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How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. A proposal essay is write my essay Hebron, exactly what it sounds like: it proposes an idea and provides evidence intended to convince the how write essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus, reader why that idea is a good or bad one. Although proposals are generally a significant part of business and economic transactions, they are not limited to those two areas. Proposals may be written for help write, any college classes, scientific fields, as well as personal and other professional areas. This article will go over how to write an West Buckland effective proposal essay and provide a sample one that was actually submitted and implemented.
Before You Start: Pre-Writing Strategies. Much of the write Hebron Academy, work is done before you type a single sentence. Writing Service Usa University! Before sitting down to write your proposal you’ll want to spend some time on each of the following. Get to Know Your Audience . Remember, a proposal essay is an effort to convince a reader that your idea is worth pursuing - or that another idea is not worth pursuing. To that end, you have to know who you’ll be writing for. Help Write My Essay Hebron! Are they business people? Academics? Government officials? If your audience is primarily business people you’ll want to justify your proposal by pointing to possible financial benefits. If they’re government officials, you may want to emphasize how popular a certain proposal is.
Do Your Research . Having secondary sources who can support your claims will go a long way to persuading others of your proposal. Spend some time talking to essay, experts or reading their research. Pre-Write . Before starting the actual essay, spend some time brainstorming excellent ideas. Once you have a bunch of good ideas, spend some time thinking about how you’d like to help write my essay Academy, organize them. Revise, Revise, Revise . Writing Essay The University Of Nottingham! Never turn in a first draft! Have a trusted peer or colleague read your paper and give you feedback. Then take some time to incorporate that feedback into a second draft. The main parts of a proposal essay are summarized here. It is important to keep in mind that depending on your proposal parts may need to be added or taken out. The parts below (with the exception of the introduction and conclusion) may be rearranged to suit individual proposals. The introduction serves to inform your reader of the history of the proposal (if applicable) or to write Hebron Academy, introduce a subject to an informed/uninformed audience.
This is the most important part of your paper in some respects. You need to critical, both introduce the Hebron, topic and show the audience why they should care about this topic. A Quote The University Of Nottingham! It’s often helpful to help write my essay, begin with an essay phrases Istituto Marangoni interesting fact, statistic, or anecdote to help Hebron, grab the reader’s attention. Typically, people only West, make proposal to solve a problem. As such, you’ll want to highlight a particular problem that you think your proposal would solve. Know your audience so that you can emphasize the help write, benefits your proposal would bring. This is a statement of purpose.
This section should be brief and only discuss what your actual proposition is. A Compare Of Amsterdam — Foundation! It is okay for this section to be only my essay, a few sentences long if the proposal is short. Do not include details about how you will carry out the how write and contrast, proposal in this section. How will you go about achieving your proposal? What will you do to show your audience that you are prepared? This is where you go into detail about how your proposal will be implemented. A couple things to include: Convince: You need to convince your audience not only that your proposal is a good idea but also that you’re the my essay Academy, person who needs to carry it out.
Highlighting your qualifications about why you’re suited for the task is phrases Istituto Marangoni Paris, helpful if you're the help, one to carry out the proposal. Detail: In discussing the implementation, you’ll want to give enough detail to show your audience that you’ve thought about how write a compare and contrast Amsterdam Campus how the process will work. That said, you don’t want to bore them with overly-technical or boring details. Anticipate: Anticipating potential implementation problems is help Hebron, both good practice and communicates to your audience that you’ve thought carefully about your proposal and about potential stumbling blocks. Focus this area on why the critical, proposal will work. Quite simply, is write my essay Hebron, it a viable proposal? You can draw on similar past experiences to University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus, show why this proposal will work just like previous ones. If you do not have this past experience option, focus on what you think your audience wants to hear. For example, if your manager really likes getting things done on time, then perhaps you might mention how your proposal can speed up productivity. Help! Think logically here.
*Tip: Do not structure this section the same way as your Benefits of. section. Simple. State what the goals of your proposal are. It might seem repetitive with the sections where you mentioned the benefits, but it serves to Buckland, really drill home the help write, point.* Another simple part. What is needed to essay Istituto Marangoni Paris, complete your proposal? Include tangible (paper, money, computers, etc.)and intangible items such as time. Show the audience that you know what you are doing. The more prepared you look the better your chances are to get the proposal passed (or get a better grade if it is for a class). Do NOT restate your introduction here if you choose to help write my essay, mention the history of a certain proposal. However if you did not introduce your proposal with some historical background information, here is the writing usa University Carolina, part where you can quickly restate each section above: Proposal, plan of action, all the why's of the paper and write Hebron Academy so on.
As in any essay or paper, cite your sources as appropriate. If you actually quote from a resource in you essay then title this section Works Cited . Admissions Help Les Roches Marbella! If you do not cite anything word for Academy, word, use Works Consulted . The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. It can help you get a better grip on essay phrases Marangoni, technical details like citing and much more, check it out! In 1912, Pablo Picasso, an avid painter of nature and still life, tore part of a makeshift tablecloth and glued it to his painting, Still Life with Chair Caning , and thus, by adding different items to aid his painting, he began the art of collage making. (Pablo Picasso – Still Life with Chair Canning). A collage is simply a group of help write Hebron Academy, objects arranged together to create a complete image of an idea, theme, or memory. For example, David Modler created a collage called “Big Bug” to represent the irony that is the importance of insects to our natural world in comparison to their size. The bug in the image is the smallest feature of the collage yet it is to be viewed as the most important aspect (Modler, David). All these parts of a collage collaborate together to critical tutorials Stanstead College, create a unifying theme or message and can be used as a helpful tool in help write my essay, education. I propose that each student make an artistic collage to be presented to couseworks Buckland School, the class that will symbolize the my essay Academy, context, audience, setting, structure or any key ideas found in one of the writing Marangoni Paris, readings this semester. Students who make a collage will be able to help, drop the lowest quiz grade.
The students will have one week from the announcement of the tutorials College, project to complete the collage and prepare a presentation for it. Each student must choose one reading that we have done so far or will read in the future, and no two students may choose the same work. Conflict with students wanting to present the same work will be resolved by a first come first serve basis. Write! The students will be given a rubric with the help School, exact requirements of the project and what the purpose of the project is. I will make the rubric myself and submit it for approval, or we can use the rubric that I have attached. Benefits of Collage Proposal. Making a collage would allow the students to think and inspect the readings and help write my essay Academy ideas visually (Rodrigo, “Collage”), thus giving them another perspective, or possibly clearing up any misconceptions and confusions they had about a work when we were just discussing it in class verbally.
A collage provides the opportunity for revision of a certain work and would certainly help to clear up any topics in the readings that might come up on the final exam or a future test, via a visual and more creative method. If a student received a bad grade on a quiz because they did not understand the reading, the collage would give the student an opportunity to go back to admissions essay Les Roches Marbella International School, the reading and help understand it, or to writing Marangoni Paris, read ahead and grasp concepts that might be useful to present to the class before the class does the Hebron, reading. A collage would allow the student to become familiar with the work in admissions essay Les Roches Marbella School Management, a visual way and give them an opportunity to understand the main themes, topics, and ideas of a work, even one we might not have read yet. Viability of Collage Proposal. Since a collage would be like giving the student an opportunity to go back and review a subject and at the same time would resemble preparation for a presentation, the time and effort required to write my essay Hebron, go back and re-read a work as well as prepare the writing phrases Istituto, collage creatively would be sufficient to justify replacing the lowest quiz grade. Our course mentor said that this project would be a nice addition to the class because, just like any play is better seen than read, the help write Academy, collage will allow students to get the visual aspect behind a work and help them to grasp the ideas better. Past visuals that we have used in a quote in an, class to describe scenes from help write my essay Academy, our readings such as The Tempest and The Odyssey have greatly helped me to understand some of the West Buckland School, ideas of the stories.
For example, I always pictured the cyclops as a nasty, vile creature, but after some of the “fuzzy” drawings on the board done by some of my peers, I imagined and understood that he could in fact be a gentle creature that was just angered by help write my essay Ulysses trespassing and critical blinding him. Help Write My Essay Hebron Academy! I could not have seen that perspective of the story had it not been for some of the more innocent visuals on the board. Finally, I have discussed with the students in our class about the critical, idea of a collage replacing the lowest quiz grade and the overwhelming majority approved of the my essay, idea. Since a collage will substitute for a quiz grade, the assignment will be optional. Just as a quiz is almost always optional based on class initiation of discussion, the writing a quote in an, collage will also be optional based on write Academy, similar student effort parameters. The students who do not want to do a collage can choose “door number 2” and take a quiz that would be created by the teachers and/or myself. This quiz can be used to make the total number of thinking College, assignments for each student in the class even, and help my essay Hebron Academy may or may not be graded based on the professor's discretion. The first goal of my collage proposal is to give students a chance to essay help Marbella International, be creative and Hebron Academy step outside the boundaries of classroom discussion.
They can use their imaginations to find a way to writing in an essay of Nottingham, creatively put together a collage that will help the class as well as themselves to better understand the course reading. A second goal of help Academy, my proposal is that the time and effort put into making the collage and presenting it in front of the class will equal the worth of dropping the lowest quiz grade. Because this collage requires the writing a quote, creator to examine the context, audience, setting, structure of any one of the readings, it is essentially like a quiz itself, which includes questions on similar topics. The literary work that a student chooses to create a collage on will determine how much time is necessary to fully complete the project. One week to create a collage should give each student—no matter what reading they choose to do—ample time to create a presentable and help write my essay Academy educational collage for the class. In terms of tangible resources, this project is not very demanding. A simple poster or a series of photographs or drawings assembled neatly together by the student will be about Istituto as resourcefully demanding as this project gets. In addition, a few hours of class time will need to be allocated in write my essay Academy, order to present the collages. If each student takes at least five minutes to present the total time needed for the presentations will be 1 hour and 15 minutes. The presentation day(s) and time(s) can be decided by thinking tutorials the class as a whole. The rest of the help write Hebron, resources needed are already available:
The readings are all published online if a student needs to refer back to them Craft supplies are readily available. Skills for Successful Completion. As a good planner and organizer I made a rubric that is specific enough to give the students a good idea of admissions Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel, what they should be doing for write my essay Academy, the collage. The rubric can be made available upon your request. In addition I can also come up with a quiz if there are students who want to opt out of the collage project. I can talk to the class and come up with a good presentation time and date for everybody. I would volunteer myself to couseworks West, hold an early presentation session a few days before the write Academy, due date so the others can get an idea of essay Istituto, what their collage could look like and why they can benefit from the project.
I will make myself available to the class if they have any questions about the proposed project. A collage will allow students to understand visually a reading or topic in a reading that they may have been confused about. Help Write My Essay! The project is a fun and a compare essay Amsterdam Campus creative way to get students to think about a reading more in depth as well as review for future exams. As a result of the effort and time put into the collages, the students should be allowed to drop their lowest quiz grade in the semester. Modler, David. Big Bug . Photograph.
Kronos Art Gallery . Web. 12 Oct. Help Write My Essay Academy! 2011. Pablo Picasso - Still Life with Chair Caning (1912). Lenin Imports . Admissions Essay International Of Hotel Management! Web. 12 Oct. 2011. Rodrigo. Collages. Web 2.0 Toolkit . 11 Mar. 2009. Web. 2 Oct. 2011.
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by Virginia Kearney 109. charbie krin 10 days ago. NIce, very helpful. LFC328 6 months ago from NY. Laura, what a great skill you have.
I wish I was bless with it :_). thank you so very much for essay usa University of South Carolina, the information. It have gave me a guideline for my proposal. Thank you again God bless you! I am little bit lost of the diagram for research design what is needed in terms of the research plan diagram please reply. cedricperkins 2 years ago.
A powerful guide in fact. It lists almost all aspects of writing a proposal essay. However, there is help my essay Hebron Academy, one thing students have to note. Even though there are certain rules and principles for writing an essay, there is phrases Istituto, always scope for my essay Academy, breaking the conventions. Universities always accept innovations in writing. Be prepared to write in the most recent writing mechanics. Writing Istituto Marangoni Paris! I think www.classessays.com will help you to write proposal essays to emerge out Academy, successfully. However, the above mentioned tips are, of course, the part and parcel of writing a proposal essay. roselinda nyota 2 years ago.
Ahmad Fahrurroji 2 years ago from essay writing Istituto, Karawang, Indonesia. Awesome hub and so helpful. Rakim Cheeks 2 years ago. This was a really great detailed format of how to write a proposal essay. I believe all college students need to help Hebron Academy, read this!
As a writer, this helped me, and you explained it very well. Excellent job! Laura Writes 2 years ago. Thanks a lot Leptirela, tried my best to keep such a long read as clutter free and flowing as possible. Excellent hub. Informative and understandable. May I please express how, impressive this hub and the lay out is :) Great post. Interesting infographic how to write an argumentative essay http://www.essay-profy.com/blog/how-to-write-an-es. Campus! ?. The challenge in writing a proposal resides in its structure.
For the writer it is important that it be clear, to write Hebron, the point and as concise as possible. It is important to Istituto, remember that the write Hebron, reader is the help Les Roches School, one who will accept or reject your proposal either way due to a wide array of factors. Leaving no door open other than the one of acceptance key factors are presentation, clarity and a summarisation that leaves but he avenue of an acceptance. Once finalized have a friend or someone else in whose judgment you trust to be honest and willing to give objective comments as well as towhy they propose changes. One practice I enforce when writing anything that is help my essay Academy, consequential is to School, set the document aside forgetting about it for a couple of days and the review it again. A fresh read is always good.
One last tough. Help Write My Essay Hebron! Your proposal is important as you are writing it for a specific reason therefore as yourself the question objectively as you can will the intended reader accept it? If you have a slight hesitation review it again and try to find the weak point and rewrite it to give it strength. Do not forget to Google to find supporting data for your proposal or even proposals in the same line. Best of luck to all.
This was extremely helpful! I wasn't quite sure how to lay my proposal essay out. Essay Writing Phrases Istituto Marangoni! So thank you, thank you! (: This information was very helpful. You gave me something to go on. Thank you. This was a great go-by. Short and sweet, yet in-depth and detailed enough to get the help write my essay Hebron, points across intelligently. Thanks for your help! Jo_Goldsmith11 3 years ago. Just what I was looking for.
Great job with presentation and how write essay University Foundation Campus easy reading on write my essay, the eyes. shared, tweet and Up. Service Of South Carolina! thank you for writing this. :-) Laura Writes 3 years ago. If you are writing a thesis proposal, you could use this format if it works for the theme of your thesis. However for research, you should look into a format that is help write, like writing a research grant. It could look something like this, but check with a scientific journal or the company that you are requesting a research fund from to see if they have specific formatting requirements. Is this the same Thesis Proposal or research Proposal? Thank you so much. Very good and helpful. Tutorials College! Really clear and straight forward.
Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga 4 years ago. Nice info and it's a practical round up with good resources. Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga. I have been a grant writer for sixteen years and write my essay Hebron it's always nice to see someone include the admissions help Les Roches Marbella School Management, actual practice with the my essay, theory of a compare essay University of Amsterdam — Foundation, proposal/grant writing. Many can just list the parts of a proposal, but it's more beneficial for the reader to see actual work. Great job! Laura Writes 4 years ago.
No problem, good luck on your papers! Thx London 4 ur contribution. in building ma proposal. codjoe conduah 4 years ago. am glad i could find something like this its been very tough for me on write Academy, a proposal i was working on but now this has really eased ma fears. thanks a lot.
Laura Writes 4 years ago. I'm glad this is proving useful to everybody. Usa University Of South Carolina! Good luck on your papers! samuel sikei 4 years ago. Thank you, this is so direct and very professional. Anil 4 years ago from help my essay Academy, Kerala. Hai nice essay. I suggest it to the school and college students. Thanks for sharing . thank you sosososososososososososo much.
thx for the awesome outline. This has been excellent explained. This is great, extremely helpful. I am in the process of developing a proposal and this will be a useful guideline for me. jessica ramirez 5 years ago. excellent very helpful(:
Laura Writes 5 years ago. Thank you, I'm glad you found this useful. Joseph Asumadu 5 years ago from Ghana-aWest Africa. This is very good thump up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.
HubPages ® is how write and contrast essay University Campus, a registered Service Mark of Hebron, HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on a quote essay, this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.
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Causes of Inequality: Analytical Strategies. Offered as the course: Social Stratification. SOC-GA 2137 – Fall 2017. Robert Max Jackson. This guide concerns the help write Academy, systematic analysis of social inequalities. While stressing what causes social inequalities, it considers such topics as: what is a social inequality, how do social inequalities arise, why do they take different forms, why do they vary in degree across societies, what sustains social inequalities over time, how do various institutions and practices contribute to inequalities, and how does inequality change. click on a topic to thinking Stanstead College, go to that section. click on a topic to go to that section.
Note: – This web site is both a subject reading guide and a course outline. The contents are always in progress. This guide serves to provide both a guided, extended reading list on analyzing social inequality (or stratification) and the syllabus for a graduate course based on the core of write my essay Hebron, this extended reading list (over 200 articles are included below). The selection and organization of materials stresses primary analytical issues facing the essay help Les Roches, study of inequality (rather than types of help, inequality or the popularity of topics). Most of the readings – mainly articles plus some book excerpts – are available online. The list includes direct links to the online versions of all these references. The links on this page provide access to the NYU community access and will not be successful for those elsewhere. Essay Help Les Roches Marbella International Of Hotel Management? However, this entire page is mirrored with an externally oriented version (click here for the external version) that is the same as this except that it uses generic links. Anyone having access to online scholarly publications through their institutions should be able to gain access to the articles using the links on that page.
Additionally, most of the write Hebron Academy, links have the DOI number or the JStor number listed at the end of the writing, citation; these can be used to access the publications if the links prove unsuccessful. Most of the help write my essay Hebron, readings – mainly articles plus some book excerpts – are available online. The list includes direct links to the online versions of all these references. This page which you are now viewing is the critical thinking tutorials College, alternative version designed for users outside of NYU. This version uses generic links that should properly lead to all the referenced material. These materials will be available to you if you are connecting from a university or other organizational network that has contracted rights to the material from Academy its online publisher. Additionally, most of the West, links have the DOI number or the JStor number listed at the end of the help, citation; these can be used to access the publications if the links prove unsuccessful. (If you are from NYU, click here to go to the NYU oriented version of writing of South Carolina, this page.)
Description – Scope, Organization, and Access : The scope of the topics and materials . Each kind of social inequality – such as class or gender – has distinctive dynamics and each concrete instance of inequality has historically and culturally specific characteristics. Yet, all social inequalities also share critical common effects and requirements for my essay Academy, persistence. For example, all social inequalities produce legitimating ideologies, all must curb resistance, all have to transfer the unequal resources and positions to new generations, all produce divergent interests. Thinking Stanstead? To understand a structural characteristic of help write my essay, some kind of inequality – such as legitimization processes in a class system or violence in gender inequality – we want to critical thinking, recognize that they represent a combination of the my essay Academy, dynamics common to most inequality systems and the specific characteristics of that type of inequality. The topics below pursue a series of fundamental questions about social inequalities, seeking to essay writing Istituto, investigate the general dynamics of write my essay Hebron Academy, inequalities, comparing these dynamics across different types of inequality.
Examples of these topics include: what are the how write a compare Amsterdam Foundation, roles of interests in various kinds of write Hebron, inequalities, how is inequality sustained across generations, what processes induce conformity among both the advantaged and disadvantaged, what mechanisms prevent rebellion, and what decides the a compare and contrast essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus, intensity of inequalities? The readings represent the core of the stratification field in write my essay Hebron, sociology, the materials that sociologists working in this area expect other others in the area to know, plus materials needed to pursue important analytic issues under represented in the field. The class organization and goals . The class is a compare and contrast essay of Amsterdam —, intended for my essay Academy, both beginning and advanced graduate students. Critical requirements for taking this course are a strong interest in Buckland, inequality and a commitment to the class project of help write, investigating new ideas. In this class, each week's activities will be organized around an analytical task, as well as a set of readings. Rather than focusing on discussion of the readings, the analytical tasks involve attempting an analysis of inequality related to the week's issue, building on the materials we read (in brief papers of 2-3 pages).
While mastering the existing research and theory is obviously a prerequisite to doing good work, the approach in this class seeks to develop analytical skills as well as understandings of the literature by stressing actual analyses of inequality rather discussions of the literature. The course readings stress the foundational sociological literature on inequality. Each week we will all look at some common readings. The course guide will also point toward a range of writing in an, other recommended and Academy, related readings for further study for each topic - students are not expected to University Amsterdam Foundation, read these optional materials as part of the course. The recommended and related readings represent what a student seeking to help Hebron, specialize in admissions School Management, this area might read. Students in the class are encouraged to scan these optional lists each week and look at any pieces that seem particularly valuable or interesting. All class meetings are organized as discussions. Part of help my essay, our class discussions will be on the common readings and part on students' efforts to explore the analytical tasks each week.
We will adjust the time devoted to these two goals according to our experiences over the class. Every week, students will initiate discussions on readings and papers. To see the discussant responsibilities for each week, go to: The readings below (the recommended and related readings as well as the common readings that are the couseworks Buckland, basis of the my essay Academy, course) are almost all available online – simply click the links to get to the articles. Writing In An The University Of Nottingham? For convenience, some readings are selections (excerpts from articles or books) that appear in Academy, two printed collections that are now available online: articles with [Grusky – Classic] appended to the listing are from Inequality: Classic Readings in Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Grusky and Szonja Szelenyi; articles with [Grusky - Contemporary] appended are from Inequality Reader: Contemporary Foundational Readings in couseworks, Race, Class, Gender , 2006, eds. David B. Grusky and Szonja Szelenyi – for most of the selections from these readers, alternative citations and links are also provided for write, the original publication or an appropriate alternative. Note: Links for all readings will appear in admissions help Les Roches Marbella International, the online version of the course guide.
A note on the hidden material below : Each section of write my essay Hebron Academy, this guide includes – beside the common readings – three subsections, one for critical thinking tutorials, an analytical task , one for recommended readings , and one for Academy, related readings . To simplify navigating through the critical tutorials Stanstead, course guide, only the help write my essay Hebron, headings for these subsections are initially visible. The content of all these subsections are hidden (so that the beginning appearance of the page is similar to a standard syllabus) until the viewer clicks on writing phrases Paris, the subsection heading, then its contents will appear. While this organization is helpful for negotiating the Hebron Academy, page most of the time, it can become an service usa University of South Carolina, obstacle if we want to search the page (for example, for a particular article) as searches will ignore the hidden material. To overcome this limitation, it is possible to show all the hidden sections by clicking the § symbol at the top of the page (and simply reload the page to collapse all the hidden sections to their usual look). Help Write My Essay? The table of contents at the top of the page will still work to aid speedy navigation to any section. The first class meeting will involve introductory discussions of the class objectives. Peter M. Blau. A Fable about Social Structure. Social Forces , Vol. 58, No.
3 (Mar., 1980), pp. 777-788. On the importance of always considering the admissions Les Roches International School of Hotel, implications of numbers. [jstor: 2577184] II. What do we mean by social inequality? How can we conceive of and talk about social inequality in ways that are general enough to apply across the range of relevant phenomena, consistent enough to help write my essay, minimize conceptual ambiguities, and precise enough to be analytically effective? Inequality is ubiquitous. People are unequal in every conceivable way in endless circumstances, both immediate and enduring, by both objective criteria and subjective experience.
So, what counts as social inequality ? Can we characterize it in ways that let us confidently and impartially assess when there is more or less of it? Analytical task: What is social inequality ? We often think that the meaning of social inequality is self-evident or easy. Perhaps it is when we focus on extreme versions of the more obvious forms of social inequality, such as the rich compared to the poor. Essay? But, equally, perhaps it is not when we consider inequalities that are subtler or more complex, such as those based on sexual preference or ethnic identity or between nations. Help Write My Essay Hebron Academy? We want to begin by looking a little deeper into our conceptualization of social inequalities. Choose two kinds of inequality . For each of these two kinds of inequality, consider an example showing a high degree of inequality and another showing equality or a minimal amount of inequality. For example, if we used political inequality as one kind, we might select one highly authoritarian nation and one highly democratic one, or we might compare two unions or two professional organizations. Here we are simply trying to a quote essay The University of Nottingham, conceive a simple 2 x 2 table, showing two kinds of inequality and two levels of inequality for each kind.
This is the simplest design for doing social analyses, whether that analysis is empirical or theoretical. Help Write My Essay Academy? (Note: It is fine to use standard, commonly discussed kinds of inequality, but being original and creative about kinds of essay Istituto Marangoni Paris, inequality to write, consider is and contrast essay University of Amsterdam — Foundation, also good.) Describe (briefly) how the relevant groups are unequal for write my essay Academy, each type. For each of essay Les Roches International Management, these two kinds of inequality, try to list the main ways that those affected are unequal. Do not worry about why such inequality exists. For now, we are concerned with what we mean by inequality, not what causes it. Write My Essay Hebron Academy? Try to in an, specify the crucial experiences, opportunities, or other circumstances that distinguish the beneficiaries of the inequality from those who are disadvantaged. Help Write Academy? Consider also the essay Marbella School, relationships between the help my essay, disadvantaged and essay service Carolina, advantaged, both direct and indirect. (The idea of indirect relationships refers to ways that the advantaged or disadvantaged influence the circumstances or actions of help write my essay, those who are differently situated without direct interaction, e.g. by controlling government policies or creating a culture of fear.) In short, for each of the two types of a quote in an The University of Nottingham, inequality, what induces us to Hebron, call one example high inequality and another low? A final question . Critical Tutorials College? After working through the questions above, try to complete a definition sentence beginning In general, social inequality exists when . My Essay Hebron? . The goal of critical tutorials, this sentence is to provide a definition of social inequality general enough to embrace the help write my essay Hebron Academy, range of social inequalities but also precise enough to distinguish social inequality from its absence. Les Roches Marbella Of Hotel Management? The implicit strategy is compare what social inequality means for the two chosen examples, then to my essay Academy, try to identify the common conditions that make them (and other forms) all merit being called social inequality (distinguished from the characteristics specific to certain types of inequality or concrete historical and cultural conditions).
To do this involves not only the empirical comparison, but the appropriate conceptual abstraction. For the ambitious (to develop a deeper grasp). Here are some other issues that you might integrate into your initial assessment of how write a compare and contrast University of Amsterdam — Foundation, inequalities Vantage points . Might some people (scholars, political actors, others) disagree that any of the help, components you identify should really be considered inequality ? If so, why? (The goal here is to think through the reasons that people disagree about what should be called inequality?) Try to figure out how we might measure the writing The University, amount of inequality. Of the ways that you have listed people being unequal, select which of these differences seem most important. What might be reasonable ways to write, measure each identified facet of inequality? For each kind of inequality you have selected an example where inequality is high and another where it is low. Can you think of a measurement procedure that will allow one to look at any society or group and Stanstead, determine if some aspect of write, inequality is high, medium, or low? Focus on admissions Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel Management, realistic means that could be applied in research, that could be used for the same aspects of inequality when they apply to other kinds of help Academy, inequality. Do this only for the two or three facets of inequality in critical tutorials, your examples that seem most decisive.
For each of the write Hebron Academy, two types of inequality, if we put aside differences in the circumstances of advantaged and essay phrases Istituto, disadvantaged people, what important differences in social organization distinguish societies (or other social groupings such as communities or organizations) where that type of inequality is high from those where it is write my essay Hebron Academy, low? The goal here is to consider if societies (or other levels of social organization containing inequality) that have high levels of some type of inequality consistently differ from societies that have low levels, in ways other than the a compare University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam, difference in the level of this kind of write my essay Academy, inequality. Most people responding to the prompts above will think about inequality between kinds of people. Consider two other important concerns. First, inequality may be between positions rather than people (this is a critical concern which we will address later). Second, inequality may concern units other that people, such as families or organizations or nations. David B. Grusky. Social Stratification. Encyclopedia of Sociology . 2nd ed.
Vol. 4. New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. 2807-2821. Critical Thinking Stanstead College? Gale Virtual Reference Library . Paula England. Reassessing the Uneven Gender Revolution and its Slowdown. Gender Society 25:1 (Feb 2011): 113-123. (Response to critics of Gender Revolution . Write Academy? above) [doi: 10.1177/0891243210391461] . Archibald O. Haller. Societal Stratification. Encyclopedia of Sociology . 2nd ed. Vol. 4. Admissions Help Les Roches Marbella International Of Hotel Management? New York: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001.
2864-2874. Gale Virtual Reference Library . Pennock, J. Roland. Equality and Inequality. In The Oxford Companion to write Hebron Academy, Politics of the World , edited by Joel Krieger: Oxford University Press, 2001. . III. What are common forms of social inequality?
What is the range of Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management, social inequalities that we should be addressing? Pundits, scholars, and ordinary people usually focus on the couple forms of write my essay, inequality they experience as most troubling. Contemporary sociology's sometimes blinkered perspective is reflected in the many readers and texts on race, class, and gender. Essay Writing Paris? The range of analytically relevant inequalities is considerably wider. Analytical Task : This week's task is to identify major forms of inequality in two societies. The goal is to see the range of inequalities that exist in different societies.
The remainder of this task description just tries to show how to approach this systematically. Help My Essay? To start, choose two societies with which you have some familiarity. It is fine to use this society or an another society in which you have lived as one example (but it is an interesting challenge to use two societies you have not experienced). Writing In An Essay? The two societies can be from two different parts of the world or from different points in time. The main goal is to use two societies that differ significantly in help write my essay Academy, their structure and culture, regardless whether those differences reflect location, culture, historical circumstance, or something else. For each example (society), identify the couseworks West Buckland School, significant, widely-present forms of write my essay Academy, social inequality that persist over time. widely present means not limited to certain locations nor small parts of the population; note that many instances of inequality that are limited to particular places or subgroups are, however, examples of some more generally defined kind of inequality, so moving to a higher level of a quote essay The University, generality or categorization identifies a widely present inequality of which they are specific examples two or more instances of inequality with a similar system or structure but involving different populations should usually be considered to of the help write my essay Hebron, same kind (e.g., similar ethnic inequality processes or structures may apply to of South, Hindi and Chinese minorities) The aim here is Academy, not to see how long the list of inequalities might be, but we do want to see how diverse the couseworks West Buckland School, forms of inequality can be, and to help my essay Hebron Academy, consider if important kinds of inequality are overlooked. Try to describe briefly each form of inequality identified (for each society), by indicating: to what degree is the inequality more a continuous gradation (like years of age) or more a division into distinct categories (like employed vs. unemployed) what is unequal, that is what are the assets, opportunities, capacities, relationships, or whatever that define the inequality by their unequal distribution (this is not what explains the inequality, but simply what is unequal); this is self-evident for some kinds of inequality, but not for others. who is advantaged and who disadvantaged; in essence, this asks how are the advantaged people different from the disadvantaged people not only in the advantages that define the inequality, but in other ways as well (e.g. for writing a quote essay The University, ethnic inequalities, the groups are, in theory, defined by ethnic identity [although ethnicity is tricky]; distinguishing characteristics for help write Hebron, some kinds of inequality might be more difficult to characterize, and could, in theory, not exist if placement is random) [ optional – how do the disadvantaged and the advantaged perceive the a compare and contrast of Amsterdam —, inequality?; do they have similar or different conceptions of what is unequal, why they are disadvantaged or advantaged, whether it is fair, and the like?] In short , for two societies, you are preparing a list of outstanding inequalities, that gives the help write Hebron Academy, primary characteristics of each kind of inequality. You could make this either as two lists or as two simple tables.
Finally , having prepared a catalog of the primary forms of social inequality in the two societies, how would you compare the two societies with respect to their patterns of social inequality? All we are looking for here are initial, outstanding differences and similarities (note that similarities are at least as important as differences). To be clear, we are just looking for an initial impression – a comprehensive comparison would be a major project, obviously far beyond our scope. If this aspect of the analysis seems baffling, overwhelming, or obscure initially, consider the following questions. Does the overall amount of inequality seem greater in one society than the other or similar or does this seem impossible to essay writing Carolina, guess? Do the structures of the Hebron Academy, societies or their potential for change seem to be dominated by different or similar inequalities?
Does inequality overall seem more rigid in one society than the other? Do major forms of essay service, inequality seem to overlap a lot, or are they distinctive and rather independent from each other? Is inequality more continuous in one society and more categorical in the other? For the ambitious with time to go further: How might we categorize the varied forms of inequality discerned in write my essay Academy, the two societies into groups defined by some notable similarities? For example, if we have twelve types of inequality initially, could we usefully fit them into two or three categories that reflect their similarities (and differences)? Here are some examples of criteria that might be used to categorize inequalities: Consider the processes producing them Consider who is advantaged and disadvantaged Consider how one form affects the others Consider their legitimacy claims Consider their histories Consider any other reasonable logic you can conceive for grouping them, remembering that a useful analytic taxonomy will usually rely on some aspect of Marbella International, causation Do any of the forms of social inequality seem more important to the structure and help write my essay, organizational dynamics of a society than do others?
If so, why? Anthony Giddens. How Write Essay University Of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus? Elites in the British Class Structure. The Sociological Review , 20 (1972): 345?372. Help Write My Essay? Alejandro Portes and Robert D. Manning. The Immigrant Enclave: Theory and Empirical Examples. But compare: Roger Waldinger. The Ethnic Enclave Debate Revisited. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research , (1993), 17: 444?452. [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2427.1993.tb00232.x] John H. Essay Phrases Marangoni Paris? Goldthorpe and Keith Hope. Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige. Hebron Academy? Social Science Information October 1972 11: 17-73. (especially pp.
19-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] John Mullahy, Stephanie Robert, and Barbara Wolfe. Admissions Essay Les Roches International Of Hotel? Health, Income, and write my essay Hebron Academy, Inequality. Russell Sage Foundation Working Paper Series. 2003. William Julius Wilson. Writing? Jobless Poverty: A New Form of Social Dislocation, in the Inner-City Ghetto. (1999) [Grusky Contemporary] Shelley J. Correll. Help My Essay Academy? Stephen Benard, and In Paik – Getting a Job: Is There a Motherhood Penalty?
American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 112, No. 5 (March 2007), pp. 1297-1339. [doi: 10.1086/511799] Glenn Firebaugh. The Trend in Between-Nation Income Inequality. A Compare And Contrast University Of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation? Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 26 (2000): 323-339 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.323] . IV. What distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate forms of inequality?
We often use the term inequality to refer only to forms of help write Academy, inequality we consider unjust or otherwise undesirable. Yet, much inequality is commonly accepted as appropriate, fair, or desirable in societies. The amount of legitimacy attributed to a form of inequality can be anywhere between extremely high (e.g. the authority of parents over infants) to extremely low (e.g., slavery in writing service usa University of South Carolina, a modern society with well-developed civil rights). The assessment of legitimacy should always consider potential differences among differentially situated groups (e.g., those enjoying advantages in a system of inequality, those disadvantaged, and those relatively unaffected), and the degree of agreement or disagreement about help write my essay Hebron Academy, legitimacy assessments. Analytically, we want to ask what processes or conditions cause a form of inequality to be considered more or less legitimate.
When does the legitimacy status of inequality change or become contested? Analytical task : Using examples of and contrast essay University of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus, two kinds of inequality, consider what circumstances appear to foster or to erode the acceptance of the help write my essay, inequality as legitimate. First , select two kinds of inequality . These can be from any place or time, but it might be simpler if they coexist in the same society. They do not need to be inequalities considered socially important. For each kind of admissions essay help International School of Hotel, inequality, select one example or circumstance with high legitimacy when those involved appear accepting or complacent and another example or circumstance with low legitimacy when those involved contest the inequality. Thus you are considering four examples in all, two that are uncontested, high legitimacy and two that are contested, low legitimacy, based on the two types of inequality. This is, once again, the simplest comparative design for social analysis, essentially a two by two table, with one direction being the help my essay Academy, two kinds of inequality and the other being the two levels of legitimacy. (Whether an inequality is perceived as legitimate and whether it is contested are not the same, but we are simplifying for our current goals.) Second , for each of the two kinds of help Marbella International, inequality, describe what are the principal arguments or claims offered by the advantaged (or their representatives) to defend or explain the system of inequality in the examples you have chosen. Look for arguments that respond to three common claims in defense of inequality, that it is (1) just, (2) necessary, and (3) beneficial to all. Where possible, identify the general cultural beliefs or symbols from which the arguments seek to gain acceptance or weight, such as religious beliefs, science, or fear of outsiders. Is it possible to distinguish between claims that seem to help my essay, be historically or culturally contingent and those more fundamental to the particular kind of inequality? [Explanatory note: If we compare organized religions we find that all have practices and rituals for marriage. Many of the essay writing phrases, specific rituals are artifacts of the historical conditions in which they emerged, and help Hebron Academy, would just as effectively if they were different.
Some aspects of couseworks Buckland, these practices, such as significant property exchanges (e.g., bride price) may reflect functional needs of the prevailing economic and kinship system, although their concrete manifestation can vary. Some even more general aspects, such as requirement of marriage to identify kinship relationships of children may reflect fundamental requirements for my essay, the functional order of any kinship system. Claims about inequality can similarly be categorized from the historically arbitrary to those that seem unavoidable.] Third , when describing the legitimacy claims, consider if the claims when the inequality is essay of South, contested differ from when its acceptance is largely unproblematic. That is, for each of the two kinds of inequality, what seems to distinguish the my essay Hebron Academy, examples where legitimacy claims succeed from critical thinking tutorials College those where they fail? When the disadvantaged seem to accept legitimacy claims, which arguments appear to be convincing or acceptable to them? Why do they accept these? When the disadvantaged question and contest the legitimacy of the inequality, what are the principal counter arguments they use? Their counter arguments suggest how the legitimacy claims are failing. In short , you are developing a description of the ways that people try to legitimate two kinds of inequalities, comparing examples where the legitimacy efforts succeed with examples where they do not.
The goal is not to explain the range of these claims or when they succeed, but to get a first level sense of what legitimacy claims are and why they are important. Finally , in response to the preceding analysis you have developed of legitimacy claims regarding four examples of inequality (based on help, two types of inequality), try to state three general hypotheses about legitimacy claims, the role of legitimacy, or conflicts over legitimacy in essay writing Paris, systems of inequality. Elaborate each of these hypotheses just enough that we can understand what they mean and what motivates them. These are hypotheses , which means they are not theories and not claims we can defend. Rather, we can think of them as informed speculations about what might be true.
They are ideas worth researching or worth thinking about help Hebron, if trying to develop a theory about the a compare and contrast essay University Campus, legitimation of help write, inequality. Essentially, this is essay International Management, asking what ideas spring to mind as a result of doing the empirical comparisons in this task. Background: Ch. 2 Power, Authority and the State. In Shaun Best, Introduction to Politics and Society . Sage, 2002. (A textbook introduction to legitimacy and authority work.) [doi: 10.4135/9781446220832] Johnson, Cathryn, Timothy J. Dowd, and Cecilia L. Ridgeway. Legitimacy as a Social Process. Annual Review of Sociology 32, no. 1 (2006): 53-78. [doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123101] Raven, Bertram H. The Bases of write, Power and and contrast University Amsterdam Foundation Campus, the Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy 8, no.
1 (2008): 1-22. My Essay Hebron Academy? [doi:10.1111/j.1530-2415.2008.00159.x] Major, Brenda. From Social Inequality to Personal Entitlement: The Role of couseworks West Buckland School, Social Comparisons, Legitimacy Appraisals, and Group Membership. In Advances in Experimental Social Psychology , edited by help write my essay Academy P. Zanna Mark, 293-355: Academic Press, 1994. [doi:10.1016/S0065-2601(08)60156-2] Mansbridge, Jane. Cracking through Hegemonic Ideology: The Logic of Formal Justice. Social Justice Research 18, no. 3 (September 01 2005): 335-47. [doi:10.1007/s11211-005-6828-0] Thomas Luckmann. Comments on service usa University Carolina, Legitimation.
Current Sociology June 1987 35: 109-117. [doi:10.1177/001139287035002011] (the entire issue containing this article was on legitimation – click the link on the article page to the Table of Contents to see what this includes) [doi: 10.1177/001139287035002011] Talcott Parsons. Max Weber and the Contemporary Political Crisis: I. The Sociological Analysis of Power and Authority Structures. The Review of Politics , Vol. 4, No. Help Write Academy? 1 (Jan., 1942), pp. 61-76. Walter A. Weisskopf. The Dialectics of Equality. Writing Phrases? Annals of the American Academy of my essay, Political and Social Science , Vol.
409, Income Inequality (Sep., 1973), pp. 163-173 [doi: 10.1177/000271627340900118; jstor: 1041502] Joan Acker; Inequality Regimes: Gender, Class, and Race in Organizations; Gender Society , vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 441-464, Aug 2006 [doi: 10.1177/0891243206289499] Lars Osberg and Timothy Smeeding. 'Fair' Inequality?
Attitudes toward Pay Differentials: The United States in Comparative Perspective. American Sociological Review Vol. In An The University Of Nottingham? 71, No. 3 (Jun., 2006), pp. 450-473 [doi: 10.1177/000312240607100305] Merove Gijsberts. The Legitimation of Income Inequality in State-Socialist and my essay Hebron Academy, Market Societies. Acta Sociologica , Vol.
45, No. 4 (2002), pp. 269-285 [doi: 10.1177/000169930204500402] [jstor: 4194946] David Miller. Distributive Justice: What the writing a quote in an essay, People Think. Ethics , Vol. Write Hebron? 102, No. 3 (Apr., 1992), pp. 555-593. Admissions Help Marbella International? [jstor: 2381840] James Konow.
Is fairness in the eye of the help Hebron, beholder? An impartial spectator analysis of justice. Social Choice and Welfare, 33 (1): 101-127 Jun 2009 [doi: 10.1007/s00355-008-0348-2] Steven Brint, Jerome Karabel. American Education, Meritocratic Ideology, and the Legitimation of Inequality: The Community College and a quote in an essay, the Problem of American Exceptionalism. Higher Education , Vol. Help My Essay Hebron? 18, No.
6 (1989), pp. 725-735 [doi: 10.1007/BF00155663; jstor: 3447109] Rosamund E. Stock. Explaining the Choice of Distribution Rule: The Role of service usa University, Mental Representations. Sociological Inquiry Volume 73, Issue 2: 177189, May 2003 [doi: 10.1111/1475-682X.00051] Jurgen Habermas.
Legitimation Crisis . Beacon Press. Help Write Hebron Academy? 1975. Couseworks Buckland School? James Konow. Which Is the Fairest One of All? A Positive Analysis of Justice Theories. Journal of Economic Literature Vol. XLI (December 2003) pp. 11881239 [doi: 10.1257/002205103771800013] Sutphin, Suzanne Taylor; Simpson, Brent. The role of self-evaluations in legitimizing social inequality. Social Science Research , vol.
38, no. 3, pp. Help Write Hebron? 609-621, Sep 2009 [doi: 10.1016/j.ssresearch.2009.01.007] Langer, Ellen J.; Blank, Arthur; Chanowitz, Benzion. The mindlessness of ostensibly thoughtful action: The role of placebic information in interpersonal interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , Vol 36(6), Jun 1978, 635-642 [doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1245] Robert Max Jackson. Down So Long (unpublished ms.).
Disputed Ideals: Ideologies of Domesticity and Feminist Rebellion. V. What is the critical distinction between positional inequality and status inequality? To put it simply, positional inequality refers to inequalities between positions such as the different levels in an organizational hierarchy (e.g., president, divisional manager, supervisor, clerk). West Buckland School? These locations give their advantages and disadvantages to the people who circulate through them. Status inequality refers to social advantages and write Hebron, disadvantages that adhere to categories of people without regard to the positions they hold (such as race). Grasping the differences between these two types of inequality and the relationships between them is crucial for critical thinking tutorials Stanstead College, analytic clarity. Help My Essay Hebron? (This distinction has some similarity to the common contrast between achieved status and ascribed status, but it is analytically different. Our distinction stresses the way inequality is socially organized while the achieved/ascribed concepts refer to admissions essay Les Roches Marbella International School Management, the ways people acquire a characteristic.) Analytical task: How do positional and status inequalities differ and help my essay Academy, how are those differences important? Select two examples of positional inequalities and two examples of writing of Nottingham, status inequalities . Help Academy? The examples may be two fundamentally different kinds of positional (or status) inequality or they may be two distinctive instances of the same kind of couseworks West School, inequality appearing in different societies (e.g., racial inequality in a plantation economy and racial inequality in a market economy). It will probably be easier to use four reasonably concrete examples (such as contemporary racial inequality in Britain). Help Write My Essay Academy? Using more general categories (such as racial inequality in a quote in an essay of Nottingham, market economies) is my essay Academy, a more ambitious strategy.
As usual, for each type of inequality, clearly describe who are the University Campus, advantaged and the disadvantaged and how they are unequal. Enumerate the characteristics that distinguish the two examples of help write Hebron Academy, positional inequality from the two examples of status inequality . To put it differently, in what ways are both examples of positional inequality different from both examples of status inequality? Examples of things to consider include (but should not be limited to): homogeneity of people sharing similar standing (i.e., level of [dis]advantage) intergenerational rigidity (likelihood of having same standing as parents) ways that people's standing may improve or decline over Marbella School Management, time diffuseness of impact on people's lives (i.e., what proportion of people's time, activities, and my essay, relationships are highly influenced) legal status and government role in regulating, preserving, or challenging the inequality legitimation processes (content of the justifying ideology, who or what promotes the legitimacy) historical roots of the inequality structure For each difference you identify above between the positional and status inequalities, please briefly describe how the positional and status inequalities seem to differ with respect to this characteristic, and, if you can, suggest what might explain the difference (or, to put it differently, suggest why you would expect this difference to distinguish other examples of status and positional inequalities). In short : We are making an initial effort to identify general ways that systems of positional inequality differ from how write and contrast essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus systems of status inequality. Help Hebron Academy? The goal is to produce a list of plausible differences, and to get a first sense of in an The University, what form these differences will take and why they appear. note that we are again using a very basic research design, comparing two examples of positional inequality with two examples of status inequality; this is the simplest possible design for trying to identify differences between two categories (as we must have at help my essay Hebron Academy, least two examples of each category to make the simplest control for other sources of variation among the how write a compare and contrast essay Foundation, phenomena being categorized, in this case instances of social inequality) Finally : Based on the differences you enumerate and explore from your examples, what hypotheses do you have about general differences between positional and status inequalities? excerpt on discrimination from write Academy Robert Max Jackson, Destined for Equality Symposium on Inequality, Contemporary Sociology 29 (2000):775-818. [jstor: i325498] Barbara F. Reskin, Including Mechanisms in writing essay The University of Nottingham, Our Models of Ascriptive Inequality: 2002 Presidential Address, American Sociological Review , Vol. 68, No. 1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-21 [jstor: 3088900] Max Weber, sections on Social Aspects Of The Division Of Labour (18) through Types of write my essay Hebron Academy, Communal Organization of Labour (26), pp. 228-266 of Max Weber: The Theory of Social and help School of Hotel Management, Economic Organization . Translated by A. Write Hebron Academy? M. Henderson and Talcott Parsons. (Free Press, Glencoe, IL, 1947) Guillermina Jasso.
Studying Status: An Integrated Framework. American Sociological Review , Vol. 66, No. 1 (Feb., 2001), pp. Tutorials Stanstead College? 96-124 [jstor: 2657395] Erik Wright . . VI.
How do we understand honor status hierarchies, that lack apparent material bases? Academia is one good example of help my essay, a well-developed system (or systems) of honorific inequality. High school peer groups are often good examples of short-lived patterns of reputational inequality. The idea of celebrity is essay help Les Roches Management, usually associated with unequal prestige. The key to honorific inequalities is that people compete for recognition and deference, rather than material goods, power, or opportunities.
Purely honorific inequality structures are rare, as the pursuit of prestige is commonly intermingled with materialistic inequities. The study of honor and prestige systems (other than in the specialized form of occupational prestige) is underdeveloped in sociology. Theoretical works recognize its significance, but most treat honorific inequality as both causally derivative and of marginal importance when compared to economic and political inequalities. While prestige and honor are elusively intangible, we are likely to Hebron, misunderstand any type of inequality if they are ignored. Analytical task: What do non-material inequalities of how write a compare and contrast essay of Amsterdam — Foundation, honor or prestige look like in practice and what is the help write my essay Hebron, logic of their processes? Select two (or more) examples of honorific inequality systems , where people compete directly for recognition, respect, and admissions essay Les Roches of Hotel, deference. Such systems often include income and power rewards. But we are looking for forms of inequality where honorific status is central. Here are several reasonable identifying characteristics to consider: Does honor (or prestige or the like) motivate competition for desirable locations as much as does power or material rewards?
Is deference to others determined as much by their perceived prestige as by their structural position, wealth, authority, or the like? In general, are honor or prestige acts at least as much a cause of material rewards as it is a result of them? For each inequality system selected , try to develop an write my essay Hebron, analytical assessment of the way it works by critical tutorials College responding to these: Identify and describe as well as you can what conveys or is experienced as honor ; consider how it looks both from within and from outside; think about ways that the lives of those with more honor differ from the help write my essay Hebron Academy, lives of those with less; also, think about how we know which people have more honor, or to put it differently, how we know to whom we should defer and a quote in an essay, who should defer to us. (Think about titles, awards, forms of dress, access to my essay Hebron Academy, activities, and so forth.) Describe what people do to gain honor or to compete for honor. A Quote In An Essay Of Nottingham? What decides the help write Academy, distribution of honor overall within each system? Consider what processes and which people decide who has more honor. Admissions Help Les Roches Marbella International Of Hotel? Is it controlled from the top or the bottom?
Are people aware who decides the outcomes? What induces people to Hebron Academy, accept and admissions help International School, conform to the expectations of the prestige system? Why do they defer to those who possess more honor? (Consider both the carrots and the sticks.) Compare these systems of honor and prestige to the systems of positional and status inequality we have considered. Write Hebron? Try to identify two or more important differences and two or more important similarities, explaining as best you can why you think each of these differences and similarities exist. Writing Service? In short , the aim of this week's task is to compare two specific examples of help write Hebron, honor inequality systems (and secondarily compare them to inequalities where honor is secondary) to get an initial sense of how honor inequality systems work. Elliot B. Weininger.
Foundations of Pierre Bourdieu's class analysis. Admissions Help Les Roches Marbella School Of Hotel Management? Pp. 82-118 in Erik Olin Wright (ed). Approaches to Class Analysis . Cambridge University Press, 2005. Cambridge Books Online. [10.1017/CBO9780511488900.005] [doi: 10.1017/CBO9780511488900] Bernd Wegener, Concepts and Measurement of Prestige, Annual Review of my essay Academy, Sociology , Vol. 18, (1992), pp. 253-280 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.so.18.080192.001345] Donald J. Treiman A Standard Occupational Prestige Scale for Use with Historical Data. The Journal of Interdisciplinary History , Vol.
7, No. 2, (Autumn, 1976), pp. 283-304 [jstor: 202737] John H. Tutorials Stanstead? Goldthorpe and Keith Hope. Occupational Grading and Occupational Prestige. Social Science Information 1972 11: 17-73 (see pp. 19-23, 26-33) [doi: 10.1177/053901847201100502] Francis Flynn, How much should I give and how often? The effects of write Hebron, generosity and frequency of favor exchange on social status and productivity, Academy of Management Journal Oct 2003, Vol.
46 Issue 5, pp.539-553 [jstor: 30040648] Thorstein Veblen – The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) [Grusky - Classic] [also compare potlatch] VII. Buckland School? How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter? Research on inequalities commonly treats experience as a simple effect of inequality; interesting but secondary to theory and explanation. Here we want to help write my essay, think of experience not only as a result, but also as a potential ingredient to the explanation of writing usa University, inequalities. The experiences of Hebron, inequalities can serve as strong motivating forces at all levels. The experiences also encompass not only the outcomes of inequality, but all the processes that sustain or challenge it. Analytical task: How do lower-status and higher-status people experience inequalities and essay phrases Istituto Paris, their locations within them? With what consequences for my essay Hebron, the systems of inequality?
Select two systems of inequality : one in which you have (now or in the past) been in a relatively low-status location and another system in writing of South, which you have been in a relatively high-status location. Help Write My Essay Hebron Academy? The point here is to essay Marangoni, select systems in which you have observational knowledge about the help write, experience of inequality. If possible, use a form of positional inequality for one example and status inequality for the other, but it okay if that is too much of a stretch given your biography. As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Who are included, what is usa University, unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and the like. Help My Essay Hebron Academy? If you are going to consider a subset of a larger system of couseworks, inequality, be clear about what you are doing and why. Help My Essay Academy? (OPTIONAL – To go further . To seek a more complete means of assessing experience, double the examples, to consider two systems in which you have experienced low standing and two in which you have had higher standing, again representing both status inequality and how write a compare and contrast of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Campus, positional inequality if possible.
This will give you much more traction for seeing generalization possibilities, but the time requirements may be more than you can manage.) For each of these systems of help my essay, inequality, try to characterize , briefly, how those in high-status locations have different experiences than those in low-status locations . This is not easy to do well. Among other things, note that it is rarely obvious which kinds of experiences matter more and it is difficult to reduce the varieties of experience into a few categories that are not arbitrary. Focus on typ ical or defining experiences. While experience seems inherently individualistic because it is to a quote of Nottingham, such a degree private and internal, the goal here is to move beyond the my essay Academy, individual. Systems of social inequality are comprised of socially organized structures, processes, and cultural understandings. In the search of a social analysis of inequality, we are looking for common or shared experiences (understanding that these may be shared unequally, so that there are alternative experiences common to subgroups determined by other conditions, circumstance, or even random variation). Critical Thinking Stanstead? A good way to start is by thinking about typical experience. To make this effort more systematic and comparable, while trying to assess differences in experience, here are dimensions you might consider : How much and in what ways do people recognize the inequality and help write my essay Academy, think about it? For example, people may grasp the outlines of social inequality between groups or positions see themselves as being in unequal relationships, but not have a conception of this as part of a larger pattern of writing Paris, inequality (e.g., when women or men see themselves as superior or inferior to the other sex, but do not perceive there to be gender inequality) people may not be able to write my essay, conceptualize their experience of an inequality as being inequality, but think of it in different terms (e.g., believing it is not that they are inferior or that we discriminate against them, they are just different) in what way do people seem to perceive or talk about fairness with respect to writing a quote in an The University of Nottingham, an inequality? what sense of fairness do they have in their own position? and how do they think about the fairness of the existence of inequality (of this sort)? how do the advantaged and disadvantaged have distinctive experiences about what other people who share their standing are like? do the reference groups have different demographic compositions (e.g. sex, ethnicity, age, class) apart from the Hebron Academy, defining distinctions due to that inequality? are their cultural differences in the ways people dress, ways of talking, leisure activities, religiosity, or the like? how do people perceive those at their level as different from those at the other end of the inequality spectrum, and how write a compare and contrast University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam, how do they interact differently with them? In particular, what, if any, are the common patterns of deference when interacting with a previously unknown person at the other end of the inequality spectrum? (Most importantly, presumably, within the institutional context embracing this form of help my essay Hebron Academy, inequality, but also, potentially, in external contexts.) How do advantaged and disadvantaged people differ in general ways that they experience the possibilities and realities of life? how do people experience ambition vs. resignation?; how do they differ in expectations for the future? do they allocate blame for failures and credit for a quote in an essay of Nottingham, successes (of the individual) differently? do they have different orientations toward behavioral tendencies such as violence, intimidation, manipulation, cooperation, and subservience? are there significant differences in religiosity? do they seem to feel different loyalties toward the institution surrounding the structure of inequality, toward those in a similar location in the inequality structure, toward those at a different level? how do they differ in their trust in help write Academy, authority and government? If you can, consider the implications of social mobility or changing social standing for thinking tutorials Stanstead College, these experiences of inequalities.
That is, do people differ in their experience of write my essay, a location in a system of inequality depending on how they got there? Note that even people distinguished by locations in a system of status inequalities may experience some form of mobility. First, they may experience a shift in how write a compare essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam, the relative weight of the status inequality due to changes in other status investing characteristics; an example could be different meaning of race for affluent blacks vs. poor blacks and write my essay Academy, affluent whites vs. poor whites, where the analytical class difference may be experience in terms of race. Second, the standing of an entire status group or category may change over time; consider, for example, the changes that have been seen by couseworks Buckland middle-age blacks and whites in help write Academy, South Africa or women and men in many countries. Note that someone whose status appears unchanged may experience it differently because the statuses of significant others do change How do people differ in their experiences of being advantaged or disadvantaged in couseworks West School, the referent form of inequality depending on their location in other important forms of inequality? (For example, how does the experience of being Native American differ between the Hebron Academy, highly educated and the low educated?) In short , the goal of this task is to writing service of South, contrast the experiences of being advantaged with those of being disadvantaged under two different kinds of inequality. The goal is to examine these differences systematically, and to consider their causes and their consequences. Help Hebron? Finally , after completing work on the issues above, considering the writing a quote The University, patterns of similarities and dissimilarities you have discussed, can you devise any general hypotheses about the write Hebron, experience of inequalities? That is, from the specific patterns of differences you observe in your cases, what general differences might you expect to find in other inequalities, in the experiences of inequality, and in the causes and effects of those experiences? Michael Schwalbe, et al., Generic Processes in the Reproduction of Inequality: An Interactionist Analysis, Social Forces , Vol. 79, No. 2 (Dec., 2000), pp.
419-452 [jstor: 2675505] Alan B. Krueger – Inequality, Too Much of a Good Thing (2003) [Grusky - Contemporary] Evans, Mariah D. R. and Jonathan Kelley. Subjective Social Location: Data from usa University of South Carolina 21 Nations. International Journal of write Hebron, Public Opinion Research 2004 16:3-38. [doi: 10.1093/ijpor/16.1.3] Michael Hout and Joshua R. Goldstein. How 4.5 Million Irish Immigrants Became 40 Million Irish Americans: Demographic and Subjective Aspects of the how write essay University Foundation, Ethnic Composition of write my essay Hebron Academy, White Americans. American Sociological Review, Vol. 59, No.
1 (Feb., 1994), pp. 64-82 [jstor: 2096133] VIII. College? How should we conceive interests in the analysis of inequality? Almost everyone analyzing any system of inequality refers to interests sooner or later, even authors who emphasize cultural or normative explanations. Write Hebron Academy? Yet, interests usually receive casual, unsystematic treatment. Buckland School? This casual reliance on interests builds on two simple assumptions: (1) a range of relevant potential actions and events will have differential consequences for people depending on their location in a system of inequality and (2) anticipation or past experiences of these consequences will influence peoples' actions. From this starting point the write my essay Hebron, considerations of interests take many routes, considering objective and subjective interests, individual versus collective interests, realistic compared to misconceived interests, consistent versus inconsistent interests, contradictory and ambiguous interests, and so on.
Simply put, every theory of writing, inequality relies on a theory of interests (even if a negative theory). Analytical task: Interests Select two examples of inequality; if possible, use one example of positional inequality and one of help write Hebron Academy, status inequality. Characterize who are the advantaged and couseworks Buckland, who are the disadvantaged in each example As always, specify clearly what is unequal If an example is not itself a system of inequality, but a subsystem, a site where the write Hebron, effects of critical College, a system of inequality are played out, or an intersection between systems of inequality, then be clear what the relevant system or systems of help my essay Hebron, inequality might be For each example, examine the interests that seem to be determined by the social organization of inequality, regardless how people recognize them. List the most important ways that the objective interests of the advantaged are at odds with those of the disadvantaged; here the objective interests means the interests implied by the structure of inequality and their location within this structure, regardless of their recognition of the interests Similarly, list the most important ways that the objective interests of thinking tutorials Stanstead College, advantaged people or groups converge with those of the help write Hebron Academy, disadvantaged. Here we are concerned with interests related to conditions or practices that have a widespread influence, usually where both the advantaged and disadvantaged are exposed to common effects. For example, potentially a shared interest between officials of an autocratic government and the citizenry in maintaining public peace would be relevant, but parallel or similar interests in being healthy would not. Similarly, the employers and workers in University of Amsterdam — Foundation Campus, a corporation may have divided interests about the distribution of the company's income, but they have convergent interests in the corporation being successful. For the Academy, above assessments, both the interests at odds and those that converge, consider whether the objective interests seem try to critical tutorials College, characterize the most important interests in terms of their clarity, consistency, extremity, and write Academy, the like. Essay Campus? thinking about objective interests not as an individual experiences them, but as they are produced and sustained by the systems of help write Academy, inequality, how would you ? Now, a really tough part.
As best you can, with these examples, consider how interests become recognized or conceived by people who are subject to the interest-producing circumstances of help of Hotel Management, inequality. We want to avoid the temptation to think about this in help write my essay Hebron Academy, terms of the thinking Stanstead, reasons an individual might choose one way or another. Instead, we want to examine how the characteristics of objective interests or the help Academy, structure of the relevant inequality induces people to interpret their interests in one way or another. We are seeking the essay writing service usa University of South Carolina, social conditions or dynamics that direct the help write my essay Hebron, conception of interests. Note to how write essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam, begin that people may conceive their interests as some subset of the objective interests previously identified, or they may rely on write, conceptions that ignore or even oppose the essay writing usa University, objective interests.
What institutional and cultural processes or arrangements seem to write Hebron, influence the emergence of common interests based on the inequalities in your examples? E.g., the aged or young adults may have a strong, self-conscious sense of common interests under some circumstances but at other times not recognize possible shared interests.; what determines when they do see their concerns as common interests? Given the essay International School, objective interests you have identified, think under what conditions you would expect people more likely to identify and pursue each of those objective interests as opposed to the conditions under which they would not do so. Similarly, consider under what conditions people might be prone to misinterpret their interests entirely. Or, under what conditions they are more likely to stress oppositional interests and under what conditions they will emphasize the interests they have in common with those with whom they are unequal? For each example, in write my essay Hebron Academy, what important ways and under what circumstances do people's conceived interests seem to diverge from their objective interests? (A classic example occurs when members of a group, such as the working class, believe their interests are best served by a political party that is actually committed to policies that threaten their interests, such as those typically associated with Republicans.) What seems to critical thinking tutorials Stanstead College, account for help write, the disjunctions? (Consider both the advantaged and the disadvantaged.) For the inequalities you are using, when and where do individual interests seem to contradict collective interests?
What consequences does this have? (E.g., it is generally in essay service of South Carolina, students' collective interest that professors grade all students the same way, but tall, pretty boys have individual interests in biased grading if professors favor tall, pretty boys.) In short , the write Academy, goal here is to develop some initial ideas about the ways that interests work. We use two examples as the simplest design that allows us to begin generalizing about inequality, rather than describing the character of a single instance. Using the West Buckland School, chosen examples, we want to produce some initial ideas about the write Academy, range of objective interests, both oppositional and shared, created by an inequality system. Then we want to thinking tutorials Stanstead, ask how people's conceptions of their interests arise out of Academy, those objective interests in interaction with impinging social conditions. And, in particular we want to consider how and School, why conceived interests might diverge from or even become inconsistent with objective interests. James Madison, The Federalist No. 10 (The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection [continued], 1787) The Federalist No. Write? 51 (The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments, 1788) Aage B. Sorensen; The Structural Basis of Social Inequality The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 101, No. 5 (Mar., 1996), pp. 1333-1365 [jstor: 2782357] Jack Barbalet. Writing Service Usa University Of South Carolina? (2012).
Self-interest and the theory of action. Hebron Academy? The British Journal of Sociology , 63: 412429. Essay Istituto Marangoni Paris? [doi: 10.1111/j.1468-4446.2012.01417.x] Lisa Belkin. The Opt-Out Revolution. New York Times, October 26, 2003 Heather Boushey – Are Women Opting Out? CEPR Reports and Issue Briefs 2005-36, Center for Economic and Policy Research, 2005 J. A. W. Gunn; 'Interest Will Not Lie': A Seventeenth-Century Political Maxim; Journal of the History of Ideas , Vol. 29, No. Help Write My Essay Hebron Academy? 4 (Oct. - Dec., 1968), pp. How Write And Contrast Amsterdam Foundation Campus? 551-564 [jstor: 2708293] Joseph Heath, Methodological Individualism, The Stanford Encyclopedia of help my essay Hebron Academy, Philosophy (Spring 2009 Edition) Hardin, Russell, The Free Rider Problem, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition) Wikipedia, Prisoner's dilemma Franz Traxler; Business Associations and critical College, Labor Unions in Comparison: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Findings on Social Class, Collective Action and Associational Organizability; The British Journal of help write, Sociology , Vol.
44, No. 4 (Dec., 1993), pp. 673-691 [jstor: 591416] Erik Olin Wright; Working-Class Power, Capitalist-Class Interests, and Class Compromise; The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 105, No. 4 (Jan., 2000), pp. 957-1002 [jstor: 3003886] Dennis Chong; Values versus Interests in the Explanation of admissions essay help School Management, Social Conflict; University of Pennsylvania Law Review, Vol. 144, No. 5 (May, 1996), pp. 2079-2134 [jstor: 3312649] Catherine I. Help Academy? Bolzendahl, Daniel J. Myers; Feminist Attitudes and Support for Gender Equality: Opinion Change in Women and Men, 1974-1998; Social Forces , Vol.
83, No. 2 (Dec., 2004), pp. 759-789 Dennis Chong, Jack Citrin, Patricia Conley; When Self-Interest Matters; Political Psychology , Vol. 22, No. 3 (Sep., 2001), pp. Thinking Tutorials Stanstead? 541-570 [doi: 10.1111/0162-895X.00253] Mustafa Emirbayer, Ann Mische; What Is Agency?; The American Journal of Sociology , Vol. Help Hebron Academy? 103, No.
4 (Jan., 1998), pp. 962-1023 [read quickly – to read slowly is to risk calcification of the writing a quote in an, intellect] [jstor: 2782934] . IX. What determines the allocation of people (or other relevant unit) within a positional system of inequality? This issue includes questions commonly addressed in write my essay Hebron, the literatures on critical College, social mobility and status attainment (and on placement within organizations). More or less independent of its occupants, a system of positional inequality has a static structure characterized by the direct relationships of help Academy, authority and dependence between positions ; the ranking of positions according to the rewards, authority, opportunities, and statuses attached to them; and the demographic profile defined by the number of positions of each type.
A positional inequality system also has a dynamic structure defined by the movement of people through it, both within careers and between generations. These two components of structure – the static and the dynamic – are linked by the selection processes controlling access to positions. We can usefully conceive positional inequality as the how write a compare and contrast essay Amsterdam, juxtaposition of two parallel systems that are often confused or conflated: first, the structure of relationships among the positions constituting the system of inequality (e.g., the enduring authority relationship between a managerial position and help my essay Academy, a line-worker position), and, second, the relations between the people who occupy these positions (e.g., the interactions between managers and workers). The patterns of people's movement between positions both reflects and influences the relationships among positions, but it also shows the impact of impinging status inequalities. To understand the inequalities among people, we obviously need to admissions Management, understand what decides which people occupy which positions. Analytical task: We will explore how positional inequalities work. Recall that two general examples of positional inequalities would be the occupational structure of a modern society or the hierarchy of positions within a complex organization. Note that, in this analytical context, income inequality is an effect of positional inequalities; income inequality is not itself a system of inequality (involving neither transferable positions nor status groups), although it functions as both an incentive and consequence of positional (and status) inequalities.
Also note that positional inequalities are commonly constituted by relatively clear local hierarchies that only Academy loosely translate into thinking Stanstead College a societal wide hierarchy. Help My Essay Hebron Academy? For example, complex organizations usually have well-defined positional hierarchies, but their finer distinctions are organization or industry specific. As a result, people (both scholars and ordinary people) use common characteristics of a quote in an The University, positions – such as income, authority level, or organizational size – to translate local positional standings into a comparable metric. Choose two dissimilar examples of help write Hebron, positional inequalities. Try to choose two that have different institutional settings, are not closely causally connected to each other, or operate by different logics. They may coexist in one society or be drawn from different (in space or time) societies.
For each example, describe the Marbella International of Hotel Management, overall structure of help my essay Hebron Academy, positions. Among other things, an analytical description of a positional structure should consider the following: Assess the writing a quote The University of Nottingham, differential characteristics attached to the positions (rewards, authority, visibility, etc.) Summarize and characterize the relationships among positions. Consider the help write my essay Hebron, simple demographics of the system: how many positions exist at writing service Carolina, each level?; what is the turnover rate of personnel occupying the my essay Hebron, positions (the departure rates)?; how stable is the demographic profile (i.e., do the phrases Istituto Paris, relative and absolute numbers remain the same over time)? If possible to assess, how did the existing configuration of positions come into existence? For each example, try to describe the normal pathways of movement into and between positions What are the typical initial entry points, the positions that take people who have not previously been in the system of positional inequality? For example, in a large business or organization, many positions are typically filled by promotions from other positions; people are not usually hired from the outside for such positions.
Commonly, a If these entry-point positions are themselves unequal, also consider. How are the help my essay, entry points unequal ? What determines who gets in which ones? Who controls the allocation process of the initial positions (directly and admissions essay help Les Roches Marbella International School, indirectly)? What is the pattern of movement among positions within the system? To what degree does selectivity operate (the demographic constraint)? (Among other things, this asks what proportion of people at any given level will ascend to write my essay Hebron Academy, a higher level.) Consider if lateral movement among positions is relevant to hierarchical movement. Is there significant downward movement as well as upward in the positional hierarchy? If so, remember to examine downward as well as upward for all issues about essay writing service usa University, movement among positions. What appears to decide who moves up into more desirable positions (or down)?
Is the my essay Hebron Academy, determining process fairly consistent across positions or does it vary by Stanstead how high or in what sector the position appears? who has decision-making power? how standardized or impartial are the processes governing mobility among positions? Note that impartiality can be the result of self-conscious efforts to eliminate bias and reliance on inappropriate criteria, but, alternatively, it also can be the result of an uncontrolled process that is inherently unbiased (as some would suggest for market mechanisms)? Slave traders, for example, may be just as impartial toward the Hebron Academy, ethnic divisions among their chattel as the most progressive advocate of meritocratic assessments. How is the position-allocation process ideologically conceived?; particularly consider ideological constructs that reinforce, obfuscate, legitimate, or challenge the allocation process. how are success and failure conceived (as moral and practical categories) are there competing ideological formulations of essay Les Roches International School of Hotel, what causes success and failure? Taking into account all the help write my essay Academy, above, comparing the couseworks West, two examples, what can you say about the patterns of affiliation, alliance, deference, patronage, avoidance, opposition, and conflict that constitute the structure of relationships among people occupying different locations in write Academy, a positional inequality? While exploring this issue, pay careful attention to the distinction between the positions and the people occupying them. In short , the goal of this task is to gain some insight into tutorials Stanstead the ways that positional systems of inequality work. Using two concrete examples is the simplest possible design for identifying some of the common characteristics of such systems. A commonly unanticipated difficulty in analyzing such systems arises from my essay Hebron Academy their duality: a structure of relationships among the positions independent of the people who occupy them and and contrast essay Foundation, the dynamics of write, relationships among the people who do occupy the positions. and book review by how write and contrast University Foundation Deirdre Royster. Contemporary Sociology , Vol.
25, No. 2 (Mar., 1996), pp. 151-153 [jstor: 2077161] Ralph H. Turner – Sponsored and Contest Mobility and the School System (1960) [Grusky – Classic] J. Schumpeter, Social Classes in an Ethnically Homogeneous Environment. (1927) In Imperialism and Hebron Academy, Social Classes . (read from beginning through the first section of Summary and Conclusions, ignore the last few pages) [a brilliant, albeit flawed, analysis of class] DiPrete, Thomas A. and Gregory M. Eirich. Cumulative advantage as a mechanism for inequality: A review of theoretical and empirical developments. Annual Review of Sociology , 32 (2006): 271-297 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.32.061604.123127] Aaron M., Jennings, Jennifer L. Cumulative Knowledge about Cumulative Advantage. Swiss Journal of Sociology , 2009, Vol.
35 Issue 2, pp. 211-229 Maria Charles. A World of admissions essay of Hotel, Difference: International Trends in Hebron Academy, Women's Economic Status. Annual Review of Sociology. Vol. 37 (2011): 355-371 [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102548] Peter B Doeringer Michael J. Piore. Unemployment and tutorials College, the Dual Labor Market. Public Interest . 38 (1975: Winter): 67-79. Gary Solon. Intergenerational Income Mobility.
The American Economic Review . Vol. 82, No. 3 (Jun., 1992), pp. 393-408. [jstor: 2117312] Rachel A. Rosenfeld Job Mobility and Career Processes; Annual Review of Sociology , Vol. 18, (1992), pp. 39-61 [jstor: 2083445] Robert P. Althauser; Internal Labor Markets; Annual Review of Sociology, Vol.
15, (1989), pp. Write My Essay Hebron? 143-161 [jstor: 2083222] Douglas S. Massey. American Apartheid: Segregation and how write University Foundation Campus, the Making of the Underclass. My Essay Academy? American Journal of Sociology 96(2) (Sep 1990): 329-357. [jstor: 2781105] Symposium, The American Occupational Structure: Reflections after Twenty-five Years. Contemporary Sociology 21 (1992): 596-668. [varied commentators try to critical tutorials Stanstead College, makes sense of 25 years of social mobility research] Treiman, Donald J., and Harry B. Write My Essay Hebron? G. Ganzeboom. The Fourth Generation of Comparative Stratification Research.
In The International Handbook of Sociology , edited by essay service of South Stella R. Quah and Arnaud Sales, 123-51. London: SAGE Publications Ltd., 2000. Hebron Academy? [doi: 10.4135/9781848608405.n6] Adrian E. Raftery and Michael Hout. Thinking College? Maximally Maintained Inequality: Expansion, Reform, and Opportunity in Irish Education,1921-75. Sociology of Education , Vol. 66, No. 1 (Jan., 1993), pp. 41-62. [jstor: 2112784] William H. Sewell, Archibald 0. Haller, and Alejandro Portes – The Educational and Early Occupational Attainment Process (1969) [Grusky – Classic] Ivan D. Chase. Vacancy Chains. Annual Review of help write my essay Academy, Sociology . (1991) Vol.
17: 133-154. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.so.17.080191.001025] Christopher Jencks. Inequality in Retrospect. Harvard Educational Review. Writing Essay The University? 43(1) (Spring 1973): 138-164. Christopher Jencks, Lauri Perman and Lee Rainwater. What Is a Good Job? A New Measure of Labor-Market Success. Help Write? American Journal of Sociology . Vol. 93, No. A Quote In An Of Nottingham? 6, May, 1988. [jstor: 2780816] Emily Beller and Michael Hout. Intergenerational Social Mobility: The United States in write my essay Hebron Academy, Comparative Perspective.
The Future of Children . Essay Istituto? Vol 16 N 2 (Fall 2006): 19-36 Thomas J. Dohmen, Ben Kriechel and Gerard A. Pfann; Monkey Bars and Ladders: The Importance of Lateral and Vertical Job Mobility in Internal Labor Market Careers; Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Jun., 2004), pp. 193-228 [doi: 10.1007/s00148-004-0191-4f] Joseph P. Ferrie; History Lessons: The End of American Exceptionalism? Mobility in the United States since 1850; The Journal of my essay, Economic Perspectives , Vol. 19, No. 3 (Summer, 2005), pp. 199-215 [doi: 10.1257/089533005774357824] . X. What are the bases of actions that secure dominance over time?
From those enjoying the most privileged positions to those suffering the most disadvantages, people may believe that the system of inequality that divides them reflects the elusively differential favor of the gods, the cruel fate of nature's uneven treatment, or unavoidable results of of Hotel Management, people's differential efforts and capacities. In truth, systems of inequality require work to keep them going, particularly the efforts of those in superior positions to preserve the shape of the system and their positions within it. We cannot hope to grasp the logic of a system of inequality until we understand what this work is and how it gets done. Analytical task: Assess how and why advantaged people (or their agents) act in help write my essay, ways that (1) preserve their advantages and (2) preserve the writing phrases Istituto, system of inequality that gives them advantages. Help Write My Essay Hebron Academy? Select two examples of inequality to assess the actions of a quote in an essay The University of Nottingham, advantaged people. The first example should concern gender inequality – this may be an help write my essay Hebron, instance of couseworks School, gender inequality (e.g., gender inequality in an organization, or in write my essay Hebron, an occupation, or in a sport) or it may be gender inequality more generally (although this may prove more difficult). The second example should be a different kind of inequality, preferably an example of positional inequality or alternatively an example of a quite different form of status inequality. For each example of thinking Stanstead College, inequality, the goal is to identify and explain the kinds of actions by advantaged people that (1) seem to occur consistently and (2) seem to reinforce their advantages. To approach this problem systematically, try to help write my essay, answer the following about each example of inequality: How do the advantaged people treat disadvantaged people in direct interactions; the relevant comparisons are with the ways the service usa University of South Carolina, advantaged relate to each other and the ways the disadvantaged relate to each other? How do advantaged people have different kinds of help my essay Hebron Academy, relationships with other advantaged people than than they have with disadvantaged people (this is similar to the previous, but concerns the more general problem of relationships rather than interactions )? In what ways might common actions or behavioral patterns of those in the advantaged class – actions that use or reflect their advantaged circumstances – reinforce the privileges of advantaged people, even though the actions are not aimed at disadvantaged people or at sustaining inequality? (For example, the advantaged might buy all unused land for golf courses and how write University Foundation, expansive estates, leaving poor farmers no way to expand their acreage for crops.) How do advantaged people respond if one of them is my essay Academy, challenged by a disadvantaged person. Challenges can take many forms.
A member of a subordinate group may simply refuse to Istituto Paris, show proper deference, as when a lower caste person does not step aside, a black woman does not go to her place in the rear of a bus, or a member of the help write Hebron, secretarial pool addresses managers by their first name just as they do her. Someone with lower standing may adopt the dress or mannerisms of those with higher standing, or attempt to move into their neighborhoods or schools. More directly, someone with lower standing may reject and defy efforts to essay help Marbella of Hotel, exercise authority by those above them. And so forth . Write Hebron? Consider not only the actions of the person who is directly challenged, but potential actions by couseworks Buckland others in the advantaged class. How do advantaged people exercise power in government, over laws, or in my essay Hebron, the economy in ways that benefit those with advantages? How do advantaged people respond if there is a collective challenge to the system of inequality in which they have advantages? Looking over the range of a quote in an essay The University of Nottingham, actions you identify as relevant above, can they usefully be categorized? For example, one might divide them into those that mainly benefit an individual's status and those that mainly help sustain the system of inequality. The goal here is to consider if there is an analytically useful way to help write Academy, reduce the range of relevant actions and behavior patterns into a small number of general types.
What within the system of inequality seems to organize and critical thinking College, ensure the actions that sustain it? For example, in the simplest conceivable system of inequality, we might find the only mechanism is the interests of those in my essay Hebron, dominance – they individually act on those interests in a manner unmediated by ideology, norms, relationships with others in the dominant group, laws, organizational processes, or anything else. More complex systems involve mechanisms that induce these actions, giving individuals motivation, direction, and support. Looking at the range of actions identified as relevant, what stand out as the mechanisms that make such actions consistent and effective? What seem to be important limitations on the actions that secure dominance? How are these actions constrained by couseworks Buckland School laws, norms, ideology, resources, or the like? What conditions or potentials for the future might cause the actions to lose enthusiasm or effectiveness? In short , this task concerns the ways that inequality systems induce advantaged groups to act in ways that sustain the inequality (and their standing within that inequality). Once again, using two examples is the write, simplest design to allow initial speculations about the writing a quote in an essay, general functioning of inequality. The questions above aim to help one to my essay, think systematically about the range of possible actions and their sources. When analyzing the actions of the advantaged (and disadvantaged) as described above, keeping several considerations in in an essay of Nottingham, mind may help: The shorthand references here to the actions of advantaged people do not imply that all advantaged people act the same way or that the write Academy, actions that sustain inequality are produced in the same way and at the same rate by essay writing all the advantaged.
Such actions may be nearly universal, they may be typical but with a high degree of variation across people and circumstances, or they may be the special actions of help write Hebron, a minority who are the key representatives of the group interests. The analytical focus should be on the processes and circumstances that induce enough actions of sufficient effectiveness by writing enough advantaged people to protect the inequality system. An individualistic focus on the motives or beliefs of people will probably go astray. Note initially that the relevant actions of the advantaged may differ from those of the disadvantaged in varied ways other than reflecting divergent interests. For example, (1) the opportunities to act may differ (e.g. differential access to higher education), (2) analogous actions may have different effects, and (3) even with equivalent opportunities and effects, they may choose to act differently (e.g. because they have different beliefs or respond to different interests). Marianne Bertrand and Sendhil Mullainathan.
Are Emily and Greg More Employable Than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on help my essay, Labor Market Discrimination. The American Economic Review , 94(4): 991-1013. [doi: 10.1257/0002828042002561] Ralph H. Turner – Sponsored and Contest Mobility and essay phrases Paris, the School System [Grusky – Classic] But compare: Sackett, Paul R.; Hardison, Chaitra M.; Cullen, Michael J. Write Academy? On Interpreting Stereotype Threat as Accounting for African American-White Differences on Cognitive Tests. American Psychologist , Vol 59(1), Jan 2004, 7-13. [doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.7] Joe R. Feagin. The Continuing Significance of Race: Antiblack Discrimination in Public Places. American Sociological Review Vol. 56, No.
1 (Feb., 1991) (pp. West Buckland School? 101-116) [jstor: 2095676] Toward an write Hebron Academy, Integrated Theory of writing, Systemic Racism. Help Write My Essay? Pp. 203-223 in Krysan, Maria and West Buckland School, Lewis, Amanda E. Academy? The Changing Terrain of Race and Ethnicity 2004. Gil Eyal, Ivan Szelenyi, and admissions essay help Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel Management, Eleanor Townsley. The Theory of Post-Communist Managerialism. New Left Review March-April 1997. Kim A. Weeden – Occupational Closure and Earnings Inequality 176. XI.
What induces reducing or overcoming inequalities? Inequality systems do not only my essay Hebron Academy have causes that bring them into existence and phrases Istituto Marangoni Paris, causes that preserve them, they also have causes that potentially reduce or eliminate them. Systems of inequality may decline because they are pushed out of the help my essay Hebron Academy, way by new systems of inequality, because they simply become increasingly ineffective or irrelevant, because the disadvantaged are increasingly able to overcome their circumstances as individuals, or because the system is how write of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation, dramatically overturned by collective actions from below or intrusion from my essay Hebron Academy invaders. How and why these processes dilute, undermine, or eliminate inequalities is theoretically underdeveloped. Analytical task: Declining inequalities Select as example of essay writing Marangoni Paris, social inequality, positional or status, that showed significant reductions in the degree of inequality over time. For the selected example of inequality, if it is not a system of inequality but a component, result, or instance of a system of inequality, the help, analysis should include careful consideration of the system itself. (Note that inequality may decline in a component as a result of overall decline in the system, decline in a component may induce greater inequality in essay writing service usa University, the system, or decline in a component may take place independently of and without noticeable impact of the enveloping system.
In what ways did those involved in the example of inequality being considered actively promote or resist its decline? In our simplest examples, those involved reduces to write Academy, the advantaged group versus the essay service of South, disadvantaged. In real life, seems can be much more complex. Academy? Each system of service, inequality may have multiple types of involvement, distinguished by subtle or ambiguous differences of interests, relationships and activities. And, systems of inequality overlap and interact.
We want to be sensitive to this potential complexity, but willing to reduce it conceptually as far as possible to produce a manageable model. Note that people may actively promote or resist a change in inequality for motives that are not focused on help write my essay Hebron, the issue of the inequality's persistence. The goal here is to characterize the writing in an The University of Nottingham, types of people whose actions tended to reinforce the inequality and those whose actions tended to erode it. Recall that members of advantaged groups may join the challengers (against their putative interests) and members of the disadvantaged may join the supporters. Write My Essay? Were any other coexisting systems of inequality declining or becoming more extreme during the in an The University of Nottingham, same period? If so, is it possible to write, identify causal processes that might connect the simultaneous changes?
Were there direct clashes over the competing interests of admissions help Les Roches Management, those advantaged and those disadvantaged by system of inequality that was declining? If so, what were there causes and their consequences? Were there any independent changes in the circumstances of the advantaged people that plausibly diminished their will or ability to sustain the help my essay, pattern of inequality? Were actors who were not direct participants in the systems of inequality (i.e. not acting as members of the advantaged or disadvantaged) significant for promoting or obstructing the movement toward change? The state is an obvious contender here, but so are others whose interests or symbolic commitments seem to be at stake.
Are there other processes, actors, circumstances, or causal dynamics neglected by the above questions that seem important to analyzing the changes in inequality in the examples being considered? In short , the goal this week is to explore the conditions and processes that work against couseworks Buckland School the persistence of inequalities under appropriate structural and historical circumstances. Jens Beckert; The Longue Duree of Inheritance Law. Discourses and Institutional Development in France, Germany, and the United States since 1800; Archives Europeennes de Sociologie/European Journal of Sociology , vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 79-120, 2007 [This contains the central argument of the book that is discussed in the symposium listed next.] Anne Alstott, Marion Fourcade, and Philippe Steiner; Review Symposium on Jens Beckert Inherited Wealth . Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2008; Socio-Economic Review 7(1) (2009): 145-159 [doi: 10.1017/S0003975607000306] Erik Olin Wright. The Shadow of help Hebron Academy, Exploitation in Weber's Class Analysis.
American Sociological Review. Vol. 67, No. 6, (Dec., 2002) : 832-53. [jstor: 3088972] Marco H.D. van Leeuwen and Ineke Maas. Historical Studies of Social Mobility and Stratification.
Annual Review of Sociology . 2010. 36:42951. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.10263] Alejandro Portes and Min Zhou – The New Second Generation: Segmented Assimilation and Its Variants (1993) [Grusky – Contemporary] XII. What are the a quote essay The University, theoretical and empirical relationships between different forms of inequality? Multiple systems of inequality coexist in write my essay Hebron Academy, societies, with crosscutting categories and with individuals simultaneously located in each. Writing? An older tradition in sociology suggested that the degree of overlap between different forms of inequality was one condition influencing the likelihood of class formation. A more recent interest has been the intersection between race, gender, and class as experienced by individuals, with the central (largely atheoretical) premise that the implications of one's status in one system depends on one's statuses in the others. Write My Essay? Our concern here is more at the level of how write and contrast, inequality's organization, asking in what ways different systems of write my essay Hebron, inequality interact with each other. Analytical task: Interdependence of inequalities Select one society and writing a quote, historical moment (or one period, such as the second half of the 20 th century). Within this historical context, select two examples of systems of positional inequality and two examples of systems of status inequality, chosen such that a significant number of individuals will have a location within each of the four systems considered. . Assess in what ways and to what degree an individual's status in my essay Hebron, one instance of inequality relates to essay writing phrases Istituto Marangoni, others. To be systematic, consider How standing in one form of positional inequality relates to write Academy, standing in the other example of how write a compare essay University Foundation, positional inequality How standing in one instance of status inequality relates to standing in the other form of status inequality How standing in the systems of positional inequality relate to standing in the systems of help write Academy, status inequality Assess how the organization and tutorials College, functioning of these systems of inequality influence or overlap each other.
Among other things, this might include considering How the locations in the two examples of positional inequality are related. Are any locations defined simultaneously in both systems? Are there enduring relationships between locations in the two systems that continue regardless who are in those locations? Are there sustained patterns of movement between the two systems? What relationships exist among the write my essay Hebron, the symbolic representations and ideological legitimation schemes associated with the forms of inequality being examined? Are they simply independent?; are they separate but drawing on some common ideas?; are they partially or wholly merged into one scheme that serves all at essay School of Hotel Management, once? In what ways is persistence of one system of inequality dependent on its relationship with another? For example, how might the elimination of any one system of inequality affect the others.?
What links exist between the laws and governmental mechanisms that support these systems of inequality? Can we identify inconsistencies or sources of write, friction between these systems of inequality? How do historical developments and changes in how write and contrast Amsterdam, these systems relate to each other? Peter M. Blau. A Fable about Social Structure. Social Forces , Vol. 58, No. Help Write? 3 (Mar., 1980), pp.
777-788. On the importance of always considering the implications of numbers. [jstor: 2577184] Jacobs, Jerry A. The Sex Typing Of Aspirations And Occupations: Instability During The Careers Of Young Women. Social Science Quarterly 68.1 (1987): 122-137. A Compare Of Amsterdam —? William T. Bielby and Denise D. Bielby. I Will Follow Him: Family Ties, Gender-Role Beliefs, and Reluctance to Relocate for help Hebron, a Better Job. American Journal of Sociology , Vol. 97, No. 5 (Mar., 1992), pp. West Buckland School? 1241-1267, [jstor: 2781415]
Perhaps the help my essay Hebron Academy, most fundamental question about inequalities, and essay usa University of South, sometimes seeming the most illusive to answer, is the misleadingly simple question, what causes inequality? While no general, all embracing answer is help my essay, possible (at this time), progress in understanding inequality demands that we continually try to improve our analyses of the causes. Any effort to critical thinking, do this must consider different forms of causation that are possible. Analytical task: We want to investigate what causes inequalities. Causation is a difficult, often elusive, concept. What we mean by the causes of inequalities can take different forms. Help Write My Essay Hebron? We can ask why it comes into existence. This question about origins may concern the writing service of South, specific historical circumstances or sequence of events in which an help write my essay, inequality emerges. Or we might interpret original causes in terms of the social conditions necessary for such inequality to emerge or, somewhat differently, the social conditions that make it unavoidable. We might instead ask what causes (or allows) an inequality to persist over thinking Stanstead, time, potentially distinct from the write my essay, reasons for its origin, the conditions and processes that sustain it.
Or, we might focus on the variations in writing in an essay, the severity of some inequality, seeking the key to understanding it in the conditions that cause it to be great in write Academy, some places and slight in others. In either case, we may stress the mechanisms, the recurring actions and social processes that produce the inequality, or we may stress the conditions that allow or require it. Given this expanse of possibilities, we must narrow our question, to make it reasonable. Choose two kinds of inequality, each of which varies considerably in its intensity. For each kind choose one example that has low inequality and another that has high inequality. These four examples, two with low inequality to compare with two having high inequality, will be the basis of the critical thinking tutorials Stanstead College, analysis.
These may come from the same historical and write my essay Academy, cultural setting or from different ones. For each kind of inequality, if it is not a system of inequality but a component, result, or instance of a system of thinking tutorials, inequality, the analysis should stress the system. Help Write My Essay Hebron Academy? For example, if we start with two unequal occupations, we would say that they are in most cases not a system of inequality but a part of one. So, we could shift our attention to the system of occupational inequality. Or, if we begin with the inequality between women and men within the financial industry, we could move to the general inequality between the sexes. In general, an example of inequality that is a component, result, or instance of a system of inequality may have particularistic causes that seem sufficient to West, account for its contours or variations.
However, we expect its existence is help write my essay Hebron Academy, derivative of the relevant system of couseworks West School, inequality and that it and other similar instances that are derivative of the same system of inequality are all subject to the causal processes that generate and sustain that system of inequality. Thus, an effort to identify and write my essay, make sense of the causal processes cannot look at the component or instance alone. Describe each kind of inequality and the difference between the higher and lower inequality instances. As always, describe who are distinguished by the inequality, and what it is that is unequal. Specify why we consider the inequality in one instance to be significantly higher than in the other. This is a measurement issue on the surface, but commonly has deeper implications about what the inequality means.
Comparing the instances of essay The University of Nottingham, high inequality with those of low inequality, construct a series of hypotheses about about the possible causes of high inequality (compared to my essay Hebron, low inequality). In some cases these hypotheses may apply to both kinds of inequality similarly while in essay, others they are quite different – try to be clear about this. For each hypothesis, explain the help write Hebron, reasoning behind your speculation. In attempting to how write a compare University of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation Campus, generate hypotheses representing a systematic analysis, among other things to think about, you might consider: the origins of each example of inequality (e.g., do the my essay Hebron, high and low inequality instances arise from writing phrases Istituto Marangoni Paris distinctive conditions that relate to write Hebron, their subsequent intensity) the history of changes in levels of inequality if applicable and known (e.g., does knowledge of their varying intensities over time suggest anything about why or how they differ in the instances you compare?0 political and legal contexts ideological and cultural contexts relationships to other forms of phrases Paris, inequality direct relationships between those advantaged and help write my essay Hebron, those disadvantaged by the inequality how individuals' statuses are decided . Each of the foregoing refer to important aspects of an thinking tutorials Stanstead College, inequality system that imply the existence of my essay, some causal process. Looking back over the previous topics we have examined should give more facets of inequality calling for admissions essay Marbella International of Hotel, a similar causal analysis. Moving beyond hypotheses, see which of these more general questions you can begin to answer.
Consider to what degree the origins, the persistence, or the help Academy, severity of the inequality is admissions essay help Les Roches of Hotel Management, explained by the outcomes of self-interested actions of individuals and organizations. Consider to what degree the origins, the help Hebron, persistence, or the how write essay Foundation Campus, severity of the inequality is help my essay Hebron, explained by its functional and structural relationships to important social arrangements or needs. Consider to couseworks West Buckland, what degree the origins, the help my essay Hebron Academy, persistence, or the severity of the inequality is explained by some competitive processes. Try to be self-conscious about the comparisons being made, implicit or explicit, and what alternatives might be possible. Try not to forget that inequality induces processes, conditions, and Buckland School, structures that limit resistance's effectiveness and part of its explanation lies in the ways this obstruction or resistance works. In short , our analytical goal is to generate ideas about what produces inequality, by first looking at what seems to explain variations in the degree of severity of two types of inequality. Karl Marx.
Marx on Social Classes and Class Conflict. Relevant excerpts from Marx's work. Ernest Mandel. Marx, Karl Heinrich (1818-1883). The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economic , Second Edition. Eds. Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Help My Essay? Blume. Palgrave Macmillan,  2008. (Knowledgeable summary and defense of Marx's ideas.) [doi: 10.1057/9780230226203.1051] Robert C. Hauhart. The Davis-Moore Theory of West School, Stratification: The Life Course of a Socially Constructed Classic. The American Sociologist, Vol.
34, No. 4 (Winter, 2003), pp. 5-24. [jstor: 27700363] W. Graham Astley; Organizational Size and Bureaucratic Structure; Organization Studies , vol. Write? 6, no. 3, pp. 201-228, 1985 [doi: 10.1177/017084068500600301] Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez. Stanstead College? The Evolution of help my essay Hebron Academy, Top Incomes: A Historical and International Perspective. The American Economic Review, 96(2) (2006): 200-205. [doi: 10.1257/000282806777212116] Devah Pager, Bruce Western, and Bart Bonikowski. ?Discrimination in a Low Wage Labor Market: A Field Experiment.? American Sociological Review 74(October): 777-799 [doi: 10.1177/000312240907400505] Paula England. The Failure of essay writing, Human Capital Theory to Explain Occupational Sex Segregation.
The Journal of Human Resources , Vol. 17, No. 3 (Summer, 1982), pp. 358-370 [jstor: 145585] and Wage Appreciation and Depreciation: A Test of Neoclassical Economic Explanations of help my essay Hebron, Occupational Sex Segregation. Social Forces (1984) 62 (3): 726-749. [doi: 10.1093/sf/62.3.726] Jos C. N. Raadschelders; Size and Organizational Differentiation in Historical Perspective; Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory : J-PART, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Jul., 1997), pp. 419-441 [jstor: 1181603] Devah Pager and Diana Karafin. Bayesian Bigot?
Statistical Discrimination, Stereotypes, and Employer Decision Making. The Annals of the American Academy of writing a quote The University, Political and Social Science . Write My Essay? 621 (January 2009): 70-93. Essay Marangoni? [doi: 10.1177/0002716208324628] Kathryn M. Neckerman and Florencia Torche. Inequality: Causes and Consequences Annu. Rev. Sociol . 2007. 33: 335-57. [doi: 10.1146/annurev.soc.33.040406.131755] Guillermina Jasso.
A New Model of Wage Determination and help write my essay Hebron, Wage Inequality. Rationality and Society 2009 21(1): 113-168. [doi: 10.1177/1043463108099350] Thomas Piketty and Emmanuel Saez. Income Inequality in the United States, 1913-1998. The Quarterly Journal of Economics Vol. 118, No.
1 (Feb., 2003), pp. 1-39 [doi: 10.1162/00335530360535135] Thomas Piketty's (a French economist) recent work on economic inequality over time has been a major contribution. Much of it is available from his personal website (and more recent work). Particularly recommended are: Thomas Piketty. On the Long-Run Evolution of Inheritance: France 1820?2050. The Quarterly Journal of Economics (2011) 126(3): 1071-1131. [doi: 10.1093/qje/qjr020] Atkinson, Anthony B., Thomas Piketty, and Emmanuel Saez.
2011. Top Incomes in the Long Run of History. Journal of Economic Literature , 49(1): 3-71. [doi: 10.1257/jel.49.1.3] Thomas Piketty Gabriel Zucman. Capital is Back: Wealth-Income Ratios in Rich Countries 1700-2010. A slide presentation. Paris School of Economics. March 2013.
Thomas Piketty. Self-ful?lling beliefs about social status. Journal of how write and contrast essay Foundation Campus, Public Economics , 70, 1, (1998): 115-132. [doi: 10.1016/S0047-2727%2898%2900063-2] Murray Milner, Jr. Theories of Inequality: An Overview and a Strategy for Hebron, Synthesis. Social Forces , Vol. 65, No. Couseworks West Buckland School? 4 (Jun., 1987), pp. 1053-1089 [jstor: 2579023] . XIV. What makes some forms of inequality more important than others to help my essay Academy, the organization of social structure and the patterns of couseworks Buckland School, human action?
Some have argued that class dominates in particular societies or all societies. Others have suggested that gender inequality is the my essay Hebron, most fundamental inequality. Critical Stanstead? Putting aside grand claims, most would agree that some kinds of inequality have greater influence over the organization of a society (or other social entity) and the history of write my essay, that organization. How we can systematically assess the relative importance of different kinds of inequality and writing Marangoni Paris, what decides their differential importance are not clear. Analytical task: To be added Select four kinds of inequality that are widespread within a society or some other boundaried social context (such as an organization or social category). Try to rank these examples of in help my essay Hebron Academy, equality in and contrast essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam Foundation, terms of their relative importance. Note that different criteria for importance can result in different rankings. One goal is to identify what criteria for importance make sense for the chosen examples.
Note that the importance of an inequality may vary by time period, by type of people, by location in another system of inequality, and other differentiating conditions. Thus, a careful assessment will commonly result in a series of rankings for the relative importance of the inequality example, with the rankings distinguished by the criteria for importance used and by the circumstances that mediate the evaluations for any specific criterion. To be systematic, one will usually want to rewrite the analysis of relative importance organized around the conditioning criteria Having assessed the relative importance of the inequality examples, try to explore what caused the rankings. In the foregoing, we are focusing on help my essay, description and measurement. Admissions Help Of Hotel Management? Here the concern is help write my essay, causality. Above we are trying to establish why and a compare and contrast essay Campus, when we might call one kind of inequality more important than another, a conceptual and empirical exercise. Here we are asking what it is about the Academy, content, configuration and history of the Buckland School, inequalities that results in write Hebron, one having more importance than the other. One path to answering this question might be to Carolina, consider known empirical examples where the Hebron Academy, relative importance of the types of inequality being considered have a different ranking importance. Another path to answering might be to imagine what it would take to lower the importance of the higher ranked inequality or raise the and contrast University Foundation Campus, importance of the lower ranked one.
XV. How does resistance by subordinate groups work? People do not enjoy the lower status, fewer rewards, subjection to authority, and other disadvantages attached to being at the lower end of a system of inequality. This may result in help, anything between a mild, occasional resentment and a continuous, burning hatred with their fate. Writing Service Usa University Of South Carolina? Fear, identification with the system, search for praise from write Hebron Academy those above, or hope for personal advancement may induce some to conform as much as possible with the expectations of the advantaged. Of Nottingham? Still, wherever inequality exists, resistance exists. Analytical task: Resistance Select two examples of inequality. Write? In each case, how do the disadvantaged resist? While identifying resistance, consider everyday, commonly repeated actions of the disadvantaged unusual, more extreme individual actions by some disadvantaged collective or organized forms of resistance What conditions, rules, processes, and actions limit resistance? To recognize these obstacles, consider why the identified forms of resistance are not more common, more extreme, or more effective?
VIII. Help Les Roches Marbella International School Management? How can we understand the logic of structures of unequal positions? A system of inequality is a system. From a functionalist perspective, its persistence requires mechanisms to ensure conformity to its rules and expectations, to recruit adequate personnel to sustain operation, to preserve commitment of those in help write my essay, advantaged statuses and limit rebellion from others, and so forth. Writing In An Of Nottingham? From a structuralist perspective, it will induce latent conflicts that must be contained, it will require legitimating ideology, it must enforce unequal effort and unequal rewards, and so forth. A system of inequality has structure, it has processes that occur over Hebron Academy, time, it has mechanisms to essay writing usa University, sustain itself. Are there ways we can conceive these elements that allow us to talk with a common language about the Hebron Academy, structural logics of diverse systems of inequality? Analytical task . Select and list five or more distinctive systems of inequality . From each of the past weeks in this class, select one system of admissions help Les Roches Marbella of Hotel Management, inequality from the weekly papers . The possibilities from which to choose includes any system of inequality that appears in any of the papers for a given week.
As usual, briefly describe each system of inequality. Who are included, what is unequally distributed, who are advantaged or disadvantaged, and the like. If you are going to consider a subset of a larger system of inequality, be clear about what you are doing and why. *. Hebron Academy? What are general dimensions of inequality systems, by which we can characterize, compare, and categorize them? Generally, researchers and theorists treat different kinds of inequalities as if they existed in distinct and how write Foundation Campus, unrelated conceptual worlds, although they might empirically overlap in write my essay, concrete historical settings. Various empirical instances of racial inequality are compared, as are different instances of admissions International of Hotel Management, income inequality or organizational hierarchies, but divergent kinds of inequality each get their own, independent analytic turf. The divisions between kinds of inequality are not the result of any systematic logic, but treated as self-evident, natural distinctions. *. What might be general principles of systems of inequality? These include common structural constraints, requirements for persistence, predictable effects, and the like. IX-2. How should we conceive interests in help write Academy, the analysis of Les Roches International of Hotel Management, inequality? [part 2]
Continuing the analysis of interests. Analytical Task 2 on Interests Taking into account the help write my essay, insights and concerns developed in the Common Readings listed below, write a critical review of Jackson's effort to use interests as a theoretical device and analytical tool in how write University, the studies of class and gender inequality listed above. Although scholars spend much time and effort writing critiques of published work, and write Academy, graduate students spend even more, systematic treatments of the criteria for, and strategies toward, good critiques are rare. Here are just a few points to consider. A critique can never be better than its author's understanding of the work being criticized. And a reader cannot appreciate the intent of the essay Istituto Paris, critique beyond their grasp of the critic's reading of the original work. This means that to write a good critical review, we must first be sure we understand what we are criticizing and, second, we must present a clear summary of that understanding as part of our critique. Although there are important exceptions, most critical reviews really are elaborations of the answer to a simple question. After reading the piece, do I, the critic, find the my essay Academy, argument worthwhile or not? However elaborate or simple, with whatever style of presentation, the review is writing service usa University of South Carolina, largely an write my essay, effort to present a sustained defense of that evaluation. A good review is always fair.
We should never shy from identifying a flaw or calling a mistake what it is. But we should always try to use the admissions essay Les Roches International School, language and my essay Hebron Academy, tone that we hope reviewers will use when they reveal the similar failings in our work. Couseworks School? We review manuscripts, articles, and books. We do not review people. Brilliant scholars write dim papers – they are not dim as a result. A wise reviewer avoids referring to the author, and concentrates on the strengths and weaknesses of the work being reviewed. For example, saying that the arguments in the last and first sections contradict each other is help, preferable to saying in the last section, the essay The University of Nottingham, author contradicts what she said in the first section. Attributing thoughts and intentions to an author is write Hebron, worse.
Sitting in judgment of the author's intellect, effort, or morality is worst. As reviewers, we commonly want to be clear about two interpretations of what has been accomplished in essay service usa University of South Carolina, the work being reviewed: that of the my essay Hebron, author and that of the reviewer. Sometimes these will be the admissions Les Roches International School Management, same; often not. A critic has no obligation to share the help my essay, author's view of the what has been done in the work. Admissions Les Roches Marbella School Of Hotel Management? But the scholarly critic does have an obligation to grasp and write my essay Hebron, accurately present the author's aims and a compare and contrast essay of Amsterdam — Amsterdam, orientation as they are conveyed in the work. When an author sees a review, the author should not feel (1) the my essay Academy, reviewer has said or implied I said something that I never said or implied or (2) the reviewer has said or implied that I failed to consider something that is explicitly part of couseworks West School, my presentation. Good scholars do not mind critical reviews, even highly critical ones, that are accurate and fair. Good scholars despise reviews that are inaccurate or unfair, even if they are positive. What a review covers depends on the review's purpose, the audience, and help write my essay, the content and quality of the work being reviewed. No possible recipe of ingredients will apply to all or even most reviews. The closest we can come to essay International of Hotel, this is to write Hebron, list common elements of reviews, understanding that the reviewer must judge what weight, if any, each merits in how write University Amsterdam Foundation Campus, a particular review.
Some of my essay, these common elements to consider in reviews include: Does the work have a central thesis, argument or claim that is clear, relatively unambiguous, fully presented, logically consistent, and not inherently flawed? Does the work adequately consider alternative arguments? Does the work provide evidence that effectively supports the essay Istituto Paris, advocated claim over alternative claims? Is the help my essay, evidence well chosen, properly gathered, and effectively analyzed (or is the work methodologically sound)? How compelling is the a compare and contrast essay, evidence? Does the work neglect or misconstrue some relevant research or theory in ways that raise questions and significantly diminish confidence in its claims?
Are there serious logical flaws or gaps in the analysis? Overall, is the help my essay Hebron, argument compelling? Overall, is the analysis a valuable contribution? Or, does it have something to say that is worth saying? *. What is the theoretical natural state: is it inequality or equality that should be explained? Sometimes a seemingly tangential question has the Marbella of Hotel Management, potential to gain us unexpected insights.
At least since Rousseau wrote the on the origins of inequality we have been able to conceive that either equality or inequality may be considered the problem to write Academy, explain. While modern sociology attributes little explanatory value to ideas about the natural state of writing usa University Carolina, humankind, we may still hope to enhance our understanding by juxtaposing efforts to help my essay Academy, identify the social mechanisms responsible for inequality with those aimed at specifying the mechanisms that induce equality. Emile Durkheim – selections from The Division of Labor in critical tutorials Stanstead College, Society – [Grusky – Classic] VIII. How do people experience inequality and why do these experiences matter – part 2?
This is help Hebron, a continuation of the previous week's topic.