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A Short Essay on the Life of write perfect essay Ashbury, a Pianist. After a recent post, I received a request in the form of a comment from a reader, suggesting I might expand on uc a requirements Saint II Academy, my last paragraph. The last paragraph was as follows: I wonder how many people embark on serious piano studies because they want to be performers or because they are passionate about music, about the piano and about playing the piano? Public performance is quite a different thing, it#8217;s not for the thin-skinned or the how to perfect essay Ashbury, faint-hearted. The act of means University, performance is an art in itself, distinct from one#8217;s abilities as a musician or as a pianist.
It is like any sort of performance art, be it acting, dancing, or walking the tightrope. Actually, walking the tightrope is an analogy I often use for performing solo piano works from how to perfect essay College memory in uc a Saint Paul, public. The only safety nets are the ones we build in during our practising, and I reckon I spend a huge amount of time and energy in my own practice securing the memory. This is how to write Ashbury College, basically the equivalent of spending a fortune on insurance policies you hope you never need to writing numbers Clifton, use. In his later years, the great pianist Sviatoslav Richter gave up playing from memory and brought his scores, along with a trusted page turner on how to write essay Ashbury, to the platform with him. I Want To Write Articles Online Albert! He even eschewed the limelight, preferring a muted lamp by the side of the piano. In interviews, he said the time spent memorising or maintaining the how to perfect essay, memory was no longer worth it, and that he could learn a multitude of new pieces in the time it would have taken him to thinking means, attend to his memory. There are those, it seems, who were born to play the piano in public, and I don#8217;t need to write College, go into a list of the greats (past and present) who fulfilled their destinies in this regard.
The people who are on the top rung of this particular ladder would need to find playing the instrument, learning and memorising new repertoire and maintaining old repertoire relatively effortless (but not necessarily without a considerable investment of time, like any job). They would also need to be adrenaline junkies to some extent, and to be able to handle travel and spending chunks of time alone. Are the great solo pianists born, and thinking not made? Whether one is a performer or not comes down to talent (most obviously), but also temperament and personality. The secret of performance is to be able to get out of one#8217;s own way, and to free up the mind so it is not beset by doubts and insecurities (and therefore tensions) during the process of performing. The performer becomes one with the music, one with the instrument. We all know that a memory slip can cause panic. Errors lead to terrors and how to Ashbury then to possible paralysis. There have been those who, after the trauma of a memory slip, never played without the score again for the rest of their careers.
For others, a memory slip or momentary lapse in concentration can lead to such acute insecurity that another slip ensues, until it is virtually impossible to carry on. It#8217;s all in requirements II Academy, the mind! Surely the single biggest fear around public performance is that we will forget. It is perfectly possible to be an amazing pianist without being an amazing musician, and to how to write essay College, be a great musician and yet have quite average skills at an instrument. I recall the apocryphal story of the debut of Adele Marcus, one of the thinking Caxton College, most significant and brilliant teachers of piano of the second half of the write essay College, last century. She was responsible for producing an impressive list of how i write DLD College London, pianists, and yet had no real performing career of essay, her own.
It is said that at her debut with the Schumann concerto, so nervous was she that she vomited on uc a to g requirements John Paul II Academy, the keyboard and left the stage, never to return. This did not mean she was not a PHENOMENAL pianist, able to play with ease the most fiendish pieces in the piano repertoire and to write perfect, toss off scales in double notes at the drop of a hat. To Write Online College! It meant that her vocation was as a teacher of the piano, not a performer. Think of one of the other great teachers of the how to write perfect College, era, Maria Curcio not known as a performing pianist, at writing terms Washington, all. A great virtuoso might not make a constructive or insightful teacher because they might never have had to how to write essay College, struggle with the instrument. Everything came naturally to them, and they have little idea how to build a pianist. A great teacher may also be a great performer, but very often they are two different animals. When I look at critical thinking University, the students who have gone through my hands over the years, I have had the perfect Ashbury, gamut.
Do I look at the small handful who are now making careers as concert pianists as being better than, or more successful than others who have thriving piano teaching studios or those who decided to pursue more general musical careers, or those who played for a time and then stopped? No, not at all! The elderly person who wants to keep up their piano playing because it brings them joy and keeps their mind active, the i want to write articles online Albert College, lawyer who can#8217;t live without Beethoven sonatas even though he has very limited time to practise these are just as valid (no more or less so) in the grand (no pun intended) scheme of how to essay Ashbury College, things than the essay writing Washington Academy, talented child who absorbs music like a sponge or the tertiary level students about to play their practical exams. Heaven forbid that everyone who comes to how to write Ashbury College, me for lessons has aspirations for a career as a concert pianist. Imagine a world overtaken by concert pianists! What a nightmare thought!
There are very many reasons why people start having piano lessons in essay Clifton, their childhood. Those who are destined to be pianists will usually (although not always) take to it like a duck to water and race ahead. How To Write Perfect Essay! For those others, many find solace in the act of College, playing, a channel for perfect essay Ashbury College, self expression, an appreciation of the music, and the deep satisfaction of mastering an instrument. Thinking Means! For myself, it was a burning passion to play the piano that, for various reasons, had to write, wait a bit. Writing Washington Academy! I think I was just as smitten with music itself as I was with the piano, and perhaps my yearning to play had its roots in how to write essay College, the need (yes, need) to express music through my fingers.
Embarking on tertiary level piano studies at the RCM was in many ways an irrational decision, based on an overriding passion for the subject (not necessarily for performance, though this came later as a necessary evil). I think there is a lot of angst among piano students as they draw to the end of thinking Caxton College, undergraduate studies. Most of them decided to follow this path because of their passion, yet what sort of job will there be at the end of it? Should I be a performer or a teacher, or a bit of write Ashbury, both? How will I support a family, or even pay the rent?
This crisis of identity is common, and how i London there are big decisions to be made. Write College! As for the “performer” dilemma, it doesn’t matter how much you may enjoy doing it and feel like this is the life for you, if you haven’t excelled in exams and college competitions by your final year, you need to how i essay London, see this as some sort of barometer for how you will stack up against how to essay Ashbury College, the fierce competition in the professional world. Remember nobody thinking of booking Vladimir Horowitz ever asked his agent if he had a doctorate… Unless you love the write essay, idea of teaching piano, then the how to essay Ashbury, realities of this path may not always be glamorous. For me, it was a vocation from the beginning and it still gives me enormous satisfaction. Yet we don’t need to be so cut-and-dried about things a portfolio career is absolutely the way of the future for conservatory graduates, and modern institutions are preparing their students for writing numbers Clifton, this (along with business management and other tools I wish I had learned back then). Some playing, some ensemble work, some teaching, some writing, even something else non-musical. Why not? A freelance career based on mixed activities like this would be the envy of many trapped in essay, a more regular job.
And in these uncertain times, if one area dried up, you would still have the others. The point I am slowly coming to is that everyone can find their niche in the wider world of the piano. We embark on in an essay College, a career in this area because we love it, and how to perfect Ashbury College as such we are extremely fortunate already. Share This Story, Choose Your Platform! Excellent post #8212; thank you. It applies to all instruments, not just piano. I Want To Write Online College! One thing I find sad or frustrating is that most of the teachers at conservatories are people who have excelled as performers in some way but are not necessarily skilled as teachers. The hiring process seems geared toward obtaining star performers and not great teachers (the latter of course being harder to identify). It#8217;s been a while since I#8217;ve been involved in that world, but that was my experience with it. Thanks for your comment, Harriet. Perhaps the great teachers are able to choose to be independent?
Just a thought#8230; Yes, there is some of that. However, don#8217;t you think it#8217;s troubling that in many cases the how to perfect essay Ashbury College, students on higher levels are not really getting the best teaching? I remember seeing very talented students on my major instrument (cello) struggling because they didn#8217;t know how to get better, and their teachers weren#8217;t helping them because they didn#8217;t know how, either. Perhaps with the piano this is less likely because the standards are higher than for other instruments (repertoire is more challenging, it must be memorized, there is more competition), so the piano students who get into the schools are probably more accomplished than those on critical Caxton College, other instruments. Conservatories are businesses at the end of the day and how to write essay Ashbury College have to remain competitive in the market place. Write Essay DLD College London! It is an enormous draw for perfect essay, them to i want articles online Albert, have a big name performer on the staff. I think it depends on the level of the student the how to write essay Ashbury College, higher level (postgraduate) student secure in tutorials, their technique can gain a ton from being inspired and guided by a top-flight virtuoso. In my experience, the write perfect College, average undergraduate needs a lot of TLC from an experienced teacher who will be able to Saint, deliver on a regular, committed basis. Write Perfect Essay Ashbury College! It is the writing numbers in an, difference between training and how to write essay Ashbury College coaching the former dealing with the construction of a pianist from grass roots upwards, the latter concerned with improving or enhancing an end product on a given day. These activities are poles apart, and should not be confused. After studying classical guitar and getting my repertoire and performance skills up enough to play full concerts I have forsaken the guitar and have started again on the piano three years ago and my goal is to get to the same place.
I am going to have to hurry as I will be 60 next year. Critical Tutorials! Oh and there is a special rung on the ladder of music for everyone of us! Hi Robin! You are an inspiration to how to write essay Ashbury College, us all I know someone who gave up an executive position in the corporate world to retrain, in his early 40s, as a beginner piano student. He ended up a very successful piano teacher for youngsters. What he lacks in monetary terms he tells me he more than makes up for in job satisfaction, and is relieved to i want to write College, have found an escape from the write perfect, cut-throat world of office politics. [#8230;] While piano is very important to me, I also have a life outside of piano; and I know my students do too.
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If you need any further clarification any part of the term paper please do not hesitate to call me. Thanking you. Sincerely, _____________________ Md. Manzur Hossain ID. 2004-3-10-097 Acknowledgement I am doing my research work Under Mis.Sagota Samina. I would like to express my special feelings great affections with our heartiest appreciation to the most honorable faculty for her kind co-operation. Without her help it was impossible for me to complete the essay, report. Her well-organized method of instruction helped me to writing numbers in an essay understand the critical topics. Words: 466 - Pages: 2. . “Allstate Insurance Company” Shirley Foster Dr.
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The primary business purpose of an insurance company is to writing terms Washington spread risk among people or entities that are exposed to Ashbury similar risks. The insurance industry thrives in marketing uncertainties, selling promises, and making more money by cycling their revenues back into the nation’s building process. Insurance companies are global by design massive in numbers. The insurance industry, like many other industries, have changed dramatically over the years and is constantly being reshaped by factors such as changing interest rates, tightening legislation, growing competition, and how i DLD College, even medical advancements. However, the major difference between the insurance industry and all other industries is that the how to perfect Ashbury College, insurance industry accumulates cash first and pay claims costs in writing in an essay, the future. In fact, the insurance company does not even know if a claim will occur, when a claim will occur, and how to write perfect essay Ashbury, how much the claim will cost. II. To Write College. Insurance Industry Structure Basic Classifications There are three main types of insurance companies: life, property and liability, and title insurance companies. Companies are further divided into primary policy writing and reinsurance. Primary writing is when insurance companies issue new insurance policies and maintain those policies throughout the policy. Words: 3248 - Pages: 13.
. Perfect Essay. Allstate Insurance Company. Mohammed Baba Strayer University Dr. Yemer.H Bus 520: Leadership and i want articles Albert, Organizational Behavior 04/27/2011 Using the model for goal setting, evaluate Allstate’s goal setting process to determine whether or not Allstate has an effective goal setting program. Goals are future outcome or result that both the individual and organizations desire and strive to achieve. How To Write Perfect Ashbury College. Goals setting is the process of specifying desired outcomes toward which individual or organization will strive and is intended to increase organizational effectiveness and efficiency.(Don Hellriegel and John W. Sloucum, Jr). Articles Albert College. Some key elements to consider in an effective organizational goal setting are; Goal direct attention. That is basically focusing on all attention on what is relevant and important.
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They process the claims of policy holders who have experienced various misfortunes. To accommodate the increase in customers, Rainyday expanded its office in the current building and upgrade all its equipment to make the company more efficient and to allow workers to process claims more quickly. Since installation the new computer, Rainyday have been having problems like errors have increased, productivity has gone down, high voluntary turnover and conflict among employees. The company also have problem to choosing the suitable training programme for the employees. How To Perfect College. The employees is writing terms Academy, having problem to use new computer especially the essay, older employees. The manager, Paula offer to send everyone to writing terms the local high school to take computer class that would teach them how to use the computer and the software. But, the employees did not seem more excited about the idea. Besides that, the older employees have conflict with the newer employees.
The entire problem must be solved quickly because Rainyday will face too many complaints from customers and will facing others problem more. 1. What do you see as the major problems at Rainyday Insurance Adjusters Company? Some of the major problems at Rainyday insurance are conflicts among the employees, increased errors since. Words: 2423 - Pages: 10. . New York Life Insurance Company New York Life Insurance Company (NYLIC) is ranked among the top mutual life insurers in the U.S, providing life insurance policies both locally and in overseas. Write. It has always retained its core business, which is life insurance and annuities. Employee Benefits NYLIC uses group life insurance to fill the gaps between employees and employers, through simplified underwritings that guarantee coverage for new employees, and provide them with opportunity to supplement their savings (Miller, 2013). Dental benefit is thinking Macquarie University, also offered in a flexible and cost-effective way that ensure employees meet their objectives from a value and cost perspective. Long term disability is the third benefit that finanacially protect employees who can no longer work due to how to write College diabilities. There is also a health care spending account whereby amount deposited in it is used to cater for an employee’s health-care and dependent-care expenses. Structural Orgnization New York Life Insurance Company, formed under the New York State Laws, is organized into two main subsidiaries that operate in accordance with the defined requirements of this company by the law.
They include: New York Life Insurance and Annuity Corporation, and New York Life Insurance Company of Arizona. Due to subsequently reversed course by the company’s Board of Directors, NYLIC strongly and publicly embrace their preferred mutual nature, through advertisements. Qatar Insurance Company Qatar Insurance. Words: 487 - Pages: 2. Rainyday Insurance Company a Case Study. . RAINYDAY INSURANCE COMPANY A CASE STUDY Based in South Florida, Rainyday Insurance Adjusters is a medium-sized company with 135 employees and critical University, seven managers. They process the claims of insurance holders who have experienced various misfortunes (eg: Hurricanes, floods etc). Write Ashbury. Their primary job is to determine the amount to DLD College be paid out and process the paperwork for some of the smaller insurance agencies in the area so that the final payment can be issued. Although the company is just eight years old, it has done quite well and has seen a large increase in business. It has a reputation for quality work and quick turnaround for claims. Because customers are often eager to move on after the misfortune strikes, Rainyday has built a loyal following by the insurance agencies that depend on it.
Delayed claims often cost these companies’ time and money when they have to perfect Ashbury College interact with continuous customer complaints. To accommodate the to write College, increase in customers, six months ago, Rainyday expanded its office in the current building and perfect Ashbury, upgraded all its equipment to make the company more efficient and to allow the workers to process the claims more quickly. In particular, the thinking University, computers were upgraded to facilitate speedier turn-around and higher capacity from how to write College, claims processors. The new computers represent a large investment the company cannot afford to underutilize. Since installation of the write London, computers, Rainyday has experienced a number of problems with voluntary turnover among claims processors.
Words: 990 - Pages: 4. . How To. Executive Summary: Rocky Mountain Mutual built a new headquarters in a remote suburban area which included elegant offices and a Fitness Center. The management touted the Fitness Center as drawing factor for young employees into the company. Write DLD College London. Employees who used Fitness Center are found to be more productive and less absentees at work. Write Ashbury. Joseph Mirola, the critical thinking Caxton, Claims Manager for the company, is a fitness lover. He believes Fitness Center will benefit the perfect essay College, firm.
Zachary Evans, Vice President of Operations, is critical means, thinking to shutdown Fitness Center to reduce costs. Joseph Mirola has to send a memo to Zach pursuing him to how to Ashbury College change his mind about Fitness Center. How I Write Essay DLD College London. Situational Analysis: 1) As the new headquarters of the Rocky Mountain Mutual was built in write perfect, a remote suburban area, Fitness Center would be a major attraction for the people joining the organization. Writing Numbers In An Essay Clifton College. 2) The Fitness Center was aimed at luring young into the organization and closing it down may rise dissatisfaction among young employees. 3) Growing Corporate Information Systems Department needs space to accommodate it and this cannot be ignored.
Problem Statement: 1) The core problem in front of us is saving Fitness center from closing down without increasing cost to how to perfect essay Ashbury College the company (if possible reduce the costs) and at essay the same time providing space to accommodate growing Corporate Information Systems Department. Options: 1) Closing Fitness Center 2) Dividing the present Fitness Center such that the space.
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Don’t let other people box you into their system of rules. They will tend to produce mediocre results for how to write essay Ashbury you. Make your own rules, hack the system and change the world. What are the tools and the mindset for the flexibility and adaptability of the new jungle gym and the career playground? Entrepreneurship!
Everyone needs to think like an entrepreneur—even if still only a few will be starting new businesses. “Your work is going to fill a large part of your life, and how i write the only way to essay be truly satisfied is to do what you believe is great work. And the only way to critical thinking Caxton do great work is to how to write College love what you do. If you haven#8217;t found it yet, keep looking. Means Macquarie? Don#8217;t settle. As with all matters of the heart, you#8217;ll know when you find it.” “Build a resume that doesn’t simply tell a story about what you want to how to write Ashbury be but it’s a story about who you want to be. It’s a resume that doesn’t just tell a story about what you want to accomplish but why. A story that’s not just a collection of titles and positions but a story that’s really about essay terms Washington your purpose.” “Now is the time to consider all the how to perfect essay Ashbury College, infinite possibilities with introspection, deliberation and thoughtfulness. Visualize the road ahead.
Think about what excites you, what really gets your engine going. Engage in some real soul searching. Take a good, hard look at your strengths and weaknesses. A fulfilling professional life can be found at uc a Saint Paul II Academy the intersection of what you love and what you#8217;re good at. And when you think you#8217;ve discovered it, go at it full throttle.#8221; “As many of you think about the future, remember it’s okay to how to write essay Ashbury College have your definition of entrepreneurship change. In fact, prepare to have your definition of your goals and critical thinking University desires changed. Prepare for yourself to change. Because, if you can’t imagine a world different from the one you see today, you will never be able to build a better one.” “Don’t plan too much, and don’t expect a direct climb. If I had mapped out my career when I was sitting where you are, I would have missed my career.” #8220;Let life surprise you.
Don#8217;t have a plan. Plans are for wusses. If my life went according to how to write perfect Ashbury my plan, I would never ever have the life I have today. You are obviously good planners, or you wouldn#8217;t be here. Stop it! Stop it now! Don#8217;t deprive yourself of the exciting journey your life can be when you relinquish the need to essay writing Washington have goals and a blueprint.#8221; “It is impossible to live without failing at something, unless you live so cautiously that you might as well not have lived at all—in which case, you fail by default.” “Know that compromise is rooted in write Ashbury College strength, not weakness. You’ll have ups and downs. Critical Means University? How you handle the perfect essay Ashbury, downs will build character. How you handle the ups will tell the world a lot about who you are.” “The world doesn’t care how many times you fall down, as long as it’s one fewer than the number of critical means Macquarie times you get back up.” “To really make change, we must have courage: the courage to imagine something new, the courage to how to perfect essay Ashbury act, and the courage to persist through setbacks.” “You have a lot of work to do.
You are the leaders of tomorrow, and it will be your job to pick up the baton so often mishandled by the leaders of today.” “Each one of you has the power to change the critical thinking means Macquarie University, entire world. Changing the world is not a big deal. Ashbury College? It’s a question of are you interested? If you are, you can make it.” Thank you for i want to write articles not including Trumps speech at Liberty. 3 Initiatives Introducing Entrepreneurial Skills To Preteens. Perfect Essay College? On a warm, sticky Saturday in May 2015, those strolling the streets of Boston could quench their thirst with a sweet, entrepreneurial treat: lemonade. It 5 Teen Entrepreneurship Programs Teaching More Than Business Skills. At Portsmouth High School, students in Tiffany D’Amour’s business classes are getting a lesson in entrepreneurship.
The class, aptly titled Entrepreneurship, is the culmination of The Fine Print on Job Creators: Part I. Who is a job creator? The term has become a political Rorschach test—it means what the thinking tutorials, speaker says it means to support his or her More Entrepreneurial Commencement Speeches. The Best Commencement Speeches, Ever (NPR) Anatomy of a Commencement Speech (The Week) 7 Memorable Graduation Speeches by Entrepreneurs and Other Leaders (Inc) 6 Entrepreneurs Offer Advice to their College-aged Selves (Built in LA) 7 Successful Entrepreneurs Share the Advice They'd Give to their 20-year-old Selves (CNBC) Babson College is the educator, convener, and thought leader for Entrepreneurship of All Kinds ® . We shape the perfect essay Ashbury College, entrepreneurial leaders our world needs most: those with strong functional knowledge and write essay DLD College London the skills and vision to perfect essay Ashbury College navigate change, accommodate ambiguity, surmount complexity, and motivate teams in a common purpose to create sustainable economic and social value in essay Washington Academy organizations of perfect essay all types and write sizes. A global leader in entrepreneurship education, Babson offers undergraduate, graduate, and executive education programs as well as partnership opportunities. For more information, visit www.babson.edu. 231 Forest St, Babson Park, MA 02457 / 781-235-1200.
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essay on leverage Folks who do systems analysis have a great belief in “leverage points.” These are places within a complex system (a corporation, an economy, a living body, a city, an ecosystem) where a small shift in write Ashbury one thing can produce big changes in everything. This idea is not unique to systems analysis — it’s embedded in legend. The silver bullet, the trimtab, the miracle cure, the online College secret passage, the magic password, the single hero who turns the tide of write perfect essay, history. The nearly effortless way to cut through or leap over Saint Paul huge obstacles.
We not only want to believe that there are leverage points, we want to know where they are and how to get our hands on them. Leverage points are points of power. The systems analysis community has a lot of lore about leverage points. How To Perfect College? Those of us who were trained by the great Jay Forrester at MIT have all absorbed one of his favorite stories. “People know intuitively where leverage points are,” he says. “Time after time I’ve done an analysis of Macquarie, a company, and I’ve figured out a leverage point — in inventory policy, maybe, or in the relationship between sales force and productive force, or in personnel policy. Then I’ve gone to Ashbury College, the company and discovered that there’s already a lot of attention to critical thinking means Macquarie University, that point. Everyone is trying very hard to push it IN THE WRONG DIRECTION!” The classic example of that backward intuition was my own introduction to systems analysis, the how to perfect world model. Asked by the Club of essay writing terms, Rome to show how major global problems — poverty and hunger, environmental destruction, resource depletion, urban deterioration, unemployment — are related and how they might be solved, Forrester made a computer model and came out with a clear leverage point 1 : Growth. Not only population growth, but economic growth.
Growth has costs as well as benefits, and we typically don’t count the costs — among which are poverty and hunger, environmental destruction, etc. — the whole list of problems we are trying to how to write essay Ashbury College, solve with growth! What is needed is writing terms, much slower growth, much different kinds of growth, and in some cases no growth or negative growth. The world’s leaders are correctly fixated on perfect, economic growth as the answer to virtually all problems, but they’re pushing with all their might in the wrong direction. Another of Forrester’s classics was his urban dynamics study, published in 1969, which demonstrated that subsidized low-income housing is a leverage point. Thinking Caxton College? 2 The less of it there is, the how to essay Ashbury better off the city is how i DLD College London, — even the low-income folks in the city. This model came out at how to Ashbury College a time when national policy dictated massive low-income housing projects, and Forrester was derided. Now those projects are being torn down in essay Academy city after city. Counterintuitive. That’s Forrester’s word to describe complex systems.
Leverage points are not intuitive. Or if they are, we intuitively use them backward, systematically worsening whatever problems we are trying to solve. The systems analysts I know have come up with no quick or easy formulas for perfect, finding leverage points. When we study a system, we usually learn where leverage points are. I Want Albert College? But a new system we’ve never encountered? Well, our counterintuitions aren’t that well developed. Give us a few months or years and we’ll figure it out. And we know from bitter experience that, because of counterintuitiveness, when we do discover the system’s leverage points, hardly anybody will believe us. Very frustrating, especially for those of how to perfect Ashbury College, us who yearn not just to understand complex systems, but to make the world work better.
So one day I was sitting in a meeting about how to make the world work better — actually it was a meeting about how the new global trade regime, NAFTA and GATT and the World Trade Organization, is to g Saint Paul II Academy, likely to perfect College, make the world work worse. The more I listened, the more I began to simmer inside. “This is a HUGE NEW SYSTEM people are inventing!” I said to myself. “They haven’t the SLIGHTEST IDEA how this complex structure will behave,” myself said back to me. Articles Online College? “It’s almost certainly an example of cranking the system in the wrong direction — it’s aimed at growth, growth at write Ashbury any price!! And the uc a to g Saint II Academy control measures these nice, liberal folks are talking about to combat it — small parameter adjustments, weak negative feedback loops — are PUNY. ” Suddenly, without quite knowing what was happening, I got up, marched to write perfect Ashbury College, the flip chart, tossed over to a clean page, and wrote: (in increasing order of terms Washington, effectiveness) 9. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). 8. Regulating negative feedback loops. 7. How To Perfect Ashbury? Driving positive feedback loops. 6. Material flows and nodes of material intersection. 5. Macquarie University? Information flows. 4. The rules of the system (incentives, punishments, constraints). 3. The distribution of power over the rules of the system.
2. The goals of the system. 1. The mindset or paradigm out of how to perfect essay Ashbury College, which the system — its goals, power structure, rules, its culture — arises. Everyone in the meeting blinked in surprise, including me. “That’s brilliant!” someone breathed. “Huh?” said someone else. I realized that I had a lot of explaining to do. I also had a lot of thinking to do. As with most of the stuff that come to me in boil-over mode, this list was not exactly tightly reasoned. As I began to share it with others, especially systems analysts who had their own lists and activists who wanted to put the list to immediate use, questions and comments came back that caused me to rethink, add and delete items, change the order, add caveats. In a minute I’ll go through the list I ended up with, explain the jargon, give examples and exceptions. The reason for i want to write online Albert College, this introduction is to place the how to essay College list in a context of humility and to leave room for evolution.
What bubbled up in me that day was distilled from decades of rigorous analysis of many different kinds of systems done by many smart people. But complex systems are, well, complex. It’s dangerous to generalize about them. What you are about to read is a work in progress. It’s not a recipe for critical College, finding leverage points. Rather it’s an invitation to think more broadly about system change. Here, in the light of a cooler dawn, is write perfect College, a revised list: (in increasing order of effectiveness) 12. I Want Albert College? Constants, parameters, numbers (such as subsidies, taxes, standards).
11. The sizes of buffers and essay Ashbury College, other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. 10. The structure of material stocks and flows (such as transport networks, population age structures). 9. The lengths of delays, relative to the rate of system change.
8. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to correct against. 7. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. 6. The structure of information flows (who does and does not have access to information). 5. The rules of the system (such as incentives, punishments, constraints). 4. The power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure. 3. The goals of the system.
2. The mindset or paradigm out of which the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises. 1. The power to transcend paradigms. To explain parameters, stocks, delays, flows, feedback, and essay writing Academy, so forth, I need to start with a basic diagram. The “state of the system” is whatever standing stock is of importance — amount of water behind the dam, amount of harvestable wood in the forest, number of people in the population, amount of money in the bank, whatever. System states are usually physical stocks, but they could be nonmaterial ones as well — self-confidence, degree of trust in public officials, perceived safety of a neighborhood. There are usually inflows that increase the stock and outflows that decrease it. Write Perfect Essay? Deposits increase the money in the bank; withdrawals decrease it. River inflow and writing numbers Clifton, rain raise the water behind the dam; evaporation and discharge through the spillway lower it. Births and immigrations increase the population, deaths and emigrations reduce it. Political corruption decreases trust in public officials; experience of a well-functioning government increases it.
Insofar as this part of the system consists of how to write perfect Ashbury, physical stocks and flows — and they are the bedrock of any system — it obeys laws of conservation and accumulation. You can understand its dynamics readily, if you can understand a bathtub with some water in it (the state of the system) and an inflowing faucet and outflowing drain. If the inflow rate is higher than the outflow rate, the stock gradually rises. If the critical thinking Macquarie outflow rate is higher than the inflow, the stock gradually goes down. The sluggish response of the water level to what could be sudden twists in the input and how to write essay College, output valves is typical — it takes time for flows to accumulate, just as it takes time for critical thinking Caxton, water to fill up or drain out of the how to perfect essay Ashbury tub. The rest of the diagram is the information that causes the flows to change, which then cause the stock to change. If you’re about to take a bath, you have a desired water level in mind. You plug the drain, turn on the faucet and watch until the water rises to your chosen level (until the discrepancy between the desired and the actual state of the essay writing terms Academy system is zero). Then you turn the water off.
If you start to get in the bath and discover that you’ve underestimated your volume and are about to produce an overflow, you can open the drain for awhile, until the water goes down to your desired level. Those are two negative feedback loops, or correcting loops, one controlling the inflow, one controlling the outflow, either or both of which you can use to bring the how to write essay College water level to your goal. Notice that the goal and the feedback connections are not visible in the system. If you were an critical extraterrestrial trying to figure out write Ashbury College, why the tub fills and empties, it would take awhile to figure out that there’s an invisible goal and a discrepancy-measuring process going on in the head of the to write articles online creature manipulating the faucets. But if you watched long enough, you could figure that out. Very simple so far.
Now let’s take into account that you have two taps, a hot and a cold, and that you’re also adjusting for write essay, another system state — temperature. Suppose the hot inflow is how i write, connected to a boiler way down in the basement, four floors below, so it doesn’t respond quickly. And you’re making faces at yourself in the mirror and not paying close attention to the water level. And, of course, the inflow pipe is connected to a reservoir somewhere, which is connected to the whole planetary hydrological cycle. The system begins to get complex, and realistic, and interesting. Mentally change the bathtub into your checking account. Write checks, make deposits, add a faucet that keeps dribbling in a little interest and write Ashbury, a special drain that sucks your balance even drier if it ever goes dry. Attach your account to a thousand others and writing, let the bank create loans as a function of your combined and write perfect, fluctuating deposits, link a thousand of those banks into a federal reserve system — and you begin to see how simple stocks and means Macquarie, flows, plumbed together, make up systems way too complex to figure out. That’s why leverage points are not intuitive. And that’s enough systems theory to proceed to essay, the list.
12. Constants, parameters, numbers (subsidies, taxes, standards). “Parameters” in systems jargon means the numbers that determine how much of a discrepancy turns which faucet how fast. Maybe the faucet turns hard, so it takes awhile to get the water flowing or to turn it off. Maybe the drain is blocked and can allow only a small flow, no matter how open it is.
Maybe the faucet can deliver with the force of a fire hose. These considerations are a matter of numbers, some of which are physically locked in and unchangeable, but most of which are popular intervention points. Consider the national debt. It’s a negative bathtub, a money hole. Critical Means? The rate at which it sinks is called the annual deficit. Tax income makes it rise, government expenditures make it fall. Congress and the president spend most of their time arguing about the many, many parameters that open and close tax faucets and how to Ashbury College, spending drains. Since those faucets and uc a to g requirements, drains are connected to how to write essay College, us, the voters, these are politically charged parameters. Writing In An Clifton College? But, despite all the fireworks, and no matter which party is in charge, the money hole has been sinking for years now, just at different rates.
To adjust the dirtiness of the air we breathe, the government sets parameters called ambient air quality standards. To assure some standing stock of forest (or some flow of money to logging companies) it sets allowed annual cuts. Corporations adjust parameters such as wage rates and product prices, with an eye on the level in their profit bathtub — the how to write perfect bottom line. The amount of how i DLD College London, land we set aside for conservation. The minimum wage. How much we spend on AIDS research or Stealth bombers. The service charge the essay Ashbury bank extracts from your account. All these are parameters, adjustments to faucets. So, by the way, is firing people and getting new ones, including politicians. Putting different hands on College, the faucets may change the rate at which the how to write perfect Ashbury faucets turn, but if they’re the same old faucets, plumbed into uc a to g Saint, the same old system, turned according to the same old information and goals and rules, the system isn’t going to change much. Electing Bill Clinton was definitely different from electing George Bush, but not all that different, given that every president is plugged into the same political system. (Changing the way money flows in that system would make much more of a difference — but I’m getting ahead of myself on this list.)
Parameters are dead last on my list of powerful interventions. Write Essay Ashbury College? Diddling with the details, arranging the deck chairs on the Titanic. Probably 90, no 95, no 99 percent of our attention goes to parameters, but there’s not a lot of leverage in them. Not that parameters aren’t important — they can be, especially in the short term and to the individual who’s standing directly in the flow. People care deeply about parameters and fight fierce battles over them. But they RARELY CHANGE BEHAVIOR. If the system is chronically stagnant, parameter changes rarely kick-start it. If it’s wildly variable, they don’t usually stabilize it.
If it’s growing out of control, they don’t brake it. Whatever cap we put on thinking tutorials Caxton, campaign contributions, it doesn’t clean up politics. The Feds fiddling with the College interest rate haven’t made business cycles go away. (We always forget that during upturns, and are shocked, shocked by the downturns.) After decades of the strictest air pollution standards in the world, Los Angeles air is essay writing Academy, less dirty, but it isn’t clean. Spending more on police doesn’t make crime go away. Since I’m about to get into some examples where parameters ARE leverage points, let me stick in a big caveat here. Parameters become leverage points when they go into ranges that kick off one of the items higher on write perfect College, this list. Interest rates, for example, or birth rates, control the gains around positive feedback loops. System goals are parameters that can make big differences. I Want Online College? Sometimes a system gets onto a chaotic edge, where the tiniest change in a number can drive it from order to what appears to be wild disorder. These critical numbers are not nearly as common as people seem to think they are.
Most systems have evolved or are designed to stay far out of critical parameter ranges. How To Perfect Ashbury? Mostly, the means Macquarie numbers are not worth the sweat put into how to write perfect Ashbury College, them. Here’s a story a friend sent me over the Internet to makes that point: 3. When I became a landlord, I spent a lot of time and energy trying to figure out what would be a “fair” rent to charge. I tried to consider all the variables, including the relative incomes of numbers essay Clifton College, my tenants, my own income and perfect, cash flow needs, which expenses were for articles, upkeep and which were capital expenses, the equity versus the interest portion of the mortgage payments, how much my labor on the house was worth, etc.
I got absolutely nowhere. Finally I went to someone who specializes in giving money advice. Write? She said: “You’re acting as though there is a fine line at which the rent is fair, and at any point above that point the tenant is terms Washington, being screwed and at any point below that you are being screwed. In fact there is a large grey area in how to which both you and the tenant are getting a good, or at least a fair, deal. Stop worrying and in an essay College, get on with your life.” 11. The sizes of buffers and essay Ashbury College, other stabilizing stocks, relative to their flows. Consider a huge bathtub with slow in critical Caxton College and outflows. Now think about a small one with very fast flows.
That’s the difference between a lake and a river. You hear about catastrophic river floods much more often than catastrophic lake floods, because stocks that are big, relative to their flows, are more stable than small ones. In chemistry and write essay Ashbury College, other fields, a big, stabilizing stock is writing numbers Clifton, known as a buffer. The stabilizing power of buffers is write perfect College, why you keep money in the bank rather than living from the flow of change through your pocket. It’s why stores hold inventory instead of critical thinking tutorials College, calling for how to write essay College, new stock just as customers carry the old stock out the essay writing Academy door. It’s why we need to write perfect essay, maintain more than the Macquarie minimum breeding population of an endangered species. Soils in the eastern U.S. are more sensitive to College, acid rain than soils in the west, because they haven’t got big buffers of calcium to essay, neutralize acid. You can often stabilize a system by increasing the capacity of a buffer.
4 But if a buffer is too big, the system gets inflexible. It reacts too slowly. And big buffers of write perfect Ashbury College, some sorts, such as water reservoirs or inventories, cost a lot to build or maintain. Businesses invented just-in-time inventories, because occasional vulnerability to fluctuations or screw-ups is critical means University, cheaper (for them, anyway) than certain, constant inventory costs — and because small-to-vanishing inventories allow more flexible response to shifting demand. There’s leverage, sometimes magical, in how to perfect Ashbury changing the College size of buffers. But buffers are usually physical entities, not easy to how to write Ashbury, change. The acid absorption capacity of eastern soils is i want to write online Albert College, not a leverage point for how to write perfect Ashbury College, alleviating acid rain damage. The storage capacity of i want articles College, a dam is literally cast in write Ashbury concrete. So I haven’t put buffers very high on the list of to g requirements Saint John, leverage points.
10. The structure of material stocks and flows and nodes of intersection (such as transport networks, population age structures, flow of nitrogen through soil). The plumbing structure, the stocks and flows and their physical arrangement, can have an enormous effect on how the system operates. When the Hungarian road system was laid out so all traffic from one side of the nation to the other has to how to write perfect essay College, pass through central Budapest, that determined a lot about air pollution and commuting delays that are not easily fixed by pollution control devices, traffic lights, or speed limits. The only essay terms Washington, way to how to perfect essay, fix a system that is how i, laid out wrong is to rebuild it, if you can. Amory Lovins does wonders of write perfect essay College, energy conservation by straightening out bent pipes and enlarging too-small ones. If we let him do energy retrofits on all the buildings of the requirements Saint John II Academy nation,we could shut down at least half of how to perfect College, our electric power plants. But often physical rebuilding is the slowest and most expensive kind of change to make in a system.
Some stock-and-flow structures are just plain unchangeable. The baby-boom swell in critical thinking tutorials Caxton College the U.S. population first caused pressure on the elementary school system, then high schools, then colleges, then jobs and housing, and now we’re looking forward to supporting its retirement. Not much we can do about perfect Ashbury College, it, because five-year-olds become six-year-olds, and sixty-four-year-olds become sixty-five-year-olds predictably and unstoppably. The same can be said for the lifetime of destructive CFC molecules in the ozone layer, for the rate at essay Clifton College which contaminants get washed out of aquifers, for the fact that an inefficient car fleet takes 10-20 years to turn over. Physical structure is crucial in a system, but rarely a leverage point, because changing it is rarely quick or simple. The leverage point is in proper design in the first place. Write Perfect College? After the structure is built, the leverage is in understanding its limitations and bottlenecks, using it with maximum efficiency, and refraining from fluctuations or expansions that strain its capacity. 9. The lengths of delays, relative to the rate of system changes. Remember that bathtub on the fourth floor I mentioned, with the water heater in the basement?
I actually experienced one of those once, in an old hotel in numbers in an London. Write Perfect? It wasn’t even a bathtub, it was a shower — no buffering capacity. Writing College? The water temperature took at least a minute to essay College, respond to my faucet twists. Guess what my shower was like. Right, oscillations from hot to cold and back to hot, punctuated with expletives. Delays in feedback loops are critical determinants of system behavior. They are common causes of oscillations. If you’re trying to adjust a system state to your goal, but you only receive delayed information about what the system state is, you will overshoot and undershoot. Same if your information is timely, but your response isn’t.
For example, it takes several years to build an electric power plant, and then that plant lasts, say, thirty years. Writing Washington Academy? Those delays make it impossible to build exactly the right number of plants to supply a rapidly changing demand. Even with immense effort at forecasting, almost every electricity industry in the world experiences long oscillations between overcapacity and undercapacity. A system just can’t respond to how to perfect Ashbury College, short-term changes when it has long-term delays. That’s why a massive central-planning system, such as the tutorials Caxton College Soviet Union or General Motors, necessarily functions poorly.
Because we know they’re important, we systems folks see delays wherever we look. The delay between the time when a pollutant is how to essay College, dumped on the land and when it trickles down to the groundwater. The delay between the birth of a child and essay writing Washington Academy, the time when that child is how to write perfect, ready to writing numbers essay College, have a child. Essay? The delay between the first successful test of a new technology and thinking tutorials Caxton, the time when that technology is installed throughout the economy. How To Essay College? The time it takes for a price to adjust to a supply-demand imbalance. A delay in a feedback process is critical RELATIVE TO RATES OF CHANGE (growth, fluctuation, decay) IN THE STOCKS THAT THE FEEDBACK LOOP IS TRYING TO CONTROL. Delays that are too short cause overreaction, “chasing your tail,” oscillations amplified by the jumpiness of the critical tutorials response. Delays that are too long cause damped, sustained, or exploding oscillations, depending on how much too long.
At the extreme they cause chaos. Overlong delays in a system with a threshold, a danger point, a range past which irreversible damage can occur, cause overshoot and collapse. I would list delay length as a high leverage point, except for the fact that delays are not often easily changeable. Things take as long as they take. You can’t do a lot about the construction time of a major piece of capital, or the maturation time of a child, or the growth rate of a forest. It’s usually easier to SLOW DOWN THE CHANGE RATE, so that inevitable feedback delays won’t cause so much trouble.
That’s why growth rates are higher up on the leverage-point list than delay times. And that’s why slowing economic growth is a greater leverage point in Forrester’s world model than faster technological development or freer market prices. Those are attempts to how to perfect Ashbury, speed up the rate of critical thinking means Macquarie, adjustment. But the world’s physical capital plant, its factories and boilers, the concrete manifestations of perfect essay, its working technologies, can only change so fast, even in the face of new prices or new ideas — and how i write, prices and ideas don’t change instantly either, not through a whole global culture. There’s more leverage in slowing the system down so technologies and prices can keep up with it, than there is in write wishing the delays away. But if there is a delay in write essay London your system that can be changed, changing it can have big effects. Watch out! Be sure you change it in the right direction! (For example, the great push to reduce information and money transfer delays in financial markets is write perfect essay, just asking for wild gyrations)
8. The strength of negative feedback loops, relative to the impacts they are trying to correct against. Now we’re beginning to move from the physical part of the system to to write online, the information and control parts, where more leverage can be found. Negative feedback loops are ubiquitous in systems. How To Write College? Nature evolves them and humans invent them as controls to keep important system states within safe bounds. A thermostat loop is the classic example. Its purpose is to i want articles, keep the system state called “room temperature” fairly constant at a desired level.
Any negative feedback loop needs a goal (the thermostat setting), a monitoring and signaling device to detect excursions from the goal (the thermostat), and a response mechanism (the furnace and/or air conditioner, fans, heat pipes, fuel, etc.). A complex system usually has numerous negative feedback loops it can bring into play, so it can self-correct under different conditions and impacts. Some of those loops may be inactive much of the time — like the emergency cooling system in a nuclear power plant, or your ability to sweat or shiver to how to essay Ashbury College, maintain your body temperature — but their presence is critical to the long-term welfare of the system. One of the writing numbers in an College big mistakes we make is to perfect essay Ashbury College, strip away these “emergency” response mechanisms because they aren’t often used and they appear to be costly. In the short term we see no effect from thinking Macquarie University doing this. In the long term, we drastically narrow the range of conditions over which the system can survive. One of the most heartbreaking ways we do this is in encroaching on the habitats of College, endangered species. Another is in uc a to g requirements encroaching on our own time for rest, recreation, socialization, and meditation. The “strength” of a negative loop — its ability to keep its appointed stock at or near its goal — depends on the combination of all its parameters and links — the accuracy and rapidity of monitoring, the quickness and power of response, the directness and size of corrective flows.
Sometimes there are leverage points here. Take markets, for example, the negative feedback systems that are all but worshipped by how to essay College, economists — and they can indeed be marvels of self-correction, as prices vary to moderate supply and numbers in an essay College, demand and perfect, keep them in writing Clifton College balance. Write Perfect Ashbury? The more the price — the articles Albert central piece of information signaling both producers and consumers — is kept clear, unambiguous, timely, and truthful, the more smoothly markets will operate. Prices that reflect full costs will tell consumers how much they can actually afford and will reward efficient producers. Perfect? Companies and governments are fatally attracted to the price leverage point, of course, all of them determinedly pushing it in the wrong direction with subsidies, fixes, externalities, taxes, and to g requirements Saint II Academy, other forms of confusion. These folks are trying to weaken the feedback power of market signals by write College, twisting information in their favor. How I? The REAL leverage here is to keep them from doing it. Hence the perfect College necessity of anti-trust laws, truth-in-advertising laws, attempts to i want to write articles online Albert, internalize costs (such as pollution taxes), the removal of perverse subsidies, and other ways of leveling market playing fields. None of which get far these days, because of the weakening of another set of negative feedback loops — those of how to essay College, democracy. This great system was invented to put self-correcting feedback between the people and their government.
The people, informed about what their elected representatives do, respond by voting those representatives in or out of office. The process depends upon the free, full, unbiased flow of information back and forth between electorate and leaders. Billions of dollars are spent to limit and uc a to g requirements John, bias and dominate that flow. Give the how to write Ashbury people who want to distort market price signals the power to pay off government leaders, get the channels of thinking College, communication to how to perfect essay Ashbury, be self-interested corporate partners themselves, and none of the necessary negative feedbacks work well. Essay DLD College? Both market and democracy erode. The strength of Ashbury College, a negative feedback loop is important RELATIVE TO THE IMPACT IT IS DESIGNED TO CORRECT. If the impact increases in how i London strength, the feedbacks have to be strengthened too.
A thermostat system may work fine on a cold winter day — but open all the windows and its corrective power will fail. Democracy worked better before the how to essay advent of the brainwashing power of Macquarie, centralized mass communications. How To College? Traditional controls on fishing were sufficient until radar spotting and drift nets and other technologies made it possible for a few actors to wipe out the fish. The power of big industry calls for the power of big government to hold it in check; a global economy makes necessary a global government and global regulations. Here are some examples of Academy, strengthening negative feedback controls to improve a system’s self-correcting abilities: preventive medicine, exercise, and good nutrition to bolster the body’s ability to fight disease, integrated pest management to encourage natural predators of perfect College, crop pests, the Freedom of Information Act to reduce government secrecy, monitoring systems to report on Macquarie University, environmental damage, protection for whistleblowers, impact fees, pollution taxes, and performance bonds to recapture the externalized public costs of write, private benefits. 7. The gain around driving positive feedback loops. A negative feedback loop is self-correcting; a positive feedback loop is self-reinforcing. The more it works, the more it gains power to work some more. The more people catch the flu, the more they infect other people. The more babies are born, the more people grow up to have babies.
The more money you have in the bank, the more interest you earn, the means more money you have in the bank. The more the soil erodes, the less vegetation it can support, the fewer roots and leaves to soften rain and runoff, the more soil erodes. The more high-energy neutrons in the critical mass, the more they knock into nuclei and generate more. Positive feedback loops are sources of growth, explosion, erosion, and collapse in how to write perfect systems. Uc A Requirements Saint? A system with an unchecked positive loop ultimately will destroy itself.
That’s why there are so few of them. Usually a negative loop will kick in sooner or later. The epidemic will run out of infectable people — or people will take increasingly strong steps to avoid being infected. The death rate will rise to equal the how to write perfect Ashbury College birth rate — or people will see the consequences of unchecked population growth and have fewer babies. Write Essay London? The soil will erode away to bedrock, and after a million years the bedrock will crumble into new soil — or people will stop overgrazing, put up checkdams, plant trees, and stop the erosion.
In all those examples, the first outcome is what will happen if the essay Ashbury College positive loop runs its course, the second is what will happen if there’s an intervention to reduce its self-multiplying power. Reducing the gain around a positive loop — slowing the growth — is usually a more powerful leverage point in systems than strengthening negative loops, and much preferable to letting the positive loop run. Population and economic growth rates in the world model are leverage points, because slowing them gives the writing in an essay many negative loops, through technology and markets and other forms of adaptation, all of how to write essay College, which have limits and delays, time to i want online Albert, function. It’s the same as slowing the car when you’re driving too fast, rather than calling for more responsive brakes or technical advances in steering. Another example: there are many positive feedback loops in society that reward the winners of a competition with the resources to write perfect essay Ashbury College, win even bigger next time. Systems folks call them “success to the successful” loops. Rich people collect interest; poor people pay it. Rich people pay accountants and lean on politicians to reduce their taxes; poor people can’t. Rich people give their kids inheritances and writing in an Clifton, good educations; poor kids lose out.
Anti-poverty programs are weak negative loops that try to counter these strong positive ones. It would be much more effective to weaken the positive loops. That’s what progressive income tax, inheritance tax, and universal high-quality public education programs are meant to how to write Ashbury College, do. (If rich people can buy government and weaken, rather than strengthen those of writing Academy, measures, the government, instead of balancing “success to the successful” loops, becomes just another instrument to reinforce them!) The most interesting behavior that rapidly turning positive loops can trigger is chaos. This wild, unpredictable, unreplicable, and yet bounded behavior happens when a system starts changing much, much faster than its negative loops can react to College, it. For example, if you keep raising the capital growth rate in the world model, eventually you get to a point where one tiny increase more will shift the economy from i want to write articles Albert exponential growth to oscillation. Another nudge upward gives the oscillation a double beat. Perfect Essay? And just the tiniest further nudge sends it into chaos. I don’t expect the world economy to turn chaotic any time soon (not for that reason, anyway).
That behavior occurs only in means University unrealistic parameter ranges, equivalent to doubling the size of the economy within a year. Real-world systems can turn chaotic, however, if something in them can grow or decline very fast. Fast-replicating bacteria or insect populations, very infectious epidemics, wild speculative bubbles in money systems, neutron fluxes in the guts of nuclear power plants. These systems are hard to control, and control must involve slowing down the positive feedbacks. In more ordinary systems, look for leverage points around birth rates, interest rates, erosion rates, “success to the successful” loops, any place where the more you have of something, the write perfect Ashbury more you have the possibility of having more. 6. The structure of information flows (who does and does not have access to information).
There was this subdivision of critical thinking tutorials College, identical houses, the story goes, except that for some reason the College electric meter in some of the houses was installed in the basement and in others it was installed in the front hall, where the residents could see it constantly, going round faster or slower as they used more or less electricity. Write? With no other change, with identical prices, electricity consumption was 30 percent lower in how to perfect the houses where the meter was in i want to write articles online the front hall. We systems-heads love that story because it’s an example of a high leverage point in essay Ashbury the information structure of the system. It’s not a parameter adjustment, not a strengthening or weakening of an to write existing loop. It’s a NEW LOOP, delivering feedback to a place where it wasn’t going before. A more recent example is the how to Ashbury Toxic Release Inventory — the U.S. government’s requirement, instituted in 1986, that every factory releasing hazardous air pollutants report those emissions publicly every year. Suddenly every community could find out precisely what was coming out of the smokestacks in town. There was no law against those emissions, no fines, no determination of “safe” levels, just information. But by 1990 emissions dropped 40 percent. They’ve continued to go down since, not so much because of citizen outrage as because of to g requirements Saint John Paul, corporate shame.
One chemical company that found itself on the Top Ten Polluters list reduced its emissions by 90 percent, just to write essay Ashbury College, “get off that list.” Missing feedback is one of the most common causes of system malfunction. Adding or restoring information can be a powerful intervention, usually much easier and essay terms, cheaper than rebuilding physical infrastructure. The tragedy of the commons that is crashing the world’s commercial fisheries occurs because there is no feedback from the state of the fish population to the decision to invest in fishing vessels. (Contrary to economic opinion, the how to perfect essay price of fish doesn’t provide that feedback. As the fish get more scarce and means Macquarie University, hence more expensive, it becomes all the more profitable to go out and Ashbury, catch them. That’s a perverse feedback, a positive loop that leads to writing in an Clifton, collapse.)
It’s important that the missing feedback be restored to the right place and in compelling form. To take another tragedy of the commons, it’s not enough to inform all the write Ashbury users of an aquifer that the writing numbers in an essay Clifton College groundwater level is dropping. That could initiate a race to the bottom. It would be more effective to set a water price that rises steeply as the pumping rate begins to exceed the recharge rate. Compelling feedback. Suppose taxpayers got to how to write perfect College, specify on their return forms what government services their tax payments must be spent on. (Radical democracy!) Suppose any town or company that puts a water intake pipe in a river had to put it immediately DOWNSTREAM from its own outflow pipe. Suppose any public or private official who made the decision to invest in a nuclear power plant got the DLD College waste from that plant stored on his/her lawn. Suppose (this is an old one) the politicians who declare war were required to spend that war in how to write perfect Ashbury College the front lines. There is writing Clifton, a systematic tendency on perfect essay Ashbury College, the part of human beings to avoid accountability for tutorials, their own decisions. That’s why there are so many missing feedback loops — and why this kind of leverage point is so often popular with the how to write essay Ashbury masses, unpopular with the powers that be, and effective, if you can get the powers that be to permit it to happen (or go around them and make it happen anyway). 5. Means Macquarie? The rules of the system (incentives, punishments, constraints).
The rules of the system define its scope, its boundaries, its degrees of freedom. Thou shalt not kill. Everyone has the right of free speech. Contracts are to be honored. The president serves four-year terms and cannot serve more than two of them. Nine people on write essay Ashbury, a team, you have to touch every base, three strikes and you’re out. If you get caught robbing a bank, you go to jail. Mikhail Gorbachev came to critical thinking, power in the USSR and opened information flows ( glasnost ) and how to write College, changed the economic rules ( perestroika ), and look what happened. Constitutions are the strongest examples of social rules. Physical laws such as the second law of thermodynamics are absolute rules, whether we understand them or not or like them or not. Laws, punishments, incentives, and informal social agreements are progressively weaker rules.
To demonstrate the power of rules, I like to ask my students to imagine different ones for a college. Suppose the students graded the how i essay teachers, or each other. Suppose there were no degrees: you come to college when you want to learn something, and College, you leave when you’ve learned it. Suppose tenure were awarded to professors according to their ability to essay terms Washington Academy, solve real-world problems, rather than to publish academic papers. Suppose a class got graded as a group, instead of as individuals. As we try to imagine restructured rules like that and what our behavior would be under them, we come to understand the write perfect essay College power of rules. They are high leverage points. Power over the rules is real power. Thinking Tutorials? That’s why lobbyists congregate when Congress writes laws, and why the Supreme Court, which interprets and perfect Ashbury, delineates the essay Washington Constitution — the rules for writing the rules — has even more power than Congress.
If you want to understand the deepest malfunctions of systems, pay attention to the rules, and to who has power over them. That’s why my systems intuition was sending off alarm bells as the new world trade system was explained to write essay, me. It is write DLD College London, a system with rules designed by corporations, run by corporations, for the benefit of how to write Ashbury College, corporations. Its rules exclude almost any feedback from any other sector of society. Most of its meetings are closed even to the press (no information flow, no feedback). It forces nations into positive loops “racing to the bottom,” competing with each other to weaken environmental and essay writing, social safeguards in order to attract corporate investment. It’s a recipe for how to write essay Ashbury, unleashing “success to the successful” loops, until they generate enormous accumulations of power and huge centralized planning systems that will destroy themselves, just as the Soviet Union destroyed itself, and for similar systemic reasons. 4. The power to add, change, evolve, or self-organize system structure.
The most stunning thing living systems and Albert College, some social systems can do is to how to perfect Ashbury, change themselves utterly by creating whole new structures and behaviors. In biological systems that power is called evolution. In human economies it’s called technical advance or social revolution. In systems lingo it’s called self-organization. Self-organization means changing any aspect of a system lower on this list — adding completely new physical structures, such as brains or wings or computers — adding new negative or positive loops, or new rules. The ability to how i DLD College, self-organize is the strongest form of system resilience. How To Write Essay Ashbury College? A system that can evolve can survive almost any change, by changing itself. Critical Means Macquarie? The human immune system has the power to develop new responses to essay, (some kinds of ) insults it has never before encountered. How I Write Essay London? The human brain can take in new information and pop out completely new thoughts. The power of self-organization seems so wondrous that we tend to regard it as mysterious, miraculous, manna from heaven. Economists often model technology as literal manna — coming from nowhere, costing nothing, increasing the productivity of an economy by how to write perfect essay College, some steady percent each year.
For centuries people have regarded the spectacular variety of how i write essay, nature with the same awe. Essay? Only a divine creator could bring forth such a creation. Further investigation of self-organizing systems reveals that the divine creator, if there is one, does not have to produce evolutionary miracles. He, she, or it just has to write marvelously clever RULES FOR SELF-ORGANIZATION. These rules basically govern how, where, and in an Clifton, what the system can add onto or subtract from itself under what conditions. As hundreds of self-organizing computer models have demonstrated, complex and delightful patterns can evolve from how to essay quite simple evolutionary algorithms. (That need not mean that real-world algorithms are simple, only that they can be.) The genetic code within the DNA that is the writing terms Washington basis of all biological evolution contains just four different letters, combined into words of three letters each. That pattern, and the rules for replicating and rearranging it, has been constant for something like three billion years, during which it has spewed out an unimaginable variety of failed and successful self-evolved creatures. Self-organization is basically a matter of an evolutionary raw material — a highly variable stock of information from which to select possible patterns — and a means for experimentation, for write perfect Ashbury College, selecting and testing new patterns. For biological evolution the raw material is DNA, one source of variety is spontaneous mutation, and the testing mechanism is something like punctuated Darwinian selection. Essay Writing Washington? For technology the raw material is the body of understanding science has accumulated and stored in libraries and in perfect the brains of its practitioners. The source of variety is human creativity (whatever THAT is) and the selection mechanism can be whatever the market will reward, or whatever governments and foundations will fund, or whatever meets human needs.
When you understand the power of writing numbers essay College, system self-organization, you begin to write perfect essay, understand why biologists worship biodiversity even more than economists worship technology. The wildly varied stock of DNA, evolved and accumulated over billions of years, is the source of evolutionary potential, just as science libraries and labs and universities where scientists are trained are the source of technological potential. Allowing species to go extinct is a systems crime, just as randomly eliminating all copies of particular science journals, or particular kinds of scientists, would be. The same could be said of human cultures, of how i essay DLD College, course, which are the store of behavioral repertoires, accumulated over not billions, but hundreds of thousands of years. Write Essay? They are a stock out of which social evolution can arise. Unfortunately, people appreciate the precious evolutionary potential of cultures even less than they understand the preciousness of i want College, every genetic variation in how to perfect essay the world’s ground squirrels. I guess that’s because one aspect of almost every culture is the write DLD College London belief in the utter superiority of that culture. Insistence on a single culture shuts down learning. Cuts back resilience. Any system, biological, economic, or social, that gets so encrusted that it cannot self-evolve, a system that systematically scorns experimentation and wipes out the raw material of how to write essay, innovation, is doomed over the long term on in an essay College, this highly variable planet. The intervention point here is obvious, but unpopular.
Encouraging variability and experimentation and diversity means “losing control.” Let a thousand flowers bloom and ANYTHING could happen! Who wants that? Let’s play it safe and essay Ashbury, push this leverage point in the wrong direction by wiping out biological, cultural, social, and market diversity! Right there, the diversity-destroying consequence of the push for control, that demonstrates why the goal of a system is a leverage point superior to the self-organizing ability of a system. If the goal is to bring more and to g Saint John, more of the world under the control of one particular central planning system (the empire of Genghis Khan, the world of Islam, the People’s Republic of China, Wal-Mart, Disney, whatever), then everything further down the write perfect essay College list, physical stocks and flows, feedback loops, information flows, even self-organizing behavior, will be twisted to conform to that goal.
That’s why I can’t get into arguments about whether genetic engineering is a “good” or a “bad” thing. Washington Academy? Like all technologies, it depends upon who is wielding it, with what goal. How To Write? The only thing one can say is that if corporations wield it for the purpose of generating marketable products, that is a very different goal, a different selection mechanism, a different direction for essay writing terms Academy, evolution than anything the planet has seen so far. As my little single-loop examples have shown, most negative feedback loops within systems have their own goals — to keep the bathwater at the right level, to keep the room temperature comfortable, to keep inventories stocked at sufficient levels, to how to write College, keep enough water behind the dam. Those goals are important leverage points for pieces of writing numbers in an essay, systems, and most people realize that. If you want the write Ashbury room warmer, you know the critical tutorials thermostat setting is the place to intervene. But there are larger, less obvious, higher-leverage goals, those of the entire system. Even people within systems don’t often recognize what whole-system goal they are serving. To make profits, most corporations would say, but that’s just a rule, a necessary condition to stay in the game.
What is the point of the game? To grow, to increase market share, to bring the world (customers, suppliers, regulators) more and more under the control of the corporation, so that its operations becomes ever more shielded from uncertainty. John Kenneth Galbraith recognized that corporate goal — to engulf everything — long ago. 5 It’s the goal of how to write College, a cancer too. Actually it’s the goal of every living population — and only a bad one when it isn’t balanced by higher-level negative feedback loops that never let an upstart power-loop-driven entity control the essay Clifton College world.
The goal of keeping the Ashbury College market competitive has to trump the critical College goal of each corporation to eliminate its competitors (and brainwash its customers and swallow its suppliers), just as in ecosystems, the goal of keeping populations in how to essay College balance and evolving has to trump the goal of each population to reproduce without limit. I said awhile back that changing the players in the system is a low-level intervention, as long as the players fit into the same old system. The exception to that rule is at the top, where a single player can have the power to change the system’s goal. I have watched in wonder as — only very occasionally — a new leader in an organization, from Dartmouth College to Nazi Germany, comes in, enunciates a new goal, and swings hundreds or thousands or millions of tutorials, perfectly intelligent, rational people off in a new direction. That’s what Ronald Reagan did, and we watched it happen. Write Ashbury? Not long before he came to office, a president could say “Ask not what government can do for you, ask what you can do for the government,” and no one even laughed. Reagan said over and over, the goal is critical thinking tutorials, not to perfect, get the uc a to g II Academy people to help the government and how to perfect Ashbury College, not to get government to help the people, but to how i London, get government off our backs. One can argue, and I would, that larger system changes and the rise of corporate power over government let him get away with that. But the Ashbury thoroughness with which the public discourse in the U.S. and even the world has been changed since Reagan is Caxton College, testimony to the high leverage of articulating, meaning, repeating, standing up for, insisting upon new system goals. 2. Write Essay? The mindset or paradigm out of which the system — its goals, structure, rules, delays, parameters — arises.
Another of Jay Forrester’s famous systems sayings goes: it doesn’t matter how the tax law of a country is written. There is a shared idea in the minds of the society about what a “fair” distribution of the tax load is. Whatever the rules say, by fair means or foul, by complications, cheating, exemptions or deductions, by constant sniping at critical means Macquarie the rules, actual tax payments will push right up against the accepted idea of how to essay Ashbury, “fairness.” The shared idea in the minds of society, the great big unstated assumptions — unstated because unnecessary to state; everyone already knows them — constitute that society’s paradigm, or deepest set of beliefs about how the tutorials Caxton College world works. There is a difference between nouns and verbs. Money measures something real and has real meaning (therefore people who are paid less are literally worth less). Growth is good. Nature is a stock of resources to how to essay Ashbury, be converted to writing terms, human purposes. Evolution stopped with the emergence of Homo sapiens . One can “own” land.
Those are just a few of the paradigmatic assumptions of our current culture, all of which have utterly dumfounded other cultures, who thought them not the least bit obvious. Paradigms are the sources of how to write Ashbury College, systems. From them, from shared social agreements about the nature of reality, come system goals and information flows, feedbacks, stocks, flows and i want to write articles online College, everything else about systems. No one has ever said that better than Ralph Waldo Emerson: Every nation and every man instantly surround themselves with a material apparatus which exactly corresponds to … their state of thought. Observe how every truth and every error, each a thought of some man’s mind, clothes itself with societies, houses, cities, language, ceremonies, newspapers. Observe the ideas of the present day … see how timber, brick, lime, and stone have flown into convenient shape, obedient to the master idea reigning in the minds of many persons….
It follows, of course, that the least enlargement of ideas … would cause the write essay most striking changes of external things. 6. The ancient Egyptians built pyramids because they believed in an afterlife. We build skyscrapers, because we believe that space in thinking Macquarie downtown cities is enormously valuable. (Except for blighted spaces, often near the skyscrapers, which we believe are worthless.) Whether it was Copernicus and Kepler showing that the earth is not the essay center of the universe, or Einstein hypothesizing that matter and thinking Caxton, energy are interchangeable, or Adam Smith postulating that the selfish actions of individual players in markets wonderfully accumulate to how to perfect essay College, the common good, people who have managed to intervene in DLD College London systems at the level of paradigm have hit a leverage point that totally transforms systems. You could say paradigms are harder to change than anything else about how to write essay, a system, and thinking means Macquarie, therefore this item should be lowest on the list, not second-to-highest. But there’s nothing physical or expensive or even slow in how to essay Ashbury College the process of essay Washington, paradigm change. In a single individual it can happen in a millisecond. All it takes is a click in the mind, a falling of write essay Ashbury, scales from eyes, a new way of seeing. Whole societies are another matter — they resist challenges to their paradigm harder than they resist anything else.
So how do you change paradigms? Thomas Kuhn, who wrote the seminal book about the great paradigm shifts of science, 7 has a lot to say about that. In a nutshell, you keep pointing at the anomalies and failures in Saint John Paul II Academy the old paradigm, you keep coming yourself, and loudly and with assurance from the new one, you insert people with the new paradigm in places of public visibility and power. You don’t waste time with reactionaries; rather you work with active change agents and write, with the vast middle ground of people who are open-minded. Systems folks would say you change paradigms by critical thinking means University, modeling a system, which takes you outside the system and forces you to see it whole. We say that because our own paradigms have been changed that way. 1. The power to transcend paradigms. There is write essay Ashbury, yet one leverage point that is even higher than changing a paradigm. That is to keep oneself unattached in the arena of paradigms, to stay flexible, to i want articles online Albert College, realize that NO paradigm is “true,” that every one, including the essay Ashbury College one that sweetly shapes your own worldview, is a tremendously limited understanding of an thinking Macquarie University immense and amazing universe that is far beyond human comprehension.
It is to “get” at a gut level the paradigm that there are paradigms, and to see that that itself is a paradigm, and to regard that whole realization as devastatingly funny. How To Write Perfect Essay Ashbury? It is to let go into Not Knowing, into what the Buddhists call enlightenment. People who cling to paradigms (which means just about all of us) take one look at the spacious possibility that everything they think is guaranteed to tutorials Caxton, be nonsense and pedal rapidly in how to perfect College the opposite direction. Write London? Surely there is no power, no control, no understanding, not even a reason for being, much less acting, in how to write perfect essay the notion or experience that there is no certainty in any worldview. But, in critical thinking Macquarie University fact, everyone who has managed to entertain that idea, for how to write essay Ashbury, a moment or for a lifetime, has found it to be the basis for radical empowerment. If no paradigm is right, you can choose whatever one will help to in an essay College, achieve your purpose. If you have no idea where to get a purpose, you can listen to the universe (or put in the name of your favorite deity here) and do his, her, its will, which is how to Ashbury College, probably a lot better informed than your will. It is in this space of mastery over paradigms that people throw off addictions, live in constant joy, bring down empires, get locked up or burned at the stake or crucified or shot, and have impacts that last for millennia. Back from the sublime to the ridiculous, from enlightenment to i want to write articles online College, caveats.
There is so much that has to be said to write perfect essay College, qualify this list. Essay Clifton? It is tentative and its order is slithery. There are exceptions to every item that can move it up or down the order of leverage. Having had the list percolating in perfect College my subconscious for i want to write online Albert, years has not transformed me into a Superwoman. The higher the leverage point, the more the system will resist changing it — that’s why societies have to how to write essay Ashbury College, rub out truly enlightened beings. Magical leverage points are not easily accessible, even if we know where they are and which direction to push on them. There are no cheap tickets to i want articles, mastery.
You have to work hard at it, whether that means rigorously analyzing a system or rigorously casting off your own paradigms and throwing yourself into the humility of Not Knowing. In the end, it seems that mastery has less to do with pushing leverage points than it does with strategically, profoundly, madly letting go. J.W. Forrester, World Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1971 J.W. Forrester, Urban Dynamics , Portland OR, Productivity Press, 1969. Thanks to David Holmstrom of Santiago, Chile.
For an write perfect Ashbury example, see Dennis Meadows’s model of commodity price fluctuations: D.L. How I Write London? Meadows, Dynamics of how to write essay College, Commodity Production Cycles , Portland OR, 1970. John Kenneth Galbraith, The New Industrial State , 1967. I Want To Write Online Albert College? Ralph Waldo Emerson, “War,” (lecture delivered in perfect College Boston, March, 1838). Reprinted in Emerson’s Complete Works , vol.
XI, Boston, Houghton, Mifflin Co., 1887, p. 177. Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions , Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1962. About The Donella Meadows Project. The mission of the Donella Meadows Project is to preserve Donella (Dana) H. Meadows’s legacy as an inspiring leader, scholar, writer, and uc a Saint, teacher; to manage the how to Ashbury College intellectual property rights related to Dana’s published work; to provide and maintain a comprehensive and critical tutorials Caxton, easily accessible archive of her work online, including articles, columns, and letters; to develop new resources and programs that apply her ideas to current issues and make them available to an ever-larger network of students, practitioners, and leaders in social change. Read More. DMI will be producing an E-newsletter with news from the organization, updates on Ashbury, the work of our fellows, and more. Writing Numbers Essay? Sign up here if you'd like to how to write perfect essay, hear about what we're working on. About The Donella Meadows Project. The Donella Meadows Project, a project of the Academy for Systems Change, 2 Beaver Meadow Road, Norwich, Vermont 05055 | 802-649-7250 | Contact Us. The Academy for Systems Change site is a Catalyst Webworks production.
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