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Simple Software for Better Interview Skills. Learn how to how to write a proper essay Academy, land the job with Big Interview’s powerful video tutorials and critical thinking Centennial virtual interview practice software. The Art of how to a proper essay Vermont Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Guest contributor and professional resume writer Kimberly Sarmiento will help you make your resume stand out with a summary statement. In resume writing, you know you need more than just a list of jobs and education, but how to begin? Or rather, how should your resume begin? First, nix the objective statement. It is argumentative thesis almost impossible to write an objective statement without either telling the hiring manager something they already know or focusing on what you want to get from a job. Both are things you should absolutely avoid in a resume. Instead, use a summary statement or what I like to call your “written elevator speech.” Why You Should Use a Resume Summary Statement.
Professionals who work with career coaches and those who have done some solid web research have come to understand that they need to Vermont, master their “Elevator Speech”. This speech is a short summary of an employee’s value proposition and should be thought of as a “sales pitch” that is ready to go anytime you run into a potential hiring manager or networking contact. A carefully prepared “Elevator Speech” is Goldsmiths University customized to the person giving the how to write a proper for an Academy speech and contains information that makes the professional stand out while still focusing on things the employer wants to know (excels in cutting costs, not excellent deep sea diver). The same holds true for your “Written Elevator Speech” or resume summary statement. This “speech” is given at writing an argumentative, the top of introduction Vermont your resume — in the prime resume real estate where a recruiter or hiring manager always looks first.
The summary statement serves as an introduction to argumentative thesis, the reader that seeks to answer the question “Tell me about how to a proper introduction essay Vermont Academy yourself” in just a few lines of Centennial College text. The resume summary statement will help your resume stand out by: a. Catching the reader’s attention immediately. b. Ensuring a clear understanding of your top selling points at a glance (important when hiring managers are skimming through dozens of resumes at a time and attention spans are short) c. Putting emphasis on your career highlights and key strengths in a proper for an essay an easy-to-scan format. d. Briefly communicating your professional objective if relevant (if the objective is not obvious) Every resume can benefit from courseworkd University of London a summary statement. For some candidates, it can be critical. 1. Career Changers — A summary statement can help a hiring manager quickly see your transferable skills.
Without a summary statement, a recruiter might look at your most recent experience, assume you’re not a fit because your experience isn’t traditional, and toss your resume. 2. Recent College Grads — A summary statement can help you customize your resume for how to Vermont Academy, different opportunities. This is especially helpful if your background is somewhat general. You can use the summary to highlight skills and experience most relevant for each position. 3. Writing An Argumentative Centennial. Experienced Professionals with Diverse Backgrounds — For experienced professionals, a summary statement can become the write for an “executive summary” of essay Trinity College School your resume, tailored for each position. This allows you to pull the most relevant and impressive skills and career accomplishments and feature them at the top of Vermont Academy your resume. Elements of a Strong Resume Summary Statement. The Basics — Your summary statement should consist of a title and a few lines of text. Custom. The text can be in paragraph form and/or use bullets.
The summary statement should appear directly below your contact information at the top of the resume. and should reflect a general (or specific) idea of your career goals. Your Title — When working with my clients on their resumes, I typically recommend starting with a title that communicates their professional identity. Think of it as a headline that will catch the reader’s eye and help them see your fit for write essay Academy, the position at hand. Examples include Social Media Brand Strategist, Senior Marketing Executive, Multifaceted Art Director, and Global Operations Professional. See Resume Summary Statement examples below for additional titles that may spark ideas for you. The Format — The main body of writing an argumentative research your summary statement should be approximately 3-4 lines of text and a proper for an essay Academy should NOT be written with first-person pronouns.
If you are tempted to make your summary statement longer to argumentative Badminton School, squeeze in more details, resist the temptation. Industry research tells us that most hiring managers spend only seconds reviewing a resume before they make up their minds to how to write a proper introduction Vermont, call a candidate or not. We also know that when they see large chunks of essay writings School text, their eyes will skip over it. Therefore, it is vital to how to write essay, limit the length of thesis a summary statement to ensure it gets read. Resume Summary Statement Examples. Below are several examples of write introduction for an Vermont “written elevator speeches” or summary/branding statements with titles. A versatile and creative writer fuses a background in journalism and academics with expertise in business writing to deliver quality, customized material spanning news, marketing, web content, curriculum, and career development. Provides sales support and courseworkd Goldsmiths University of London highly-rated client service and excels in meeting deadlines in how to for an essay Vermont quick-turnaround settings. FINANCIAL OPERATIONS SUPPORT PROFESSIONAL.
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How to Write Your Resume Summary Statement. Since you have limited space, it’s important to carefully plan what goes into essay Trinity College, your summary statement. Your statement must be concise AND represent the strongest elements of you as a professional. Here are three steps to writing a strong summary statement for write introduction for an Academy, your resume: Step 1: First, think of three or four things that define you as a professional. An Argumentative Centennial. This can be a strong sales record, excellent customer service, expertise in drawing engineering plans, or an ability to how to write for an Vermont Academy, manage large-scale technical projects.
These professional traits will vary according to in english Trinity School, profession and skill level. Managers and executives should focus on business skills as well as technical expertise — even if they fall into a technical industry. Entry-level and how to introduction Vermont recent graduates can include academic training and experience to support professional abilities. Step 2: Next, think of the things you enjoy the most in your work. Along These Lines Writing (INTO). When you write your summary statement, you aren’t just telling the write a proper Vermont Academy employer what you are good at, you are also telling them what you want to argumentative essay, do day in and day out.
Ergo, no matter how well you do something – don’t talk about it if you don’t want to how to write a proper for an Academy, do it. My wisest clients have pointed it out to me when I have focused too much on along these lines paragraphs and essays University of Exeter, something they don’t particularly enjoy and how to write for an essay Academy we rework their summaries accordingly. Step 3: Align your summary statement with the company’s job requirements. Once you identify the skills you want to writing an argumentative paper Centennial College, focus on, do a little research and see if they line up with job requirements listed for the positions you are seeking. If you are a project manager, you probably want to establish early that you are skilled at managing resources and ensuring assignments get completed on-time/on-budget.
This might not be the thing you want to focus on the most, but it is essential to work in. More Tips on Resume Summary Statements. 1. Customize for Your Experience Level. Each of the above example statements effectively sets up the skill sets, achievements, and even certifications/degrees that the applicants highlight throughout their resumes. When writing your statement, it is important to consider where you are in your professional progression. While a job description might want an MBA, PMP, or other certifications, whether or not you mention such things in your opening statement will depend greatly on how much experience you have to back your application. When the job seeker is young and needs to write essay Vermont, rely on academic experience to strengthen their qualifications, it is best to call that out from the start. Essay. Consider the write introduction essay Vermont example below: Blends lab management experience with academic training at the University of Florida to offer solid skills in clinical experiments and argumentative Badminton School research activities. Incorporates a background in office administration to provide employers with proven organization, communications, and scheduling expertise.
In this instance, the job seeker focused on how to introduction for an Vermont Academy, things learned through education and transferable skills that could be applicable from part-time work experience. On the Lakefield College other hand, when the job applicant has strong experience, there is no need to rely on how to a proper Vermont Academy, the academic training any longer and it doesn’t need to be mentioned. 2. Focus on your most important selling points. Some requirements can be covered in the body of the resume and just aren’t important enough to place in that opening paragraph. One example I see a lot is essay thesis School proficiency in MS Office. Even if you are a technical professional, software and write a proper for an essay Vermont hardware skills need their own section on the resume and don’t belong in the opening statement. The summary statement is for the strengths and accomplishments that truly make you stand out courseworkd Goldsmiths University of London, as a candidate. Consider the following examples of resume summaries for technology professionals: A proven leader of IT startups and established operations offers expertise in defining technical strategies that support overall business objectives. For An Essay. Supports efforts to develop and market technical solutions to both internal and external clients.
Oversees team development and vendor selection/maintenance for multimillion-dollar operations. COMPUTER/HARDWARE SPECIALIST /TEAM SUPERVISOR. Leverages technical expertise on hardware setup/configuration to provide exceptional user support and an argumentative research resolve critical operational issues. Experience includes managing security and after-hour support for classified materials and communications. Known for creating and implementing training that expands team member capabilities and instructs users on how to a proper essay Academy, system utilization/improvement. Works with government, civilian, and Goldsmiths University of London corporate stakeholders. Of course there are other things you might want to call to the reader’s attention early, including language proficiencies, award-winning performance, or being named on write a proper for an essay Vermont, one or more US patents. While these qualifications can be contained in critical thinking kids Centennial College the body of a resume (and should still be placed there) , it could be relevant to highlight them early to establish your unique value as an employee. Please note again that none of how to a proper introduction for an Vermont Academy these opening paragraphs are written with first person pronouns.
While you do write the these writing of Exeter (INTO) paragraph in present tense, you write it as if you are the understood subject of the resume. This allows the a proper introduction for an Vermont focus to remain on the employer. Use of critical thinking kids “I, me, my” places the focus on the applicant and the goal of the resume is to sell the employer on what you can do for how to write for an essay Academy, THEM. By telling the reader what you “do” and what you are “known for,” you get the reader thinking about along lines writing paragraphs and essays University of Exeter (INTO) how you can do those things for them. This message should be reinforced throughout the write for an essay resume as you use achievements and certifications to reinforce your opening paragraph and highlight examples of when you have done the things that summary statement promotes. Remember, aside from a cover letter, the summary statement is the very first thing the hiring manager reads about you. It is your handshake long before you meet the interviewer. It is your first impression long before you get a chance to pick out your best outfit.
It requires more than “I am seeking a job as….” It is your first chance to answer the essay Badminton School question “Tell me about how to a proper introduction essay Academy Yourself” and you want to make the most of it. HUMOR: Also, if you’re struggling for ideas, why not let Barney Stinson inspire you with some “creative” ways to highlight your awesomeness. Pamela Skillings is writing research Centennial College co-founder of Big Interview. As an interview coach, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. How To Introduction Academy. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and advising managers at organizations from American Express to the City of New York. She is an adjunct professor at New York University and writing an argumentative College an instructor at write introduction, the American Management Association.
20 Comment to The Art of Writing a Great Resume Summary Statement. Nice one Pamela. Writing An Argumentative. One more thing I would like to add here is write a proper for an Vermont Academy one should never try to add any fake information in their resume which can put them in trouble. @terrylewis – thats great. Maybe you can share it here once you’re done. @Arman – that’s correct.
Faking info will very likely come back to bite you. So resist the temptation to be too “creative”. What an exceptional post Pamela. I have seen many articles on resume tips but nothing like this one. Just want to add more tip here that job seekers should never try to add any fake information in their resumes just to writings College School, impress the write a proper introduction for an recruiter. This is the part that is very difficult for me, i work in the service area, i work for a very prestigious hotel brand and Goldsmiths of London i don’t know how to convert what i do into how to introduction for an Vermont, a summary. I want to advance in my career, i want to move in int administrative part of the hotel, not front office.
No I’m not a front desk agent nor a concierge. I am having so much trouble coming with the perfect resume so i can apply to custom essay writing reviews College, better jobs.! Here’s a way to possibly get unstuck and draft your summary statement: 1) Brainstorm a bit about the most important qualities required for the job(s) that you want. A Proper Introduction For An Essay Vermont Academy. If there’s a job description, scan it for keywords. 2) Think about your 3 most valuable transferable skills/strengths/areas of expertise and how they relate. 3) Draft a sentence about each of those three selling points.
4) Combine/arrange/edit them into essay writings in english Trinity School, a summary statement using the examples in a proper introduction for an Vermont Academy the post for inspiration. Depending on essay writings in english Trinity, your level of experience, your statement may be a few simple sentences or a brief bulleted list. Please feel free to post a draft of your summary statement here and I would be happy to how to a proper introduction Vermont, give some feedback. Keep track of the critical kids College interviews. Maintain a record of the .information about the interview so that you can refer to it in write for an Vermont Academy future. Many times you would have more than one interview with an organisation and it would help if you have jotted down somewhere what happened in an argumentative paper College the previous interviews. As the how to write for an essay Vermont human memory fades with time it is preferable that you record the information within 24 hours of the interview. While maintaining the summary of interviews include the following information:• Name and position of interviewer(s) After the Interview. It is paragraphs University of Exeter not over until you finally get the job.
So don’t just sit back and relax. Now is the time to do the follow up procedures to finally get selected and gain the how to a proper Vermont Academy job of your dreams. Get Selected at Job Interviews. • Job profile/description: duties, responsibilities, powers, salary, other benefits etc. • Category: positive, negative, average.
• Date of custom writing reviews Lakefield contact with the organisation. • Specific points discussed: stressed on write a proper introduction Vermont Academy, some qualifications, achievements more than others. Pamela you are genius…Just read your blog….It is simply amazing. Already started working on courseworkd Goldsmiths University of London, creating my own personal branding statement. It would be great if you can suggest what should be the caption or heading for personal branding statement. For instance, the write a proper introduction Vermont Academy categories/headings which appear in a Resume/CV are Core Competencies, Professional Experience, Academics, Personal Information etc.
Is it a good idea to write heading ” Senior Banking Professional ” followed by branding statement under this heading. Essay Writing Lakefield College. Since, I am a banker with 8 years of experience in executing cross- functional assignments in Retail ( Marketing Campaigns for Retail banking ), Corporate Banking (Commercial Credit to SMEs ) and how to write a proper introduction essay Vermont Academy Strategy (Launch of Wealth Management Business) with MBA as background. Of London. Keeping my fingers crossed …to discover a nice branding statement for me… THANKS A LOT…. Outstanding post Pamela! I am a young creative professional and find it very difficult to put my skills and experience into a summary when its such a broad field. After reading your article I now have a better understanding of what companies look for in a resume. Thank you! Outstanding post Pamela and a proper introduction essay Academy very helpful but I am some time confused that – What type of CV format should I opt for HR post please help as I am working as an HR? What type of frequent question can be asked during an research Centennial College interview? How can we describe a healthy interview? How can I create my own profession brand as an HR?
It seems like the examples used are trying to show some corporate bean counter that you know a lot of write for an essay Vermont big words. Is this really what sells? I don’t want to jump through a bunch of writings College School hoops to dazzle some corporate sell out. Introduction For An. What ever happend to keeping it simple? Great article. I’m running into trouble highlighting my transferable skills that I got from essay writings College School being a corporate lawyer because I now want to work on how to a proper introduction essay, research teams for news shows, or in production. Its difficult trying to connect the writing an argumentative paper Centennial College two. Can you write an example here. Good article, exposed some weaknesses in my resume, I’m make the changes today! Thanks.
Helpful article, though I find myself wondering at the images you chose for the sections. They are all part of a proper introduction for an a larger work by Pablo Picasso, titled “Guernica,” which was his attempt at courseworkd University, a propaganda piece criticizing war. The painting depicts innocent people being firebombed by German and Italian warplanes. Clearly shown are tormented soldiers, a dead child in the arms of a ravaged woman, and citizens and livestock burning alive. Perhaps this is a strange choice of artwork to use for this article. Awesome. How To Write A Proper Introduction For An Essay Vermont. shares some other resume design skill in AmoLink resume. Argumentative Essay Thesis School. Hope it’s useful to all of us. I found it odd also. This is why doing arts papers while studying for write for an Academy, your business degree is so important. Service Reviews College. Something incredibly ironic about someone who is an expert in selling yourself plastering her blog post with images from a painting as brutally about suffering as this. I guess whoever pieced this page together thought “oh, it’s art, so it must be sophisticated.”
And they say I’m irrational for thinking business people aren’t necessarily very bright. Thank you for the inspiring article! I have been struggling to find a job that fits my professional profile and when I finally find it, I get no attention… at all! Now, I migh have identified some of my common mistakes. Anyhow, I have a big problem. I am a BA in International Relations and I have no idea how to name my professional title…. Any ideas?
I rarely get sidetracked by advertisements or odd artwork in blog posts, mainly because I’m inundated with it. But my concentration was quickly. diverted to the slightly barbaric images as soon as I could make out how to essay Academy, an. Pamela Skillings is co-founder of Big Interview. As one of the country's top interview coaches, she has helped her clients land dream jobs at companies including Google, Microsoft, Goldman Sachs, and JP Morgan Chase. She also has more than 15 years of experience training and research paper Centennial advising managers at organizations from American Express to how to a proper introduction essay Vermont, the City of New York.
She is an adjunct professor at New York University and an instructor at the American Management Association. Critical Thinking. Continue reading. Copyright © 2017 Big Interview – Job Interview Training - All Rights Reserved. Skillful Communications, LLC | 244 Fifth Avenue, 2nd Floor | New York, NY 10001 XML SItemap.
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The Different Types of Business Plans. This article is how to write a proper introduction essay, part of our “Business Planning Guide”—a curated list of our articles that will help you with the planning process! Business plans go by courseworkd University, many names: Strategic plans, operational plans, internal plans, and many others. Lately, I’ve been focusing on the Lean Plan. There are also one-page business plans, although those are really more summaries. Of course there are traditional business plans, which can also be called formal business plans, or wow-do-I-really-have-to-do-all-that business plans. All of these are types of business plans you may need for your business at one time or another.
Like so many other things in business, the principle of write a proper for an essay Vermont Academy form follows function applies. Different situations call for different types of business plans. An effective business plan will match its intended use. Knowing these differences will help you plan successfully for the future of your business. Let’s take a look at the types of business plans, and these paragraphs and essays (INTO) their differences. The Lean Plan that every business ought to have. The standard business plan for those that need to present a plan to outsiders, such as banks or investors.
Business plans for startups One-page business plans Feasibility plans, internal plans, operations plan, annual plans, and how to a proper introduction essay strategic plans. All businesses can use a Lean Plan to kids Centennial manage strategy, tactics, dates, deadlines, activities, and cash flow. The Lean Plan is faster, easier, and more efficient than a formal business plan because it doesn’t include summaries, descriptions, and a proper introduction for an essay Academy background details that you and your partners or employees already know. On the in english Trinity other hand, it does include specific deadlines and milestones, and the budgets allotted for meeting them, so your team is write Vermont Academy, up to speed. A Lean Plan includes four essential elements, all of writings Trinity College School them functions of general business management: Set the strategy . Use simple bullet points to define target market, business offering, underlying business identity, and long-term goals. No additional text is how to write essay Vermont, needed. These serve as a reminder for owners and managers.
Set tactics to execute strategy . Use bullet points again. These include marketing decisions such as pricing, channels, website, social media, promotion, and writing Centennial College advertising. Product or service tactics also apply here, including pricing, launch dates, bundles, configuration, new versions, and how to write introduction essay Academy delivery or packaging. Other tactics might define positions to recruit, trainings required, and so forth. Concrete specifics . Goldsmiths University. List of assumptions, milestones, objective measurements of performance, task responsibilities, and how to introduction essay Academy what numbers to track. Essential numbers . Your company’s sales forecast, spending budget, and critical thinking Centennial College cash flow. The value of the write introduction for an essay Lean Plan starts with the plan, but that’s just the beginning. Real management is steering your business with a Lean Plan that you review and revise regularly, tracking progress and argumentative essay performance, and how to for an essay Vermont Academy making regular course correction. You can download a our free business pitch template which will give you a jump start on the Lean Planning process. The standard business plan is generally shorter these days than ever before; and writings College it’s also as likely to be a document online as a printed document.
It’s generally expected to fill the need of a business plan event, which is how to write a proper introduction for an essay, what we call it when a business needs to present a business plan to a bank, prospective investor, vendor, ally, partner, or employee. The most standard business plan starts with a summary and courseworkd University of London includes sections or chapters covering the company, the product or service it sells, the target market, strategy and implementation milestones and goals, management team, and financial forecasting, and analysis. The exact order of topics is not important, but most people expect to how to write a proper introduction essay Academy see all of these topics covered as part of the standard plan. A Lean Plan is a good first draft of essay in english College School a standard plan. Start there and add an executive summary, descriptions of company and product, detailed market analysis, and description of the how to write a proper introduction Academy strategy, main tactics, and critical Centennial the management team. Tactics usually appear as marketing plan, product plan, financial plan, and management plan. Build from your working sales forecast and expense budget to complete financial projections. Those complete projections include the three essential financial projections (also called pro-forma statements): profit and loss, balance sheet, and cash flow. Every standard business plan needs sales plus these three essentials. The projected cash flow is an essential part of write introduction for an Vermont a standard business plan.
Businesses need cash to Centennial College stay open, period. Even if a business can survive temporarily without profits, it still needs the cash to pay its bills. And since profits alone don’t guarantee cash in the bank, projected cash flow is essential. Many standard plans also include a table for personnel spending. Some standard plans will need additional projections to write a proper essay Vermont Academy meet the needs of the specific business plan event. Courseworkd University Of London. For example, plans for seeking outside investment should include a discussion of an eventual exit for investors, and of course the planned use of the invested funds. Write Introduction For An Vermont. Plans supporting a bank loan application might include projected ratios the bank wants to Trinity College School see, such as debt to equity, quick, or current ratios. A standard business plan will start with an executive summary describing the how to write a proper introduction Vermont key points of your plan, and end with appendices showing monthly projections for the first year and annual projections for the second and essay thesis third years.
Though it is presented at the beginning of the write a proper introduction for an plan, a good tip is to write your executive summary last. This way, you’ve been through the business plan writing process already and you can confidently select the essay writings in english Trinity College School highlights of your plan to showcase on the first page. Every startup deserves a business plan to a proper for an break out the steps and requirements with educated guesses for important lists and these lines of Exeter (INTO) numbers. The business plan for a startup is sometimes called a startup plan, but some people think all business plans are for startups, and that only startups use business plans. That’s not the how to write a proper for an essay case, as planning should be part of Goldsmiths of London business management. How To A Proper Essay. The lore of the essay Trinity College School business plan is changing these days. In most cases, a startup plan is how to write a proper introduction for an Academy, a Lean Plan that typically includes the Lean Plan as shown above, plus projected startup costs, startup steps, and milestones. Startup costs include expenses incurred before launch, such as legal expenses, logo and graphics, websites, signage, and fixing up the office or store; plus assets required, such as starting inventory, vehicles, equipment, office furniture, and—the hardest to estimate and most important—starting money in the bank. While the Lean Plan with extra startup information is fine for most startups, when a startup requires funding from banks or investors, then its business plan looks more like the standard business plan, including a discussion of exit strategies for investors, and almost always stating the argumentative essay planned use of the funds required. You can use this startup plan to discuss your options with potential partners and write Vermont Academy associates. This kind of no-frills plan is good for writing Centennial, deciding whether or not to proceed with an idea, to help gauge whether this is a business worth pursuing.
If you do decide to go into business, over time you can always go back to your business plan and make necessary edits and additions. Write For An Essay Vermont Academy. As your business grows, you can flesh sections out and add details. When the startup plan will be read by outsiders, it’s common courtesy to add an executive summary, a company overview, management team, and descriptions of market, marketing plan, and product plan. Even if you don’t have the exact numbers yet, it’s always a smart idea to include a preliminary analysis of costs, pricing, and argumentative Badminton probable expenses. Some people refer to what they call a one-page business plan. This is a one-page summary that includes highlights only, used to offer a very quick overview of a business. It is possible to how to a proper introduction for an essay Vermont summarize target market, business offering, main milestones, and essential sales forecast in a single page.
Such a summary can be useful as a summary for banks, potential investors, vendors, allies, and employees. A one-page business plan can also be called a business pitch. Some experts use the phrase “feasibility plan” to mean the same thing as a startup plan. Custom Service. Others use it to refer to specific steps taken to validate a technology, product, or market. How To A Proper For An. For example, the feasibility plan for a new kind of brick kiln might include the steps to establish a working version in a laboratory, then a small prototype in the field, and then a first working product. A feasibility plan for custom service reviews Lakefield College, a product solution for a proper introduction Academy, a new market might involve getting early users and College validating the idea with people willing to pay money for it. In some cases a feasibility plan involves getting a product or service posted onto a site like Kickstarter or its competitors, offering the product in advance of availability to people willing to commit to how to a proper essay buying it later. Feasibility plans rarely include the an argumentative research Centennial full range of topics one would expect in a standard business plan or even a Lean Plan. They tend to be focused on whether or not a product will work or a market exists, without the additional strategy, tactics, and financial projections. However, the term is used differently by different people, so if you hear this term from how to a proper introduction essay Academy someone or plan to use it yourself, it’s best to get clarification.
Internal plans are for the most part another name for what we call a Lean Plan. Like the paper Centennial Lean Plan, they will reflect the needs of the members of how to write a proper for an essay Vermont your company. Since the purpose of an internal plan is specific to the people directly involved with the company, it will most likely be shorter and more concise than a fully detailed standard plan that you’d take to Badminton School the bank. Internal plans are not intended for banks, outside investors, or other third parties. These tend to how to introduction Vermont Academy be a lot like a Lean Plan with another name. Like the kids College Lean Plan, an operations plan includes specific implementation milestones, project deadlines, and how to a proper introduction Vermont Academy responsibilities of team members and managers. This is the plan used for staying on track to meet your goals as a business. Planning for your goals as a business allows your company to assign priorities, focus on results, and Goldsmiths University of London track your progress. How To Write Introduction Academy. Your operations plan covers the essay Trinity College inner workings of your business. It outlines the specifics of who should be doing what, and how to a proper for an essay when they should be doing it.
Of course, cash flow figures prominently here as well. For example, your milestones will need to have sufficient funding for Badminton, their implementation, and you’ll need to track your progress so you know how much you’re spending. These could be Lean Plans or even standard business plans, but focusing on a specific area of write introduction essay Academy a business, or a subset of the business. For example, a plan for the creation of a new product is a growth plan. These plans could be internal plans or not, depending on along these writing University whether they are being linked to loan applications or new investment. An expansion plan requiring new outside investment would probably need to include full company descriptions and background on the product, market, and management team, just the same as a standard plan for investors would. Loan applications would require this much detail as well.
However, an internal growth plan used to set up the steps for growth or expansion that is funded internally could skip these descriptions, just like a Lean Plan. It might not be necessary to include detailed financial projections for the company overall, but it should at least include detailed forecasts of sales and expenses for the new venture or product. The strategic plan is yet another phrase that people use differently, depending on the exact context. Usually a strategic plan is an internal plan, but without much detail about specifics and financial projections. It generally goes into more detail on strategy and introduction for an Vermont tactics than the Lean Plan does, so it has more description and along these paragraphs University of Exeter (INTO) explanation. However, strategy is useless without execution, so a good strategic plan has to for an essay take implementation into account, which means some consideration for resources and time. As you build the strategy for your company and decide how to essay in english Trinity College School implement it, you will want to examine your strengths and weaknesses as a business.
What does your company do well? As your company grows, you want to play to how to introduction essay Academy your strengths. Courseworkd Goldsmiths University Of London. Strategy is often a matter of selecting the right opportunities. Resources should be funneled strategically to write the areas where they will provide the critical thinking kids Centennial biggest overall benefits. Strategy plans are much more likely to how to introduction essay Vermont Academy be something for the larger enterprise, in essay writings Trinity School, which teams of high-level management and sometimes expensive consultants develop broad-brush high-level strategy. In businesses that don’t have thousands of employees, strategy rarely exists in a vacuum, and is almost always developed as part of write a proper introduction Vermont a business plan, lean or standard.
Once you have an idea of your strategy, you must have a plan for implementing it. An Argumentative Paper Centennial. This is where the milestones portion of the write a proper for an essay Vermont Academy plan becomes key. To effectively execute your strategies, it’s critical to assign responsibilities and have a schedule for following through. The implementation tactics you use will actively move you in the right direction toward achieving your goals. And that is essentially the function of argumentative essay School a business plan. Reading about the different types of business plans is write introduction Academy, a good jumping-off point in the process of argumentative essay Badminton School creating a business plan. If you’re looking for more information about a proper Vermont business plans and how to essay service School write them, you’ll find our sample business plan library and our guide to writing a detailed business plan to be helpful resources. You might also want to check out our business plan template available through our software, LivePlan.
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A Metabolic Biofuel Cell: Conversion of Human Leukocyte Metabolic Activity to write for an Vermont Electrical Currents. Essay Writings In English Trinity College School. © Justin et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. How To A Proper Introduction. 2011. Received: 23 September 2010. An investigation of the electrochemical activity of human white blood cells (WBC) for biofuel cell (BFC) applications is described. WBCs isolated from essay service Lakefield School, whole human blood were suspended in PBS and how to a proper introduction for an essay Vermont, introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Critical Thinking Kids College. The cathode compartment contained a 50 mM potassium ferricyanide solution. Average current densities between 0.9 and 1.6 ?A cm -2 and open circuit potentials (V oc ) between 83 and 102 mV were obtained, which were both higher than control values. Cyclic voltammetry was used to investigate the electrochemical activity of the activated WBCs in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of electron transfer between the for an essay Vermont cells and electrode. Voltammograms were obtained for the WBCs, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs - a lymphocyte-monocyte mixture isolated on a Ficoll gradient), a B lymphoblastoid cell line (BLCL), and two leukemia cell lines, namely K562 and Jurkat. An oxidation peak at about 363 mV vs. SCE for the PMA (phorbol ester) activated primary cells, with a notable absence of a reduction peak was observed.
Oxidation peaks were not observed for the BLCL, K562 or Jurkat cell lines. HPLC confirmed the release of serotonin (5-HT) from the PMA activated primary cells. It is research paper Centennial believed that serotonin, among other biochemical species released by the activated cells, contributes to how to a proper introduction essay Academy the observed BFC currents. Courseworkd Goldsmiths Of London. Presently, there are few options for introduction essay supplying power to essay writings in english Trinity School implantable medical devices. The ultimate goal of this preliminary work is to develop an implantable biofuel cell device that may be used within the physiological environment for low-power implantable medical device applications (such as miniature biosensors) [ 1 – 3 ]. A biofuel cell (BFC) is an electrochemical or galvanic device that couples the oxidation of a biofuel (such as glucose) at the anode to the reduction of molecular oxygen to water at the cathode. Through this reactive coupling, electrical currents can be generated to power an implanted device. With the a proper for an Vermont Academy movement of along these writing and essays University (INTO), electrons through the how to write essay Academy circuit from the anode to the cathode through the Badminton School device, it is necessary to also have the simultaneous movement of positive charge between the two electrodes to introduction for an satisfy the requirements of a closed circuit. This positive charge takes the form of service reviews Lakefield College School, protons that travel from the anode through an how to write introduction for an essay Vermont electrolyte to the cathode where water is the final byproduct. Microbial organisms have previously been used as miniature bioreactors for electricity generation from BFCs.
The microbes metabolize a substrate (such as glucose or acetate) and subsequently transfer high energy electrons to the anode of the BFC [ 4 – 14 ]. Electrons derived from these biofuels are subsequently transferred to essay writing College School the anode across the plasma membrane of the cells, while protons are also simultaneously released by the cells into the extracellular space. In another type of BFC - referred to here as an a proper for an essay Academy enzymatic biofuel cell (EnzBFC) for differentiation - specific enzymes are immobilized at the anode and cathode [ 15 – 21 ]. At the anode, glucose oxidase may be used to oxidize glucose to critical kids Centennial gluconolactone, while a laccase enzyme or bilirubin oxidase may be tethered to the cathode surface to reduce oxygen to water. Electron transfer between cellular metabolic processes and electrodes has previously only been observed for microbes confined to the anode of a biofuel cell (BFC). Electron mediators, such as neutral red, have been employed to increase the efficiency of electron transfer between the microbes and write introduction for an essay Academy, the electrode surface [ 6 ]. Other microbes, such as Geobacter, have been shown to be capable of University of London, directly transferring electrons to an electrode without the aid of mediators and how to for an, are often termed metal-reducing bacteria [ 11 – 13 ]. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of transducing the biochemical energy of custom essay School, white blood cells into electrical energy, essentially utilizing these eukaryotic cells as bioreactors at a biofuel cell anode. Write A Proper For An Vermont. A. Measurement of open circuit potential and current from University, BFC device. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) for Human Subject Research of the University of Pittsburgh.
White blood cells (WBC) were isolated from how to write a proper introduction essay, 5 healthy adult human subjects using a red blood cell (RBC) lysis technique (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Approximately 10 mL of anticoagulated peripheral blood was mixed with three volumes of RBC Lysis solution and incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature. WBC was recovered by centrifugation at 930 g for 10 minutes at 4°C. The supernatant containing the lysed RBC was transferred to a new tube and along lines writing paragraphs University, subsequently either saved for later study or discarded. The remaining WBC pellets were washed multiple times (at least thrice) in 1 ? phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution and resuspended in PBS to a proper essay Vermont Academy a final volume of 15 mL. For specific isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), a Ficoll-Paque™ density gradient was used. Kids. Whole blood was gently added to an equivalent volume of the Ficoll-Paque™ solution to obtain two clearly defined layers. After centrifugation at 930 g for 20 minutes, four layers can be discerned - red blood cells at how to write a proper for an essay the bottom, followed by a larger volume of the Ficoll solution, then a thin layer of essay writing reviews Lakefield School, white blood cells - the PBMCs (consisting primarily of B and T lymphocytes and monocytes) - and finally a larger volume of blood plasma. The PBMCs were carefully recovered and washed twice in PBS (pH 7.4) by centrifugation at write for an Academy 800 g for writing an argumentative paper Centennial College 15 minutes and were finally resuspended in 15 mL PBS. How To A Proper For An Essay Vermont Academy. (A) WBC biofuel cell experimental setup; (B) SEM of carbon fiber electrode . Writings In English College School. Cyclic voltammetry was performed using the Gamry Potentiostat, FAS2/Femtostat under control of the Gamry Framework Software from Gamry Instruments (Warminster, PA). Write A Proper Introduction Essay Vermont. A three-electrode setup was used, where carbon fiber and writing reviews College School, platinum served as the working and counter electrodes, respectively, while a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) served as the write introduction essay Vermont Academy reference.
PMA (5 ng mL -1 ) and kids Centennial, calcium ionomycin (500 ng mL -1 ) were used to activate the how to a proper for an essay white blood cells. PBMC isolated from the healthy volunteers, K562, Jurkat and critical kids Centennial, a primary human B lymphoblastoid cell line were analyzed in this study. Human white blood cells were isolated from how to write introduction essay, approximately 12 mL of thesis Badminton, whole blood using a Ficoll-Paque™ density gradient as described previously. Cell density was determined using a light microscope and hematocytometer. K562, BLCL and Jurkat cell lines were also cultured over a period of one week in write a proper essay Academy, RPMI with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). The cells were isolated from the writing Centennial culture medium by centrifugation, washed twice with PBS and finally resuspended in 1 ? PBS. Cell density was determined as described above. The WBC suspended in PBS solution was scanned within a potential range of -0.5 V to 1.2 V vs. SCE at a scan rate of 100 mV s -1 . How To Write A Proper Academy. The total working volume employed for the cyclic voltammetry setup was 15 mL.
The white blood cells were activated by addition of along lines paragraphs of Exeter, 1 ?L each of how to a proper essay, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin per an argumentative paper, 1 mL of the total working volume to achieve final concentrations of 5 ng mL -1 and 500 ng mL -1 , respectively. The effect of variable glucose concentrations was investigated. Current-potential (i-V) curve acquired from the cyclic voltammetry of activated human WBCs suspended in introduction for an Vermont Academy, PBS . An oxidation peak is observed at ca. 400 mV. In vitro microdialysis [ 22 ] was used in these experiments to paper Centennial College extract the released biochemical content from the cell suspension, while high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection was subsequently used to write a proper essay Vermont validate whether or not serotonin was released by the cells, as well as to quantify the amount of serotonin released upon cell activation. The microdialysis probe was constructed from 23-gauge stainless steel tubing, with a hollow fiber that ran through the length of the tubing. A small length of the hollow fiber (approx 1.5 - 2.0 mm) was allowed to essay thesis Badminton protrude from the end of the stainless steel tube and remained in contact with the how to write introduction for an Academy surrounding solution. Along Paragraphs And Essays (INTO). Within the hollow fiber was vitreous silicate tubing. This silicate tubing served as an inlet section for how to for an essay Vermont Academy the perfusing buffer, while the outlet section was housed in the 23-G steel tubing. Since the cells were suspended in Trinity, PBS, a PBS buffer solution could also be used for perfusion.
White blood cells were isolated as described previously. The cell samples were placed on ice for how to write a proper introduction essay Academy later microdialysis and HPLC analysis. K562, BLCL and Jurkat cell lines were also analyzed. 1.5 mL samples (at cell densities of approximately 10 6 cells mL -1 ) were placed in microcentrifuge tubes. The hollow fiber to be used for microdialysis was allowed to thinking College equilibrate in introduction for an essay Academy, fresh distilled water (dH 2 O) for a period of custom essay writing service Lakefield College, 30 minutes to one hour. PMA and write a proper introduction for an, ionomycin were introduced for 20 - 30 minutes for cell activation prior to the isolation of 5-HT released by the cells using microdialysis. Three samples were collected from microdialysis of the courseworkd of London cell suspensions and how to introduction Academy, controls (perfusion rate of 5 ?L min -1 for 2 minutes) in autosampler tubes. The hollow fiber of the microdialysis probe was made approximately 1 cm long to improve the rate of recovery. For washing, the hollow fiber was placed in fresh distilled water (dH 2 O) and allowed to dialyze at writings in english College a rate of 20 ?L min -1 for 2 minutes. It was then placed in fresh dH 2 O for 3 minutes between samples to wash out any residual 5-HT.
8.2 ?L sample volumes were injected into the HPLC by a FAMOS autosampler. How To Write A Proper Essay Vermont. Detection of custom writing reviews Lakefield College, any 5-HT was determined electrochemically using an Antec-Leyden Intro amperometric detector (Zoeterwoude, The Netherlands). A. Measurement of Open Circuit Potential and Current from how to introduction, BFC device. Argumentative Essay Badminton School. Currents produced from the PEM fuel cell following introduction of activated WBCs and subsequent replacement of the WBC suspension with PBS (n = 3) . A significant decrease in the current output occurs, indicating that the WBC suspension is the primary contributor to the observed currents (p 0.05). Comparison of currents obtained from WBCs and PBMCs . Comparison of open circuit potentials (bars) and currents (lines) obtained from the how to for an supernatant (PBS used to wash the cells during the initial Ficoll isolation procedure) for in english College both the WBCs (top) and PBMCs (bottom) . Relatively small currents to no currents were observed for the PEM fuel cell apparatus. For An Essay Vermont. These results imply that within the general WBC population, certain cells or the Goldsmiths of London molecules released by certain cells are electrochemically active at how to for an Vermont Academy the electrode surface. These can be attributable to the oxidation of electrochemically active species that are either released by the cells into the extracellular environment (such as serotonin) or by redox active species that are present in the cell membrane (such as flavohemoproteins of the NADPH oxidase complex, coenzyme A). In order to be able to produce a current from the BFC, protons must also be released by thinking Centennial College the cells into the extracellular space.
The increase in proton concentration in the anode compartment is important to create a diffusion gradient, whereby the protons can traverse the PEM to react with molecular oxygen to form water at the cathode. How To Write A Proper Introduction For An Vermont. Placing either PBS solution or deionized water in both the anode and cathode compartments did not produce any detectable currents and were associated with open circuit potentials that were less than 20 mV. Cyclic voltammetry studies of essay in english Trinity School, white blood cells. Nakamura et al. (1991) [ 23 ] Basal plane pyrolytic graphite. 0.33 V and write for an, 0.68 V (leucocytes) and 0.68 V (erythrocytes) 0.36-0.58 ?A per 10 6 cells for essay E p = 0.33 V. How To Essay Academy. Serotonin (0.29-0.34 V) CoA (0.65-0.74 V for microorganisms) Matsunaga et al. (1989) [ 24 ] Rat basophilic leukemia cells (RBL-1) and mouse lymphocytes.
Basal plane pyrolytic graphite. 0.34 V and 0.68 V (RBL-1) 0.65 V (mouse lymphocytes) 0.76 ?A per 10 5 cells for of London E p = 0.34 V. Serotonin (0.29-0.34 V) CoA (0.65-0.74 V for microorganisms) White rabbit leukocytes and erythrocytes. How To A Proper Introduction For An Essay Vermont. 0.32 V (leukocytes) 0.73 V (erythrocytes) 1 ?A per 10 5 cells for E p = 0.32 V. All measurements were made in lines writing and essays, PBS with a saturated calomel electrode (SCE) as the reference electrode. where i p is peak current, ? is the electron transfer coefficient, n is the number of electrons transferred, A is surface area, D o is the diffusion coefficient, C o * is the how to write for an essay Vermont Academy concentration of the species in the bulk solution and writing service reviews, v is the scan rate [ 28 ]. How To A Proper For An Essay. Variation in argumentative thesis, the amplitude of the oxidation peak current is plotted with PBMC density . Increasing the cell density is associated with an apparent non-linear increase in the oxidation peak. It is well known that several types of cells contain protein complexes in their cell membranes that function as electron transport chains. Introduction Essay Vermont Academy. The NADPH oxidase complex, for along paragraphs University (INTO) example, comprises structures within the plasma membrane that upon association in a proper introduction, an activated state transfer electrons between the pentose phosphate pathway of glucose metabolism and extracellular oxygen. Argumentative Thesis Badminton School. Many types of white blood cells, particularly human PMLs (neutrophils [ 29 , 30 ] and eosinophils [ 31 – 33 ]), express this enzyme complex. How To A Proper Introduction Essay Academy. NADPH oxidase is similar to the electron transport chains found in several microorganisms. Previous research performed by others demonstrated the electron transfer ability of microbial organisms. Thesis Badminton School. It is known that these microorganisms can transfer electrons to electrodes by various mechanisms, including: i) the write a proper introduction use of artificial electron mediators (electronophores) such as neutral red; ii) using mediators produced by custom essay service reviews the microorganisms themselves; iii) direct electron transfer across the how to a proper for an essay Academy bacterial cell membrane [ 6 ]. Without an electron mediator, the electron transfer process is writing research College very inefficient. Release of serotonin from activated WBCs and a proper introduction for an Vermont Academy, more specifically, PBMCs . Following the microdialysis (dial) of paper Centennial College, 5-HT (500 nM), PBS, PBMCs and activated PBMCs, 5-HT was determined using HPLC.
A recovery estimate of 9% (+/- 1%) was determined for the microdialysis probe (as calculated from 5-HT standard and dial 5-HT in A). How To A Proper Essay Vermont. Based on this estimate, a 5-HT concentration of essay thesis School, approximately 291 nM (+/- 34 nM) was calculated to be associated with the activation of PBMCs at a cell density of 10 6 cells mL -1 (B). 5-HT HPLC peaks for dial PBS and dial PBMC is likely due to residual contamination of the microdialysis probe. Electron transport, pervasive in how to a proper introduction essay, the plasma membranes of microbes, is generally not observed across the extracellular membranes of eukaryotic cells. The presence of an electron transport chain in the extracellular membranes of microbes provides a likelihood of electron tunneling occurring between the membrane-bound species and the electrode surface. In eukaryotic cells, electron transport is a process that is normally relegated to the membranes of intracellular mitochondria.
However, a number of research articles have been published demonstrating that such electron currents do in fact also exist among certain white blood cells. Schrenzel et al. (1998) showed that small currents can be measured across the essay in english College plasma membranes of human eosinophil granulocytes [ 29 ]. The experiments were performed based on the hypothesis that the membrane associated enzyme NADPH oxidase, found in blood phagocytes (e.g. neutrophils and eosinophils), generates superoxide through electron transfer from NADPH to extracellular oxygen. The magnitudes of the write a proper Academy currents recorded across the extracellular membranes were on the order of 10 to custom service Lakefield 20 pA per cell in how to for an Vermont, these studies. NADPH oxidase is a complex of several proteins that associate with each other upon cell activation [ 32 , 33 ]. Activation in vitro is normally achieved by custom service Lakefield College School application of a phorbol ester, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) [ 29 , 30 , 33 ]. Introduction For An Academy. Activation most likely occurs through the protein kinase C (PKC) pathway [ 34 , 35 ]. The enzyme complex and its analogs have also increasingly been found in Trinity, a variety of different cell types including microglia [ 36 ], vascular smooth muscle [ 37 ], hematopoietic stem cells [ 38 ], and endothelial cells [ 39 ]. The presence of an electron transport chain in how to write a proper introduction for an, the plasma membranes of white blood cells means that it may be possible to writing an argumentative paper Centennial College hijack these high energy electrons in a proper for an essay Vermont, order to divert them to a nearby electrode. Under such a situation, a biofuel cell based on white blood cell glucose metabolism could theoretically be designed. Writing Research Centennial College. The electrical interactions between the write introduction for an Academy cells and the electrode surface become important for such a direct electron transfer process to essay writing Lakefield School take place. The idea of using electrons derived from NADPH oxidase to power a biofuel cell was first proposed by Justin and colleagues [ 1 – 3 , 40 – 45 ] and then more recently by Sakai and colleagues [ 46 ]. In the studies performed by how to write a proper introduction Vermont Academy Justin and these and essays University (INTO), colleagues, including this one, human white blood cells were isolated directly from how to a proper introduction Academy, whole human blood. Writing An Argumentative Paper Centennial College. The vast majority of the cell population isolated comprised PBMC cells (B and T lymphocytes).
The activity of write a proper introduction essay Vermont Academy, K562 and Jurkat white blood cell lines were also investigated. However, in the Sakai study, the specific cells used were THP-1 human monocytic cells stimulated to differentiate into macrophages. The Sakai study demonstrated that the current output from a BFC incorporating macrophages at the anode could be disrupted by an argumentative research College application of how to write a proper Vermont, NADPH oxidase inhibitors such as diphenylene iodinium (DPI). Essay Badminton. The current study described in this paper suggests; however, that other electron transfer processes may occur between the cell and the electrode. As demonstrated in this work, serotonin released from activated white blood cells is a likely mediator for electron transfer between the cells and the electrode. Despite confirmation of this by employing electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and HPLC for validation, it is difficult to dispute the possibility that NADPH oxidase is also active.
One of the reasons that our studies did not reveal CV redox peaks due to NADPH oxidase may have been due to NADPH oxidase not being as active among PBMCs compared to macrophages such as neutrophils and eosinophils. Only very low levels of macrophages would normally be isolated from healthy individuals, as was the case in our study - a necessary requirement for Institutional Review Board (IRB) compliance. Therefore, the effect of write introduction for an essay Vermont, NADPH oxidase activity specifically on the biofuel cell currents would not have been as predominant as culturing differentiated macrophages onto electrodes as performed by Sakai and colleagues. It is surprising that in the work by Sakai and colleagues that a larger background current associated with serotonin was not observed. This suggests that serotonin may not be produced by essay writing service Lakefield College School the differentiated monocytes, unlike the phenomenon of release demonstrated by the cells used in our studies. Vastly different mechanisms of electron transfer for the specific white blood cells used in the two studies are very likely. The idea of harvesting electrons from whole cells is not a new one. How To Write A Proper Vermont. Previous studies performed by courseworkd other researchers on microbial fuel cells suggested that under normal conditions, it is very difficult to achieve direct electron transfer between the cell membrane components of the microbes and an interfacing electrode [ 14 ]. A Proper For An Essay. An important reason for this is the fact that the Goldsmiths of London redox active groups are generally embedded within integral membrane proteins, resulting in a significant energy barrier that increases with increased distance between electron donor and receptor pairs.
Electron tunneling between the membrane components and the electrode surface is further discouraged because of the thermodynamically unfavorable conditions surrounding the movement of free electrons through an aqueous solution. In order to overcome this challenge, many microbial fuel cell researchers employed electron mediators that were capable of shuttling electrons between the membrane-bound redox active components of the write introduction for an microbes and the electrode. Electron mediators such as neutral red [ 6 ] have previously been employed. Kids College. The use of these electron mediators significantly increased the efficiency in electron transfer and thus the current output of the microbial fuel cells. A future goal in continuing the how to write introduction for an Vermont Academy work described in this paper would be to explore means of enhancing the electron transfer efficiency of research paper Centennial, human leukocytes for enhancing current and power densities in implantable biofuel cell applications.
In this study, we proposed the development of a novel biological fuel cell that can utilize the body's own resources to generate electricity, through specific electrochemical interactions between cells and electrodes in how to for an Academy, close proximity. The motivation of this study is to School develop a BFC that can be used to power implantable medical devices, including micro- and how to write, nano- biosensors for either therapeutic or physiological monitoring purposes. The study seeks to demonstrate that electron transfer between human white blood cells and essay in english Trinity College School, an interfacing electrode can occur through any or all of three possible mechanisms: 1) direct electron transfer through membrane bound redox species (such as the flavocytochrome of NADPH oxidase); 2) indirect electron transfer through exocytosed non-metabolic biochemical species (e.g. Write For An Essay Vermont Academy. serotonin); and 3) indirect electron transfer through exocytosed metabolically relevant biochemical species. Our results indicate that activated white blood cells can generate small electrical currents when introduced into the anode compartment of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell, with ferricyanide in the cathode compartment. Cyclic voltammetry of the white blood cells reveal oxidation peaks at about 360 mV vs.
SCE. Peaks at this potential have been attributed to serotonin release. HPLC has been used to verify that human white blood cells release serotonin upon activation. Various white blood cell lines do not release serotonin, indicating that the isolated cells may uptake serotonin from the blood stream rather than metabolize it themselves. The authors would like to thank Dr. Harvey Borovetz and Dr. David Waldeck for their helpful thoughts and insights throughout the course of this work. Special thanks also to the past and current members of the Laboratory for an argumentative Computational Neuroscience (LCN) and the Neural Tissue/Electrode Interface and for an essay Academy, Neural Tissue Engineering Laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh.
This research was supported in part by the National Institutes of Health grant No. R01EB002099, US Army SBIR W81XWH-05-C-0047, and courseworkd Goldsmiths of London, Computational Diagnostics, Inc. Write A Proper Introduction Academy. Authors' original submitted files for along these University of Exeter images. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. GJ performed the BFC current and potential measurements, electrochemical measurements and microdialysis and HPLC as well as drafted the manuscript. YZ was responsible for culturing the cell lines. How To Write Introduction For An Vermont. XC helped in the design and along writing paragraphs University (INTO), implementation of the electrochemical experiments. CB helped in write introduction, the design and implementation of the microdialysis and HPLC experiments.
MS and RS conceived of the study and participated in the design and coordination of the Centennial College overall study. All authors helped to essay draft the manuscript and have read and approved the final manuscript. Sclabassi R, Liu Q, Hackworth S, Justin G, Sun M: Platform technologies to support brain-computer interfaces. Neurosurgery Focus 2006, 20: E5. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Justin G, Zhang Y, Cui X, Sun M, Sclabassi R: An Investigation of the service reviews School Ability of how to essay Vermont, White Blood Cells to Generate Electricity in Biofuel Cells. Proc of the IEEE 31st Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, Hoboken, NJ 2005. Google Scholar Sun M, Justin G, Roche P, Zhao J, Wessel B, Zhang Y, Sclabassi R: Harnessing the Body's Own Energy and Communication Resources. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Magazine: Clinical Engineering 2006, 39-46. Google Scholar Park D, Zeikus J: Improved Fuel Cell and research Centennial, Electrode Designs for Producing Electricity from Microbial Degradation. Biotechnology and Bioengineering 2003, 81: 348-55.
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Google Scholar Justin G, Zhang Y, Cui XT, Sun M, Sclabassi R: An Investigation of NADPH Oxidase Activity for writings in english College Biofuel Cell Power Applications Within the Neurological Environment. How To Write Introduction Vermont. NINDS Neural Interfaces Workshop, Bethesda, Maryland 2005. Google Scholar Justin G, Zhang Y, Cui X, Sun M, Sclabassi R: Investigation of Electron Transfer between White Blood Cells and Carbon Fiber Electrodes. Proc 33rd Annual Northeast Bioengineering Conference, Stony Brook, NY 2007. Google Scholar Sakai M, Vonderheit A, Wei X, Kuettel C, Stemmer A: A novel biofuel cell harvesting energy from activated human macrophages. Biosensors and writings in english Trinity College, Bioelectronics 2009, 25: 68-75. 10.1016/j.bios.2009.06.005 View ArticleGoogle Scholar. This article is write introduction for an Academy published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Critical Thinking Centennial College. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on LinkedIn Share on how to write a proper introduction for an essay Vermont Academy, Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit. Journal of Biological Engineering.
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Drug Court Essays and Research Papers. NSW Drug Court : Is it an effective addition to introduction for an Academy the legal system? The Drug Court of New South Wales . Writing An Argumentative Research? was introduced in February 1999 as a 2-year-pilot program under the how to write a proper introduction for an Vermont Academy Drug Court Act 1998 (NSW). After various evaluations it was decided to extend the pilot-program until 2004, with amendments being made to the Drug Court Act 1998 (NSW) in December 2002. The Drug Court’s main objectives are: to reduce the drug dependency of eligible persons to promote the re-integration of such drug dependent. Addiction , Court systems , Crime 1208 Words | 5 Pages. ? Drug Court Name: Class: Date: Introduction A drug court is a correctional facility . Essay Trinity School? co-operating with the judicial system in trying to write Academy aid drug offenders amend their habits.
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How to Write an Essay Introduction (with Sample Intros)
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