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Argumentative Essay: Legalization of cannabis. Argumentative Essay: Legalization of cannabis. In most countries, possession and use of cannabis that is also commonly known as marijuana is considered illegal. In fact, it can be noted that for many years, cannabis has been considered to an illegal drug in how to write of an ACS Cobham International School most countries. Writing MacDuffie? Nevertheless, today, some countries have legalized cannabis while other countries have not. In particular, small quantities of cannabis have been allowed in regions such as Europe, North America and South America. Moreover, in the United States, some states such as Washington and Colorado have also legalized the possession and usage of marijuana for medical purposes. The Conclusion Essay School? On the other hand, various penalties are imposed for use or possession of cannabis in most countries.
The penalties generally range from simple to severe punishments. Possession of small quantities of marijuana is not punished the science Caterham School same way as possession of the conclusion essay ACS Cobham, large quantities. Writing International? In this argumentative essay, I seek to argue the how to write the conclusion ACS Cobham reasons why cannabis should be legalized, and why it should not. Primarily, cannabis should be legalized since it is science used for medication, and its legalization means better and higher quality health standards. For example, Sativex is a recent drug that has been discovered to cure Multiple Sclerosis (Kmietowicz 89). How To Write Essay ACS Cobham International School? The drug has been used in the United Kingdom to treat MS patients, and it has been found to work effectively. Therefore, banning of cannabis would be a disadvantage to people who suffer from diseases that use cannabis as a major component in their medicine. The usage of cannabis for argumentation and persuasion essay Hanze University medical purpose is the strongest reason to essay ACS Cobham International School legalize it. Writing Essay Introductions International School-Salzburg? Cannabis helps a condition that is known as cancer chemotherapy. The condition causes extreme vomiting to its patients.
It also helps to write of an ACS Cobham International School open up lungs of an asthma patient (Kmietowicz 89). Moreover, the legalization of marijuana can also yield a new tax source for the government, which will consequently increase the government revenue. When this argument is viewed in argumentation and persuasion perspective of the current economic situation, it can be noted that the argument makes a lot of sense. Indeed, that is the case since at the moment, most of the returns from write the conclusion ACS Cobham, cannabis business ends up with criminal gangs that control its trade in various regions around the world. Write Monkton Combe? However, that situation would be changed since if marijuana was legalized, the the conclusion ACS Cobham International School government would control its trade.
According to Gallup (2013), the number of Americans who favor legalization of writing essay introductions American International, marijuana has consistently been on the increase with the figure reaching its highest level in write the conclusion of an ACS Cobham International October 2013 as 58% of the Americans were found to favor legalization of marijuana. In that perspective, it can be argued that, the fact that an increasing number of Americans favor legalization of marijuana implies that it is high time the essay Hanze University of Applied Sciences government legalized marijuana. On the other hand, people who argue that marijuana should not be legalized argue that marijuana is more lethal to the human body than alcohol, which is legal. According to them, the effects of alcohol and cigarettes to how to write the conclusion ACS Cobham International School the human body are dangerous since among others, they cause cancer, and liver cirrhosis. The United Sates department of health and human studies (2008) conducted a study that found that in essay the country, 69.7 million people use tobacco, while about 15 million people abuses alcohol. Moreover, the study also found out that 4.2 million of the American population abuses cannabis while every 1000 deaths were found to have been caused by smoking related diseases, while 550 deaths were found to have been caused by alcohol related diseases and how to of an ACS Cobham International School accidents. The critics of illegalization of courses MacDuffie School, cannabis use such research findings to claim that cannabis is already being widely used in the conclusion of an ACS Cobham International United States and other parts of the world and it does not cause more deaths while compared to other drugs. Therefore, proponents of legalization of marijuana argue that marijuana should be legalized since it is less harmful than other substances that are already legalized.
On another perspective, it can be noted that legalization of essay MacDuffie School, cannabis is found to be extremely irrational to the conclusion of an International some people who argue that the only unique feature of marijuana, other than the good feeling, is the pain killer effect (Moudgil 77). Nevertheless, the argument is how to write a story Monkton Combe countered by the fact that there are other painkillers in the market. Thus, the argument that cannabis can be used for medical reasons is termed, as been an excuse. From that perspective, it can be argued that if the medical reason can be used to how to write the conclusion ACS Cobham legalize marijuana, then cocaine should indeed have been legalized long before marijuana since it has a stronger numbing effect (Moudgil 77). Problem Strategies Polimoda? Another point brought forward by how to write the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham opponents of legalization of review School, cannabis is that if cannabis is legalized, there is a risk that its use would certainly increase.
For example, the United States today has 15.2 million marijuana users while there are 129 million alcohol users in the country (Moffat 17). Even though the users of marijuana are not as many as compared to users of how to School, alcohol, in can be noted that there is a high chance that legalization of marijuana is likely to increase its usage among people as it will be readily available. The fact that tobacco and alcohol are both taxed drugs, and yet they have serious consequences on writing essay introductions, the human body should be seen as a clear indication that even though the two are legalized they have serious negative impacts to how to the conclusion of an essay School those who abuse them. The fact that drugs such as cannabis are addictive and they rob people the free will is write Monkton School a strong fact that critics use in how to the conclusion of an International School order to argue against the legalization of cannabis. For example, according to Parry (696) it becomes hard for any drug user who uses cannabis to make an informed decision to quit this behavior since the use of cannabis affects the logical thinking of its users. Moreover, it can be noted that the use of marijuana causes irrational thinking and incase of drivers who use cannabis, research has found that they may have impaired judgments and argumentation and persuasion essay Hanze of Applied cause accidents (Parry, 699). The use of drugs for other purposes apart from medical purpose is how to write ACS Cobham extremely harmful. Write Monkton Combe? The harm that is caused by using these drugs occurs not only to the users but also to International School people who are related to essay courses them. Moreover, drug use increases the write the conclusion of an essay School health costs of the individuals who abuse drugs and is many times associated with violence.
Moreover, drug addicted parents often neglect their children resulting to the children becoming street children. Moreover, it can also be noted that the legalization of Cannabis will also cost the government extra finance to cater for medication and rehabilitation of people who will be suffering from essays State, cannabis withdrawal symptoms. In conclusion, it is indisputably vivid that there are various arguments for and against the legalization of marijuana. How To Write The Conclusion Essay ACS Cobham? In my opinion, marijuana should not be legalized in any country. The legalization of marijuana leads to a lot of immorality and argumentation and persuasion Hanze University increased crime rates. The arguments in favor of marijuana only compare marijuana’s effects with the effects of other drugs, but this does not imply that the effects of cannabis are not bad to the human body. It can this be summed up that if most governments across the world were to legalize cannabis, there will definitely be a notable change in the stability and well-being of people around the how to of an essay ACS Cobham School world. Gallup. 2013.
For First Time, Americans Favor Legalizing Marijuana . 11 th November 2013. Kmietowicz, Z.. #8220; Countries Should Consider Legalising Cannabis In Light Of Futility Of Bans .#8221; BMJ 341.oct05 1 (2010): c5471-c5471. Print. Lewis, A. #8220;Legalisation of cannabis..#8221; British Medical Journal , 2. 6129 (1978): 56. Print.
Moffat, A. #8220;The Legalization of Cannabis For Medical Use.#8221; Science Justice 42.1 (2002): 55- Moudgil, Girish C.. #8220;The Patient With Reactive Airways Disease.#8221; Canadian Journal of. Anaesthesia 44.S1 (1997): R77-R89. Print. Parry, Charles DH. #8220;Critical issues in the debate on decriminalisation or legalisation of. cannabis in South Africa .#8221; South African Medical Journal-Cape Town-Medical Association Of South Africa , 92.
9 (2002): 696696. Print. Problem Solving Strategies Polimoda? The United Sates department of health and human studies. Health United States, 2008.
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How to Write an Artist’s CV in how to of an essay ACS Cobham School, 10 Steps. A CV or curriculum vitae is an effective Oregon State University (INTO), overview of your artistic professional history and achievements. Although it looks similar to a resume, it contains different elements which are only related to how to the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham International School, your artistic professional practice. One mistake emerging artists often make in how to effective essays Oregon State (INTO), writing their CVs is trying to oversell their work. Less is more. The Conclusion Of An ACS Cobham International? Your CV should be neatly organized, and only include information pertinent to your artistic career. What should you include on a CV? Here is where how to compose one in 10 steps: Often, more established artists will keep it simple. This is because their CV is usually referenced as a biography rather than a resume. Damian Hirst (b.
1965, UK) However, you can include contact information if you are sending out your CV to galleries in the hopes that they will reply: Damian Hirst, (b. 1965, UK) Either of these formats is appropriate for an artist’s CV. Essay Introductions International School-Salzburg? Just keep in mind that you should only include your website if it directly relates to your artistic practice. You may have attended post-secondary school for art, or you might be a self-taught, mentored, or otherwise educated artist.
Generally speaking, this section of a CV relates to institutional education specifically in write essay ACS Cobham School, the field of visual arts. If you do have post-secondary education in the arts field, include the school(s), the year(s) that you graduated, and the degree(s): University of British Columbia, Master of writing American, Fine Arts, 2009. Emily Carr University, Bachelor of Fine Arts, 2005. If you do not have a degree in the visual arts field, fear not. This section of the how to the conclusion of an ACS Cobham CV is not a pre-requisite for exhibitions or gallery representation. The only writing courses thing to note is that you should not put down any other type of education (high school graduation, degree in business management), unless it very directly relates to the artwork that you make.
Leaving this section off of the conclusion School, your CV is perfectly acceptable. Beginning with your most recent, you should list your exhibitions in a manner similar to this: 2011 Title of write effective Oregon University (INTO), Show , Museum of Modern Art, NY. 2010 I’ve been showing a lot lately , Galerie Espace, Montreal. If you have a large number of exhibitions, you can split them into two or more categories: solo exhibitions, group exhibitions, and even duo exhibitions. This helps define in what capacity your work was shown (you don’t want to undersell your solo show at of an International School, the MoMA.) A method often used by artists is to list “selected” exhibitions, ie, the heading would read “selected group exhibitions”. This has benefits whether you have a lot of exhibitions or not: if you have lots, you can weed out the exhibitions that are no longer relevant to your career. If you don’t have a lot of a story essay Monkton School, exhibitions, you are assuring the reader that they are not looking at a short list, but rather your most relevant history.
In this section of your CV, you can include any articles in which you or your art appeared. If it is an how to essay ACS Cobham International School, article, it should include the author, title, publication, volume, publication date, and page number: Coupland, Douglas: “Why I Love This Artwork”, Canadian Art Magazine, vol. Essay Introductions American International? 12, February 2011, p. 55-60. If your work appeared on write of an ACS Cobham International, the cover of a publication, you can format your information like this:
Canadian Art Magazine, Cover, vol. 12, February 2011. If writing about your artwork or your artwork itself appears in a book, the formatting should read: Schwabsky, Barry (Compiler), Vitamin P: New Perspectives in problem solving strategies Polimoda, Painting , Phiadon Press 2004, p. 78. For further information and other examples of MLA format, there any many resources online. As an how to of an essay ACS Cobham, example, here is SFU’s citation guide for MLA style . Once I entered a competition to paint banners for a small city’s Christmas celebration. I requested the essay writing courses School banner be returned when the how to write essay ACS Cobham International School competition was over, but they refused to how to a story essay School, return it.
Now I put “City of _____” under the public collections section of how to write ACS Cobham International, my CV. Write Essays Oregon University (INTO)? We both win! Generally, the “collections” portion of your CV is to list public institutions which own your artwork. This could be museums, corporate collections, or even municipalities or agencies. They can simply be listed under the heading collections: The Vancouver Art Gallery. The Canada Council Art Bank. The Colart Collection.
If you only have artwork in private collections and how to of an essay you wish to include this section on your CV, you should not list the how to write Oregon State University name of the how to the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham International School collector unless 1. Argumentation Essay Hanze? they are well-known as important collectors of how to of an essay ACS Cobham, art, and 2. Essay Combe? have explicitly agreed to be listed on your CV in whatever venue it gets published (the web, etc). If several people own your artwork in how to write the conclusion essay International, private collections and you would like to note that, you can list them like this: Private collection, Calgary AB. Private collection, Vancouver, BC. Just don’t go to argumentation Hanze, overboard with the list– if you really have lots, you’ll look more understated and how to the conclusion essay ACS Cobham School impressive by essay courses MacDuffie School inserting something like this: Works held in private collections in Canada, the how to ACS Cobham United States, Germany, and New Zealand.
If you have any published writing relating to either your own practice or that of others, you can list it here in proper MLA format: “This Artwork is Awesome”, Awesome exhibition catalogue, Vancouver Art Gallery, 2006. The above points are the and persuasion University Sciences most common and usually the most notable elements which artists include on their CVs. However, depending on your practice, there may be a number of the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham International, other professional and artistic points of Caterham School, interest to the conclusion essay School, list. Here are some examples: This is a space to list any teaching positions you may have had, either as a faculty member or as a guest lecturer or speaker. You should only include those related specifically to problem, your practice or to how to write the conclusion essay ACS Cobham International, visual arts:
2009, Guest lecturer, Emily Carr University. 2007, Sessional instructor, SFU. If, as well as being an artist you have also undertaken curatorial projects (as so many artists seem to write a story Monkton, do now), you can list them simply as the exhibition itself, or, add on a brief explaination: 2011, “Drawings”, Richmond Art Gallery. 2010, “Paintings”, Or Gallery, co-curated by Damian Hirst. Some artists choose to list awards and / or grants they have received. If you decide to include this, the list should all be specifically related to your artistic practice, unless it is extremely notable, such as the Nobel Peace Prize:
2011, Canada Council grant. 2010, BC Arts Council grant. Artist’s residencies you may have attended are good to include on your CV as they show a dedication to of an essay ACS Cobham International, your practice and to your professional development: 2010, Studio residency, School of Visual Arts, New York. One of the best ways to and persuasion essay Hanze Sciences, start writing your CV is to write essay International, see how other artists do it. In addition to the categories listed above, there are many different professional practices or ways of Hanze, organizing your information. Many galleries or artist’s themselves post CVs on their website, so they are easily accessible. Write The Conclusion Of An Essay? A few to how to effective Oregon State, check out: 143 thoughts on “ How to Write an Artist’s CV in write ACS Cobham International, 10 Steps ” Thanks so much, great information. really great,, I was struggling on articles, puting one together,
The information online is very conflicting when it comes to write the conclusion essay International, artists CV’s. thia article only writing essay American International applies to artists with sufficient experience and various accomplishments such that this article would provide no value, with no usefulness or relevance to artists who are seeking advice on creating a resume. Hi Bradley– I’d be happy to write the conclusion essay International, give you other suggestions for your artist CV. What kind of artistic experience do you have, and what were you thinking of including on your CV? What would you reccommend to write in an unexperienced artist?s cv? I don?t even have shown my work in a gallery, do you think it is how to write Monkton School, a must to do this? What would be the previous steps to writing a cv? I am interested in write of an ACS Cobham School, applying for a contest but I always end up not applying because of the cv. Wow. This blog is such a fantastic resource!
I am thrilled to have found it this afternoon! Cheers! If you are creating a resume for argumentation and persuasion Hanze of Applied Sciences an art teacher position, do you still include all the info you pointed out? Or do you create more of a standard resume (objective, job history, etc.)? Do they want to how to essay ACS Cobham International School, see if your work has been in galleries, etc? Hi Tanya, I would still use all the info listed above, but perhaps pare it down to review articles Caterham, include only the “highlights.” Then you can also include standard employment info from a regular resume, as well as references. Cheers! Thanks for the info. Also, should I put experience first, then the how to write the conclusion essay School highlights of CV? Also, is their a max for number of introductions American International, pages, because I know on my standard employment resume you shouldn’t have more than 2 pages. Apologies for the delayed reply!
I agree experience first and then CV highlights. Essay School? I’d keep it to 2 pages if possible, but if the position you are applying for is prestigious or highly competitive, they would probably appreciate more information. For example, the CVs of many scholars are pages and pages long! If you do not have a formal art degree but have taken collegiate courses, should you include the university and disciplines under Education? I was originally enrolled in a 4 year art program and due to a significant change in circumstances had to essay University, move and was forced to complete a 2 year general degree. My CV is really short, although I’m working on getting more exhibitions under my belt.
Hi Diana, yes, I would include these collegiate courses but keep them brief. How To Of An ACS Cobham School? I would list the general degree and highlight your original focus on the arts-related courses. What if you have no experience, have taken photography classes and science review articles Caterham have only shown in student shows? How can you put something together with practically nothing without making it look that way? Hi Lisa, you should list your photography courses under education and your student shows under exhibitions. Write Of An Essay ACS Cobham International School? If anyone owns your work (even if you’ve gifted them a work,) you can list them as a private collection (see step 5.) Those three items formatted nicely with your contact info should give you a decent 1 page CV. Don’t worry if it seems sparse to you, there’s nothing wrong with being an writing courses MacDuffie, emerging artist! Also remember most people will look at your artwork before they look at your CV #128521; Thank you for the information – it’s very helpful!
One other question – as far as publications is concerned: what if my art appeared in a [student] publication, but wasn’t reviewed? The book appears every spring and consists of International, photos of various students’ work. Should I put that on a CV or leave it out? Hi Lisa, definitely include it. Science Caterham? Any time your artwork is published it’s worth including! A couple of questions: I have several exhibitions from the the conclusion essay ACS Cobham International School Navy, should they be listed by ship or simply U.S. Navy with home city and year?
I also received a nomination for 2005 Graphic Artist of the articles Caterham Year while in the Navy, which section would you recommend listing this? Hi Michael, for your exhibitions, I think you should list U.S. Of An ACS Cobham School? Navy, the solving strategies ship, as well as home city and year. Someone looking at your CV would probably appreciate as much information as possible. For your nomination (congratulations, by the way!) you can list that under a heading called “awards.” You could format it something like this: 2005, Nomination, Graphic Artist of the Year, US Navy. I hope that helps #128578; Very much so. Thank you! OK, one more question, for multiple awards received in write of an essay School, one year, list year and award individually or as a group under that one year?
Hi Michael, there’s no exact right or wrong here, it’s up to you in review articles School, terms of what you think visually looks better. You could go like this: Nominated, Award #1. Nominated, Award #2. Finalist, Award #3. 2005, Nominated, Award #1. 2005, Nominated, Award #2. 2005, Finalist, Award #3. 2004, Winner, Award #4. just saying thank you. i have struggled to write the conclusion of an essay, find a good reference for creating a cv for an artist, this one is solving, great. Thank you!
I’m glad it helped you. I was wondering whether the of an International School tips above applies to those wanting to pursue arts-management courses as well? . I don’t have formal post-secondary arts-related education but have taken part in small-scale and major group exhibitions. Hi Yangzheur, I think it depends exactly what you’re tailoring your CV for. Do you mean that you are applying to an arts-management business type of course? If so, look closely at their requirements. Are they asking for writing an artist’s CV? If so, the information about would be applicable to how to of an essay ACS Cobham School, you. If they are asking for writing courses MacDuffie School a resume, and if you feel your participation in the exhibitions are relevant to of an essay ACS Cobham School, the focus of the program, you could add those to essay introductions American International, your resume as professional experience. I hope that helps! Thank you.
Its good reference to make a CV for an artist. Reblogged this on balladblood and commented: Very helpful for those of us doing their artist C.V’s for the first time. Great Advice! My sister is struggling and I am trying to the conclusion essay, help in any way. I am not an artist so all the advice helps! Can I send you her CV so far? Hi Natalie, if you have any specific questions about the articles Caterham CV or its formatting, please email me at email@example.com.
Cheers! Thanks for write the conclusion of an International School the information. You have clearly explained how we can write professional resume perfectly. There is one option to create perfect CV is to use resume templates. This helps in saving your lot of time and also helps to make your resume best among all. Wow, This is wonderful. I am trying to take the information from my regular resume and crate a CV for graduate school applications. Argumentation Essay Hanze Sciences? Is there a best format for grad school applications that combines both work and how to the conclusion of an International School art? Also, I am challenged by how I should add a competition (the only one I have to put on the CV) that was through Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Design, Issue 18, which is a print and web journal. Courses MacDuffie? I won a Merit award in student photography and write the conclusion International was published (full page) in the magazine. But in effective essays Oregon (INTO), addition to how to ACS Cobham, that for the same issue, my winning Runner-Up image was posted in the on-line gallery.
Here’s what I have written. The formatting did not carry over with a copy and paste function. Please imagine that the journal title is underlined not to include the words, Volume Five, Number Four. Can you tell me if it is correctly entered? This is essay University, so awesome! Thank you! New Talent Merit Winner-Student Photography. Creative Quarterly: The Journal of of an ACS Cobham International, Art and Design, Issue 18. Volume Five, Number Four. Spring 2010.
64. Print. Runner-Up-Student Photography. “Online Gallery: CQ 18.” Creative Quarterly: The Journal of Art and Design, Issue 18. Volume Five, Number Four. Spring 2010. Forgive if this post hows up twice. My laptop is being a pain right now. Hi, please forgive me for my delay in replying!
I think you should choose what elements you need from your work resume and which from your art, and combine them as you see fit based on the requirements of problem strategies Polimoda, your application. Resumes are CVs are formatted fairly similarly, so if you just keep that consistent it should be just fine to combine the information that they require into write one document. Regarding your competitions section, you could consider renaming it “Awards.” Even if you technically received runner-up, it still is appropriate. I think your formatting works well. Hope that helps #128578; New Talent Student Photography Award,v The information you’ve shared is very helpful.
I will change the section to Awards,and I’ll change the information as you have suggested above. I really appreciate you! Thank you very much. When adding shows to your CV, should you separate juried shows from exhibitions? Does it matter and how should you separate them? I know that separating solo shows from group shows is problem solving Polimoda, done, but I am wondering specifically about juried (and, now that I think about it, un-juried — but that would make it more of how to write of an essay School, just a group exhibition, no?) shows. Oregon State University (INTO)? Thank you. If you want to how to of an essay ACS Cobham, note that certain shows were juried, I would just put a note at the end of those entries.
For example: 2013: “Portraits” at the Downtown Art Gallery (juried) “Landscapes” at West Art Gallery. “Abstracts” and East Art Gallery (juried) I think if you were to write a story essay Combe School, separate juried shows into how to ACS Cobham their own section, it could get too confusing for a reader. Hope that helps! Hi! Thanks so much for this CV advice, v helpful! I have a question aswell. Would you include web-based magazines under “bibliography”?
And in that case, how would you write it? If you would like to include web-based magazines or publications on your CV, go ahead. You can list them along with the writing essay introductions School-Salzburg other items in your bibliography, and how to write essay School just put ” (online) ” or similar at how to effective Oregon, the end of the write of an essay ACS Cobham International listing. I’m sure web-based articles and reviews haven’t always been appropriate for CVs, but obviously things are changing. Any important articles and reviews, online or otherwise, should be included. Hope that helps! Thanks very much for how to write essays (INTO) your help! Am struggling with my CV, and how to the conclusion of an essay International School realized Ive been in some magazines that have both a paper-based article and the same article online, so just thought I could refer to the online article as it would be easier get a hold of. In that case, you could add “(also available online)”? Perhaps that would make it clear to the reader. Thanks so much for science review articles School your help with this!
If I had a collaborative piece in a group show in a museum, how do I indicate that I was one of a number of people who produced the piece, or do I need to? You could list it like this: 2013, Group Show, Museum of Modern Art (artwork in collaboration with Andy Warhol and Jackson Pollack) or if you don’t want to the conclusion ACS Cobham, list the other artists (there’s too many, or you just want simplicity), you could simply put: 2013, Group Show, Museum of Modern Art (collaborative artwork). Hope that helps! If you show and sell in artist markets do they go in science review articles School, the Exhibitiions section? Should they be in a separate section ie; Markets. Many of the markets I have done over the past year were juried. Hi Leslie, usually you would not include markets in the exhibition section, even if they are juried. You could include them in their own section if you would like to include them on the conclusion ACS Cobham School, your CV, but I would say only do this if you are submitting your CV for commercial purposes, ie applying to a story essay Monkton Combe School, a different market. Thank you for of an essay ACS Cobham International sharing this information and problem solving displaying it in such an easy to follow fashion.
Hi mate, do you suggest a cover letter with your cv? Thank you for this, I had done mine like a job CV until I found your post. I do not have a lot of shows on my CV, but I have made the most of how to of an essay ACS Cobham School, it with your advice. Thank you. Hello and thank you for the information you’ve shared.
However, I’m someone who has had a career in producing and problem strategies promoting the art of others. I recently found my own ‘voice’ and am trying to establish myself. The Conclusion Of An ACS Cobham International School? My work is abstract photography and I’ve been approached for some rather large projects in Saudi Arabia, here in Los Angeles and in NYC. I’ve had an article written on me by a design magazine. And Persuasion Hanze University? I do have work in private collections in London, New York, Jacksonville, Dallas, New Orleans, Provincetown and Los Angeles, as well as shows in a couple of smaller galleries here in Los Angeles, but I can’t seem to land gallery representation. How To Write The Conclusion Of An ACS Cobham? I’ve created an EMK (electronic media kit) to use to Polimoda, begin cold submissions to galleries. I just was curious what input or advice you might have for me going forward.
I appreciate your time and how to write of an attention. Write Essay Combe School? Robert Madden. I would suggest, if you haven’t already, researching the mandates or programs of galleries before submitting. This could be online, or simply a phone call asking if galleries are accepting submissions, and what exactly they are looking for. Hopefully you can then narrow down the list of write the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham International School, galleries you are approaching. How To Write Effective State (INTO)? Of course, acquiring gallery representation is not easy for anyone. Stay persistent and write the conclusion of an keep working on your own projects and exhibitions–good things will happen. Hi dear,Thanks for sharing this format,I tried my best to essay MacDuffie, made the most of it with your advise. I have attended some workshops by some well known artists.
Should I include this under education or leave it off the CV. Including the how to write the conclusion ACS Cobham School workshops would be appropriate in the education section as you suggested. Thank you so much for science review articles School this. Even the comments under specific questions asked by how to write the conclusion of an essay School others has been helpful. I appreciate your efforts. I unfortunately have no formal art training (I can not afford to attend art school) and I am near completion of my first collection (it is a mixed media project that focuses on write effective University (INTO), the use of how to the conclusion essay International, green army men in each piece). I recently discovered a not for articles Caterham profit gallery in write the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham, my area that are taking submissions. I have a few pieces that I want to submit, and I have been racking my brain on Polimoda, what to how to of an ACS Cobham School, place in my resume since I have not sold any work, presented it anywhere, I have yet to place any work on courses MacDuffie School, a website. Could you please assist me? Thank you in advance.
I also would like to ask if it is strange for an artist to work on the conclusion School, a political body of work (as my toy soldier piece is), and essay School-Salzburg then jump to a humorous body of work, and back to something political in nature, and anywhere in between? I can not think of any artist that have done that. I always make notes of write the conclusion essay International School, ideas for MacDuffie School bodies of works that I’d like to ACS Cobham International, create (many tend to essay writing, be of a conceptual nature), and I have realised that many of my ideas don’t fit into a mold that would categorize me as a person making a particular type of work. Write The Conclusion Of An Essay ACS Cobham International School? I ask this because, at some point, I would like to work on write Oregon (INTO), a humorous body of work after I feel ready to how to write the conclusion ACS Cobham International School, move on from this project. The best I can do for your is included in my newest post, which offers suggestions for if you need to write a CV and don’t have much professional experience: https://thepracticalartworld.com/2013/04/09/how-to-write-an-artists-cv-when-you-dont-have-much-or-any-professional-experience/
Alternatively, depending on what is argumentation and persuasion of Applied, required of you for your submission, you could include a cover letter indicating that you do not have a CV as you are a new and how to the conclusion of an essay School emerging self-taught artist. In terms of the art itself, honesty is always visible. If you make work that matters to you, whether it’s serious or humourous, that’s the courses School best anyone can do. Thank you so much! Recently I took part in a photo competition organised by a local independent art gallery.
I didn’t win first prize but I was one of the runner-up(finalists). Can this be included in my CV? If so under which (specific) category? If am applying for transfer of the conclusion of an, article ship in any firm where should i mention experience details.In experience column or any other place as the reason for transfer. What a fantastic resource. Thank you! My issue is that I’ve taken about 10 years off to raise my children, so all of my dates are really OLD!! I’d like not to include any dates on exhibitions or education or anything – what do you think? I feel like I am still emerging, and yet the dates would say otherwise (ie: undergrad in 1985-1991, grad school in 1993/94, etc…) How would you include a publication you produce?
I have been publishing and selling a calendar of Sciences, my mandala art since 1997. Do I include that? How is the best way? You could list them under the heading “Publications” The format beyond that is up to you, but for write the conclusion essay ACS Cobham International an example you could do something like: 1997, “Michael Lukacsko” published by Mandala Art. If there are any essays or authors, you could list them also. Hope that helps!
Thank you so Much. You helped me a lot. Thank you for how to Oregon this advice – it helps a great deal to make sense of the differences between a work resume and an artist CV. I do have one question – is how to the conclusion essay International School, it ok to mix media on a single CV? I came from a journalism/print media background and am now doing photography. Can I list my “Images of Men and Women in Advertising” Pop-Culture presentation and my piece on essays, Lollapalooza on the same CV as my photography exhibit? I would say yes, as long as everything is still relevant to your practice (which it sounds like it is).
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I do write in my journal everyday. I’d like to start a blog. so I will be able to share my personal experience and thoughts. online. Please let me know if you have any suggestions or tips for write of an essay ACS Cobham brand new aspiring blog. In regards to the education section, I have a multimedia illustrator professional diploma from science articles School, Defense Information School, would it be helpful to list it? I have been an how to of an International School, artist for American International years and I still don’t have a comprehensive cv. I would also advice including links for your online portfolio i you have blogs or a website.
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nearly anything done. Hi, this is the most useful site i have come across for International School advice on writing an problem solving Polimoda, artists cv– So thank you for that! I have a question. How To Of An International? I come from a background in Animation, i studied a postgrad in and persuasion essay Hanze Sciences, it, and write ACS Cobham prior to that a degree in Graphic Design but in the last few years i have chucked animation in to Combe School, be an how to write ACS Cobham International School, artist. And Persuasion Hanze Of Applied Sciences? I have several exhibitons, but am wondering if it is ok to put that i occasionally teach with a group of the conclusion School, kids once a month animation at the BFI (British Film Institute), or does this sound unproffesional. Also i have an problem strategies, award from years ago from RSA for a short animation film i made…it is ok to how to write School, include this in the CV. I also developed a childrens animation series and was creative director at write essay School, a major tv company in the UK a while ago but am concerned that if i put all this in this CV it will be too long and how to the conclusion essay ACS Cobham School not sticking to the field i am now involved with. I am just checking with you really, I was thinking of putting the awards only and if anyone wanted to know more about my experience as an problem solving strategies Polimoda, animator treat it as a seperate subject or CV??
thanks in advance for your advice. International? I am applying to do an artists fair. Regards B. I think if you create a heading on your CV called “teaching” and put your BFI experience under, that would sound great. How To Write Essays Oregon University (INTO)? It doesn’t matter that it’s in animation—teaching is a good thing to put on how to of an essay ACS Cobham School, your CV if it’s in science review School, an arts-related field, which this is. I would agree with you that the award should be included, as it is an of an essay ACS Cobham International School, award you won for a personal creative project. I would also agree that the articles Caterham TV company experience should not be included, as that would be more of a work resume item. I hope that helps. Cheers! that’s great- thanks for write the conclusion ACS Cobham School that. One other quick question.
I know that nowadays it is not compulsory to put your date of birth on a CV- at least that is the case in the UK- due to ageism! would you think that for an artists CV this is necessary though? My thoughts are that it might be needed for say selling something in an auction, or on an artists biography, but why should this be on articles, a CV necesarily….? If it is a necesity could you let me know and i will put it, but I do not agree with it personally! I think it is often done, but not compulsory. Wonderful article!
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Your outline makes it look like a very doable task. I have one question – the of an ACS Cobham gallery has asked for my website. My site is a with a POD (print on strategies Polimoda, demand) group – I have my own page and only my work is how to the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham International School, represented. Would it be ok to use that site or would it make me look “unprofessional?” I’m not that familiar with POD websites, but it sounds like you are hesitant to share your site because you think it would be unprofessional compared to your representing gallery. If this is the case, why not make a new site that is only your portfolio of works? Thanks for essay introductions American getting back to me, I’ll get to work on that page! Hi! This is write the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham School, my 1st comment here so I just wanted. to give a quick shout out and say I genuinely enjoy reading through your. posts.
Can you recommend any other blogs/websites/forums that go over the same subjects? very helpful … but a lot of differences with other cv examples. Reblogged this on My Blog. Hi there, I wish for too subscrib for essay writing this website to how to the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham International, obbtain hottest. updates, thus where can i doo it please assist. Hi there, thanks for posting this and helping all of us artists.
I have a question, how would you include artwork produced that was not for an article/magazine, but a poster for a play? Where does this fall under? Hi Kirsty, there’s no rule for this but I would suggest a heading like “Projects” where you can add all of your published works or other projects. What’s up friends, how is the argumentation and persuasion Hanze Sciences whole thing, and what you desire to say regarding this post, in write the conclusion essay, my view its really awesome designed for. Very great post.
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RealtimeCV interactive CV creation tool is awesome. Now you can create your modern infographic CV and save it PDF. Here is the link: http://www.realtimecv.com/cvdetails. Reblogged this on Greta Laundy Art and commented: Useful information. Essay Writing Courses School? Very similar to NAVA’s suggestions.
Thanks, but i have a question. what if i am currently working with the people of essay International, my field(let say engineers) but as a creative team. shall I still not have to mention my engineering degree in courses, my CV? i’ve had my art featured in several independently published zines and online magazines, how should i feature that in how to essay School, my CV? awesome! i am writing one for a friend and was trying to find all of the exact resources you list. kuddos and many thanks!
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I have office 2013 for free. Max, 1 TB is how to write of an essay ACS Cobham International School, not that extremely much. If you only use your computer for word documents or whatever, then it's a lot. Essay School-Salzburg? If you store a lot of music or videos, it quickly fills up. And it's not important if he uses 1 TB if the lower tier option is 500 GB and how to write the conclusion, he almost filled that up. What I'm getting at is.. For god's sake, how much of introductions International School-Salzburg it he uses has nothing to do with this article or the point he's making.
And even if he used none of it, it still doesn't matter, what the fuck is your point. i think it is amazing. Matthew Smith is a freelance writer living in Portland Oregon. He also writes for @matt_on_tech. You can follow him on Twitter or Google+. A Solid Mid-Range Phone: The Moto G5 Plus (Review and Giveaway) Nebula Mars: The New Standard in Portable Projectors. What is This, a Mousepad for Ants? The Razer Turret Lapboard Review (and Giveaway)
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Analysis of Dead Poets Society: Non-Conformity Changes Lives Essay Sample. Dead Poets Society is how to write the conclusion ACS Cobham School, a movie set in how to write effective essays Oregon University, the 1950 s But filmed in 1989 .Although it is set on the 50s the movie talks and is able to get through transcendentalist ideals to the viewer . The movie is set in a boy’s only private school called Walton that sends its graduates to Ivy league colleges. Where Mr. Keating is the write ACS Cobham School, new English teacher were he introduces non conformity and transcendentalism to his students. How To Write Effective Essays State University! In the movie each boy has a scene where he breaks out of his norm becomes and a nonconformist. The movie also relates to transcendentalist poetry like Emily Dickson work And Walt Whitman especially in how to the conclusion essay ACS Cobham International, his poems in “song of myself. Polimoda! “ So Transcendentalism connects to the movie through poetry. The movie shows us that transcendentalism is freedom and braking from the norm while having consequences it is ultimately a good thing. How To Write! Mr. Keating is the new English teacher.
He graduated from the same school Walton Academy. But Mr. Keating is very different in his way of teaching and his message to the students. The school learning is set on memorization on rules like x +y makes z in the movie they show us how other teachers teach in a way that does not allow the boys to think and put ideas out. From the first class Mr. Keating he seemed different to write, the students from the first thing he told them to how to ACS Cobham School, do is to get of the room to the take the class some were else witch seemed very strange to the students . “Seize the essay writing courses MacDuffie, day”( Dead Poets Society) was one of the first things he thought his class that means they should be free and live the write the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham, day before they die it was the first non-conformist ideas he taught them . Then he started his next class when he told his students to rip the introduction of science articles Caterham, their book. The introduction describes poetry in a very mathematical way, by measuring the enjoyment by the hymn verse and the length .So he told his students to rip out the pages because he was a transcendentalist / non conformist he told the kids that the verse is not important nor the technicalities so he told them to write in write essay International School, free verse which was introduced by of Applied Sciences the transcendentalist. The transcendentalists were the the conclusion of an essay, first people how broke out of the essay, norm and started to write in free verse like Walt Witmas poem. Mr. Keating started introducing non conformity by freedom the freedom of writing whatever you want without rules or regulations just expressing your own feelings without worrying about anything. “Now my class you will learn to how to the conclusion, think for essay courses MacDuffie School, your selves again .”( Dead Poets Society) Mr.
Keating clearly wants his students to create their own poetry their own thinking not just memorization or basing their poetry on mathematical basis. “ No matter what anybody tells you world and ideas can change to world.” (Dead Poets Society ) He is telling his students to how to write of an essay ACS Cobham International School, write to change the world to express themselves and problem Polimoda, he is telling them not to write of an essay International School, care what anyone tells them there words and ideas can change the world. He also tells them to see the world in School, a different prescriptive and that everyone has their own pace. When he introduced conformity he did it in a kinesthetic way and he showed his students that everyone has their own way of thinking. So he says that every individual is different. The kids found out that Mr. Keating was in a dead poets society club were the boys would go to a cave at midnight and read poetry.
They would go to a cave to connect with nature here the cave symbolizes nature and the read whatever poem they want and expresses their feelings. The poem read symbolized and write of an essay ACS Cobham School, expressed freedom so in dead poets society club they connected with nature and had freedom which are transcendentalist ideals. Mr. Keating also told the boys to call him “O captain my captain” ( Whitman 1) witch is a poem written by the poet Walt Whitman who is a transcendentalist. Transcendentalist broke the rules of poetry by using free verse and not just followed the stressed (/) and problem strategies Polimoda, unstressed ( U) syllables. Transcendentalist also broke rules in write the conclusion of an, life like Mr.
Keating had nonconformist teaching methods that any normal teacher would not use. He also told them about Dead Poets Society so he broke the rules. Writing American! Transcendentalist poetry had a lot of imagery visual “ A Coffin – is a small domain” ( Dickinson 1) it also has auditory “ Rise up and the conclusion essay ACS Cobham, hear the bells.”( Whitman, 9)But the most important type of how to write Oregon State University, imagery used was organic imagery most of all the poems had an organic fell to ACS Cobham, it. Essay American International! The transcendentalist had a lot of feelings put into how to ACS Cobham School, their poetry. Todd Anderson is the writing School, new kid. Todd is a very shy he is often compared to his brother who was a very smart student that graduated from Walton. That might have made him uncomfortable ( Baker , Jessica, “Todd anderson”). When the other boys decided to join Dead Poets Society he was very hesitant he joined the write the conclusion International, club.
In dead poets society club all the members read a poem out loud but Todd is review Caterham School, too shy to do that. Write Essay School! When Todd got a assignment to read a poem out lode he told Mr. Keating the he did not do it, then it is essay writing MacDuffie, revealed that he thinks that no one wants to hear what’s in his head and the conclusion of an essay International, its all non sense then Mr. Keating makes him break his fear in a kind of State University (INTO), way and expresses himself when he made him sound his barbaric yelp what is how to the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham, kind of sounding his inner self. When he sounded his barbaric yalp it was auditory imagery he was shouting. One day he just broke out of International, his shell in dead poets society club and started breaking out. Then he trough away the desk set he got from his parents every year from his birthday the desk set symbolized that he is starting over and that he is braking from the norm.
Here they expressed kinesthetic imagery but there was an the conclusion of an essay organic feel to it. After Nile commits suicide he finally breaks out and how to essays Oregon, stands up for himself. After Niles death when Mr. Keating got fired he came to take some of write the conclusion of an ACS Cobham, his belongings then Todd completely broke out of his shell and science articles School, stood on his desk and said “ O captain my captain.” ( Whitman 1) He was ordered to sit down or face expulsion he never sat dawn and then most of the class stood up for write the conclusion ACS Cobham International, Mr. Keating. Nile Perry was the fast to change and developed non-conformist ideas, some people also argue that he never changed and that he was always a non conformist he just needed a little push. ( Baker , Jessica, “Nile Perry”). Nile was one of the fastest to respond he was the first one to American School-Salzburg, remove the how to of an School, pages of the book when Mr. Keating ordered them to. He also started the idea of articles School, restarting the club Dead Poets Society. His family was not as rich as the other families so his dad would control him what activities he did and witch he did not. He loved acting but his dad opposed it he tried to convince him but his dad was a conformist.
Nile did not listen to his dads orders and he joined the play. How To The Conclusion Of An Essay! In that same day his dad took him home to punish him He then told him that he wants to essay writing MacDuffie, send him to write ACS Cobham School, militarily school. Science Review Caterham School! He got sick and tired so he opened the window and attempted to connect with nature. The opening of the write of an essay ACS Cobham International School, window symbolized who he is letting nature come inside and the thing he was wearing on his head was made of tree branches those were visual imagery used to let the viewer know how he is attempting to connect with nature. Then sadly he went and shot himself. So he freed himself by commuting suicide he became a free man and his father can’t control his life anymore so he had to pay the biggest price he had to make the biggest sacrifice his life to free himself. When he attempted to connect with nature he did as Walt Whitman said in his poem “Song of and persuasion essay University of Applied Sciences, Myself” When he said “ I am mad to be for it to be in contact with me” ( Whitman 12) here is talking about who he connects with nature and how is wants it really bad and that connects directly want Nile did. “ I celebrate myself.” ( Whitman 1) When Whitman said that he meant that he is free and he is free to celebrate himself his is happy with himself and When Nile committed suicide he wanted to celebrate himself. It’s also clear that transcendentalist are not afraid of death and that they believe that they will go to the conclusion essay International School, heaven if they connect to nature that’s why he connected to nature before he committed suicide.
Emily Dickenson is also not afraid of death as she shows through her poem. “ A Coffin – is a small Domain Yet able to contain a Citizen of paradise.” ( Dickinson , 1-3) That is clear that she believes that she will go to paradise. Charlie Dalton was also very fast to change. He was the first the rip out the pages of the introductions, introduction that shows that he is responding. How To The Conclusion Essay ACS Cobham International School! His charter is like the rebel kid or as it might be said the clown of the class. He changed his name to writing introductions International, Nuwanda which is how to the conclusion essay School, a very wired name that just shows that he is daring. Charlie is also not afraid to tell his opinion which shows that he is essay MacDuffie, a non conformist he published an article in the school paper saying that girls must be allowed to write the conclusion of an ACS Cobham International, attend the write essay Combe, school . Write School! He would also bring two girls to the Dead Poets Society club meeting.
He as well as the others were very affected by Niles death. He was also mad because they are holding Mr. Writing! Keating responsible for Niles death. Charlie was almost a non conformist with Mr. Keating he became free. Write ACS Cobham International! Charlie was expelled from the review articles, school due to him not letting Mr. Keating not take the how to write essay ACS Cobham School, fall. Knox Overstreet Has a quiet different story to Caterham, him he falls in how to write the conclusion of an essay International School, love with this girl called Chris. Problem Solving Polimoda! He is invited to dinner with her parents when he meets he instantly falls in love with her just like it’s like love at how to write the conclusion of an essay, first sight. He describes her as the most beautiful girls he has ever seen .Then it’s shown that after he started loving her he started using love poetry as he wrote a love poem in his class assignment. He then learns that she has a boyfriend when he kisses her in essay writing courses, a party that she invited him to the boyfriend punches him in the face.
But he does not let him stop him he writes her a poem a love poem and reads it to her. But he does not let him stop him he writes her a poem a love poem and reads it to her. In this way he freely expresses what his feelings are not caring about her boyfriend not caring what anyone cares or how hears him. She finally fell for him and went out with him to Niles play. The Conclusion ACS Cobham International! Here Knox kind of reflects on argumentation essay University Sciences Emily Dickenson When she said “ Wild night should be our luxury.”( Dickenson,3-4) Here she said that wild nights with some one special are a luxury. Also that she should fight for those nights or in Knox date even if there are many obstacles in the way he should still fight for his love to how to the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham, Chris. After Niles death his parents wanted to know what caused his death. The investigation lead to Mr. Keating. Then Carmon who is one of the boys starts to convince them to put the blame on Polimoda Mr. Keating Charlie gets really mad and punches him, Charlie is later expelled here even with the circumstances Charlie refuses to give in.
The other boys are forced to sign some paper to give Mr. Keating the fall or they get expelled. Mr. Keating gets dismissed Then surprisingly Todd out of all the boys stand up for Mr. Keating when he said “ O captain my captain “ While Mr. Write International School! Keating is leaving for the last time . Argumentation And Persuasion Essay University! The other members of Dead Poets Society club follow show that they are non conformists are that they are free. Carmon Does not follow. After Todd has learn about death he said “Its his father he did it .” ( Dead Poets Society) That gives more evidence that he did it to become free from his father and how to the conclusion of an International School, Todd was close to him because they share a room so he told him about essay introductions School-Salzburg his father. International School! To point out that Niles death tool place in winter this might symbolize sadness and and persuasion University, depression. Is this the perfect essay for you?
Save time and how to International, order Analysis of Dead Poets Society: Non-Conformity Changes Lives. Argumentation Of Applied! essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Analysis of write the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham International, Dead Poets Society: Non-Conformity Changes Lives. Dead Poets Society is a movie that compares the conflict between realism and romanticism. The setting takes place at an all-boys preparatory school named, Welton Academy. The academy is a#8230; Dead Poets Society. In Dead Poets Society we feel that a considerable amount of introductions American International School-Salzburg, injustice occurred in relation to Keating. Essay! What is your opinion about essay courses MacDuffie this and how do you respond to the#8230; Dead Poets Society: The Influence Of Transcendental Thinking. Of An Essay School! Dead Poets Society: The Influence of Transcendental Thinking Transcendental thinking has an extremely empowering and a story essay Monkton Combe, influential effect upon whoever listens to its teachings. Transcendental thinkers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson#8230; Transcendental themes in the movie #8220;Dead Poets Society#8221; The movie #8220;The Dead Poets Society#8221; is about a group of private school boys in write the conclusion essay ACS Cobham, the North East.
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Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system. Implementation-Procedures, Issues, Challenges Failures. An Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system is an integrated computer-based application used to manage internal and write the conclusion of an ACS Cobham external resources, including tangible assets, financial resources, materials, and argumentation University human resources. Its purpose is to facilitate the flow of information between all business functions inside the boundaries of the organization and manage the of an ACS Cobham International connections to Oregon, outside stakeholders. Built on a centralized database and write of an ACS Cobham normally utilizing a common computing platform, ERP systems consolidate all business operations into a uniform and enterprise-wide system environment. An ERP system can either reside on a centralized server or be distributed across modular hardware and software units that provide services and communicate on a local area network. The distributed design allows a business to assemble modules from different vendors without the need for writing, the placement of multiple copies of complex and of an International expensive computer systems in areas which will not use their full capacity. - Should be integrated and problem Polimoda operate in write essay School, real time with no periodic batch updates. - All applications should access one database to argumentation and persuasion essay Hanze of Applied, prevent redundant data and multiple data definitions. - All modules should have the same look and feel. - Users should be able to access any information in the system without needing integration work on how to the conclusion of an ACS Cobham International School the part of the IS department.
• Human Resources. • Product lifecycle management. • Customer Relationship Management (CRM) • Supply chain management software. • Warehouse Management System. • Decision Support System. Prior research has shown that conflict with consultants is one of the main managerial problems during the essay writing courses implementation period of ERP system (Themistocleous et al., 2001).
Consultants can bring to the organisation specialised skills, experience, and know-how that the organisation needs when it is both time-consuming and expensive for it to how to write essay ACS Cobham School, build internally (Gable, 2003). They can also offer a firm-wide view, encourage unity between members, and solving Polimoda they are usually neutral (Davenport, 1998). ERP implementation is by no means a purely technical system implementation, and will include Business Process Reengineering (BPR). Consultants can perform the role of of an ACS Cobham International change facilitator and essay Hanze University Sciences are involved in how to write of an essay ACS Cobham School, very important knowledge transfer. Consulting firms use techniques such as guided learning, formal training and knowledge creation activities to direct clients to the necessary knowledge required for courses MacDuffie School, a successful implementation. This guidance saves the client considerable time and how to of an essay International School effort in knowledge search costs (Gable, 2003). Without a plan organization would be: - Vulnerable to unfolding events. - Buffeted by unforeseen factors. ERP is initially synonymous with budgeting. It implies cross functional planning, breaking through the silos that impede collaboration.
The objective of argumentation and persuasion of Applied ERP is to how to write the conclusion ACS Cobham School, bring the information on one holistic view under a common platform. A present day ERP system takes care of the following functional modules. - Modular design comprising many distinct business modules such as financial, manufacturing, accounting, distribution, etc. - Use centralized common database management system (DBMS) - The modules are integrated and provide seamless data flow among the strategies Polimoda modules, increasing operational transparency through standard interfaces. - Flexible and offer best business practices. - Require time-consuming tailoring and configuration setups for how to write of an essay ACS Cobham International, integrating with the company’s business functions. - Modules work in real tim e with online and batch processing capabilities. - Financial and business information is often generated automatically by ERP systems based on solving strategies Polimoda data previously entered, without further human instructions.
- ERP provides business intelligence tools like Decision Support Systems, Executive Information System, Reporting, Data Mining and Easy Warning Systems for enabling people to make better decision and thus improve their business processes. Architecture of ERP System. Businesses have a wide scope of applications and processes throughout their functional units, producing ERP software systems that are typically complex and usually impose significant changes on staff work practices. Implementing ERP software is typically too complex for in-house developers, lacking the required skills, so it is desirable and advisable to write the conclusion essay ACS Cobham, hire outside consultants who are professionally trained to implement these systems. This is typically the most cost-effective way. There are three types of services that may be employed - Consulting, Customization, and Support. The length of time to implement an ERP system depends on the size of the business, the number of modules, the extent of customization, the scope of the change, and the willingness of the customer to take ownership for the project. ERP systems are modular, so they don't all need be implemented at solving strategies once.
Implementation can be divided into various stages, or phase-ins. The typical project is about 14 months and how to the conclusion International requires around 150 consultants. A small project (e.g. a company of less than 100 staff) can be planned and delivered within 3–9 months; however, a large, multi-site or multi-country implementation can take years. The length of the implementations is closely tied to how to write, the amount of customization desired. To implement ERP systems, companies often seek the help of an ERP vendor or a third-party consulting company. Consulting firms typically provide three areas of professional services: consulting, customization, and support. The client organization can also employ independent program management, business analysis, change management, and how to essay International School UAT specialists to ensure their business requirements remain a priority during implementation. Reasons for implementation of ERP. - To support business goals. • Integrated, on-line, secure, self-service processes for business.
• Eliminate costly mainframe/fragmented technologies. - Improved Integration of Systems and Processes. - Enable Partners, Customers and write Combe Suppliers. Critical Success Factors for ERP Implementation. 1. How To Write The Conclusion Of An? Top Management Commitment : Management must be a part of ERP implementation and it has been clearly demonstrated that for IT projects to succeed top management support is critical. However top management in any organization still views the installation of an science review Caterham, ERP system as primarily a technological challenge and assigns its responsibility to the IT departments. This is write the conclusion of an essay seen as a dangerous act due to Polimoda, ERP’s profound business implications. “Only top management is equipped to act as the mediator between the imperatives of the technology and the imperatives of the business”. During ERP planning phase, companies also face a question as to whether to implement the ERP software “as is” and adopt the how to write the conclusion ACS Cobham ERP systems built in procedure or customize the product to the specific needs of the company.
Research shows that even the best application package can only meet 70% of the organizational needs and thus organizations need to change their processes to confirm to the ERP package, customize the software to argumentation essay Hanze Sciences, suit their needs not be concerned about meeting the of an essay ACS Cobham balance 30%.Infact this need to reengineer the organization’s business process has been cited as one of ERP’s major benefits. The following survey reinforces the MacDuffie research findings. 3. Of An? IT Infrastructure : Adequate hardware and networking infrastructure are required for ERP application. And Persuasion University Sciences? An ERP system relies in its operation on sophisticated information technology infrastructure. How To Write The Conclusion Of An ACS Cobham International School? In addition to this infrastructure the essay courses software configuration has critical influence on the implementation process and write of an ACS Cobham International School outcomes. Five Levers of Change to be addressed. Various Stages, Inquiries and best practices of an ERP implementation cycle are explained below: Stage 1: Solution Inquiry.
Key questions that a business should ask are: - Are we ready for ERP? - How will an ERP help our business? - Have we considered other solution areas beyond ERP? - Who will lead our implementation effort? - Identify what benefits the organization needs to get out of an ERP, and focus on essay School these benefits throughout the implementation. - Executive management should endorse the ERP project.
- Develop a Mission Statement or Project Charter. - Establish metrics to measure how well the objectives of the ERP effort are being met. - Designate a Project Champion. - Implementation responsibilities to how to the conclusion International, be shared between the IT department and functional areas. - Build a framework for participation from all quarters. Key questions that a business should ask are: - Do we have the in and persuasion essay Hanze of Applied, house resources, skills and experience to implement ERP? - Should we build effective strategic partnerships? - Have we considered how the how to the conclusion of an International implementation will differentiate our business? - Have we developed a business case for the ERP implementation project? - Determine the number of partners, the scope of the partnerships etc. - Set up the internal project team.
• Steering Committee (Executive level) • Advisory Committee (One level lower,-Key Directors major stakeholders) • Cross Functional Project Team. - Create the business case, justification ROI scenarios to determine the most feasible. - Ensure that all gaps between plans performance are closed out. Key questions that a business should ask are: - Do the features and functions meet our needs? - Is the ERP package compatible with our business?
- Should we buy an Caterham School, integrated package from a single vendor or best-of-breed solutions from several vendors? - Develop and document a project scope statement. - Conduct a business process review identify signature business processes. - Document “as is” flows of current information. - Identify functional gaps. - Document sign off “to-be” flows of current information. - Customize the RFP to include features that meet your “to-be”flows. - Key factors should be kept in mind while selecting the software.
• Functional Capabilities. • Technical Attributes. • Partnership’s Capabilities. Stage 4: Implementation Plan. Key questions that a business should ask are: - How do we get started with the write the conclusion essay ACS Cobham School implementation. - Process Oriented Implementation. - Procure and install required hardware and package software. - Roll out with preliminary implementation plan that covers.
• A Phased Approach. • Segregation of Duties Plan. • Quality Plan. • Security Plan. - Package training for implementation team.
- Project team members’ normal job responsibilities should be reassigned to other employees/outside consultants for the project duration. Stage 5: Sandbox. Key questions that a business should ask are: - What steps do we take to ensure that the implementation is on track? - Create a separate dedicated work environment specifically for the project team. - Build user acceptance test scripts. - Identify required custom reports.
- Implement a system of how to write essays Oregon State University (INTO) sign off’s hand off’s for deliverables and work products. - Ensure complete data migration from the the conclusion of an ACS Cobham International School old software system to the new begins early in problem strategies, the implementation process. - Constantly evaluate risks, constraints assumptions. - Develop training plan for all users. - Develop rollout plan. Stage 6: Design Deployment. Key questions that a business should ask are: - How do we ensure that the how to the conclusion essay project team and the end users are in sync? - How do we ensure that our people are accepting change?
- Roll out training plan for all users in a phased manner. - Conduct user group conferences prototype sessions to essay writing courses, demonstrate the system’s capabilities. - Solicit feedback from essay ACS Cobham School end users and ensure that all concerns questions are addressed. - Encourage end users to network with peers at other institutions undergoing similar implementation initiatives. - Ensure that implementation information is continuously communicated to the user community. - Pilot rollout / evaluation. - Complete live rollout - rollout support. Stage 7: ERP Integration. Key questions that a business should ask are: - How do we integrate the ERP with our other legacy systems? - Design interfaces (if required) to integrate existing applications (e.g.
CRM, HR) directly with the ERP system. - Ensure adequate documentation exists to support the a story Combe integration between interfaces. Stage 8: IT Infrastructure. Key questions that a business should ask are: - Is our IT infrastructure ready for ERP? - Set up server infrastructure to the conclusion International, build training, development and production instances that run concurrently. - Ensure that the infrastructure can handle the load of concurrent transactions from all instances. - Ensure system security policy is in force. Stage 9: Operations. Key questions that a business should ask are: - How will we recover from a major outage? - Execute a onsite maintenance SLA with partners.
- Implement a Disaster Recovery Plan. - Review Business Impact Associated Risk. - Off-site backups providing disaster recovery training to key Personnel. Stage 10: Extending the Enterprise. Consider expanding ERP to other solution areas like. - Supply Chain Management. - Customer Relationship Management. ERP Implementation performance falling short of expectations. A survey is carried among IT executive managers for their opinions about what causes projects to succeed, what causes projects to be challenged, and what causes impaired projects.
Below are the results of this survey (Standish Group,1995). 1. User Involvement 15.90% 2. Executive Management Support 13.90% 3. Clear Statement of how to a story essay School Requirements 13.00% 4. Proper Planning 9.60%
5. Realistic Expectations 8.20% 6. Smaller Project Milestones 7.70% 7. Competent Staff 7.20% 8. Ownership 5.30% 9. Clear Vision Objectives 2.90% 10. Hard-Working, Focused Staff 2.40% Human resources were not the top factors that determined the project success.
Competent staffs ranked number seven and hard-working, focused staff ranked 10. Success is classified as the project is completed on time and how to write the conclusion of an School budget, with all the strategies Polimoda features and functions as initially specified. 1. Lack of how to the conclusion of an ACS Cobham School User Input 12.80% 2. Incomplete Requirements Specifications 12.30% 3. Changing Requirements Specifications 11.80% 4. Problem Solving Polimoda? Lack of Executive Support 7.50% 5. Essay School? Technology Incompetence 7.00%
6. Lack of Resources 6.40% 7. Polimoda? Unrealistic Expectations 5.90% 8. How To Write? Unclear Objectives 5.30% 9. Writing American School-Salzburg? Unrealistic Time Frames 4.30% 10. New Technology 3.70% 1. Incomplete Requirements 13.10% 2. Lack of User Involvement 12.40%
3. Lack of Resources 10.60% 4. Write Of An Essay ACS Cobham International School? Unrealistic Expectations 9.90% 5. Lack of Executive Support 9.30% 6. Strategies Polimoda? Changing Requirements Specifications 8.70% 7. Lack of Planning 8.10% 8. Didn't Need It Any Longer 7.50% 9. Lack of IT Management 6.20% 10. The Conclusion ACS Cobham International School? Technology Illiteracy 4.30%
There seemed to be a direct relationship between project failure and the human factor contributions. Essay Writing Courses MacDuffie School? The larger the failure, the more the how to write the conclusion essay ACS Cobham human factor contributed to courses MacDuffie School, that failure. This is how to of an more evidence that most software development projects fail because of failures within the how to University team running them. This study concluded that the success rate was only 16%, challenged projects accounted for 53%, and impaired for 31%. (Standish, 1998). Lack of the conclusion ACS Cobham International resources seems to be a major contributor in why teams fail. Without the argumentation essay of Applied Sciences necessary staff, it is very difficult to manage the project team effectively. With a large percentage of the how to ACS Cobham International School projects being challenged or impaired (84%), the Polimoda human factor should not and cannot be ignored by the IT industry as a problem that needs to write the conclusion of an ACS Cobham School, be addressed. Otherwise, the writing introductions American International current problems will continue to repeat themselves in this fast-growing industry. Projects in how to write the conclusion ACS Cobham, general fail for various reasons.
Several factors contribute to failed IT software development projects include: - lack of argumentation and persuasion essay Hanze University of Applied senior management commitment. - lack of user involvement. - lack of user requirements specifications. - poor project planning. - project team problems. - improper use of application development tools. - inappropriate allocation of team members. - lack of appropriate application development tools. - lack of or insufficient communication between team members.
- lack of or insufficient communication with users. - lack of use of structured method (i.e. System Development Life Cycle method) - shortage of team members. - uncommitted team members. - unskilled team members. Critical Failure Factors for how to write of an ACS Cobham International School, ERP Implementation. 1. ERP system misfit. 2. High turnover rate of project team members. 3. Writing Essay School-Salzburg? Over-reliance on heavy customization.
4. Poor consultant effectiveness. 5. Poor IT infrastructure. 6. Poor knowledge transfer. 7. The Conclusion ACS Cobham School? Poor project management effectiveness. 8. Poor quality of essay Hanze University of Applied Sciences Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) 9. Poor quality of how to write testing.
10. Poor top management support. 11. Too tight project schedule. 12. Unclear concept of the nature and use of writing School-Salzburg ERP system from the write essay School users’ perspective. 13. Unrealistic expectations from top management concerning the ERP System. 14. Users’ resistance to change.
Relationships between most important software failures. ERP Implementation at Hewlett Packard – Challenges and Failures. HP is started in how to write University, 1938 by 2 Stanford Engineers BILL HEWLETT and DAVID PACKARD as an electronic instrument company. The Conclusion ACS Cobham? Its first product is the write essay Monkton School resistance-capacity audio oscillator which gained heavy acceptance by the engineers and the conclusion of an scientists. HP’s growth was aided by heavy purchases by the US government during the WWII. 1950- HP developed strong technological capabilities in the electronic business. 1951- HP invented the high speed frequency counter. 1957- HP came out with the science review articles Caterham School 1st public issue. 1961- HP ventured into ACS Cobham, the medical equipment industry by acquiring Sanborn Company.
1966- Established HP Laboratories and also designed its first computer. 1974- Launched 1stminicomputer on 4K DRAM. 1977- John Young was named President, a turn from the founder to a new generation of professional managers. 1980- HP offered full range of essay introductions School-Salzburg computers from Desktop to powerful minicomputers. 1980- Developed Inkjet Laser printers. 1981- Introduced the 1st Personal Computer. 1982- Introduced Electronic Mail System. 1982- Introduced HP9000 with a 32-bit super chip. 1989- Purchased Apollo Computers and became the leader in the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham International, Workstations. 1997- Acquired Electronic Transaction Co.
VERIFONE for $1.2bn. 1997- Growth fell to below 20% HP responded by reorganizing its printer other operations. 1999- Spun off its test--measurement division into introductions American, an $8bn separate business. 2001- Second largest computer manufacturer. HP's operations are organized into how to the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham International School, seven business segments: - Enterprise Storage and write essay Monkton Combe School Servers (ESS), - HP Enterprise Services (HPES), - HP Software Solutions, - Personal Systems Group (PSG), - Imaging and write ACS Cobham School Printing Group (IPG), - HP Financial Services (HPFS), and. The three business segments ESS, HPS and essay courses School HP Software Solutions are structured beneath the broader Enterprise Business (EB) Group in how to write the conclusion of an essay, order to capitalize on up-selling and cross-selling opportunities, and give a solution sale approach across the HP enterprise offerings. Essay Hanze Of Applied Sciences? HP was ranked 11th as per the Fortune 500 ranking in 2004. HP had close partnership with SAP since 1989 when SAP began developing SAP R/3 product.
Offering consulting services for implementation of SAP’s “supply chain” ERP software. First SAP R/3 was deployed on an HP 9000 Enterprise server in 1992 at Wuerth .More than 50% of SAP’s customers used HP’s infrastructure to run ERP software taking consultancy from HP for faster and accurate implementation. HP announced that its revenues have gone down by how to write International 5% to $3.4bn for the 3rd quarter ended July 2004. The reason proposed was due to the problem faced during the essay courses migration to the centralized ERP system. The total financial impact due to the failure was $160mn. Questions were raised on how to the conclusion of an ACS Cobham International failure of problem solving HP implementing ERP, as it was a consultant for SAP ERP implementation. HP’s responsibility as a consultant was to prevent the execution problems faced by write of an School the implementing Co. on how to write essay School which it itself failed. How To Write Essay School? While conducting an internal serve, HP revealed that there has been execution problem and not the fault of SAP. Technical glitches were small but contingencies planning weren’t addressed appropriately. HP had a highly decentralized org. structure every business operated independently.
HP redesigned its business strategy to venture into high volume low priced electronic market. Therefore HP planned to phase out its numerous legacy systems and replace it with SAP R/3. Objectives of implementing SAP R/3 are: 1) Shorter lead delivery time. 3) Global Distribution System. Implementation of MySAP. By 2000, HP was keen in making the web-based activities simpler to capture the direct to customer market and had over 20 SAP R/3 implementations representing FI, PP, MM, SD, CO, BW, WM APO.
HP used different version of SAP had multiple SAP GUIs with around 10,000 users. As HP was using SAP R/3, it considered using My SAP for its Internet Enabled Technology Businesses to be a better fit. Benefits of My SAP: - Reduce huge cost incurred on how to write effective University IT support. - All programs will run on how to essay ACS Cobham International single browser. - Eliminate need to create custom SAP interface. - Greater speed in implementation. - It had the option of query which would make it easier to use. SAP’s APO SCM software were first implemented in Europe imaging printing division. It helped to forecast enabled integration of data in Hanze University of Applied, a single system. It was introduced in just 5 months’ time.
After its merger with Compaq in how to write the conclusion of an International, May 2002, it started repairing the SC of all businesses to create 5 standard SC supported by standard technology platform. It introduced the “ADAPTIVE SUPPLY CHAIN”. It also implemented PLM (Product Life cycle Management) module to writing essay American School-Salzburg, integrate the product lines of the 2 merged Companies. ERP Migration Failure. In Dec 2003 Gilles Bouchard, the CIO EVP created a model to merge the Business and IT group at regional country level. This operation along with the how to the conclusion essay ACS Cobham International School ISS was completed by on May 2004 that led to increased interdependencies between groups in effective essays Oregon State, the company. This was 35th Migration and was a part of the Business Process Architecture. HP wanted to how to write, reduce the 35 ERP systems implemented worldwide to four along with reduction in application from 3500 to 1500. HP wanted to implement a single Order Management System successfully reduced the no. to 7 but still wanted further efficiency flexibility with the implementation of SAP FOM platform. With the FOM, HP wanted to unite the SAP of Compaq with itself. It involved migration from separate HP Compaq legacy SAP R/3 to a new Broad-Based SAP ERP system this involved more than 70 supply chain up gradation to SAP R/3 Version-4.6C.
HP took over an empty factory at Omaha to science articles School, frame the contingency plan to include both the technical and how to ACS Cobham International School business aspects so as to provide buffer stock for customized order. Essay School? But as soon as the project went live in June 204, Migration problems began surfacing. Write Of An ACS Cobham International School? About 20% of the orders failed to move from the how to write Oregon State (INTO) legacy system to the new one due to programming errors. HP was able to fix this within a month but orders began to backlog. Causes Identified for Failure. The following are the causes of the migration failure: 1. Project Team Constitution. 2. Data Integration Problem.
3. How To Of An Essay ACS Cobham International? Demand Forecasting Problems. 4. Poor Planning Improper Testing. 5. Inadequate Implementation Support/Training. HP had traditionally been a very systematic, risk averse slow as compared to write essay School, Compaq’s culture of being very aggressive risk loving. Write The Conclusion ACS Cobham International? HP once again failed in 2005 while implementing “GENESIS” while competing “DELL”. There was an expert group who had the entire know-how to how to write a story Monkton Combe School, implement ERP but it was dominated by how to write the conclusion essay ACS Cobham International the IT management. Learning from ERP Implementation Failure at and persuasion Hanze University Sciences HP. - Implementation failure can impact overall business performance. - There is no standard approach to how to write the conclusion of an essay, implement ERP, many times it involves a business change in many departments. Therefore a detailed mapping is essential otherwise it might miss out the objectives.
- The success of implementation depends upon the planning, which considers the business process along with the technical aspects. - To implement ERP, the business processes must be improved corrected but HP failed in and persuasion essay University of Applied, this. - “The potential benefits to the supply chain are much bigger than the IT costs but the potential risk to the supply chain is also much bigger”. - The success of how to write of an essay ERP implementation depends upon the ability to align IT along with the business management objectives, Program Management Skills and a well defined process. - Impossible for HP to envision the entire configuration for write a story, Customized orders. - There should be a manual back-up as a contingency plan. - There should be no cross-functional barriers and should create effective processes and teams to integrate the entire business at all levels. 1. Gable, g. “Large Package Software: A Neglected Technology?”, Journal of Global Information Management, Vol 6,No.3,Summer 1998. 2. Barnes, M. “Customization of write the conclusion essay School ERP Apps Requires Development Skills”, Information Weel, February, 1999. 3. Oliver, D. and Romm, C.” enterprise Resource planning systems: An outline Model of Adoption”; I proceeding of write essay Monkton School GITM World Conference, Memphis, TN USA, 11-13 June 2000.
4. How To Write Essay ACS Cobham School? Bingi, P.; Sharma, M.K; and Godla, J.K” Critical issues affecting an ERP Implementation”, Information systems Management, summer 1999. 5. Davenport, T. “Putting the enterprise into the enterprise system”, Harvard Business review, Vol.76, no.4, July-August 1998. 6. Gupta, A.” Enterprise resource planning: The emerging organizational value systems”, Industrial management data systems, vol.100,Issue.3, 2000. 7. . A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge. Argumentation University Of Applied Sciences? Upper Darby: Project Management Institute. 8. McConnell, Steve (1998). How To Write The Conclusion Essay ACS Cobham School? Software Project Survival Guide. Redmond, Washington: Microsoft Press.
9. McConnell, Steve (September 1996). Classic Mistakes. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.construx.com/stevemcc. 10. Review Articles Caterham School? The Standish Group. (1998). Chaos. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.standishgroup.com/chaos.html. 11.
Yourdon, Ed and how to the conclusion essay ACS Cobham International Becker, Paul (April 1997). Death March: The Complete Software Developer’s Guide to problem solving, Surviving ‘Mission Impossible’ Projects. Prentice Hall Computer Books.
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congo state essay Mapping Africa: Problems of Regional Definition and Colonial/National Boundaries. by Ralph A. Write ACS Cobham International School. Austen. frica is perhaps the most mapped of the world's major regions. Back in my school days during the 1940s and essay MacDuffie School 1950s, the continent was studied only in essay ACS Cobham International School geography classes. If it appeared at all in studies of history or politics, the central issue was colonialism, which again involved maps of the boundaries which European powers had drawn between the territories they carved out for themselves. Once African Studies came into how to write effective Oregon State University maturity as a study of how to of an ACS Cobham, developments within indigenous societies and cultures, there was an understandable hostility to maps as external impositions. Nonetheless, cartography is essential to grasping both the forces within Africa and the constraints--both natural and political--which continue to place this region at a disadvantage in essay writing MacDuffie the global order. More specifically, maps can help us understand three major issues in the history of Africa: first, the physical and ecological factors which define this continent both internally and in relationship to the outside world; secondly, indigenous representations of space in the precolonial era, which provide a basis for putting more recent Western cartography into the conclusion of an ACS Cobham International perspective; and, finally, colonial boundaries, which represent both European interventions in Africa and essay introductions the continuing cartography of postcolonial development. Continent/regions: Geometry and geography.
In its most basic cartographic representation, Africa is a well-defined geometric entity: a continent surrounded by how to write the conclusion of an ACS Cobham International School, natural bodies of water on all sides except for essay writing School a small isthmus in the extreme northeast joining it to western Asia (and even this is now broken by the Suez Canal). There is, however, a geographic convention of dividing Africa into Mediterranean and write the conclusion of an School sub-Saharan zones, with the former treated as an extension of the Middle East (Maghreb the Arabic term for North Africa means West) while the latter is the true Africa. Another division distinguishes tropical and temperate zones, with the Hanze of Applied, latter category including not only the Maghreb but also South Africa, whose relative hospitality to European settlement is thus explained. How To The Conclusion International School. Such distinctions are not politically acceptable in write a story Monkton Combe present-day Africa (the Organization of African Unity includes states from all portions of the continent) but maps can help us decide whether they have any geographical and how to International historical justification. If we look again at the continental outline of how to write essays Oregon State University, Africa, it is clear that the northern and how to the conclusion ACS Cobham International School northeastern portions are separated by relatively narrow (sometime very narrow) bodies of water from Europe and Asia, thus explaining why they have been in strategies close communication with those continents since ancient times. However, the how to of an essay ACS Cobham International, Atlantic and Indian Ocean coasts--especially the former--are quite distant from other major land masses. Moreover, their coastlines have relatively few indentations, meaning that most of the inhabited areas are also far from any coast; compare this to profiles of Europe and the Middle East. Furthermore, while the Nile is navigable throughout the entire extent of Egypt (about 700 miles), the rivers linking the tropical interior to the coast (the Niger, Congo, Zambezi, etc.) are widely separated from of Applied, one another and generally navigable less than 100 miles inland, where all of them encounter cataracts, due to abrupt rises in land elevation. How To Write The Conclusion Of An ACS Cobham International School. Thus limits of water transportation--the most efficient means of long-distance carriage prior to the Industrial Revolution--left sub-Saharan Africa relatively isolated from the rest of the Old World and even internally divided for most of its history. The Sahara desert is also a barrier to land travel, although one that was breached (while far from eliminated) around 1 CE by the introduction of camels into the region. The vegetation map also indicates very different ecological patterns in the various parts of the continent.
The savanna and tropical rain forest that dominate the argumentation essay University of Applied Sciences, tropical regions require different cropping patterns than the how to write of an essay ACS Cobham International, temperate zones and are generally less secure environments for the support of large populations. The major language divisions broadly, but not always consistently, follow these same patterns. Argumentation Hanze University Sciences. The north and northeast are dominated by Afro-Asiatic languages, the the conclusion International School, tropical region by writing introductions International School-Salzburg, the Niger-Congo family and the south, until fairly recently, contained large areas in which the languages of aboriginal hunter-gatherers and pastoralists (Bushman/Khoi) were still spoken, indicating the how to write ACS Cobham School, late immigration of Niger-Congo (Bantu in this case) speakers (and very much later European arrivals). School-Salzburg. To divide Africa along these lines--Mediterranean, Black African and how to write of an essay South African--may thus be perceived as racist but any more unified view of the continent must at least take into account the internal geography suggested by maps of physical endowments and the historical distribution of populations. While cartography in science sub-Saharan Africa is generally associated with outside perceptions and even economic and political impositions, there are indigenous traditions of representing space which pre-date colonial rule. Those most consistent with European practices are linked to how to write the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham School Islam and Middle Eastern culture, which entered the sub-Saharan regions of the continent as early as the eighth century CE. Muhammad Bello, the highly literate ruler of the Sokoto Caliphate in the north of argumentation and persuasion essay Hanze of Applied Sciences, present-day Nigeria could thus provide early nineteenth-century European explorers with a reasonably accurate map of his domains and the major trade routes within them. How To Write Of An. However, it is review, not clear whether such visual representations were used for internal purposes within this state and political boundaries are not indicated with any degree of precision.
In this case of formal visualization, just as in the oral statements about the write the conclusion International School, spatial dimensions of African states recorded in many other instances (Wilks), power is seen as radiating out from a clearly defined center to more vague frontiers, sometimes marked by write a story essay, (but not necessarily identified with) natural features such as the Niger river (in the Sokoto case). This political cartography stands in strong contrast, as will be seen, to modern conceptions of statehood expressed in colonial (and postcolonial) African boundaries. Precolonial African representations of space were not limited, however, to political and economic issues. The most developed and striking forms of cartography used landscape references to essay ACS Cobham express ideas about identity, migration histories, mythology, and relationships with spiritual forces. They were definitely created for internal use rather than communication with outsiders and and persuasion essay University of Applied Sciences might take the form of elaborate artifacts such as the Luba lukasa or wall decorations, temporary drawings on the ground, body tattoos and even compass orientations inscribed on to objects which do not themselves represent space (Bassett). These complex forms of indigenous cartography provide evidence of how to write the conclusion International, African ability to writing American think systematically and graphically about space and force us to extend our own conceptions of maps (which were not always such practical devices in how to write the conclusion International School earlier European history). However, colonial rule ultimately imposed modern European cartography upon Africa. Colonial maps and national boundaries. European cartography is a complement of other technologies of political power: literate bureaucratic agencies (these existed in the Sokoto Caliphate and other African Islamic states, but in limited form), the need for regular tax collection and even, at problem solving times, conscription of populations for military or public works service.
It has also been argued in the much-cited work of Benedict Anderson that such colonial mapping ultimately created national identities among the multiple ethnic groups which found themselves within colonial boundaries (or had been more loosely incorporated into pre-colonial kingdoms and empires). Tropical Africa is a good test for this proposition, since colonial rule lasted here for less than a century, national states have been somewhat insecure entities since independence, yet the colonial maps have survived as the delineators of boundaries between these states. All this happened despite the arbitrary nature of much colonial map-making, which has been noted by many African critics. Conferences and diplomatic maneuverings in distant European capitals often drew lines to deal with tensions among the colonizing powers rather than addressing internal African issues. What has been less noticed are the frequent boundary changes made after the original partition to suit further intra-European concerns--most notable, but by write the conclusion of an International, no means the only one, being the outcome of World War I (Austen). Whatever the grounds upon write essays Oregon State University, which colonial maps were drawn, it has not been easy to propose an alternative cartography which would better suit the natural or historical features of Africa, whether the landscape and indigenous states or ethnicity, now recognized as a fluid and the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham often arbitrary set of a story, markers, as much (pace Anderson) the write ACS Cobham, product of internal colonial mapping as of more autonomous developments (Ranger). Colonial maps did impose some serious disadvantages upon Africa, although perhaps less due to essay writing courses School the specific boundaries they established than to the way they imposed outwardly oriented development patterns upon the continent. Balkanization into numerous territories of the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham School, varying sizes rather than a few big units is only a problem if one assumes that bigger is better, which is not demonstrated by the relative success of science School, various postcolonial states e.g. some of the very large ones such as the Republic of Congo and Sudan have experienced the write the conclusion International School, most severe problems (Herbst 139-72). More significant, perhaps, was the argumentation essay, competitive outward orientation of transport networks that did not link African territories to one another but rather tied each to a port within its own colonial domain and write the conclusion of an essay ACS Cobham ultimately to trade with its European metropole. Essay School. But this outward orientation and dependence upon modern infrastructures is also due in write the conclusion of an School significant part to the internal geography of the science review School, continent, as already indicated.
It is how to write the conclusion ACS Cobham, also important to note that once African states gained freedom from European rule, they all became staunch defenders of the existing boundaries. How To Write Effective Essays Oregon State University (INTO). The charter of the Organization of African Unity government thus contains an agreement by the signatory governments to respect the frontiers [of all member states] existing on their achievement of national independence. How To Essay ACS Cobham. In the extensive turbulence of writing introductions, postcolonial African politics, there have been very few attempts by states to take over significant portions of their neighbors' territories. The only successful secession movements are based on previous colonial boundaries (Eritrea, Somaliland). Some scholars have argued that the existing boundaries are, nevertheless, arbitrary and that the states operating within them have attained only juridical as opposed to empirical sovereignty (Jackson and how to write the conclusion ACS Cobham Rosberg). Juridical sovereignty refers to territorial entities maintained by agreements among outside powers (in this case both the international community and the rulers of other African states) rather than by real integration of the resident populations into how to write Monkton a common political community. Write The Conclusion Of An International School. The ongoing crises in such states as Angola, the writing essay introductions International School-Salzburg, Congo, Liberia, Sierra Leone and how to write essay Somalia suggest that colonial maps have not laid out a stable basis for nationhood in Africa. However, no alternative cartography suggests itself.
The colonial regimes established boundaries that at least allowed the beginnings of complete territorial control although in practice, European rulers never attempted to exercise such control to how to write essays Oregon State (INTO) the full degree that was demanded by subsequent African national regimes. (Herbst: 94-96). Africans have sometimes tried to go beyond the national model to create regional economic communities on the model of Western Europe but these have also failed. The most important such bloc, ECOWAS (the Economic Community of West Africa States) was mobilized militarily in the 1990s to deal with crises in essay ACS Cobham specific states. But here too, the seeming emergence of the largest West African state, Nigeria, as a kind of argumentation and persuasion essay Hanze University of Applied Sciences, dominant regional power could not be sustained due to the internal costs of such an effort. The best clue that maps give us to the current situation is that areas with readily accessible mineral resources are more susceptible to the kind of warlord politics that actively challenge the sovereignty of how to of an essay ACS Cobham International, colonial successor regimes. However, warlordism, even when based on ethnicity, has not produced sustainable regimes (Reno). Instead, it is another example of how external interests--in these cases buyers of easily exportable resources such as diamonds--may determine the geography of African power. For the present therefore, and perhaps for the immediately foreseeable global future, African cartography may be telling the same story as it did a half-century ago: that the modern mapping of this region is still linked to its asymmetrical relationships with outsiders.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR | Ralph A. Austen. Ralph A. Austen is Professor of essays Oregon (INTO), African History and co-chair of the Committee on African and African American Studies at the University of Chicago. He received his Ph.D. from Harvard in 1966. His current research focuses on the political economy and cultural dimensions of European overseas expansion, the how to write the conclusion of an, Atlantic Slave Trade in African and African-American memory, and solving strategies the historical development of how to of an School, African oral and written literature (focusing on the Mande region of West Africa). COPYRIGHT | This article is argumentation and persuasion essay University of Applied Sciences, adapted from a workshop organized by the Centers for Latin American, Middle Eastern, East Asian, South Asian, and Eastern Europe/Russia/Eurasian Studies and the Committee on African Studies at the University of Chicago, June 18-29, 2001.