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HOW TO WRITE THE PERFECT ESSAY . Oxford University Student

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Essay Writing that Enriches Your Academic Performance

best history essays The following outline is intended as to provide one example of how to write an essay. Treat it as food for thought, as providing a set of suggestions some of which you might incorporate into University, your own method for writing essays. It is useful to begin by considering why essay-writing has long been the method of choice for define critical evaluation Idyllwild Academy, assessment in history. The chief reason is that no other method provides as effective a means of testing a student's comprehension of, a topic. We want you to show us that not only have you acquired a knowledge of the topic but also that you fully understand the topic and the issues raised by it.

Essays test understanding by asking you to select and re-organise relevant material in order to essay writing University — UMass (Navitas), produce your own answer to the set question. An undergraduate essay need not be particularly innovative in its approach and insights, but it must be the product of the student's own dialogue with the subject. Essays which do not answer the question can only be regarded as demonstrating some knowledge of the topic, they cannot be said to show understanding of the topic. University? Essays which plagiarise or merely reproduce what others have said do not even show knowledge of the topic. Define Critical Evaluation Arts Academy? Plagiarism is thus not merely a matter of theft, it involves an entirely unacceptable subversion of the learning process. 2. Is there a right and a wrong answer? History essays are less about finding the correct answer to the set question than they are about demonstrating that you understand the issues which it raises (and the texts which discuss these issues). With most historical problems (certainly the most interesting ones) it is seldom possible to arrive at a definitive answer. The evidence almost always permits a variety of solutions, and different approaches generate divergent conclusions. There are, however, limits to the field of possible solutions, since they must fit in with 'the evidence'. Of course, exactly what constitutes 'the evidence' is of Southampton, almost invariably one of the issues under discussion among the historians who are most deeply engaged with the problem, but in general for each historical question there will be a body of technology writing of Massachusetts — UMass, evidence which is recognised as being relevant to it.

This body of evidence will typically comprise what the primary sources tell us about the events and phenomena under discussion. A good answer will need to harmonise with all of this evidence, or explain why particular items have been dismissed as having no bearing on University of Southampton, the problem. It follows from all of this that there certainly are wrong answers that is, answers which fall outside the field of electronic Seneca College, possible solutions or which fail to take account of University, received evidence even though there is no 'absolutely right' answer. Essential steps: select a question; identify the subject of the how to a good Northfield Mount, question; what are you being asked to do - that is, what kind of information will you need to answer the question, and how will you have to treat it? Circling the University of Southampton, key words in the question is sometimes a helpful first step in working out exactly what you need to do.

It is how to write a good feature article Mount, useful to note that there is usually a natural way of structuring your answer: that is, a way of organising an answer which follows naturally from the format of the University, question and which will put the University of Applied, fewest obstacles in the way of the reader: 'Explain' and 'why' questions demand a list of, reasons or one big reason; each reason will have to be explained - that is, clarified, expounded, and illustrated. Technology Essay Writing University Of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell? 'Assess', 'evaluate' and 'define-the-significance-of' questions require judgements supported by reasons, explanation and evidence. You must show why your assessment is the best by considering its merits vis--vis alternative evaluations. It might be useful to define and defend the criteria on which your judgement depends. That is, to University of Southampton, explain why they are the best criteria for judging the historical phenomenon at write a good article Mount issue. 'What-role-did-X-play-in-Y' questions imply a functionalist approach - that is, they require that you identify the University, function of define critical evaluation Arts Academy, some phenomenon, group or institution within some specific system. Thus, the University of Southampton, subject of the question is the 'Y' rather than the 'X' element. That is, the question requires a discussion of the system as a whole and the consideration of alternative explanations of how 'X' worked within it. 'To-what-extent' questions involve a judgement of measure.

One way of answering the question would be set up a series of 'tests', as it were, that can be investigated in thinking Queen's, turn. This essay will examine five spheres which cast light on the extent of Jewish influence in, high medieval France: namely, their role in writing (Navitas), the commercial life of the towns, the role of Jewish banking in University, the agrarian economy, their influence on Christian intellectual life, .. [and so on]. The essay would need a conclusion in which you pulled together the results of your test cases: It has been seen that the Jews exerted a profound influence on the intellectual life of the universities but almost none on that of the established monastic orders.. 'Quote-and-discuss' questions require you to uc art requirement Saxion University of Applied Sciences, identify the issue at stake and to produce a reasoned response. You may respond, for University, example, by agreeing with the quotation in which case you will need to explain why agreement is the best response, why it would be wrong to disagree. You should consider the merits of a variety of responses. If possible you should always examine the book or article from which the quotation has been taken in order to write a good feature, discover what its author meant by it, to discover how the of Southampton, author has understood the issues. 'Compare-and-contrast' questions demand the identification of similarities and differences. One method of tackling such an essay would be to distinguish five or six areas of similarity and contrast, and to devote a section of the essay to each area - a section in technology University Lowell Lowell, which you would assess the degree of University of Southampton, similarity and reach a sub-conclusion.

The conclusion would then require a summation of the various 'sub-conclusions'. It needs to be stressed that none of these types of question calls for essay — UMass Lowell, a narrative approach . You will never be asked to produce a narrative of what happened. In rare circumstances, a few sentences of narrative may form part of the evidence cited in support of, a point, but the essay as a whole should be organised according to a logical structure in which each paragraph functions as a premise in the argument. Uc Art Requirement University? The analytical and expository voice will always prove more effective than the narrative mode of writing. The aim of your initial reading should be to identify an University of Southampton, argument which answers the question - one which you find plausible and can carry through with conviction. For this purpose, it will be useful to read at least two or three items, including a recent book covering the general area in which the topic falls. Articles in reference books such as an encyclopaedia can provide an overview, but they rarely provide adequate coverage of the issues. Idyllwild Academy? Citing such works will undermine the credibility of your essay. Do not forget to make notes as you go. Making notes helps you to summarise arguments and ideas, to University, select points relevant to your essay, to clarify and adjust your understanding of the essay question and University of Applied Sciences, of the topic it bears upon. But your main priority should be to discover an argument.

Once you have come up with a working argument, you need to University, draw up a plan to guide the next stage of your research. It should comprise a list of the points which each paragraph will attempt to demonstrate, and rough notes on supporting examples. It may be useful to begin by thinking again what type of question you have chosen and by is critical thinking a level, looking the natural way of of Southampton, answering it. In order to draw up a plan you will need to evaluate its merits: What points will I need to technology essay of Massachusetts Lowell, make in order to sustain this argument? Are there alternative points of view which will have to be considered and refuted in order to make this argument work? Do I have enough examples and evidence to support the points which are crucial to my argument? Do I need to know more about the examples I'm planning to of Southampton, use?

Perhaps there is another way of looking at this piece of evidence which I'll have to mention or even refute? Having decided on the line of argument you intend to use, and identified areas where you need more material, search the write a good article Northfield Mount Hermon, reading list and bibliographies of the texts you've been using for books and articles which will help you to solve these problems. Go and collect the information, making notes and University, adding notes to your plan as you go along. Writing University Lowell? Do not forget to make careful bibliographical notes for every book and article you consult. You will need this information when it comes to footnoting your essay.

Inevitably, the University of Southampton, previous stage will turn up things you hadn't thought of and books with better things to say about the articles College, topic. Do not panic. Ask yourself: can your argument be saved with a few adjustments? Does the argument need to be re-constructed from scratch? If so, how can I recycle the information I've already begun to collect? Much will depend upon University how confident you now feel about essay scholarships school University of Hertfordshire your argument.

Follow your instincts: if the argument feels wrong, look for a better one. It is better to start again than to write an essay that lacks conviction. If complete reconstruction is unavoidable, go back to '5. Drawing up a Plan'. Having revised you argument (and plan), it's time to write your essay. If you've carried out steps one to five properly, it should be possible to write the first draft up in two or three hours. (a) Writing an Introduction. Of Southampton? An introduction should show how you intend to answer the question, by (1) indicating the electronic, line of argument you intend to take, by (2) giving an overview of the organisation of what follows, and by (3) indicating the sort of material or evidence you will be using. Of Southampton? It is an effective strategy, especially when writing a short essay, to begin with a bold, attention-grabbing, first sentence which shows the marker that you know what you are doing: that is, answer the question as briefly as possible with your first sentence. What Is Critical Thinking? The second sentence should then enlarge upon the argument indicated by the first. (b) The body of the essay. Intelligent use of paragraphing is crucial to the success of an essay. Often, it is best to organise the paragraphs so that each makes and University of Southampton, defends a point or premise essential the argument of the writing of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell (Navitas), essay. University Of Southampton? (By 'premise' is critical Idyllwild Arts, meant a point which is part of and essential to University of Southampton, the argument of the essay.) It must be entirely clear how your points fit into the argument: essays which meander around the topic leaving the marker to join the requirement Saxion University Sciences, dots to comprise an answer are not acceptable, since they fail to, demonstrate understanding.

It is a good idea to use 'topic sentences' to signal the subject and make explicit the point of each paragraph. These ought not to be too repetitive in form but should show how the paragraph fits into the argument of the essay as a whole. The following topic sentences (here marked in red for clarity) would, for example, be appropriate as a way of thinking, introducing paragraphs that comprised a series of 'tests' in a 'to-what-extent' essay that called for University, an assessment of the effects of the Black Death on writing school, the development of medieval Europe. It is also possible to assess the extent of the catastrophe by looking at the level of demand for land in the major urban centres. In Genoa, for example, land prices fell sharply from a high in University, 1310 of. [several sentences of examples] . Electronic Articles? The dramatic fall in the prices of land within urban centres implies an equally sharp fall in the numbers of people wanting to live in cities and, thus also, a sudden decline in the actual number of people living there. Notice how the point briefly introduced in the topic sentence is developed naturally by essay Lowell — UMass, the second sentence of the paragraph. It is better to avoid trying the explain everything in a single sentence: clusters of sentences that flow from one to another are much more effective! Signposting your evidence will give the University of Southampton, essay that all important sense of critical depth and originality: Seapower was a crucial to European expansion.

This much is illustrated by the way in which Europe expanded between the tenth and sixteenth centuries. Southwards and how to write Mount Hermon, eastwards expansion in University of Southampton, the eastern Mediterranean was heavily dependent upon the availability of effective fleets of warships and trading vessels. There were critical moments, such as in the late eleventh-century conquests of Sicily and Sardinia, when. [and so on.] You need to give the marker a sense of where your opinions end and what is critical a level, of where the supporting evidence begins. But remember to vary your signposts: using the same phrase over and over again will distract and University of Southampton, bore the reader. If the Saxion, supporting evidence is University, not a well-known and irrefutable fact, it will probably need to be given the additional support of is critical thinking Queen's, a footnote indicating where you have obtained your information or which historian's interpretation of the piece of evidence being deployed you have chosen to follow.

It will sometimes be useful to quote other authors, especially primary sources, but do not overdo it. It is often better to put things in your own words while still clearly signalling the source of the idea and using a footnote (e.g. 'According to Mayer the first crusade.'), since this helps to show that you have understood what was being said - providing that you have indeed grasped what was being said! (c) The Conclusion. All essays need a carefully thought out conclusion which follows logically from the points made and affirmed in University of Southampton, the course of electronic College, your essay. It need not rehearse the points you have rejected. Always check to see that the conclusion you have drawn is the one which follows logically from the points and evidence you have assembled. (d) Footnoting. Opinions differ over whether to footnote after completing the University of Southampton, first draft or as you write. Sometimes, it is what is critical Queen's College, best to go back and footnote the essay after you have finished, because inserting footnotes can disturb the flow of your writing.

On the other hand, it is University, useful to consider what will need to be footnoted as you write, since footnotes are part of the rhetorical apparatus of a formal essay and give weight and power to an argument. For the same reason, it is best to put the notes at the bottom of the define evaluation Academy, page rather than at the end of the essay. It looks more impressive (especially if you cite well and widely), and saves the marker flicking back and forth. University? The markers, it should be noted, are under instructions to check footnotes. (e) Once you have finished you should compile your bibliography . Essay Writing University Of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell (Navitas)? (f) Now save your essay, print out a text, put it aside for a couple of days, and work on something else. Inevitably, when you come to re-read your essay, you will always think of better ways of putting things. University? You may even think of supporting evidence you could add to the text, but make sure that any additions do not spoil the flow. You may find that some of your points are irrelevant: this material should be disregarded. You should also ask yourself whether the links between the paragraphs are clear and logical? Perhaps the essay would be more effective if they were put in a different order? If the essay has been written on a word processor it should be easy enough to achieve this by cutting and pasting paragraphs.

Your essay should have a clear and consistent structure throughout, so that one paragraph follows another logically and carries the argument forward. You will need to edit: for grammar, spelling and punctuation; to remove unnecessary verbiage, colloquialisms and jargon; to uc art requirement University of Applied Sciences, ensure that the University, footnotes and bibliography conform with the required style sheet; and for the coherence and quality of your writing. You should always check the printed text of your essay before submitting it. The eye tends to what is critical thinking a level Queen's College, overlook errors on the screen, and spell checkers almost invariably allow a significant number of mistakes to slip through. 'Their' and 'there', for example, will both be accepted as correct by of Southampton, a word processor regardless of College, which one you should actually have used in of Southampton, a given context. The ability to electronic, write good essays does not come to many people easily. It is a skill which requires constant attention and practice. It is, however, a skill which will serve you well no matter what you choose to do when you leave university. Effective communication is a key to success in many walks of life. There is, therefore, every incentive to apply yourself to the development of this art.

Credits: This guide was devised and developed by Paul Antony Hayward (2000-2007).

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laboratory report Read the relevant background material in your textbook, or in library references. Come to essay writing scholarships school University (Navitas), laboratory with a plan in mind, and at least a preliminary derivation of the error propagation equations. Scientists and engineers record laboratory data in bound notebooks with pre-numbered pages. These books serve as a permanent record of the work, and can serve as legal evidence in priority disputes.

Some instructors insist that students in science laboratories keep such notebooks. Whether required or not, the use of Idyllwild Academy, a notebook helps you to develop good laboratory habits that will serve you well in your future career. Your laboratory notebook reflects your personal style, but you should write it so that a co-worker familiar with the subject of your research could understand it. Such a person may need to obtain information from University of Southampton your notebook. You may need to electronic articles Seneca College, refer to the notebook at a later date, therefore do not omit any information necessary to, understand what you did, or to repeat it. Use a bound (not a loose leaf) notebook for the laboratory record. Make notebook entries as the experiment progresses, as a running record of the electronic work.

The notebook includes a complete history of all experiments performed, and their results. Quadrille-ruled pages with 1/4 inch squares facilitate making data tables and rough graphs. Don't erase anything in a laboratory notebook, and never remove pages from it. Line out, and annotate, mistakes. Use permanent ink, for better readability. You may abbreviate, but make all entries clear, organized and completeand neat enough for you, or someone else, to read.

Here's a check list of items which you should record in the notebook: The date and time of each new record. The initials of the person making the record. Descriptive headings, titles, and subtitles. Lists of the equipment used (name, manufacturer, model and serial numbers), with relevant specifications. Sketches of the experimental layout, circuit diagrams, etc., with all components labeled.

Observed data. University. Record data in electronic articles Seneca College the notebook immediately; do not recopy it from scraps of paper. University Of Southampton. Organize the define critical evaluation Idyllwild Academy data in neat tabular form, with ample space for corrections and auxiliary notes. Symbols and notation of each column heading should match that used in the equipment diagram, equations, and other references in the discussion. Of Southampton. When possible, identify the exact instrument used. Neatly line-out incorrect data. A large amount of incorrect data may require you to line-out (or overlay with a large X) an entire table. If you feel that an 'X' across a whole page looks unsightly, use a footnote to label it as deleted. Always record the reason for technology writing University Lowell — UMass Lowell such altered entries.

Calculated results, prominently displayed. Sample calculations. University. Don't include every calculation, but do include a sample of each type. If you need to what is critical, do this same sort of calculation later, the sample may save you time. Curves. Of Southampton. Plot tabular data as curves whenever possible. We use the term curve to represent data points plotted with a smooth line drawn through them. The term curve applies even to straight lines.

The term plot refers to roughly sketched curves, perhaps done on the quadrille paper of the lab notebook. The term graph refers to the more neatly produced and annotated curves done on genuine graph paper, or in a form suitable for publication. Important data may deserve a graph made on genuine graph paper, permanently attached to the notebook page. Avoid using tape, for it deteriorates with age. Use a thin line of glue to tip in such added material. Attach charts, diagrams and photographs in the same manner. Graphs: All graphs (and plots) must have a descriptive title, each axis labeled with quantity, symbol, and units.

Choose a scale size such that one may read values from the curves with at least the same accuracy as the accuracy of the requirement Saxion data. Make the data points very small (some use pinpricks) and emphasize them with small, neat circles. When you show several curves on University the same graph, group related data points in some way using distinctive symbols, such as circles, triangles, and squares (use a symbol template, for uniformity). Provide a key, on the graph page, to is critical a level College, the meanings of the symbols. Notes or explanations essential to proper performance of the experiment or interpretation of the results. This might include your explanation of how you overcame any difficulties encountered in the experiment. A restatement of the questions posed, and your answers. The reader won't expect the lab notebook to University of Southampton, contain a condensed and technology essay writing Lowell (Navitas) polished report of the University of Southampton experiment, but will expect to find enough evidence to determine what you did, how you did it, and what results you obtained. 2001 by John C. Holden. The laboratory notebook provides a personal record documenting the progress of the experiment. The laboratory report serves a quite different purpose.

It communicates your experimental work to other persons. This demands a different style and approach. All real scientific work of any value (and some that isn't) eventually finds expression in a written report. In industrial research and development, reports communicate to supervisors and directors, may circulate internally within the company, and for high school University of Hertfordshire may even reach other scientists in University of Southampton the same field around the world. What Is Critical College. Some reports get published in technical and scientific journals. Even technicians sometimes write reports. Many a scientist or engineer discovers the hard way that people judge the quality of experimental work by the quality of the reports. Ineffective reports may cause people to of Southampton, ignore the research itself, and, on a very practical level, may jeopardize the funding of that research. Style and appearance of reports: Use good quality standard size 8 1/2 by 11 inch paper: plain, unlined, and what thinking College with no holes or ragged edges. (Some instructors may accept handwritten reports on lined paper, a practice considered unprofessional in a real work situation.) Leave at, least a 3/4 inch margin on the top, bottom and sides of the Seneca College sheets.

Organize the report for easy reading. The structure and of Southampton organization of the report should impress itself on the reader even with a casual skim. Use headings and subheadings to critical Idyllwild Arts, make the of Southampton structure clear. Essential parts of the report: Here's a list of the usual parts of a complete report. Electronic Seneca College. The nature of the experiment will determine the necessary ones, and the appropriate heading for each. ABSTRACT.

A brief (one paragraph) summary of the purpose, method, and technology writing Lowell Lowell (Navitas) significant results of the University of Southampton experiment. PURPOSE (OR OBJECTIVES) OF THE EXPERIMENT (Don't include this if your report has an abstract.) EQUIPMENT LIST, including any identifying model and serial numbers. BACKGROUND. A review/summary to acquaint the reader with facts, theory, or research specifically relating to what you did in this experiment.) Material readily available in any textbook needn't be included. MATERIALS, METHODS AND PROCEDURES.

This tells the reader what specific experimental methods were used. Apparatus or procedures unique to this experiment must be described and explained. Standard procedures needn't be elaborated, by should be referenced. RESULTS, including graphs, and tables of results, as appropriate. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, and of their uncertainties. CONCLUSIONS (You may prefer to include this in the discussion of results.)

Avoid unnecessary duplication. Don't include data and define critical evaluation procedure in the results section. Don't include minor details of procedure, theory and of Southampton results in the abstract. Include only material directly related to uc art requirement Saxion University of Applied Sciences, what you did in the experiment. Omit idle speculation. The informal report differs from the formal report in University three major respects. The informal report omits: (1) the abstract, (2) description of procedure (except where there were significant deviations from the technology essay writing of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas) procedures of the instruction manual), and (3) exposition of the physics underlying the experiment.

Your instructor may want a copy of your laboratory record included as an appendix to the report, for completeness. This will include the equipment list, original data, calculations, preliminary graphs and sketches, record of of Southampton, observations made in the laboratory, etc. The instructor may, in technology writing of Massachusetts — UMass the informal report, allow you to insert this after the University purpose section of the report, to preserve chronological continuity. Don't expect that anyone will necessarily read this! Whatever you want the reader, or instructor, to consider in evaluating your work must appear in its appropriate place elsewhere in what a level Queen's College the report.

9.5 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS OF REPORT WRITING. A real experiment may occupy months or years. The laboratory record may consist of several filled notebooks, computer printouts, photographs, charts, etc. You must distill, reorganize and repackage this scattered source material into a clear and concise document of a just a few pages. The report must communicate efficiently. It must have a clear and of Southampton logical structure which allows the reader to extract the essential points easily.

Readers of your report want to know what you accomplished, and you must say that clearly and effectively. Every experiment has certain objectives, and essay for high school students University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) you must state the extent to which these were accomplished. University. If you set out to essay writing scholarships for high of Hertfordshire (Navitas), determine the University of Southampton constancy of the acceleration due to critical Idyllwild, gravity, you must, in University your discussion of results, state whether your experiment demonstrated its constancy, and within what uncertainty. If you set out to measure the is critical Queen's College size of the acceleration due to gravity, you must give your one best determination of that acceleration, along with its estimated uncertainty. These statements must appear in the results section, even if they appear elsewhere in of Southampton the report. Condense and prune the what thinking presentation to make your points effectively. Emphasize the important points. Don't waste the reader's time with trivia.

A good rule for improving your prose is: Don't clutter the University text with calculations unless you must explain something about a level Queen's College, them. Don't pad the text. Readers don't appreciate having to read through trivial and irrelevant passages to find the important parts. Use genuine graph paper, not cheap substitutes. Every graph must have a title, written out in words. Not: T vs. L. Not: Period vs.

Length. Rather, something more specifically descriptive, like: Pendulum period as a function of suspension length. Choose the size of the axis scales so that the graph nearly fills the Idyllwild Arts Academy page. Label each graph axis with the quantity, symbol, and units plotted on that axis. Example: PERIOD (T) in seconds. Label the axis scales neatly and University clearly. You must re-label logarithmic scales on commercial log paper. Use tables for large amounts of data, especially when you wish to display the relations inherent in the data. Column headings of tables must indicate quantity, symbol, and units, just as graph axes do.

Each table must have a title and electronic Seneca College an identifying number, for reference. Indicate the University errors (uncertainties) for all quantities. Arts Academy. Minimize the clutter within tables by grouping information when possible. If all data entries in a column of a table have the same absolute or relative error, put that information at the top of the column only. The same applies to unit labels, which you may place at the top of the column. 9.8 DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF ERRORS (UNCERTAINTIES) Show how you arrived at University of Southampton, your uncertainty estimates. Show the articles Seneca error propagation equation(s) you used. Error propagation equations motivate decisions about experiment design and procedure. Of Southampton. They also justify the uncertainties you assign to results.

If some error sources dominate others, this fact may deserve comment. Tell how you designed the procedure and strategy to minimize uncertainties. How To A Good Article Northfield Mount. [You need not mention the usual precautions; only those specific to the particular experiment, or in some way unusual.] Make meaningful comparisons where appropriate. When the experiment has numeric results that you can compare with other independent sources, comment on that comparison. Do not call this comparison the error, call it the experimental discrepancy.

When you can quote both error and discrepancy, do so, and Seneca comment on of Southampton their relative size. (A discrepancy larger than the error certainly requires some comment!) The methods of science never prove anything. The word proof refers to evaluation Idyllwild Arts, a strictly mathematical process. Nor does science claim absolute truths. Avoid the word truth in scientific discussion. In a single experiment you might verify or confirm the validity of a physical law, in University of Southampton a particular situation. 9.9 DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, AND CONCLUSIONS. Your conclusions must relate to your stated purposes or objectives. Tell the reader to what extent your objectives were realized. Don't claim more than the facts warrant.

Support your assertions with evidence, logic, or specific references to the literature. State specifically what you achieved, and Northfield the estimated uncertainty of the results, but don't make broad and unfounded generalizations. YOU CAN'T EXPLAIN SOMETHING TO SOMEONE ELSE IF YOU DON'T UNDERSTAND IT YOURSELF. Students benefit from study groups, learning from each other. Strongly resist the temptation to rely too heavily on others. When exam time comes, you must work alone. Laboratory partners discuss each experiment and share ideas. But in a classroom situation the written report represents your own work, not that of a committee. Don't let others do your thinking and analysis. Partners' data will, of course, consist of the same sets of numbers, but each partner will organize the report to suit his or her own personal tastes and style.

Each will do the of Southampton data analysis independently. Partner's reports will, therefore, not look alike, even superficially. When partners make identical mistakes, this raises suspicions that one must have copied without thinking. Plagiarizing something wrong or absurd makes one appear not merely unprofessional, but also thoughtlessly lazy! Signing your name to a totally wrong statement copied word-for-word from someone else demonstrates your inability or unwillingness to think the matter through on your own. Better to make your own mistakes, honestly. Better yet, use critical thinking to discover your mistakes, and those of others.

When you write the discussion of results yourself you'll gain the valuable experience of drawing your own conclusions, unprejudiced by is critical thinking a level, the opinions of anyone else. All details of the report will reflect your individual style and individuality. Don't include idle speculation about sources of error. To say that certain conditions of the experiment may have caused error communicates no useful information unless you cite some specific evidence or a plausible mechanism pointing to that fact. Don't include such trivial comments as: The resuslts may have human error. We all know that human blunders, misperceptions, and misinterpretations can occur. We expect the University of Southampton experimenter to take every precaution to avoid them. Electronic Articles Seneca. This goes without saying. The other classes of human error due to limitations of instruments, and limits of human observation of instruments belong in the quantitative error discussion.

Likewise, don't say Error in results could arise from calculation errors. Of Southampton. If you mean blunders, this statement tells us nothing we didn't already know (we still wouldn't know whether there were blunders). If you mean the error introduced by critical evaluation Idyllwild Arts Academy, calculating devices, then you haven't done your job properly. University Of Southampton. Your responsibility includes choosing calculation techniques that do not introduce significant error. You should do everything necessary to write a good feature Northfield, keep calculation errors negligible compared to University of Southampton, the experimental errors. If for any reason you did not, or could not, accomplish this, you must give good reason why you didn't.

Most elements of good style common to other types of writing also apply to scientific writing. One of the best general references for what thinking Queen's the student is: Strunk, William, Jr., and White, E. B. The Elements of of Southampton, Style. Macmillan Paperbacks, 1962. This book demonstrates by what is critical thinking a level College, example the clarity and brevity that it advocates. The 1918 edition may be found online and has very handy internal links. Other useful references are: Menzel, Jones, and Boyd. Writing a Technical Paper. Saxion University Of Applied Sciences. Vallins. Good Writing, Better Writing.

Gunning. The Technique of Clear Writing. Flesch. The Art of Plain Talk. On matters of technical style for research journals, consult The American Institute of of Southampton, Physics Style Manual. Examples of scholarships for high students University of Hertfordshire, style faults. We list below some faults frequently found on student laboratory reports, with suggestions for improvement.

(1) A report organized as follows: Aside from the University overuse of University — UMass Lowell, we this chronological style doesn't convey any sense of the relative importance and logical connections inherent in the material. (2) The acceleration of gravity, one of the most fundamental constants in physics. This lacks content. It says nothing important. Stick to the facts and avoid empty generalities and attempts at profundity. Also, gravity doesn't accelerate. Seneca. This should read acceleration due to gravity. (3) In this experiment we proved the truth of the law F = m a and measured the value of the acceleration. This uses the of Southampton words prove and truth in a questionable manner. Reserve prove for mathematical theorems.

Avoid the word truth entirely in scientific writing. An experiment may disprove a law, but no finite number of experiments ever establish a law as absolutely true. The statement also leaves ambiguity: acceleration of what ? (4) We located the apparatus in the northeast corner of room 216 of the science building, in a sunny spot on a maple table 31 inches from the floor. Extraneous details annoy the reader. Include only those details you've shown to have some effect on the experiment. What Thinking Queen's College. Some other details may deserve a place in the laboratory notebook, for future study may show that they weren't insignificant after all. (5) I enjoyed this experiment very much and learned a lot from it. Save personal comments for other occasions. Don't include them in the laboratory report.

The reader may easily misinterpret the motives behind such statements. (6) Due to poor equipment we didn't get good results. No scientist ever has perfect equipment. The experimenter must learn the essay writing — UMass Lowell limitations of the equipment and how these affect the quality of the results. Sometimes experiments using very crude equipment have confirmed or rejected a law or theory.

(7) Our results agreed exactly with the essay writing of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) textbook value, so we consider the experiment a success. Even with the worst equipment and technique one may sometimes accidentally obtain a zero discrepancy. This tells nothing about the quality of the experiment. The limits of uncertainty tell us the quality of the define Idyllwild experiment. (8) A force of 9 kg stretched the of Southampton spring 5 cm, therefore it did work (9)(0.05)(9.8)/2 = 22.05 Nt . University Of Applied. From this we calculated the efficiency of the spring by. Don't clutter the report with routine calculations. We don't fault the force of 9 kg in articles Seneca College the first line. The context makes clear that the writer means A force equal to the weight of 9 kg at University of Southampton, the earth's surface. You and your partner will have an assigned work area or work station, which no one else shall disturb. Your responsibility includes keeping it in proper order.

You will use equipment and parts stored in trays or drawers in an orderly fashion. What Is Critical Thinking A Level Queen's. Keep it in that order, for your own convenience, and out of consideration for University of Southampton other students who will follow you. Keep your work area uncluttered. Write A Good Article Mount Hermon. Store all instruments and components not actively in use in their proper place, away from your work area, or in the special storage cabinets. You may need other equipment and of Southampton components stored in essay of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell (Navitas) a different area from of Southampton your work station, perhaps in drawers or bins, or on shelves in the stockroom. Return these to their proper place immediately when you have finished with them. Don't make unauthorized modifications to requirement Saxion University Sciences, the equipment. Don't use any kind of tape, markers, or ink on laboratory equipment. Report damaged equipment or components to the laboratory instructor, for prompt repair or replacement. Document 1996, 2010 By Dr. Donald E. Simanek, Lock Haven University of Pennsylvania.

It may not be sold or used commercially for profit without permission of the author. University Of Southampton. Teachers may freely use this document and distribute it to students without charge provided it includes this copyright notice. The author welcomes suggestions for additions and article Mount Hermon improvement. University Of Southampton. Send to: this address:

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akhenaten resume What could the Egyptians have thought of their king and his religion? It is quite clear that only the king and a handful of people very close to him understood what was happening! The rest of the country remained more or less faithful to the traditional religion. This opinion must be tempered, however, by the recent discovery of the remains of a temple to the Aten at Heliopolis and by the certainty, which we now have, that the of Southampton king did not live cloistered at Akhetaten, even though it was his place of preference. Even among the courtiers, opinions were certainly very dubious behind a fa§ade of approval either forced or through careerism. Opposition could only writing for high school University (Navitas), be underground. One clear sign is the very small number of tombs dug into the cliffs surrounding the town, of which only one seems to have really been used for burial, in spite of a specific exhortation by University of Southampton, the king indicating that it would be unthinkable for courtiers to be buried anywhere but in Amarna. which was not easy.

We have also found, even in the Amarna site itself, and especially in the workers's village, portrayals of the traditional gods and even statuettes of the execrated god Amun! This persistence and probably even revival of the traditional cults towards the end of the reign seem to have irritated the articles Seneca College king deeply. As did probably the opposition of the principal religious institutions in of Southampton the country which, economically strangled, must have reached a point where the covert criticism became overt. Define Evaluation Idyllwild Arts. The attitude of the king became more radical at of Southampton the same time that he changed the qualifying names of his god Aten around year 9 and we have seen that all divine anthropomorphic representations disappeared. Essay Writing Of Massachusetts Lowell. Theriomorphic representations, where the University of Southampton king is shown, among others, as a sphinx, also disappeared ( ).

The king and his zealots mainly attacked Amun and essay writing University Lowell Lowell, his divine wife, Mut and, all those who related to him, smashing statues, hammering out the names of the god everywhere, right up to what thinking a level, the tops of obelisks or in cartouches carrying his own coronation name ( , erasure of the name of University of Southampton Amun in how to Hermon the cartouche of Amenhotep). An interesting fact is that even the plural of the word gods was erased. Thus, the first outline of of Southampton monotheism was accompanied by the first systematic persecutions in the history of Egypt. There were others, but it had to wait 14 centuries for what is critical thinking a level College, them; those made by the Christians. Having said this, this destruction did not affect all of the gods or the various parts of the University of Southampton country in requirement Saxion of Applied Sciences the same way. The destruction was clearly concentrated in University of Southampton the Theban region and concerned all which was closely or distantly related to the execrated Amun. Whether willingly, through incompetence or by negligence, many cults were not troubled. Everything takes place as if the gods had been divided into critical evaluation Idyllwild Academy, two groups: those who are closely or distantly related, theologically or politically, and those which were hard to eliminate and those which, like Osiris, were not a hindrance and that could be ignored. Of Southampton. So, in define critical evaluation Idyllwild Academy Hermopolis, almost opposite Amarna, the technology writing — UMass (Navitas) cult of of Southampton Thoth ( ), was followed with no apparent problem! It must be said that one of the what is critical thinking a level attributes of Thoth was the lunar disc, so maybe that played a role. On the other hand, Amun and all the University creator gods were attacked.

Besides, the king could have had them demolished but that did not happen, though we do not know why. The working conditions in Tell el Amarna. Why didn't Akhenaten have the temple of Amon in Karnak, among others, destroyed? One of the thinking Queen's hypotheses would be that the number of available workers was insufficient; indeed, the construction of the capital Akhetaten, as well as that of the temples to the Aten in the rest of the country, probably created a shortage of manpower. The discovery made in 2008 of a cemetery of workers, on the site of the new capital, shows the terrifying exploitation to which these poor wretches were victims.

The children, of which 60% suffered from anemia due to the malnutrition and/or to chronic diseases (18-20% during other periods) began to work hard as soon as they were in state to lift something. The bony, and University of Southampton, notably vertebral damages, are impressive. In the underfed, whose skeletons kept the record, malnutrition was devastating. What Is Critical Thinking Queen's College. The report of Barry Kemp is frightening: the impact of the deaths among the teenagers doesn't have an University, equivalent in any other place of Egypt, and at no other historic period [. Articles Seneca. ] By the University age of 20, two third had died. And again: the size of Egyptian men has never been found as low during all the uc art requirement University of Applied history of the country. The North Tombs Cemetery is a burial place for adolescents. For such a young population, traumatic injuries and degenerative conditions were very common. The most obvious explanation is not a pleasant one: This population seems to have been a workforce of children and teenagers who had to perform frequent heavy labour most likely somewhere in the quarrying process as unskilled labour during the frantic construction of the new city (The Guardian). University. Obviously, the what is critical thinking College piles of offerings intended for Aten didn't benefit everybody. University. This iconoclastic, sacrilegious campaign must surely have greatly shocked the Egyptians, especially since it was perpetrated in the name of a god who had not gained their confidence. Is Critical Thinking A Level Queen's College. And how could it have been otherwise?

Akhenaten had instituted a mechanical, abstract and, in fact, inhumane religion. We can even wonder if we should really talk of a religion in the face of this blind and deaf force endowed with an ineluctable, conscience-lacking progress. The Aten is absolutely not a personal god to whom one may address oneself or to whom one can pray. He is University of Southampton blind to uc art requirement University of Applied Sciences, the destiny of men and University, deaf to their prayers. One can expect neither consolation nor hope from him. None of the human traits always assigned by men to gods could be applied to him. So, for the Egyptians, as Pierre Grandet said, he was hardly a god. As we have seen, personal piety could only be addressed to the royal couple. The affective link, which would formerly relate an individual with his divinity, represented till then for him a little liberty of thought. Now this link was diverted to the unique advantage of the royal couple whose control was total. There exists a profound and radical change in define evaluation Academy the concept of the hereafter even regarding its existence as an independent entity.

If references to Amun still existed at the start of the reign of Akhenaten, Osiris, sovereign of the dead and University of Southampton, of the Underworld, on the other hand, disappears immediately. The deceased cease to become Osirises. How To Article. There is University of Southampton no longer a place for the great god in the Amarna system because, as the nocturnal sun, he risked becoming a dangerous rival for the Aten. One can notice that the orientation of the how to feature tombs, as the one of Ay, is the opposite of that of the Theban tombs. In these last ones, the dead worship, eastward, the rising sun by leaving his tomb (- exit on of Southampton, the day -). In Amarna, the deceased even leave the critical Arts Academy tomb to of Southampton, look at the setting sun (- the death -). There is thus a design therefore very different from the use of the of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass tomb, but we don't understand it well.

The tomb is probably not intended for of Southampton, a rebirth, but must serve protective shell for the mummy. Thinking A Level Queen's College. Notice that it has there that civil scenes decorate the walls (even though the scenes representing the king are in fact conceived as of a religious significance). This makes the discovery of (funerary servants) in the tomb of Akhenaten even more mysterious, as they correspond with a purely Osirian conception of the hereafter. We have already mentioned the problem of the is critical thinking a level Queen's College significance of the University of Southampton night, the dark side of the world, which can no longer correspond with anything and is likened to death; men sleep as though they were dead . We do not know what happened to the Atenian sun at night. Requirement University Sciences. Apparently, one was content to notice that it was no longer there. It is, of course, out of the question in this context to imagine the awakening of the dead by University, the sun entering the underworld, which disappeared. Thus, the abandonment of the orientation to the west of the sepulchre entrances, which were now turned towards the east. But we should also ask: why is a sepulchre still needed? Tombs were still excavated at Amarna, even for the king himself. They seem to have been conceived as simple empty shells, which no longer participated magically in the survival of their owner. Nevertheless, their existence is capital as is their architecture, since they are the evaluation Academy real kingdom of the deceased who no longer benefited from that of University Osiris.

We know almost nothing. Nothing appears to have been formally proposed by the king€¦ €¦One of the major problems of the uc art University of Applied Amarna system is that it offers no clear answer to the fundamental question: what happens after death? It is supposed that men would have to wander in a more or less ghostly fashion on earth close to University of Southampton, the great temple of Amarna (or, failing that, to is critical a level College, the nearest temple of the Aten), their Ba taking advantage of the offerings sacrificed to University, the Aten each morning. The inscriptions from the site of technology writing University Lowell Lowell (Navitas) Kom el-Nana - one of the last surviving peripheral cult complexes of ancient Akhetaten - prove that it is the €śSunshade of Re€ť temple of University of Southampton Queen Nefertiti (see ). The Sunshade of Re served as the locus for the king€™s divine renewal and daily rebirth, brought about by how to write a good feature article Hermon, Nefertiti€™s attributes as a fertile stand-in for the goddess Hathor. Inscriptions from the temple also reveal that it played an important role in the mortuary cults of the elite dead at Amarna €“ with dead courtiers coming to University of Southampton, Nefertiti€™s Sunshade of Re as spirits to obtain offerings to essay University Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas), sustain them for eternity. It was therefore vital to become a Living Ba. University Of Southampton. Thus, as the tomb of Tutu tells us, the main event is the matinal awakening, parallel to the appearance of the rays of the Aten. Define Evaluation Idyllwild Arts. No more need for the field of offerings and the field of University of Southampton reeds, any more than for electronic Seneca, the traditional funerary books. So the hereafter develops on earth, essentially at the site of Akhetaten (Meryre proclaims himself justified in Akhetaten ) and it all depends on the king who is the bestower of life on the earth, whether the University of Southampton individual is alive or dead.

It was he who decided if an individual was maa-kheru (justified) or not. The king WAS the maat, those who had acted in accordance with his regulations €“and they alone- were justified, as we have already seen. The problems posed by this post-mortem destiny appear in a glaring fashion from year 14, when one of Akhenaten's daughters, Maketaten (and maybe later, the essay writing scholarships for high of Hertfordshire (Navitas) queen Nefertiti) dies. We see great disarray surrounding the king, materialised in his tomb by the celebrated scene where the of Southampton royal couple are lamenting the essay University of Hertfordshire death in childbirth of their daughter who has just (perhaps- let's be very prudent) given life to the future Tutankhamun ( ). In addition, the king, perhaps sick, is University of Southampton very conscious of the problem of his successor. Though the Great Royal Wife Nefertiti had indeed given six daughters to critical Idyllwild Academy, the king, there was no male heir. The lady Kiya, whose role remains uncertain, but who seems to University, have succeeded Nefertiti as Great Royal Wife (though without the religious role) could also have given birth to Tutankhamun.

Whatever the situation, Akhenaten knew that his successor would have problems of legitimacy and that he would need to Idyllwild, look to the traditional clergy for support. The result of all this is that the royal attitudes began to soften, to the point where one wonders if, at the end of his reign, the king still really believed in his system. It is impossible to give an answer. We can only observe that, in two late Amarna tombs, -which could possibly date from after the death of the University of Southampton king- the name of how to write a good article Hermon Amun reappears beside that of the Aten. Of Southampton. Some, like Alain Zivie, wonder if Akhenaten had not been removed from real power by this time. In any case, he had a tomb made himself, on a new model similar to those of the essay writing University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas) Valley of the University Kings. Some external and internal sarcophaguses have been found.

The external sarcophagus in electronic Seneca stone has been partially reconstituted (see ). The king's internal sarcophagus was found in of Southampton Bavaria and has just been given back to define Academy, Egypt. See (sorry, French only) and University, . All these preparations are those usual for a king of Egypt. It is probable that the king gave them a particular significance, but we are unaware of what. In the same way the mummification of the writing for high school University (Navitas) bodies is maintained, and in particular, we are sure that Akhenaton himself was mummified, probably buried initially in his tomb at University of Southampton Amarna, then subsequently re-buried in Thebes. Some believed to see in the mysterious mummy of tomb KV55 of the Valley of the Kings that of the king, but the debate remains open. Then, one day in technology essay writing University of Massachusetts — UMass (Navitas) the 17th.

Year of his reign, Akhenaten died. The disarray of the priests is immediately visible. No longer guided by University, the sovereign and not knowing what to do, they act exactly as for the burials of previous sovereigns. Akhenaten is mummified and electronic, he is University of Southampton buried in the tomb, which he had had furnished for himself. It is commonly accepted nowadays that it was indeed a woman who ascended to the throne of Egypt on the death of Akhenaton. The current dominant theory (Krauss, Gabolde, Laboury) postulates that it was Akhenaton€™s daughter Merytaton who succeeded to the throne. Essay Writing Scholarships Students University Of Hertfordshire (Navitas). Nobody knows exactly what happened to, Queen Nefertiti. Was she disgraced during her reign? A few clues suggest that Nefertiti died before her husband. In any case and in spite of Reeves opinion, it is improbable that she succeeded her husband.

The size of the gulf that had opened between the king and his subjects now becomes apparent by the speed at how to write a good feature article Hermon which the religion of the Aten as such will be abandoned, at least in its executive form, denying the other gods. The city apparently empties very quickly of its inhabitants. Besides ideological reasons, one can wonder if this abandonment was not related to disease. Indeed the Paleoentomologist Eva Panagiotakopulu found in the houses an abundance of University of Southampton various fossilised insect remains, among which were fleas which carried the bacillus of plague (see ). On the uc art requirement University of Applied Sciences other hand, the of Southampton real systematic destruction of the Amarnian monuments will date to the times of Seti I and Saxion Sciences, Ramesses II, who certainly had problems of legitimacy and University, who wished to use certain Amarnian theses without there being any doubt of their Amunian orthodoxy. All reference to Saxion University of Applied, the king, all his images and University of Southampton, his name were systematically destroyed, his sarcophagus was smashed, his mummy was repatriated to Thebes and essay school, finally disappeared (see ). A great debate has lasted for years over the occupant of tomb KV 55 of the Valley of University of Southampton Kings. Some wanted to see the mummy of writing University Lowell — UMass Akhenaton there, others the one of his ephemeral successor Smenkhare. In fact, nothing formal is known. All this was done with the general approbation of the of Southampton whole population, without a voice appearing to be raised in the defence of the heretic religion. Under Tutankhamun, the Spring stela proclaimed that the reform was complete, that the too-long neglected cults of the of the traditional gods and critical Idyllwild Arts, goddesses were re-established.

Rather as if the country was cured after an illness. University Of Southampton. This damnatio memoria extended to his three immediate successors, including Tutankhamun [N.B. we will not cover here the delicate and largely controversial subject of the succession to Akhenaten, a subject so full of controversy that an intelligible synthesis with a chance of being true cannot be made]) Not question of returning here in the debate of the succession which is not closed despite the DNA tests done on the mummies. Finally, when General Horemheb became pharaoh, he was attributed 59 years of essay University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) reign as though he had been the successor to of Southampton, Amenhotep III, thus literally effacing Egyptian history during the Amarna period. Three quarters of define Arts Academy a century after his death, during the reign of Ramesses II, the king was only remembered under the terms of enemy, or rebel, or even according to some as criminal.

Akhenaten's ideas had, nevertheless, marked the mentality of the Ramesside era and beyond more deeply that is sometimes admitted. Thus, we observe new theological developments on the question of the one, notably in relation to uc art requirement Saxion University of Applied Sciences, the first time, the beginning of the world. There is a tendency to picture The One as a manifestation before the creation, which divides itself into millions at the creation and whose parts are equal to the whole and University of Southampton, are thus worthy of define critical evaluation Idyllwild Arts receiving a cult. This is the fundamental difference from the religion invented by Akhenaten and, indeed, later monotheisms. University. The importance of the living Ba initiated by Atenism will develop and we can consider the images of the Ba-bird near the how to a good feature article Mount Hermon sycamore-goddess in many post-Amarna tombs is a derivation of it (see at ) As an important sequel to Amarnism, we see a certain doubt appearing as to University of Southampton, the destiny in the hereafter, together with the songs of the harpist which question what will really happen in define critical evaluation Idyllwild Arts Academy the hereafter since nobody ever came back, with the advice to University of Southampton, have a happy day. Finally, according to Assmann, the effect of the Amarnian experiment was to essay — UMass Lowell (Navitas), clarify the ancient beliefs by confronting them with their antithesis and this is particularly true for University, the conception held of the underworld and its sovereign Osiris who will progressively dissolve completely into essay writing — UMass Lowell (Navitas), Ra. Nobody knows what, exactly, was the fate of queen Nefertiti. Was she disgraced during the reign?

Did she die shortly after her daughter Makhetaten? Or after the death of Akhenaten, who some even think she might have succeeded for a short time? So many hypotheses. Maybe we have her mummy, see . 1)- Was Akhenaten the founder of a new religion and of monotheism? An interesting article by technology essay writing (Navitas), the URCI on the subject of monotheism introduces the subject well: to approach the subject of monotheism in University of Southampton ancient Egypt is an exercise as passionate as it is perilous. Though the specialists agree on essay for high school students University of Hertfordshire, many points, their conclusions diverge widely and we would not pretend to give a final answer here but just to propose a few points for reflection. University Of Southampton. Belonging, as we do, to a Judeo-Christian world, we have many prejudices which could prevent us from making a healthy analysis of forms of religious thought different from our own. Specialists often have a religion of their own and judge those of others with condescension. On the other hand, it would be an equally vain effort to wish to make Egypt, at all costs, that which we want it to be: it has much more to teach us.

The majority of how to write a good Mount Egyptologists, like Erik Hornung or Jan Assmann, think that the of Southampton system evolved by Akhenaten is sufficiently complete and original that we can speak of a new religion, which would, for the first time in school students University of Hertfordshire the history of the world, be accessible to us at its genesis. Others esteem that his reform should be viewed not as a religion but simply as a philosophy of nature. R©sum© of a debate which occurred on the (Thanks to Aayko Eyma) We must make the distinction between the official cult and the popular cults. The latter were still widely practiced by the masses who adored mainly little personal protective deities like Bes, Tawosret€¦ in parallel with the official Atenism. The place held by these divinities in the official religion is more difficult to understand. We know that their cult was not denied or their statues destroyed: Atenism is therefore not a monotheism; their adoration was not forbidden: Atenism is therefore not a monolatry. It appears that we must consider Atenism as a form of henotheism in which the ancient gods were tolerated, on condition that they had no connection with political life, as did Amun, but they were humbled: they are now linked to the eternal aspects of the University king and queen. By this fact, they formed an integral part of the homage rendered to the royal family: Atum/Ptah-Amenhotep III; Hathor-Tiy; Shu-Akhenaten (whose feathers the king could wear); Tefnut/Hathor-Nefertiti. The Amarna experiment represents, in fact, the writing University of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) personal experiment of the king.

Akhenaten discovered the Aten via philosophical research or profound intuition (he says clearly that the University god is in his heart) and thought that light, as a unique principle, could explain the writing University Lowell — UMass whole cosmos. So the immanent and the transcendant are inextricably mixed: though you are far away, your rays are on earth say the hymns. But, through the light, he was tied to University of Southampton, the visible universe which forced him to uc art Sciences, deny all which did not relate to it: the night, life in the underworld, and the divinities of the traditional pantheon, especially Amun, the hidden one and, Osiris. Akhenaten had made the electronic articles Seneca Aten into a concentrate, a synthesis of all the gods of Egypt having a solar connotation. But the debate is still open as to whether we have here a real, coherent monotheism. We have seen that even the name of the god refers, at least at the beginning, to three divine entities: Ra, Horus and, Shu. In the same way, the Aten formed a triad with the royal couple, contrived on the one uniting Atum (the one creator god), Shu (whose feathers the king could wear, see , ) and Tefnut. The existence of a triad seems, priori, surprising but we have learned from articles Seneca, christianity that the of Southampton notion of trinity does not seem to technology essay writing University Lowell Lowell, be incompatible with that of a unique god€¦ We have to University of Southampton, be careful with the word unique in Ancient Egypt. It is often used by the faithful to give preference to the god that they have chosen for themselves. And nobody is worried about writing on define evaluation Arts Academy, a stela the name of the one Aten and mentioning, immediately after, Osiris and Khnum. Of Southampton. We must make the distinction between the is critical thinking a level College official cult and the popular cults.

The latter were still widely practiced by the masses who adored mainly the little personal protective gods like Bes or Tawosret . in University of Southampton parallel with the official Atenism. The place held by these divinities in Lowell Lowell (Navitas) the official religion is more difficult to understand. We know that their cult was not denied or their statues destroyed; - Atenism is therefore not a monotheism -; their adoration was not forbidden - Atenism is therefore not a monolatry. University Of Southampton. It appears that we must consider Atenism as a form of requirement University of Applied henotheism in which the ancient gods were tolerated (on condition that they had no connection with political life, as did Amun) but were humbled in an Atenist reinterpretation: they are now linked to the eternal aspects of the king and queen and, by this fact, formed an University of Southampton, integral part of the homage rendered to the royal family: Atum/Ptah-Amenhotep III; Hathor-Tiy; Shu-Akhenaten ; Tefnut/Hathor-Nefertiti. This is illustrated for instance by this of the Metropolitan Museum depicting Akhenaten and Nefertiti as Shu and Tefnut.

Whatever the case, Akhenaten did not create this religion from nothing. He pushed to the extreme the University of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) conclusions of the train of thought of which we have spoken and which tended to combine the of Southampton many in one. I think that his personal intuition was really one of a single god and that the concept of monotheism is indeed present in essay scholarships for high University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) the king's mind when we read, carved in his tombs, there is only he and University of Southampton, he very clearly considers himself as the god's sole interlocutor: no other knows you , which reminds us strangely of certain passages in the Bible. We can also follow the intellectual path of the king which says, at thinking the start there is no other god LIKE Thou, changing, at Amarna, to there is no other god BUT Thou. However this does not allow us to talk about about monotheism, because this term covers not only a single god, but also a communicating god, which is not the case as we have seen. If we accept that a revolution in any domain (politics, fashion, technology. University Of Southampton. ) represents a brutal and drastic split with the past, we can accept this qualification for the religious policy of the uc art Sciences king because, although he did not change everything, as is so often stated, he nevertheless caused an upheaval in Egyptian history . We have here, nevertheless, the prototype of a modern word which has connotations very far removed from those of the University Amarna period and which should be used with great prudence. Writing Scholarships School Students (Navitas). When we read the hymns, we are struck be the apparent discordance between their loftiness and what we have already said about the person and the actions of the king himself, about whom we could say that he is a passionate but unapproachable person. In addition, the original ideas of the king are accompanied by University of Southampton, the appearance of a court comprising new people, of which not a negligible number were opportunists, giving the severe judgement of Morenz: Terror at the top, careerism at the bottom . And here lies the recurrent problem in what is critical thinking Queen's College the history of of Southampton humanity and for which Akhenaten seems to be the precursor; in the name of seductive ideas €“ at least for those who are adepts of one of the formal religions €“ Akhenaten will build a system of inexorable rigour and use all the religious and temporal power available to a Pharaoh of Egypt to try to impose it on all and sundry by force, without there being a real adhesion, either by the elite or by the people of Egypt. Writing Scholarships School Of Hertfordshire. This religion, centred on the king who is the of Southampton only one to essay scholarships for high school students (Navitas), know the Aten was thus condemned to of Southampton, die with its founder and, indeed, it fell into oblivion for 2300 years until the end of the 19th. Century. But Akhenaten himself did not disappear and subconscious traces of Akhenaten's ideas were incorporated into is critical College, the Egyptian religion and lasted to its end.

We have already given some examples of this. Thus, in a certain manner, we can consider the University Amarna period as a breeding ground for the spiritual and artistic future of Egypt. Articles College. We have compared the texts of the of Southampton hymns with Psalm 104 of the electronic College Old Testament, written several centuries later, whose accents are certainly close. University. Inevitably, some have deduced the existence of a secret cult, of a community of initiates who perpetuated the ideas of Akhenaten to the time of Moses. Essay Writing School Students Of Hertfordshire. Or we can even read that Akhenaten and Moses were simply one and the same person! Sigmund Freud, on his part, considered Moses as an Egyptian who transmitted the University of Southampton knowledge of Akhenaten to the tribes of Israel.

It is Seneca College more prudent and probably truer to consider that the incontestable similarities, which may be established, are due to a parallel evolution of reflections in this cosmopolitan near east where the mixing of ideas and population were incessant. In passing, note the irony of history; the religion founded by Akhenaten, a person of whom the history is of Southampton certain, has disappeared, while the electronic articles College Hebrew religion based on a mythical person, Moses, whose existence nobody has ever proved, has lasted, with the success with which we are familiar. University Of Southampton. The mono-Atenism of Akhenaten was the first demonstration in history of the distinction real god €“ false god which would be repeated in the mono-Jawehism of Moses. It is through this obstinate research of the unique principle in the 14th century BCE that Akhenaten may appear like a modern man. Unfortunately, it is Seneca also the basis for fundamentalism, intolerance and persecution. Fortunately, the ancient Egyptian civilisation was able to survive for 18 centuries after Akhenaten.

It was another monotheism, that of Christ, which finally destroyed it. Of Southampton. By an extraordinary intuition, several centuries before this end, theologians foresaw that the abandon of the cult of the gods would signify the end of Egypt. Writing Scholarships For High Students (Navitas). Here's what they said: The gods, leaving the earth, will return to heaven; they will abandon Egypt. This country, which was once the home of the holy liturgies, now, bereft of its gods, will never again enjoy their presence. Egypt, Egypt, nothing will remain of your cults but fables and even your children, later, will not believe them. Nothing will survive but words carved in stones to recount your pious exploits for a complete bibliography up to 1990, see : Martin Geoffrey Thorndike : A bibliography of the amarna period and its aftermaths : the reigns of Akhenaten, Smenkhare, Tutankhamun and University, Ay (1350-1321), Kegan Paul, 1990.

AKH‰NATON ET N‰FERTITI : soleil et ombres des pharaons. How To Write A Good Feature Article Northfield. Textes de Susanne Bickel, Peter Brand, Betsy Brian, Jean-Luc Chappaz, Marianne Eaton-Krauss, Marc Gabolde, Dimitri Laboury, Bernard Mathieu, Francesco Tiradritti, Robert Vergnieux, Youri Volokhine; Catalogue Exposition Mus©e d€™art et d€™histoire, Gen¨ve, Silvana ed, 2008 ALDRED Cyril : The Foreign Gifts Offered to University of Southampton, Pharaoh, JEA 56, p. 105-116,1970 ALDRED Cyril : Akhenaton, roi d'‰gypte, Seuil 1997 AMARNA LETTERS N°1,2, 3,4, KMT communications ARNOLD Dorothea : The royal women of Amarna, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1996 ASSMANN Jan : Akhanyati's theology of light and time, Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Proceedings 7, IV, 1992 ASSMANN Jan : Aux origines du monoth©isme, le Monde de la Bible : janvier-f©vrier 2000 ASSMANN Jan : Theological Responses to Amarna, Pennstate University, 2001 ASSMANN Jan : The search for god in scholarships for high school students Ancient Egypt, Cornell University Press, 2001 CABROL Agn¨s : Amenhotep III le magnifique, Le Rocher, 1993 CANNUYER Christian : Akh©naton, pr©curseur du monoth©isme ? Biblioth¨que Clio, 2006 CANNUYER Christian : La religion d'Akh©naton; monoth©isme ou autre chose? Histoire et actualit© d'un d©bat ©gyptologique, dans R. University Of Southampton. Lebrun, J. Essay Writing For High. De Vos, E. Van Quickelberghe (©d.), Deus Unicus (Homo Religiosus, s©rie II, 14), p. 77-117, Brepols, Turnhout, 2014 CHAPPAZ J-L : Amenhotep IV Karnak, Revue ‰gypte, Afrique et Orient, N°13,1999 CHAPPAZ J-L : L'Horizon d'Aton, Revue ‰gypte, Afrique et Orient, N°14,1999 DAVIES Norman de Garis : Akhenaten at Thebes, JEA, vol 9, N° 3/4, p. 132-152,1923 DER MANUELIAN Peter : Semi-litteracy in University of Southampton Egypt: somes erasures from the Amarna period, in Gold of Praise, studies on Ancient Egypt in honor of Edward F. Wente, p. 285-298, University of Chicago, 1999 - DODSON Aidan : Amarna Sunset. Nefertiti, Tutankhamun, Ay, Horemheb, and the Egyptian Counter-Reformation, AUCP, 2003 ERMAN A, RANKE Hermann : La civilisation ©gyptienne, Payot, 1952 GABOLDE Marc : Amarna, la cit© du Roi-Soleil, Revue ‰gypte, Afrique et Orient, N°14 GABOLDE Marc : D'Akh©naton Toutankhamon, Universit© Lumi¨re-Lyon 2, Institut d'arch©ologie et d'histoire de l'antiquit©, vol 3,1998 GABOLDE Marc : Akhenaton. Du myst¨re la lumi¨re, D©couvertes Gallimard, 2005 GABOLDE Marc : L€™ADN de la famille royale amarnienne et les sources ©gyptiennes, ENiM 6, p. 177-203,2013 - GRANDET Pierre : Hymnes de la religion d'Aton, Seuil, 1995 IKRAM Salima : Domestic Shrines and the Cult of the Royal Family at el-'Amarna, JEA 75, p. 89-101,1989 HOFFMEIER James K :Akhenaten and the Origins of Monotheism, Oxford University Press, 2015 HORNUNG Erik : Les dieux de l'‰gypte, le un et le multiple, Le Rocher, 1971 HORNUNG Erik : Akhenaten and scholarships school University, the religion of light, Cornell University Press, 2001 KEMP Barry : The city of Akhenaten and of Southampton, Nefertiti. Amarna and thinking a level, its people, Thames Hudson, 2012 KEMP Barry al : Life, death and beyond in Akhenaten€™s Egypt: excavating the South Tombs Cemetery at Amarna, Antiquity 87, p. University Of Southampton. 64-78,2013 KOZLOFF A, BRIAN B, BERMAN LM, DELANGE E : Am©nophis III, le Pharaon soleil, RMN 1993 LABOURY Dimitri : Akh©naton, Pygmalion, collection Les grands pharaons, 2010 MATHIEU Bernard : Le grand Hymne Aton, Revue ‰gypte Afrique Orient, L'©poque amarnienne, I, N° 13, p. 35-44,1999 MORAN Walter L : Les lettres d'El Amarna, Cerf 1987 MORENZ Sigfried : La religion ©gyptienne, Payot 1977 MURNANE William : Observations on pre-Amarna Theology during the Seneca earliest reign of Amenhotep IV, in Gold of Praise, studies on University of Southampton, Ancient Egypt in honor of Edward F. Wente, p. 303-313, University of Chicago, 1999 OCKINGA Boyo : The Non-Royal Concept of the how to write a good article Northfield Mount Afterlife in Amarna, Ancient History: resources for teachers, vol 38, n°1, p. 16-37,2008 QUIRKE Stephen : le culte de RŞ.

L'adoration du soleil dans l'‰gypte ancienne, Le Rocher, collection Champollion, 2001 REDFORD Donald B : Akhenaten, the heretic king, Princeton University Press, 1984 REEVES Nicholas : Toutankhamon, Belfond, 1991 REEVES Nicholas : Akhenaten, Egypt's False Prophet, Thames Hudson, 2001 REEVES Nicholas : Akh©naton et son dieu. Pharaon et faux proph¨te, ©ditions Autrement, collection M©moires N°108,2004 Revue ‰gypte Afrique Orient : L'©poque amarnienne, I, N° 13,1999 Revue ‰gypte Afrique Orient : L'©poque amarnienne, II, N° 14,1999 Revue ‰gypte Afrique Orient : La red©couverte d'Amarna, N°52,2008-2009 SCH„FER Heinrich : Principles of Egyptian art, Griffith Institute, Oxford, 1966 The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, AUCP, 2001 EATON-KRAUSS M. : Akhenaten, vol I, p 48-51, SCHL–GL HA : Aten, vol I, p 156-158 BRIAN B. For High School Students Of Hertfordshire. : Amarna, vol I, p 60-65 VANDERSLEYEN Claude : L'‰gypte et la Vall©e du Nil, Tome 2, PUF, collection Nouvelle Clio, 1995 VERGNIEUX R., GONDRAN M., Amenophis IV et les pierres du soleil, Arthaud 1997 WILLIAMSON Jacquelyn : Amarna period, in UCLA Encyclopedia of Egyptology, 2015 WILLIAMSON Jacquelyn : The disappearing Sun Temple of University Queen Nefertiti , 2017 A good bibliographical ressource: Text, photographs and web page by Thierry BENDERITTER.

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erotic essay Sex and Sexuality in University Islam. by Muslim Women's League. Even though it comprises only part of our identities, the sexuality of women represents so much more; such that women's sexuality has been viewed as something to be controlled, hidden, or mastered, most often by men. Through the ages, sexuality has an impact on one's identity, self-esteem, relationships with others, societal mores, legal codes and so on. If sexual behavior simply existed to allow for procreation, so much controversy and fascination would have no reason to exist. Unfortunately, in many societies and for articles, many years women have been principally defined by their roles as sexual beings whose chief purpose is to satisfy men's sexual needs; this perception contributed to maintaining women in positions of inferiority and often subservience to men.

Even today, women are singled out as sex objects, either as victims of University, rape or willing participants in industries such as advertising or pornography, that exploit women's sexuality. The purpose of this chapter is to explore important issues of sexuality from an technology writing Lowell Lowell (Navitas) Islamic point of view in an effort to expose demeaning cultural habits which have no basis in Islam, and to offer alternative understandings of these issues based on of Southampton the primary sources of Qur'an and Hadith. The view of sexuality as taboo and shameful is by no means unique to any particular religious or ethnic group. The Victorian era in England and the US(late 19th century) was characterized by such a strong inhibition of sexuality that was subsequently blamed for psychological problems seen in women by write a good feature Mount psychiatrists such as Sigmund Freud. Breaking free from the oppressiveness of that era was an important goal for University of Southampton, women through most of the define critical Idyllwild Academy, 20th century since the prevailing attitudes were not confined to of Southampton sexual issues as women were denied many other essential human rights. Laila Ahmed addresses some of the how to write a good feature article Mount Hermon, misogynistic conditions and beliefs that preceded Islam in the Mediterranean area, heavily influenced by Jewish and of Southampton Christian thinking at that time(6th and 7th centuries). Writing University Lowell (Navitas)? She points out the church's attitude on abortion and contraception . formed part of a broader negative ethos concerning the body and sexuality -- a sense of these as sinful and University of Southampton shameful and of sexuality as legitimate only for procreation. women were evidently perceived as innately more implicated in physicality and feature Mount sexuality than men. (Women and Gender in Islam, p.35) Unfortunately, a similar view of women has been adopted by some Muslims and may actually be rooted in of Southampton the cultural values which existed when Islam was introduced. Human sexual development goes through several well-defined stages. Essay Writing Scholarships For High Students (Navitas)? Throughout growth, opportunities exist to teach children about their bodies, to inculcate values and attitudes, and most importantly to foster self-esteem. The success or failure (as determined by a woman's overall understanding and value of herself as well as her ability to maintain a satisfying relationship) can be determined by University prevailing attitudes of the family and surrounding culture. Sexual development occurs throughout the life-cycle, beginning in infancy and write a good article childhood.

The healthy progression from one stage of development to the next is dependent upon University of Southampton fulfillment of basic requirements at each stage. Uc Art University Of Applied Sciences? For example, an infant must develop trust that the caregiver will consistently respond to her cries before she can safely venture into the world and test the budding independence of toddlerhood. Of Southampton? The ultimate achievement is the development of an intact, secure adult with a high sense of self-esteem and self-worth. If a girl is constantly being told that she is requirement Saxion University of Applied, naughty, shameful, stupid or ugly, she will come to believe it and obviously have low self-esteem which will interfere with relationships, school, work and so on. This illustration in general terms introduces the University, argument that cultural habits which teach girls excessive shame breed guilt and electronic articles Seneca College reinforce a negative self-image contributing to of Southampton low self-esteem and even dysfunctional sexual lives. This stage of write Northfield Mount, development has been referred to as the latent stage in of Southampton Freudian terms. It was felt that between early childhood and electronic articles Seneca College puberty children had no interest in University of Southampton their or others sexuality; they are essentially dormant in this regard until hormonal changes signal the onset of puberty. However, this argument has been challenged by other experts in the field.

Regardless of psychological theories, certain facts must be considered about children at this age. They are developing mentally and as such are often extremely curious about themselves, others, animals and so on. This is a good time to reinforce concepts of cleanliness, privacy and self-respect and to begin to teach them about sexuality and reproduction in an age appropriate manner. Some girls will start menstruating as early as age nine and should be prepared ahead of time by frank and open discussions with their parents. For many girls, the most significant thing to happen during this time is the onset of menstruation. If a girl has not been prepared for this event, the sight of the first few drops of blood can be terribly frightening. The signs that a girl is entering this stage of of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass, development include breast development, growth of University of Southampton, hair under the arms and in the pubic area, increase in height and finally onset of menses. At this time, cultural and familial attitudes about menstruation are critical in what a level College impacting a girl's acceptance or rejection of this milestone in her life. Because of the of Southampton, rapid rate of change and accompanying sense of technology essay University Lowell, awkwardness, adolescents are often insecure and preoccupied with appearances, with a strong desire to be accepted by their peers. This stage is characterized by a heightened interest in and awareness of members of University of Southampton, the opposite how to write a good feature article Mount Hermon, sex.

In the United States and in many other countries, young people begin to University develop relationships during the teenage years. Over half of the students graduating from high school have been sexually active. Many communities are working hard to teach abstinence before marriage but they are working against essay scholarships school students University difficult odds especially when dating is viewed as normal, age-appropriate behavior. Yet, a primary task at this stage is to achieve a healthy, intimate relationship, which, for Muslims, can only University of Southampton exist in the context of marriage. Once women become sexually active, they then must deal with issues related to pregnancy, such as attitudes toward child-bearing, timing and spacing of children, and electronic Seneca College contraception. University Of Southampton? Ideally, decisions are made within a mutually supportive monogamous relationship.

Also, during this time, sexual satisfaction as well as sexual dysfunction or incompatibility become important issues as part of an overall relationship and can contribute to its well being or be a source of tension and stress. Historically, older women and Seneca College men were considered asexual as aging and sexuality seemed incompatible. Especially today, as women and men live well into their eighties, sexuality is still an important part of many people's lives. While some may experience a decreased sex drive, others do not notice any change at all. Early in University of Southampton life, children become aware of their sexuality even to the point that infants can experience sexual pleasure (see Your Baby and Child, P. Leach, p. 212). Infants develop awareness of the what is critical thinking a level, function and form of University of Southampton, all body parts as they grow. To a child, the penis or vagina is just another part of the for high (Navitas), body, like arms and legs. The focus on the genitals is particularly evident during the toilet training years. Of Southampton? If a child is requirement Saxion University of Applied Sciences, taught that her genitals are dirty and shameful , but she wants to University of Southampton explore them just the same, naturally she will feel ashamed and electronic articles Seneca naughty if she does so. Therefore, early on she sees part of herself as negative. Most child development experts encourage parents to remain neutral about a child's interest in her genitals to avoid preoccupation with that body part and to University of Southampton enhance the development of a positive sexual identity.

As the child grows, it becomes important to teach her about privacy and appropriate behavior when around others. Oftentimes, parents fear that by is critical thinking not discouraging their children from touching themselves, they are encouraging them to explore sexuality at an early age. But teaching children to respect and understand their bodies will more positively impact their self image compared to emphasizing the sense of shame ('ayb) that many children are taught. Such a sense of shame can be taken to extremes; for example, a mother refuses to how to Northfield Hermon apply necessary medication to her three year old daughter's vagina because to touch her there is 'ayb. University? Other girls are afraid to electronic Seneca College cleanse their genitals properly because to University of Southampton touch themselves is 'ayb. What Thinking College? The concept of shame or disgust regarding one's body has no basis in Islam. During adolescence, sexuality becomes of interest to young people as their bodies experience hormonal upheavals which result in physical and emotional changes.

Again, a girl's experience through childhood will influence her passage through this difficult time. University Of Southampton? If she is Saxion University of Applied Sciences, taught that the onset of menstruation is a curse, then her experience and coping mechanisms will be affected negatively. A positive attitude will enable a young woman to view it as a milestone, not a hindrance. Unfortunately, much folklore and negative cultural beliefs abound regarding a woman's menses. Indeed, for some women menstruation is a physically difficult, unwelcome disruption every month. But it is a simple biological process that can be managed like any other physical condition, and needn't impair a woman's ability to function. Several hadith exist regarding menstruation. The only Qur'anic reference is found in technology Lowell Surah 2, verse 222 where Muslims are told to avoid sexual intercourse during a woman's menses: And they will ask thee about (woman's) monthly courses.

Say, 'It is of Southampton, a vulnerable condition. Keep, therefore, aloof from women during their monthly courses, and writing for high school students of Hertfordshire do not draw near unto them until they are cleansed; and when they are cleansed, go in unto them as God has bidden you to do.' In a hadith found in Muslim (No. 592, also reported in Sunan Abu Dawud, No, 258), a discussion occurs whereby the, Prophet emphasizes that the Islamic view of define critical evaluation Idyllwild Academy, menstruation differs significantly from the Jewish attitude during his time, which strongly restricted women from several arenas while they were menstruating. In this hadith he says, Associate with them in the houses and University do everything except sexual intercourse. Aisha and essay writing scholarships school of Hertfordshire the other wives of the Prophet were instrumental in of Southampton pointing out critical Idyllwild Academy, his attitude of tolerance; for example, Maimuna recalled an occasion when she was sitting near him while he was praying. She happened to be menstruating and during his prayers he knelt on her garment but did not displace it, meaning that being in of Southampton the presence of Seneca College, a menstruating woman had no impact on his prayers ( Mishkat ul Masabih, No. 550; for of Southampton, other hadith along similar lines see Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 212-213, 267-273; Muslim, Nos.

269, 577-588 and Bukhari, Vol. How To A Good Feature Northfield Hermon? 1, Nos. 293-300) Also, the Prophet commanded menstruating women and those observing purdah to participate in Eid festivities. They sat behind those who prayed but joined in University of Southampton takbir ( Muslim, Nos. Northfield Hermon? 1932-34; Bukhari, Vol.1, No. University? 321). Exemptions from Rituals.

Today, as in the time of the Prophet, women do not pray or fast while on their menses. The Qur'an does not address this practice at all; several hadith exist which expressly forbid women to pray while on essay writing for high University (Navitas) their period. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 271-287, Bukhari, Vol.1., No.327). Several traditions show that menstruating women were not supposed to University perform tawaf (circumambulation) around the Kaaba during Hajj while they were menstruating (Bukhari, Vol. 1, Nos. 302,321,325; al-Muwatta, 20.16) The menses were viewed as a temporary illness such that days not fasted had to be made up as any ill person would do after Ramadan.

The Qur'an states that those who are ill or on a journey can desist from fasting and make the days up later (2:184). There are no hadith which expressly forbid women from fasting while menstruating, but based on the text from the following, one concludes that menstruating women did not fast: Aisha is reported to have said that during menstruation in the time of the Prophet, the women were commanded to complete the College, fast (abandoned during menses) but were not commanded to of Southampton complete the (abandoned) prayer (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 262-3, Muslim, Nos. 660-662). Women who have prolonged menses because of an underlying medical problem can resume prayers , fasting, and intercourse after a certain number of days (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos.

274-306, Bukhari, Vol. Essay For High School Students University (Navitas)? 1, Nos. 303,306,322,324). In view of the verse mentioned above which admonishes against sexual intercourse with a menstruating woman in order to avoid causing her harm, the exemptions from the above-mentioned rituals could be viewed as an extension of God's consideration of women. Perhaps abstention from prayer and fasting during one's menses is a divine acknowledgement of women's increased difficulty during that period. God gave them permission not to pray or fast as a sign of critical evaluation Academy, mercy, just as He allows travelers to shorten their prayers to ease their burden. Many Muslims believe that menstruating women are not allowed to enter the mosque or touch the Qur'an.

This relates to the view of the menstruating woman as unclean. Since she cannot be purified with ablution until after her menses stop, she is not in the proper state to enter a mosque or recite Qur'an. Conflicting hadith exist regarding these habits. When looking at of Southampton, the whole body of hadith regarding the subject of menstruation, it appears that many of the injunctions were made because of the thinking Queen's, physical problems associated with active bleeding. Women at that time did not have access to modern amenities which protect a woman and University her garments from the essay writing, blood flow. One hadith points out that one of the Prophet's wives (Um Salamah, who was having irregular bleeding) needed a dish underneath her to catch the menstrual blood while she was observing I'tikaf in of Southampton the mosque during Ramadan (Bukhari No. 306, Sunan Abu Dawud, No.

2470, Muslim, No. 2470). Therefore, practically speaking , women might have been restricted in their activities if they did not have the means to deal with a heavy period, for example. Today, women have so many options so that there are rarely fears of such difficulties. In addition, the Prophet once asked Aisha to what is critical thinking a level Queen's fetch his mat which was in the mosque.

She said, But I am menstruating to which he replied Your menstruation is not in your hand. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 261) However, another hadith exists which states that menstruating women should not enter the mosque: The Prophet is reported to have said, I do not make the mosque lawful for a menstruating woman and for a person who is junub. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 232) The act of not touching the Qur'an while menstruating is based on the hadith that the Prophet wrote a letter in of Southampton which he said that no one should touch the Qur'an but one who is pure. (Mishkat-ul-Masabih, No. 465;). Also, in Surah 56, verses 77-79 we find: That this indeed is a Qur'an most honorable, in a Book well-guarded, which none shall touch but those who are clean (tahir). In Mishkat-ul Masabih a hadith from Tirmidhi states that the Prophet said that the menstruating woman and one who is junub should not recite anything from the Qur'an (No.

461). In general, since, in either of these states, women or men are not yet physically purified (tahir) they cannot touch or formally recite the Qur'an until that state comes to uc art requirement University of Applied Sciences an end. University? By performing ghusl (complete ablution) after the technology essay writing University Lowell (Navitas), menses are over, one achieves the of Southampton, prerequisite physical state which allows for the resumption of prayers, fasting, reciting Qur'an and sexual relations. This does not imply impurity of spirit nor does it necessarily have to mean that a menstruating woman is unclean or dirty. The Prophet was known to perform ghusl after intercourse before reciting Qur'an, and he also would recite Qur'an while resting his head in Aisha's lap and how to write a good feature article Northfield she happened to be menstruating. (Mishkat, No.

460, Muslim, Nos. 260, 591) It is of Southampton, possible to understand why Muslims might view menses as a negative aspect of the female identity. A well known and oft-quoted hadith which leads to the conclusion that menstruating women neither prayed nor fasted is critical evaluation Arts Academy, found in Bukhari with several versions: The Prophet is reported to have said, Isn't it true that a woman does not pray and University does not fast on menstruating? And that is the defect in her religion (Vol.

3, No. 172, see also Vol. Electronic Articles? 1, No. 301). The conclusion usually derived from this hadith is that women can never achieve the same level of faith or spirituality as men because they cannot fulfill their religious duties all the time. The weakness in this argument and therefore in the hadith is that it contradicts the undisputed image expressed in the Qur'an of women and men as equal in terms of their duties and expectations as Muslims, servants of God. To say that one's faith is determined only by the extent to which she can carry out the rituals negates all of the other aspects of faithfulness and observance that cannot be quantified. University? God rewards or punishes according to deeds and intentions; how, then, can something that is biologically determined, not chosen or willed by the individual, serve as a measure of faith?

Would God punish women for something that He created? Because this hadith is is critical thinking, found in Bukhari, it is rarely questioned or reinterpreted and unfortunately reinforces a negative view of women in University Islam. The large volume of hadith regarding menstruation reflects the need for practical guidance on the part of the Muslim community at the time of the Prophet. Technology Essay Writing Of Massachusetts Lowell? After reviewing all of the texts, one can't help but feel the burden of menstruation for the Muslim woman. Regardless of the deficiency hadith and in view of modern advances, Muslim women today can view menstruation as a simple fact of life that has no negative bearing on her value as a human being. Modern medicine has enabled us to manipulate the menstrual cycle in a myriad of University of Southampton, ways so that women can continue to carry out their activities without being disabled once a month. Indeed, many women take advantage of medical technology to avoid menstruating during Hajj which, for write Mount, many, is truly a once in a lifetime event not to of Southampton be missed because of articles Seneca College, bad timing. Virginity and University of Southampton the Hymen: The Double Standard. Throughout childhood and adolescence, girls are sometimes prohibited by their parents from engaging in any activities that might interfere with the integrity of the hymen which is a small circular membrane at the opening of the vagina which allows the passage of menstrual flow.

The opening is essay school students University of Hertfordshire, very narrow and is torn when penetration occurs (as in sexual intercourse). This is occasionally accompanied by bleeding. Such blood loss has been required in some cultures to prove that the writing University Lowell Lowell, woman is a virgin at marriage so a blood stained cloth would be given to the groom's family on University of Southampton the wedding night to verify the bride's pure state. If a woman did not bleed, the repercussions could be severe. So it became vitally important that the hymen remain intact as a sign of virginity with the thinking a level College, family's honor at stake. While many of the cultural traditions involving proof of a woman's virginity are less prevalent than in the past, one can still find a persistent concern about the hymen as a marker for virginity today throughout many parts of the University of Southampton, Muslim world. (It should be noted that the concern about the hymen is not limited only to Muslims.) As a result, any activity that might cause tearing of the hymen would be forbidden, such as bicycle riding, horseback riding, gymnastics, etc. Articles Seneca? Unfortunately, the prohibitions against these activities are rarely accompanied by of Southampton an explanation (most likely due to shyness on the part of the parents); thus, the young girl learns that because she is a girl she cannot participate in activities enjoyed by other children. Again, such an attitude promotes a negative self-image. These attitudes are culturally entrenched and not based on Islam. Essay Writing University Of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas)? While virginity of both men and women is emphasized in Islam, there is no text in Qur'an or Hadith which specifically addresses the intactness of any part of of Southampton, a woman's anatomy as a marker for virginity.

As will be discussed in detail later, the Islamic position on sexual behavior is Arts Academy, explicit. Both men and women are required to be chaste and to seek fulfilling relationships in marriage. Consequently, pre- and extra-marital relations are prohibited (Qur'an, 17:32, 24:26, 25:68; Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos. 798-802). Of course, then, there is no debate that Muslims, male and female, must be virgins before they enter into their first marriage.

Each individual is responsible and accountable to God for maintaining a state of purity prior to matrimony. Why should a woman have to prove that she is a virgin with physical evidence, when the man is taken on his word? Naturally, a woman who marries for the second or third time cannot give the same proof, meaning the status of the hymen is, truly irrelevant for determining sexual purity. The hymen exists as a remnant of embryological development which serves no purpose physiologically speaking (K. L. Moore, The Developing Human). If it tears because a girl goes bike riding or uses a tampon or even has a pelvic exam by a physician as part of an evaluation of a medical condition, must it then follow that she is no longer a virgin? The restriction against vaginal penetration applies to premarital sexual behavior with a member of the opposite sex. The prohibition against premarital sex exists because of multiple negative social, psychological and critical Arts Academy physical consequences that do not apply if the hymen is torn by an act that does not involve sexual intercourse.

An unfortunate consequence of University, focusing on the shamefulness of sexuality is the how to feature article Hermon, inability of University, many women to enjoy a fulfilling sexual life once married. Thinking College? If a woman is taught from childhood that her genitals are unclean, untouchable, and basically an University area off limits, and uc art University of Applied Sciences if inadequate discussion takes place to of Southampton prepare her for her first sexual experience, then naturally she would be horrified to imagine the penetration of that area by another person such as her husband. And if the first encounter is University, painful, the stage is set for inhibition and of Southampton fear so that a fulfilling sexual relationship is practically impossible. Problems that ensue include the inability to consummate a marriage, vaginismus (spasm of the vaginal muscles which causes pain and prevents penile penetration), dyspareunia (painful intercourse), and the emotional and psychological consequences for the individuals involved in the relationship. Also, the strong sense of essay scholarships for high students University of Hertfordshire (Navitas), fear and shame often prevents adequate medical evaluation during pelvic examinations because some women are unable to sufficiently relax even if they are married and have already borne children. While our religion stresses the importance of mutual sexual satisfaction between marriage partners, negative cultural factors can prevent such an outcome. By educating children and young adults properly about sexuality, and by eliminating the features or habits which contribute to a negative self-image, and by focusing on the positive language found regarding these issues in Islamic literature women and men will be able to enjoy a fulfilling sexual relationship in marriage that is each person's right. Sexuality in Qur'an and Hadith. The references to sexuality found in Qur'an and evaluation Academy hadith will now be discussed. In the following verse, men and women are referred to as the garments of one another, implying a sense of balance and mutual nurturance from one to the other.

It is University of Southampton, lawful for you to go in unto your wives during the night preceding the (day's) fast: they are as a garment for you, and you are as a garment for them. God is aware that you would have deprived yourselves of this right, and so He has turned unto you in His mercy and removed this hardship from how to a good article Northfield Mount, you. Now, then, you may lie with them skin to skin, and avail yourselves to that which God has ordained for you.(2:187) Also, by reviewing this and the verses below one appreciates the fact that sexual relations are sanctioned by University of Southampton God and are viewed as part of the uc art Saxion Sciences, spiritual relationship that exists between a husband and wife. As mentioned earlier, the of Southampton, Qur'an specifically prohibits intercourse during a woman's period (2:222) to is critical Queen's avoid causing her discomfort.

In verse 223 of the same Surah, the Qur'an says: Your wives are your tilth; go, then, unto your tilth as you may desire, but first provide something for your souls, and remain conscious of God, and University of Southampton know that you are destined to meet Him. And give glad tidings unto those who believe. Based on these verses and some hadith, Muslim couples are encouraged to enjoy sexual relations in any manner the two prefer. Critical Academy? The only prohibitions involve avoiding intercourse while a woman is menstruating, and avoiding anal penetration (Muslim, No.3365); this explains the text in the verse mentioned above since it was revealed when one of the Sahaba was concerned about having sexual intercourse from behind. He was worried that he committed a sin. University Of Southampton? So the Prophet said that any position was lawful as long as anal penetration did not occur. What A Level Queen's College? Therefore, if the couple is mutually agreeable, no other restrictions apply. University Of Southampton? Other verses that address sexuality focus on the unlawfulness of extra-marital sexual relationships which will be discussed later. Sexual Rights of the how to a good feature article Hermon, Wife. Several hadith also address the issue of sexual satisfaction with reference to the wife's rights in this matter.

The Prophet advised Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-As (who spent all day fasting and all night in prayer) to fast sometimes and not at, other times; to pray at night and to sleep at night. Your body has a right over you, your eyes have a right over you and write article Hermon your wife has a right over you. (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 127) The wife's rights include a right to companionship from her husband and fulfillment of her sexual needs. A woman's satisfaction is particularly referred to in the interpretation of the hadiths which discuss penile withdrawal as a method of University of Southampton, contraception. Uc Art Requirement Saxion University? One stipulation is that the woman must consent because such a practice could interfere with her sexual fulfillment to which she is entitled. Also, if she desires to bear children, coitus interruptus practiced by her husband would violate that right as well. This viewpoint is based on a hadith transmitted by Umar ibn-al-Khattab who said that the Prophet forbade the practice of coitus interruptus with a woman except with her permission This reference is found in Sex and of Southampton Society in how to write feature Northfield Mount Islam, by B. F. Musallam who also points out that this hadith was considered weak by some Medieval jurists (see also al-Muwatta, 29.34, No. 100).

Nevertheless, the position regarding the University of Southampton, woman's right to electronic articles College orgasm was developed over time by University several Muslim jurists during the same period (Busallam, Chapter 2 and footnotes). Also, one undisputed justification for divorce on electronic Seneca College behalf of the wife is her sexual dissatisfaction. The most explicit discussions of, sexual relations with respect to fulfilling the wife's needs are found in critical Idyllwild the Book on the Etiquette of Marriage, part of of Southampton, Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali's larger work, Revival of the essay writing scholarships students University, Religious Sciences (Ihya Ulum al-Din), written in the eleventh century. In spite of some of his comments that are generally disparaging of women, he argues forcefully regarding the University of Southampton, wife's right to sexual fulfillment. He quotes the Prophet as saying, Let none of requirement Saxion University of Applied Sciences, you come upon his wife like an animal, let there be an emissary between them. When asked what is the emissary, he replied, The kiss and sweet words.

In another hadith, the Prophet points out that one of the deficiencies of a man is that he should approach his wife and have sexual contact with her before exchanging words and caresses, consequently, he sleeps with her and fulfills his needs (i.e. orgasm) before she fulfills hers. Al-Ghazali further elaborates on the importance of a woman achieving orgasm by stating, Congruence in attaining a climax is more gratifying to of Southampton her because the uc art Saxion University of Applied, man is not preoccupied with his own pleasure, but rather with hers. Rights of the Husband. The sexual rights of the husband are also elucidated in the traditions, but the language is such that it appears that his rights supersede those of his wife. Of Southampton? For example, in Bukhari, AbuHuraira reports that the Prophet said, If a man invites his wife to sleep with him and she refuses, then the angels send their curses on what a level Queen's her till morning. (Vol. 7, No. University Of Southampton? 121-2; in Muslim, the text reads that God is displeased with her until the husband is pleased with her Nos. 3366-68). In Riyadh-us-Salaheen, a hadith attributed to Tirmidhi and Nisai states that the Prophet said, When a man sends for his wife for the satisfaction of his need, she should go to him even if she may be occupied in baking bread. (No. 284) Similarly, Muslim women are advised not to fast without the essay University (Navitas), permission of their husbands since fasting would interfere with sexual relations (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 2452-3; Muslim, Nos.

3366-68; Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 120). Clearly, Islamic literature stresses the importance of the University of Southampton, sexual relationship between a husband and wife, but the above traditions seem to show that the husband's right to have sex is more important than the wife's right of refusal if she is not willing for whatever reason. The only time she can refuse intercourse, then, is during menstruation. The verse (2:222) commands Muslims to avoid sex during that time because it may be associated with discomfort on the part of the woman. A logical conclusion would be that sexual relations are better avoided for what is critical thinking a level Queen's, any circumstances (physical or otherwise) that would lead to discomfort. A common view of sex is that the stronger sexual urges of men (compared to University of Southampton women) can be controlled only to a certain extent; according to electronic Seneca College some, this justifies the practice of polygamy even though the, Qur'an makes no mention of essay writing students University of Hertfordshire, sexual desires in the verses on of Southampton polygamy (4:3-5). Also, the same argument is made to justify forcing women to have sex against their will, as they are forbidden to refuse to have sexual relations. Since the husband's urges are so strong, and to prevent him from acting out on requirement Saxion University of Applied Sciences them illicitly, a wife's duty therefore is to submit in order to preserve the marriage. Yet, human beings are endowed with self control not seen in any other species, such that we do not act on every instinctual impulse because of some uncontrollable force.

This is what distinguishes humankind since God gave us the ability to think and make choices. Therefore, there is no justification for forcing women to University have sex against essay for high (Navitas) their will, even in marriage. One does not find any traditions that show the Prophet as an aggressive or coercive husband. Similarly, behavior involving coercion and force goes against University of Southampton the philosophy of mutual satisfaction outlined in the Qur'an (see verses above) and against the hadith which states that the best among Muslims are those who are best towards their wives (Riyadh-us-Salaheen, No. 278). Also, the Prophet expressed his strong disapproval of those who physically beat their wives and then had sexual relations that night (Bukhari, Vol. 7, No. 132, Vol.9, 81-82; see also Riyadh us-Salaheen, No. 274). The example of the Prophet clearly reveals that he and his wives enjoyed physical affection not necessarily related to intercourse thus reflecting an attitude of loving behavior in a variety of define critical Arts, circumstances.

Based on the hadith transmitted by his wives (particularly regarding physical intimacy while they were menstruating), this behavior included kissing, caressing, embracing and bathing together. (Sunan Abu Dawud, Nos. 267-273, 2376-2379; Muslim, Nos. 577-586, 629) Husbands and wives should strive to satisfy one another's sexual needs as much as possible. This can be achieved by honest, open discussions; care, kindness and a desire to please one another. Viewing sexual intimacy as an important part of the relationship will enable a couple to achieve mutual satisfaction that enhances the overall success of the marriage. Clearly, coercion and University of Southampton lack of consideration for one's spouses feelings will result in tension that can have negative effects on the rest of the relationship. Unfortunately, if a Muslim woman is raised to abhor and fear any matters related to sex, then in most instances of is critical a level Queen's College, sexual contact she would be a passive and perhaps unwilling participant, and definitely not one who derives pleasure from sex. Also, the general view of sex as a shameful and dirty act contributes to inhibitions of University of Southampton, both men and women, preventing them from enjoying an act sanctioned by God.

The following hadith highlights the essay writing for high students University (Navitas), importance of privacy in sexual relationships: the Prophet is University of Southampton, reported to have said, The most wicked among the people in the sight of God on the Day of Judgement is the what is critical College, man who goes to his wife and she comes to him, and then he divulges her secret. (Muslim, Nos. 3369-70). Consequently, Muslims would be very unlikely to discuss matters of their sexual lives outside of the home. University Of Southampton? By keeping sexual issues private, the couple ensures mutual respect and avoids the chances of Seneca, violating trust by divulging personal tastes and practices to others. However, this attitude would also prevent couples from seeking necessary help, thus diminishing opportunities for alleviating any problems related to sexual dysfunction.

Consultations with professionals, such as physicians, would not violate the code of privacy, and could help the individual or couple in University matters that significantly impact the marriage. Sex Outside of Marraige. As mentioned earlier, the Qur'an specifically prohibits sexual acts outside of Seneca College, marriage (zina). Interestingly, the text does not go into detail to explain why such behavior is sinful. The verses which mention illicit sexual relations do so while admonishing Muslims to avoid other grave sinful deeds such as murder and stealing (Qur'an 25:68, 60:12). Muslims acknowledge and believe in University Divine wisdom which is understood, to article some extent, by of Southampton the application of common sense and an exploration of the what thinking Queen's, ramifications of fornication and adultery which include but are not limited to unwanted pregnancy, transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, negative emotional and psychological consequences, and physical intimacy without emotional commitment. In addition to Qur'an, numerous hadith exist which point out University of Southampton, that zina is considered a major sin (Bukhari, Vol.7, No. 148; Vol. 8, Nos. 798-802).

The issue of extramarital sexual relations takes on even more profound importance because laws exist in Islamic jurisprudence which outline the punishment (hadd) for this behavior which is considered a sex crime. Clearly, the threat of punishment authorized by God serves as a very effective deterrent for illicit sexual behavior which results in negative social consequences beyond those experienced by the couple in question. Even though the text is clear regarding the unlawfulness of zina, the following references point out how difficult it is to accuse someone of such a crime. What Is Critical Thinking Queen's College? According to the Qur'an, those who accuse another of zina are required to of Southampton produce four eyewitnesses of the act of genital penetration (meaning the College, act of intercourse would practically have to be committed in public view). According to hadith, other incriminating evidence include confession and pregnancy (Bukhari, Vol.

8, No. 816; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4518; Muslim, No. University? 4194). While the essay writing scholarships for high students University of Hertfordshire, seriousness of the crime is, not in question, the Prophet himself demonstrated reluctance in reacting to accusations and even confessions without giving individuals the what is critical a level Queen's, opportunity to of Southampton avoid punishment and repent to God, with the hopes of avoiding punishment in the hereafter as well. In addition, the critical evaluation Arts, Prophet himself advised the believers not to make public their misbehaviors. When a man came to confess that he had been with a woman and did everything except sexual intercourse, Omar ibn al Khattab said, Allah has concealed your fault; it would have been better if you had concealed it yourself.

The Prophet then quoted the Seneca, verse, And be constant in praying at the beginning and the end of the day. for, verily, good deeds drive away evil deeds: this is a reminder to all who bear (God) in mind. Of Southampton? (11:114). In addition, the Qur'an elsewhere clearly stresses the importance of sincerely repenting as God is ever merciful (4:15-16). Several hadith refer to an instance in which the Prophet tried to give a man the opportunity to avoid punishment. University Of Applied Sciences? Maiz ibn Malik came to the Prophet insisting on confessing his sin of University of Southampton, fornication with a slavegirl. The Prophet responded by turning away from him, then insisted that the couple must have just looked at each other, or only embraced or kissed; but Maiz persisted with his confession of actual intercourse. The Prophet gave him ample opportunity to conceal his sin, and repent privately with the hopes of receiving God's forgiveness. College? Yet, Maiz also knew that punishment in this life would replace the possible punishment awaiting in University of Southampton the Hereafter. So upon acknowledgement and confession of fornication, the Prophet ordered the punishment. (Bukhari, Vol. 8, Nos.

806, 810, 812-14; Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4413). A similar story involves a pregnant woman who also wanted to confess and receive punishment. Again, the Prophet first told her to Go back to school University (Navitas) her tribe, but she returned again wishing to confess. The Prophet told her to go back until the child was born. She returned again with the infant and he told her to suckle him until you wean him. She returned when the boy was weaned, again confessing fully, resulting in the prescribed punishment. (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4428). For a couple (or individual) convicted of zina, the punishment would be harsh. According to the Qur'an , 100 lashes for each (24:2).

In several hadith collections, the University, punishment of technology University Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas), stoning to death is described for those guilty of adultery. This divergence is significant because stoning resulted in death while flogging did not.. The Qur'an does not distinguish between fornication and adultery but uses one word to describe both, zina. Of Southampton? Belief in the Qur'an as the final word would argue that the use of stoning to death instead of flogging is inappropriate; indeed a hadith in Bukhari states that a transmitter of one of the stoning hadiths did not know if stoning was practiced before or after the revelation of the above Qur'anic verse (Vol. .8, No. 804).

Interestingly, both Bukhari and Muslim report a hadith transmitted by Ibn Abbas who narrated that Umar ibn al-Khattab feared that in future times Muslims would not use stoning as punishment because it is not mentioned in the Qur'an. What Is Critical Thinking A Level Queen's? But he spoke to confirm the obligation of its use as punishment for proven cases of adultery. (Bukhari, Vol.8, No. 816; Muslim, No. 4194). All of these issues dealing with punishment must be reviewed by modern Islamic jurists to develop laws (in those countries where Islamic law is applied) that incorporate the Islamic principles of justice, due process and compassion. In countries where Muslims live as minorities (where Islamic law does not prevail), these punishments cannot be carried out by zealous individuals or communities who may feel that they are required to carry out University, God's law in is critical a level Queen's spite of the prevailing legal system. Yet, the system of Islamic jurisprudence must guarantee basic rights of individuals accused of serious crimes: these rights cannot possibly be upheld without a court system with checks and balances to ensure enforcement of the law while respecting the rights of individuals. The main point is that, while the, punishment for zina is severe and extreme, the requirements for proof of guilt are so strict that the chances of one actually being convicted and then punished are very small. Thus the University, individual Muslim who commits such acts in private, without fear of retribution should pay heed to the following verses:

Verily, God's acceptance of repentance relates only to those who do evil out of ignorance and then repent before their time runs out. And it is they unto whom God will turn again in His mercy - for God is all-knowing, wise; whereas repentance shall not be accepted from those who do evil deeds until their dying hour and then say, Behold I now repent; nor from those who die as deniers of truth; it is, these for whom We have readied grievous suffering.(4:17-18) While it may seem obvious to some, the definition of zina is not without controversy. Again, using the how to feature article Mount, hadith mentioned above(Bukhari, Vol. 8, No. 806, etc.), the Prophet did not consider Maiz ibn Malek of a crime until he confessed of actual sexual intercourse involving penile penetration. This does not mean that other behaviors such as kissing, heavy petting, oral sex are not prohibited but that the requirements needed to justify a harsh punishment are strict. Obviously, many couples can engage in all of these activities without being exposed to witnesses and thus avoid punishment in this life. But they still must answer to God who, in essay students University of Hertfordshire (Navitas) no uncertain terms, admonishes against any sexual contact outside of marriage. False Accusations and Honor. If a husband accuses his wife of adultery by University swearing four times and she denies any wrongdoing under oath, then she is a level, vindicated (Qur'an 24:6-9).

According to Muhammad Asad (footnote 10, Surah 24) the same applies if a woman accuses her husband. If the accusation is found to be false the punishment of the accuser is severe: And as for, those who accuse chaste women (of adultery), and then are unable to produce four witnesses (in support of thier accusation), flog them with eighty s stripes; an ever after refuse to accept from them any testimony- since it is they, they that are truly depraved!- excepting only those who afterwards repent and made amends for, behold, God is much-forgiving, a dispenser of grace. And as for those who accuse their own wives, but have no witnesses except themselves, let each of technology University Lowell Lowell (Navitas), these (accusers) call God four times to witness that he is indeed telling the truth, and the fifth time, that God's curse be upon him if he is, telling a lie. (As for the wife, all) chastisement shall be averted from her by her calling God four times to witness that he is indeed telling a lie, and the fifth (time), that God's curse be upon technology essay University Lowell — UMass her if she is telling the truth . (24:4-8) These verses were revealed in University response to accusations against Aisha, the technology essay University Lowell — UMass (Navitas), Prophet's wife, who was left behind the caravan when she went looking for a lost necklace. A young soldier happened upon University her and escorted her to the camp where they arrived the following day. What Thinking Queen's College? Rumors about sexual misconduct spread, causing great upheaval and emotional distress in the household of the Prophet. The above verses point out that a woman's word to swear to her innocence is sufficient to both preserve her reputation and define critical evaluation Idyllwild Arts result in punishment of her accusers.

The following verse admonishes the community for not questioning the rumors and giving Aisha, the accused, the benefit of the University of Southampton, doubt: Why do not the what is critical thinking Queen's College, believing men and women, whenever such (a rumor) is of Southampton, heard, think the best of one another and say, 'This is an define critical evaluation Arts Academy obvious falsehood'. and were it not for God's favor upon you, and His grace in University of Southampton this world and in the life to come, awesome suffering would indeed have afflicted you in result of all (the calumny) in which you indulge when you take it up with your tongues, uttering with your mouths something of which you have no knowledge, and deeming it a light matter whereas in the sight of God it is an awful thing. Verily, as for electronic articles College, those who like (to hear)foul slander spread against (any of) those who have attained to faith - grievous suffering awaits them in University this world and in the life to come: for God knows (the full truth), whereas you know (it) not (24:12-19). Slander is considered a grave offense since it taints the reputation of individuals and disrupts relationships The verses, while referring to Aisha's particular case, universally applied, serve to protect women from uc art requirement Sciences, any unfair accusations about of Southampton, their chastity. Unfortunately in many communities throughout the Muslim world the, honor of the entire family is caught up in and determined by the reputation of the female members, who can be accused of sexual misconduct, even if it is only suspected. Electronic College? As is clear from the above verses, singling out women for punishment based only on accusations or assumptions has no basis in Islam. Even if a woman is accused of fornication, and she denies the accusation, no punishment is carried out (Sunan Abu Dawud, No. 4451). Thus, even the suggestion of University of Southampton, misbehavior (usually acts other than intercourse) cannot possibly serve as evidence of wrongdoing to Islamically justify retribution (such as honor killings) on the part of the articles Seneca College, woman's family.

The sin of false accusations and University the focus on absolving the one who is falsely accused has become problematic regarding the punishment of rape. If a woman accuses a man of uc art Saxion Sciences, raping her and he denies that he did, she is basically confessing to illicit sexual contact and therefore punishable. This is even more problematic if the woman has no other evidence besides her testimony. This is the current state of affairs in Pakistan where rape victims are punished for the crime committed against them. According to Imam Malik, if a man is convicted of rape, he receives the punishment as mentioned for zina and also must pay a mahr (bride-price) to the victim (al-Muwatta, 36.16). Imam Malik also states that if an technology essay unmarried woman is pregnant and University of Southampton claims to have been raped, unless there is what is critical a level Queen's, physical evidence, she is presumed to be guilty of fornication and therefore punished (al-Muwatta, 41.4). Again, based on earlier interpretations, the woman is made to suffer for a crime committed by University of Southampton another because the focus is erroneously on the sexual act and not on rape as an act of violence.

Rather than viewing the act of sex as the issue requiring jurisdiction, the judges should view rape as an act of violence perpetrated against an unwilling victim who cannot be considered guilty of a sex crime. Along the lines of sexual behavior arises the issue of homosexuality about which the Islamic position is clear. Based on numerous verses in the Qur'an which refer to Prophet Lot and the sins committed by his community, one concludes that homosexual relations are prohibited. (7:80-84, 11:77-83, 15:57-77, 26:160-175, 27:54-58, 29:28-35)) Again, the technology Lowell — UMass, Qur'an does not go into great detail to explain why; and again Muslims first accept God's wisdom and then apply reason to come to an understanding. The most basic argument is University, that homosexual behavior is ultimately detrimental to essay writing University of Massachusetts — UMass the survival of thehuman race. Also, it is contrary to the Islamic position of the importance of the bond between husbands and of Southampton wives which is Queen's College, a goal for which Muslims are encouraged to strive. (based on a well known hadith that marriage is half of one's religion.) Like zina, punishment has been described for those who are found to engage in homosexual acts. The Qur'an is somewhat vague on the issue of of Southampton, punishment. Uc Art Saxion Of Applied Sciences? The only verse which alludes to this behavior again calls for four witnesses to confirm the University of Southampton, immoral conduct (fahishah) between two women or two men; if they are found guilty, they are to be punished, but if they repent they are to be left alone (4:15-16). The type of punishment is not defined. Is Critical A Level? The hadith are more specific. In Sunan Abu Dawud, Ibn Abbas reported that the University of Southampton, Prophet said if anyone is found doing as Lot's people did, to kill the one who does it (sodomy) and to whom it is done (No.

4447). In the is critical Queen's College, footnote to this hadith it is pointed out that the jurists differed in opinion regarding how the punishment would be carried out. Basically, homosexual acts are considered illicit and University of Southampton if verified by — UMass Lowell witnesses or confession, then the individuals would be punished like those who commit zina. What occurs in private is between individuals who are ultimately accountable to God. Naturally, sexual feelings can arise for people who are not yet married. University? An oft quoted hadith advises fasting to help quell the scholarships for high (Navitas), sexual appetite (Bukhari, Vol. 3, No. 129). For some this may not really help.

But feelings of frustration do not justify acting them out with someone outside of the marital relationship. Therefore, one could argue for the benefit of masturbation which would relieve the frustration and of Southampton prevent illicit sexual contact (see Musallam, p.33 and Qaradawi, pp. 170-1). According to Al-Qaradawi in The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, the majority of scholars consider masturbation haram (forbidden). But, he does point out that the Hanbali jurists permit masturbation for those afraid of committing fornication or adultery or for those without the means to marry. While the value of family and writing scholarships school students (Navitas) raising children is undisputed among most Muslims, it is well known that contraception is permitted and can be practiced for a variety of University of Southampton, reasons at the discretion of the couple.

This is consistent with the view that the purpose of sexual behavior between husband and essay for high (Navitas) wife is not limited to procreation. The Prophet did not prohibit contraception (the withdrawal method or coitus interruptus practiced at the time) and did not mention any stipulations in any of the hadith except one mentioned earlier which refers to University of Southampton the importance of obtaining the wife's consent before practicing withdrawal. Similarly, use of how to a good Northfield Mount, female controlled methods, such as the University, birth control pill, would require the husband's consent in consideration of his desires for bearing children. (Bukhari, Vol. 7, Nos. 135-6; Muslim, Nos. Seneca? 3371-88; al-Muwatta, 29.34) While withdrawal was the method practiced during the Prophet's time, by analogy, contraception by the means available today is also permitted. In almost every hadith that discusses withdrawal ('azl) the Prophet is reported to have said that even if it is University, practiced, if God intends a child to be born she/he will be born. Although the methods used today for contraception are very effective, not a single one provides 100% assurance that pregnancy will not occur; so, as always, God's will prevails when He so ordains a matter such as conception. Some Muslims argue that sterilization of men or women is not allowed as a method of contraception because it alters the human body.

They use the hadith which admonish against altering one's features for cosmetic reasons (Y. Al-Qaradawi, The Lawful and Prohibited in Islam, pp. Essay Writing For High School University Of Hertfordshire (Navitas)? 88-9). Surgery done for of Southampton, beautification is writing University Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas), clearly not the same as that done for contraception so the connection is flawed at best, and does not offer a convincing argument against sterilization. Like the other monotheistic religions, Islam prohibits the taking of the life of University, another human being without just cause (i.e. in define evaluation Idyllwild self-defense, see 5:32) Therefore the question arises, at what point in gestation does the fetus become a human, such that to remove it would be described as murder.

The debate in modern Western society centers around the issue of choice. Since the pregnancy is part of the woman's body, she has the right to make decisions regarding the outcome. On the other hand, the fetus is a potential human being who has rights of her/his own, one of them being the right to of Southampton life. By the uc art requirement, early third trimester, when an infant born can survive outside of the womb, to terminate a pregnancy is considered illegal. Prior to that stage of gestation, the fetus definitely cannot survive, therefore, it is not yet considered a human being . Others believe that the fetus's status as a human begins at conception. In spite of the positions of the major jurists, many Muslims today ( and some earlier jurists) believe that abortion is unlawful under any circumstances unless the woman's life is endangered by the pregnancy.

Modern technology (not available to early jurists) enables the physician to see the define evaluation Idyllwild Academy, beating heart of a 21 day old embryo; whether the embryo qualifies as a person is really only known by God. Many feel that life and scholarships for high school students University the human spirit are present at University, conception meaning pregnancy termination at any stage would involve the unlawful taking of a life ( see Islamic Perspectives in Obstetrics and Gynecology, by Dr. Hassan Hathout, pp. Define Evaluation Arts? 61-78 ). While some modern day scholars also feel that the fetus' right to life prevails even in cases of of Southampton, incest or rape, others consider those situations exceptional and think abortion is allowed to preserve the emotional and Seneca psychological well-being of the of Southampton, woman. Female Genital Mutilation. Since female genital mutilation (FGM , known also as female circumcision). is a custom among some Muslims, the Islamic position must be made clear. This practice which involves varying degrees of mutilation (from removing the clitoris to removing all labia and sewing the vagina to such an extent that only a small opening exists to allow passage of menstrual blood) presumably is performed to limit the sexual activity of women . By eliminating their ability to experience orgasm , they will be less likely to misbehave before or during marriage. This practice pre-dated Islam and is currently a custom in a few Muslim countries, particularly in Africa. Only one hadith exists which specifically addresses FGM.

In Sunan Abu Dawud, Um Atiya said that the Prophet told a woman who performed circumcision in define Idyllwild Arts Academy Medina to not cut severely as that is better for a woman and more desirable for a husband (No. 5251). According to Abu Dawud, this is a weak hadith (mursal). In the footnote of this hadith, the scholarships school students University (Navitas), translator, Ahmad Hasan, points out that all of the, major scholars maintained that FGM was recommended (but to what degree was not specified). As mentioned throughout this chapter, focusing on how to write a good feature article Mount Hermon sexuality in a positive manner can be a difficult task for Muslims. University? Cultural views of women in general, fear of committing and being punished for articles Seneca, sin, and the use of, sex as a means of domination have all contributed to the silence and repression that prevent people from being comfortable with their sexuality as individuals and in define Idyllwild Arts Academy relationships. University? Through education and write a good article Northfield understanding, a more positive approach can lead to a better outcome. Teaching children to accept their bodies and sexuality contributes to developing strong self-esteem which is a major determinant of future sexual activity. University Of Southampton? Young people, particularly women, with low self-esteem are more likely to engage in sexual behavior at a young age.

Fostering self-esteem occurs mainly within the family unit and also in schools and society at large. Informing children and young adults about the changes that occur as they grow and then teaching them about what thinking a level College, developing healthy relationships with others is possible through formalized educational settings (especially if the University of Southampton, parents feel too uncomfortable discussing sexuality.) Also, a willingness on the part of adults to define evaluation Arts answer questions openly and to discuss difficult issues such as homosexualty or sexually transmitted diseases will enable young adults to approach their parents and educators and therefore be less likely to University of Southampton obtain inaccurate information from their peers or the how to article Mount Hermon, media. The Prophet was well-known for his frankness in discussing all issues, including those related to sex and sexual development. In one hadith, he is asked by a woman if, when a woman has an of Southampton orgasm while asleep (during dreaming), does she have to perform complete ablution (ghusl) prior to doing her prayers. The Prophet answered that she does because such an experience is akin to the nocturnal emissions of men which require ghusl. (Muslim, Nos. 607-613; Bukhari, Vol.1, No. 280) This is a well known hadith which shows that the early Muslims felt no inhibition about addressing the Prophet about sensitive issues such as female orgasm (see also Muslim, No. 649). Muslims today must follow the evaluation Idyllwild Arts Academy, example of the Prophet to use wisdom and beautiful preaching to talk to one another and define Idyllwild Arts Academy their children about all matters. Teaching about University, sexuality from an Islamic perspective is necessary for Muslim young people who are growing up in a society full of tremendous pressures.

Regarding menstruation, it is important to teach our daughters that this is a special part of development that signals the onset of adulthood and possible future child-bearing. A supportive attitude by parents is essential as girls struggle to deal with a change that may leave them feeling uncomfortable and sometimes embarrassed. Pre-adolescents are usually preoccupied with the opinions of their peers. So, a Muslim girl who isn't praying or fasting because it is that time of the month naturally feels exposed and maybe even isolated. Again, this points to the importance of teaching respect to technology essay writing — UMass Lowell all children to minimize the potential for hurt feelings and shame. Also, discussing this in appropriate sex education courses for of Southampton, young Muslims enables them to electronic be educated and informed so that mature attitudes will be engendered among boys and girls. One could argue that the University of Southampton, strong language found in the Qur'an and Hadith against unlawful sex contributes to a negative attitude regarding sex in general. Indeed, fear of retribution is often used to discourage young adults from engaging in premarital sexual behavior, thus contributing to essay writing school students University inhibition, guilt and repression that interfere with healthy sexuality in marriage. Muslims must be willing to discuss these issues openly with their children to point out the uc art requirement Saxion Sciences, wisdom of postponing sexual behavior until marriage and to focus on all of the positive aspects that a healthy sexual relationship contributes to that union. University Of Southampton? Rules without explanation only stimulate a young person's curiosity and interest in risky behavior that is glorified by define the media and often practiced by one's peers.

Also, when instilled with a strong sense of self esteem and identity, young people are better equipped to deal with the pressures they face particularly during adolescence when many of their friends are experimenting sexually.

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Ralph Rio Vice President. ARC Advisory Group. Infor + @Capgemini will be hosting a live summit on Nov 2 at University the Presidio Observation Post in San Francisco.… Social Media Block - LinkedIn Feed. Infor EAM is the electronic articles College most configurable enterprise asset management solution on of Southampton, the market. With industry-specific editions, it improves reliability, enhances predictive maintenance, and ensures compliance. Social Media Block - You Tube Feed. Connect with us. Copyright 2017.

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