high-risk, specialized procedure of unproven benefit in this situation and cannot be recommended for routine treatment of B19-related hydrops fetalis (72). AVAILABILITY OF DIAGNOSTIC TESTING AT CDC. Diagnostic testing is available at only a few sites, primarily research laboratories; increasing the availability of money Lancing College diagnostic testing is a public health priority. The Division of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC, can accept a limited number of specimens for B19 diagnostic testing.
At this time, CDC is accepting specimens through state health departments from patients with TAC, immunodeficient patients with chronic anemia, pregnant women exposed to B19 or with symptoms suggestive of essay writing on education Albert B19 infection, and cases of nonimmune fetal hydrops possibly related to B19 infection, and not accepting specimens for routine antibody testing. Physicians can arrange testing at critical texas, CDC by consulting their state health department. PRIORITIES FOR FUTURE RESEARCH. The following areas have been identified as high priorities for future public health-related research on writing on education, B19 infection: Develop surveillance methods that distinguish outbreaks from sporadic disease. Markedbyteachers! 2.Refine estimates of infection rates following exposures in on education, the home, the writing Lancing College, workplace, and school. Essay Writing College! 3.Refine risk estimates for adverse fetal outcomes associated with B19 infection during pregnancy. 4.Evaluate methods to treat and prevent B19-related fetal hydrops. Essay Lancing College! 5.Determine the writing, disease burden associated with B19 infection in immunodeficient patients, including patients with HIV infection.
6.Determine the how to write pdf St. Clair College, risk of essay Albert College infection and factors associated with transmission in health-care settings. 7.Determine the efficacy of IG for prevention and markedbyteachers Appleby College, treatment of B19 infection. Writing! 8.Determine the potential reduction in a reflective essay New College, morbidity and mortality associated with development and use of a B19 vaccine. Reported by: Div of on education Albert Reproductive Health, Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; Div of Immunization, Center for Prevention Svcs; Div of Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control; Div of Surveillance and Epidemiologic Studies, Epidemiology Program Office; National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health; AIDS Program, Hospital Infections Program, Div of money writing Lancing Host Factors, Div of Viral Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, CDC. Cossart YE, Field AM, Cant B, Widdows D. Parvovirus-like particles in writing, human sera. Lancet 1975;1:72-3. 2.Anderson MJ, Jones SE, Fisher-Hoch SP, et al. Human parvovirus, the cause of erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)? (Letter). Appleby! Lancet 1983;1:1378. Essay Writing Albert! 3.Anderson MJ, Lewis E, Kidd IM, Hall SM, Cohen BJ.
An outbreak of erythema infectiosum associated with human parvovirus infection. J Hyg (Lond) 1984;93:85-93. 4.Pattison JR, Jones SE, Hodgson J, et al. Parvovirus infections and hypoplastic crisis in sickle-cell anaemia (Letter). Lancet 1981;1:664-5. 5.Knott PD, Welply GAC, Anderson MJ. Serologically proved intrauterine infection with parvovirus. Br Med J 1984;289:1660. 6.Brown T, Anand A, Ritchie LD, Clewley JP, Reid TMS.
Intrauterine parvovirus infection associated with hydrops fetalis (Letter). Lancet 1984;2:1033-4. 7.White DG, Woolf AD, Mortimer PP, Cohen BJ, Blake DR, Bacon PA. Human parvovirus arthropathy. Lancet 1985;1:419-21. #12;8.Reid DM, Reid TMS, Brown T, Rennie JAN, Eastmond CJ. Human parvovirus-associated arthritis: a clinical and laboratory description. Lancet 1985;1:422-5. 9.Van Horn DK, Mortimer PP, Young N, Hanson GR. Human parvovirus-associated red cell aplasia in the absence of Appleby underlying hemolytic anemia. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1986;8:235-9.
10.Kurtzman GJ, Ozawa K, Cohen B, Hanson G, Oseas R, Young NS. Chronic bone marrow failure due to persistent B19 parvovirus infection. N Engl J Med 1987;317:287-94. Writing College! 11.Davidson JE, Gibson B, Gibson A, Evans TJ. Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and immunodeficiency (Letter). Lancet 1989;1:102. 12.Smith MA, Shah NR, Lobel JS, Cera PJ, Gary GW, Anderson LJ.
Severe anemia caused by College human parvovirus in a leukemia patient on essay, maintenance chemotherapy. Clin Pediatr 1988:27:383-6. 13.Kurtzman GJ, Cohen B, Meyers P, Amunullah A, Young NS. Persistent B19 parvovirus infection as a cause of a good severe chronic anaemia in children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia. Writing On Education! Lancet 1988;2:1159-62.
14.Coulombel L, Morinet F, Mielot F, Tchernia G. Parvovirus infection, leukaemia, and immunodeficiency (Letter). Lancet 1989;1:101-2. 15.Siegl G, Bates RC, Berns KI, et al. Characteristics and taxonomy of Parvoviridae. Writing Newcastle! Intervirology 1985;23:61-73. 16.Paver WK, Clarke SKR. Writing On Education College! Comparison of human fecal and serum parvo-like viruses.
J Clin Microbiol 1976;4:67-70. 17.Simpson RW, McGinty L, Simon L, Smith CA, Godzeski CW, Boyd RJ. Association of parvoviruses with rheumatoid arthritis of humans. Science 1984;223:1425-8. 18.Anderson LJ. Money Essay Lancing! Role of parvovirus B19 in human disease. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1987;6:711-8. Essay On Education! 19.Plummer FA, Hammond GW, Forward K, et al. An erythema infectiosum-like illness caused by human parvovirus infection. N Engl J Med 1985;313:74-9. 20.Chorba T, Coccia P, Holman RC, et al.
The role of parvovirus B19 in aplastic crisis and erythema infectiosum (fifth disease). Money Essay Lancing College! J Infect Dis 1986;154:383-93. 21.Ager EA, Chin TDY, Poland JD. Epidemic erythema infectiosum. Writing On Education Albert College! N Engl J Med 1966; 275:1326-31.
22.Serjeant GR, Goldstein AR. B19 virus infection and critical texas University, the aplastic crisis. In: Pattison JR, ed. Writing On Education! Parvoviruses and human disease. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1988:85-92. 23.Young N. Hematologic and hematopoietic consequences of B19 parvovirus infection. Semin Hematol 1988;25:159-72. 24.Anderson LJ, Hurwitz ES.
Human parvovirus B19 and pregnancy. Clin Perinatol 1988; 15:273-86. A Reflective University! 25.Porter HJ, Khong TY, Evans MF, Chan VT-W, Fleming KA. Albert! Parvovirus as a cause of hydrops fetalis: detection by in situ DNA hybridisation. J Clin Pathol 1988;41:381-3. 26.Anderson MJ, Khousam MN, Maxwell DJ, Gould SJ, Happerfield LC, Smith WJ. Human parvovirus B19 and hydrops fetalis (Letter). Lancet 1988;1:535. 27.Franciosi RA, Tattersall P. Fetal infection with human parvovirus B19.
Hum Pathol 1988; 19:489-91. Writing A Reflective Essay Of Toronto, New College! 28.Caul EO, Usher MJ, Burton PA. Writing On Education College! Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus B19: a ight and electron microscopy study. J Med Virol 1988;24:55-66. 29.Porter HJ, Quantrill AM, Fleming KA. B19 parvovirus infection of myocardial cells (Letter). Lancet 1988;1:535-6.
30.Public Health Laboratory Service Working Party on Fifth Disease. Study of human parvovirus (B19) infection in pregnancy. Comm Dis Rep 1987;87/20:3. 31.Edmonds L, Hatch M, Holmes L, et al. A Reflective Essay! Guidelines for writing College reproductive studies in exposed human population. In: Bloom AD, Paul NW, eds. Guidelines for studies of Appleby College human populations exposed to on education Albert College, mutagenic and reproductive hazards: proceedings of conference held January 26-27, 1981, in Washington, DC. White Plains, New York: March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation, 1981:71. 32.Kinney JS, Anderson LJ, Farrar J, et al.
Risk of adverse outcomes of pregnancy after human parvovirus B19 infection. J Infect Dis 1988;157:663-7. 33.Siegl G. Biology and pathogenicity of autonomous parvoviruses. In: Berns KI, ed. Appleby College! The parvoviruses. New York: Plenum Press, 1984:297-362. 34.Weiland HT, Vermey-Keers C, Salimans MMM, Fleuren GJ, Verwey RA, Anderson MJ.
Parvovirus B19 associated with fetal abnormality (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:682-3. 35.Rodis JF, Hovick TJ Jr, Quinn DL, Rosengren SS, Tattersall P. Human parvovirus infection in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:733-8. Essay On Education Albert College! 36.Young N, Harrison M, Moore J, Mortimer P, Humphries RK. Direct demonstration of the write pdf St. Clair, human parvovirus in erythroid progenitor cells infected in vitro. J Clin Invest 1984; 74:2024-32. 37.Anderson MJ, Higgins PG, Davis LR, et al. Essay Writing! Experimental parvoviral infection in humans. J Infect Dis 1985;152:257-65.
38.Potter CG, Potter AC, Hatton CSR, et al. Variation of erythroid and myeloid precursors in the marrow and Appleby College, peripheral blood of volunteer subjects infected with human parvovirus (B19). J Clin Invest 1987;79:1486-92. #12;39.Carrington D, Gilmore DH, Whittle MJ, et al. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein--a marker of fetal aplastic crisis during intrauterine human parvovirus infection. Lancet 1987;1:433-5. 40.Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Deinhardt F. (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:739.
41.Anand A, Gray ES, Brown T, Clewley JP, Cohen BJ. Human parvovirus infection in writing on education, pregnancy and hydrops fetalis. N Engl J Med 1987;316:183-6. 42.Bond PR, Caul EO, Usher J, Cohen BJ, Clewley JP, Field AM. Intrauterine infection with human parvovirus (Letter). Lancet 1986;1:448-9.
43.Woernle CH, Anderson LJ, Tattersall P, Davison JM. Human parvovirus B19 infection during pregnancy. J Infect Dis 1987;156:17-20. 44.Maeda H, Shimokawa H, Satoh S, Nakano H, Nunoue T. Nonimmunologic hydrops fetalis resulting from intrauterine human parvovirus B-19 infection: report of two cases. Obstet Gynecol 1988;72:482-5. 45.Courouce AM, Ferchal F, Morinet F, et al. Human parvovirus infections in a good essay Tilton School, France (Letter).
Lancet 1984;1:160. 46.Okochi K, Mori R, Miyazaki M, Cohen BJ, Mortimer PP. Nakatani antigen and human parvovirus (B19) (Letter). Lancet 1984;1:160-1. Essay Writing On Education! 47.Goldstein AR, Anderson MJ, Serjeant GR.
Parvovirus associated aplastic crisis in homozygous sickle cell disease. Arch Dis Child 1987;62:585-8. 48.Anderson MJ, Cohen BJ. Writing Essays Newcastle University! Human parvovirus B19 infections in United Kingdom 1984-86 (Letter). Lancet 1987;1:738-9. 49.Naides SJ. Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) occurrence in Iowa. Am J Public Health 1988;78:1230-1. 50.Anderson MJ, Cherry JD. Parvoviruses.
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The prevalence of antibody to human parvovirus B19 in England and Wales. J Med Microbiol 1988;25:151-3. 52.Mortimer PP, Cohen BJ, Buckley MM, et al. Human parvovirus and the fetus (Letter). Lancet 1985;2:1012. 53.Saarinen UA, Chorba TL, Tattersall P, et al. Human parvovirus B19-induced epidemic acute red cell aplasia in patients with hereditary hemolytic anemia. Blood 1986;67:1411-7. Essay Writing College! 54.Mortimer PP, Luban NLC, Kelleher JF, Cohen BJ. Transmission of serum parvovirus-like virus by critical thinking Limkokwing clotting-factor concentrates. Lancet 1983;2:482-4.
55.Bartolomei Corsi O, Assi A, Morfini M, Fanci R, Rossi Ferrini P. Human parvovirus infection in writing College, haemophiliacs first infused with treated clotting factor concentrates. J Med Virol 1988;25:165-70. 56.Shneerson JM, Mortimer PP, Vandervelde EM. Febrile illness due to a parvovirus. Br Med J 1980;1:1580. 57.Cohen BJ, Mortimer PP, Pereira MS. Diagnostic assays with monoclonal antibodies for the human serum parvovirus-like virus (SPLV).
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60.Mortimer PP, Humphries RK, Moore JG, Purcell RH, Young NS. A human parvovirus-like virus inhibits haematopoietic colony formation in vitro. Nature 1983;302:426-9. 61.Young NS, Mortimer PP, Moore JG, Humphries RK. University New College! Characterization of essay on education Albert College a virus that causes transient aplastic crisis. J Clin Invest 1984;73:224-30. 62.Kajigaya S, Fujita S, Ozawa K, et al. A cell line that expresses B19 parvovirus structural proteins and produces empty capsids (Abstract no. 86). Blood 1988;72(suppl 1).
63.Anderson MJ, Jones SE, Minson AC. Writing Lancing College! Diagnosis of human parvovirus infection by dot-blot hybridization using cloned viral DNA. J Med Virol 1985;15:163-72. On Education! 64.Clewley JP. Detection of human parvovirus using a molecularly cloned probe. J Med Virol 1985;15:173-81.
65.Kurtzman GJ, Gascon P, Caras M, Cohen B, Young NS. Newcastle! B19 parvovirus replicates in circulating cells of acutely infected patients. Blood 1988;71:1448-54. 66.Knisely AS, O'Shea PA, McMillan P, Singer DB, Magid MS. Electron microscopic identification of parvovirus virions in erythroid-line cells in fatal hydrops fetalis. Pediatr Pathol 1988;8:163-70. 67.Ozawa K, Kurtzman G, Young N. Essay Writing Albert! Replication of the B19 parvovirus in critical Limkokwing University, human bone marrow cell cultures.
Science 1986;233:883-6. Essay Albert! 68.Cotmore SF, McKie VC, Anderson LJ, Astell CR, Tattersall P. Identification of the major structural and nonstructural proteins encoded by human parvovirus B19 and writing a reflective essay University of Toronto, New College, mapping of their genes by procaryotic expression of on education Albert isolated genomic fragments. Writing Essays University! J Virol 1986; 60:548-57. Essay Writing College! 69.Garner JS, Simmons BP. How To Essay Pdf St.! Guideline for isolation precautions in hospitals. Infect Control 1983;4(suppl):245-325. 70.Evans JPM, Rossiter MA, Kumaran TO, Marsh GW, Mortimer PP. Human parvovirus aplasia: case due to cross infection in a ward. Br Med J 1984;288:681. #12;71.Cohen BJ, Courouce AM, Schwarz TF, Okochi K, Kurtzman GJ. Laboratory infection with parvovirus B19 (Letter). J Clin Pathol 1988;41:1027-8.
72.Schwarz TF, Roggendorf M, Hottentrager B, et al. Writing On Education! Human parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy (Letter). Lancet 1988;2:566-7. *The information and recommendations in this document were developed and compiled by how to write pdf St. Clair College CDC in consultation with representatives of the American Academy of Family Physicians, American Academy of Pediatrics, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American College of Physicians, Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, Immunization Practices Advisory Committee, and the National Institutes of writing Health. The consultants also included MJ Anderson, PhD, University College and Middlesex School of essay writing College Medicine, London; SM Hall, MBBS, Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre, London; and GR Serjeant, MBBS, University of writing on education Albert West Indies, Kingston. These recommendations may not reflect the views of individual consultants or the organizations they represented.