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killing essay THE KILLING OF THE INNOCENT. JEFFRIE G. MURPHY. Suarez, The Three Theological Virtues. Fight on land and on sea. All men want to be free. If they don't, never mind. We'll abolish all mankind. Peter Weiss, Marat/Sade. Murder, some may suggest, is to be defined as the intentional and uncoerced killing of the innocent; and it is true by of an article writing definition that murder is wrong. Write A Good Compare Essay! Yet wars, particularly modern wars, seem to require the features of an article School killing of the innocent, e.g., through antimorale terror bombing.
Therefore war (at least modern war) must be wrong. The above line of argument has a certain plausibility and seems to lie behind much philosophical and theological discussion of such problems as the how to school College Just War and the nature of war crimes. Features Article School! 1 If accepted in full, it seems to entail the immorality of how to write City, University war (i.e., the position of pacifism) and the moral blameworthiness of those who participate in war (i.e., warmakers and uncoerced soldiers are all murderers). To avoid these consequences, some writers will challenge some part of the features article writing School argument by maintaining that there are no innocents in war or that modern war does not in fact require the killing the innocent or that war involves the suspension of moral considerations and thus stands outside the domain of moral criticism entirely or that contributing to the death of innocents is morally blameless so long as it is only foreseen but not intended by those involved in bringing it about (the Catholic principle of the Double Effect) or that the prohibition against killing the innocent is only prima facie 2 and can be overridden by even more important moral requirements, e.g., the defense of freedom. In this paper I want to come to write an editorial City, of London terms with at least some of the important issues raised by features of an article Stonar School the killing of innocents in time of war. The issues I shall focus on are the how to write an essay school following: What does it mean, in a context of war, to describe an features of an writing School individual as innocent ? Why is it morally wrong to kill individuals so described? Is the moral wrongness merely prima facie (i.e., subject to being overridden by other, more weighty, moral considerations) or is it absolute?
I shall avoid making any final judgments on the morality of war (modern wars or otherwise) since such judgments would involve not just philosophical claims but also empirical claims, e.g., the claim that in fact modern wars cannot be waged so as to avoid the killing of the innocent. However, certain abswers to the questions I shall explore will, when coupled with empirical premises, clearly have moral consequences. For example: If the how to write compare essay Academy killing of' innocents is absolutely and not just prima facie immoral (a philosophical claim), and article if modern wars necessarily involve the killing of innocents (an empirical claim), then war for modern times must be absolutely condemned, i.e., pacifism is the required moral posture for the twentieth century. I shall, leave it to sociologists and military historians, however, to supply the how to an essay school Glenalmond College correct factual premises. I shall, then, mainly be concerned to seek answers to the above three questions. However, before launching into features article Stonar School, my discussion, I want to make one thing clear. A Good Compare And Contrast Stevenson! Just because I am focusing upon the killing of innocents, it should not be thought that I am confident that it is right to kill the guilty and thus that it is only the killing of the innocent that stands in need of analysis and justification. Features Of An Article Stonar! I have no such confidence. How To An Essay For High Glenalmond College! I am starting with what any man who is not a moral imbecile must admit to be, at the very least, an obvious prima facie objection to indiscriminate war. In so doing, I do not mean to suggest that there may not be strong nonobvious objections to be made against of an discriminate war. THE CONCEPT OF INNOCENCE.
The notions of innocence and guilt seem most at home in an editorial essay City, University of London a legal context and, somewhat less comfortably, in a moral context. Legally, a man is innocent if he is not guilty, i.e. if he has not engaged in conduct explicitly prohibited by rules of the criminal law. A man may be regarded as morally innocent if his actions do not result from a mental state (e.g., malice) or a character defect (e.g., negligence) which we regard as morally blameworthy. In any civilized system of article Stonar criminal law, of course, there will be a close connection between legal guilt and innocence and moral guilt and innocence, e.g., murder in the criminal law has as one of write College its material or defining elements the blameworthy mental state ( mens rea ) of article writing School malice aforethought. But this close connection does not show that the legal and moral concepts are not different. The existence of strict liability criminal statutes is sufficient to show that they are different. Under a strict liability statute, a man can be guilty of a criminal offense without having, at the time of his action, any blameworthy mental state or character defect, not even negligence. 3 However, the write descriptive essay Ridley notion of strict moral responsibility makes little sense; for an inquiry into moral responsibility for the most part just is an inquiry into such matters as the agent's motives, intentions, beliefs, etc. 4 Also, the issue of features article legal responsibility is much more easily determinable than that of moral responsibility. For example: It is noncontroversial that negligence can make one legally responsible. Anyone who doubts this may simply be given a reading assignment in any number of penal codes.
5 But whether or not negligence is a mental state or a character defect for which one is morally responsible is University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass, a matter about which reasonable men can disagree. No reading assignment or simple inquiry into the facts will lay this worry to rest. Features Stonar School! 6. Now our reasonably comfortable ability to operate with these concepts of writing articles of the Pacific guilt and innocence leaves us when we attempt to apply them to the context of war. Writing! Of course, the legal notions will have application in a limited number of cases, i.e., with respect to how to write an editorial University those who are legally war criminals under international law. But this will by features of an no means illuminate the write descriptive essay majority of cases. For example: Those who have written on the topic of protecting innocents in war would not want to regard the killing of an enemy soldier engaged in an attack against a fortified position as a case of killing the innocent. He is surely, in the right sense (whatever that is), among the guilty (or, at least, among the noninnocent) and is thus a fitting object for features of an School, violent death.
But he is in no sense legally guilty. There are no rules of international law prohibiting what he is doing; and, even if such rules were created, they would surely not involve the setting up of a random collection of soldiers from the other side to act as judges and how to an editorial essay City, executioners of this law. Thus the legal notions of guilt and innocence do not serve us well here. What, then, about moral guilt or innocence? Even to make this suggestion slausible in the context of war, we surely have to attempt to of an article narrow it down to moral innocence or guilt of the war or of something within the war -- not just moral innocence of write an essay College guilt simpliciter . That is, we surely do not want to say that if a bomb falls (say) on a man with a self-deceiving morally impure leart who is a civilian behind the lines that this is features article writing, not, in the relevant sense, a case of killing an innocent. Article Writing! Similarly, I think it would be odd for us to want to say that if a soldier with a morally admirable character is killed in action that this is a case of killing an innocent and is to be condemned on of an article Stonar, those grounds.
If we take this line, it would seem that national leaders should attempt to make some investigation of the motives and characters of both soldiers and civilians and kill the unjust among both classes and spare the. just. (Only babes in arms would be clearly protected.) Now this sort of judgment, typically thought to be reserved for God if for anyone, is surely a very disquieting thing if advocated for write an essay school Glenalmond College, generals and other war leaders. Thus the notions of moral innocence and guilt simpliciter must be dropped in this context. Suppose, then, we try to of an writing Stonar School make use of the how to an essay notions of moral innocence of the features of an School war or moral guilt of the writing articles Pacific war (or of something within the war). Even I here we find serious problems. Consider the features article Stonar School octogenarian civilian in Dresden who is an avid supporter of how to Hitler's war effort (pays taxes gladly, supports warmongering political rallies, etc.) and features writing contrast his case with that of the poor, frightened, pacifist frontline soldier who is only where he is because of duress and who intends always to an editorial essay of London fire over the heads of the enemy.
It seems reasonable to say that the former is much more morally guilty of the war than the latter; and yet most writers on the topic would regard killing the former, but not the latter, as a case of killing an innocent. What all this suggests is that the School classical worry about protecting the innocent is really a worry about how to essay City, University of London protecting noncombatants . And thus the distinction between combatants and noncombatants is what needs to be illucidated. Frontline soldiers are clearly combatants; babes in features of an article Stonar School arms clearly are not. And we know this without judging their respective moral and legal guilt or innocence. Write A Good And Contrast Academy! And thus the worry, then, is the of an article Stonar School following: Under what circumstances is an individual truly a combatant? Wars may be viewed as games (terrible ones of course) between enemies or opponents. Who, then, is an travel articles of the Pacific enemy or opponent? One suggestion for defining a combatant might be the features of an article Stonar School following: Only soldiers engaged in travel articles University of the Pacific fighting are combatants. But this does not seem adequate. For if killing an enemy soldier is right, then it would also seem to be right to features of an Stonar School kill the man who orders him to the frontline.
If anything, the write essay City, University of London case for killing (say) a general seems better, since the soldier is presumably simply acting in some sense as his agent, i.e., the general kills through him. Perhaps the features of an writing Stonar way to put the point, then, is as follows: The enemy is articles University, represented by those who are engaged in an attempt to destroy you. 7 And thus all frontline combat soldiers (though not prisoners, or soldiers on leave, or wounded soldiers, or chaplains, or medics) are enemies and all who issue orders for destruction are enemies. Thus we might try the following: Combatants are those anywhere within the chain of article writing Stonar School command or responsibility -- from bottom to top. If this is correct, then a carefully planned attack on the seat of government, intended to destroy those civilians (and only those) directing the war effort, would not be a case of killing noncombatants or, in the relevant sense, innocents. But what is a chain of command or responsibility?
It would be wrong to regard it solely as a causal chain, though it is at least that. That is, the notion of responsibility has to be stronger than that expressed in the sentence The slippery pavement was responsible for the accident. For to regard the chain here as solely causal in character would lead to writing travel University Pacific the following consequence: If a.combatant is understood solely as one who performs an action which is a causally necessary condition for the waging of war, then the following are going to be combatants: farmers, employees at a city water works, and of an article writing Stonar School anyone who pays taxes. Obviously a country cannot wage war if there is no food, no management of the basic affairs of its cities, and no money to pay for it. And of course the write descriptive Ridley list of persons responsible for of an Stonar School, the war in this sense could be greatly extended. But if all these persons are in Ridley College the class of combatants, then the rule protect noncombatants is going to writing amount to little more than protect babies and the senile. But one would, I think, have more ambition for it than that, e.g., one would hope that such a rule would protect housewives even if it is true that they help the war effort by writing consoling letters to their soldier husbands and by feeding them and providing them with emotional and sexual relief when they are home on leave. Thus I think that it is wrong to regard the notion of chain here as merely causal in character. What kind of chain, then, is it?
Let us call it a chain of agency . What I mean by this is that the how to write and contrast Stevenson links of the chain (like the features Stonar School links between motives and actions) are held together logically and not merely causally, i.e., all held together, in this case, under the writing articles University notion of writing Stonar School who it is that is engaged in a feature article of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell an attempt to destroy you. The farmer qua farmer is, like the general, performing actions which are causally necessary conditions for features article writing, your destruction; but, unlike the general, he is a feature article University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, not necessarily engaged in an attempt to destroy you. Perhaps the point can better be put in this way: The farmer's role bears a contingent connection to the war effort whereas the general's role bears a necessary connection to the war effort, i.e., his function, unlike the farmer's, is not logically separable from the of an article writing School waging of article writing war. Or, following Thomas Nagel, 8 the point can perhaps be put in yet another way: The farmer is aiding the soldier qua human being whereas the general is aiding the soldier qua soldier or fighting man. Features Article Writing! And since your enemy is the soldier qua soldier, and not qua human being, we have grounds for letting the articles of the farmer off. If we think of a justified war as one of self-defense, 9 then we must ask the question Who can be said to be attacking us such that we need to defend ourselves against him? Viewed in this way, the farmer seems an features of an article School unlikely candidate for combat status. This analysis does, of course, leave us with borderline cases. But, since there are borderline cases, this is a virtue of the analysis so long as it captures just the write school College right ones.
Consider workers in a munitions factory. Are they or are they not combatants? At least with certain munitions factories (making only bombs, say) it is features Stonar School, certainly going to be odd to University Pacific claim that their activities bear only a contingent connection to the war effort. What they make, unlike food, certainly supports the fighting man qua fighting man and not qua human being. Thus I should be inclined to say that they are properly to be regarded as combatants and thus properly subject to attack. But what about workers in munitions factories that only in part supply the war effort, e.g., they make rifles both for soldiers and for hunters? Or workers in nonmunitions factories that do make some war products, e.g., workers in companies, like Dow. Chemical, which make both Saran Wrap and Napalm?
Or workers in ball bearing factories or oil refineries, some of their product going to war machines and features some not? Here, I submit, we do have genuine borderline cases. How To Write! And with respect to these, what should we do? I should hope that reasonable men would accept that the burden of proof lies on those claiming that a particular group of persons are combatants and properly vulnerable. I should hope that men would accept, along with the of an School famous principle in article writing on global warming the criminal law, the principle noncombatant until proven otherwise and would attempt to look at the particular facts of each case as carefully and features of an Stonar disinterestedly as possible. Article On Global Windermere School! I say that I hope this, not that I expect it. Who, then, is a combatant?
I shall answer this question from the point of features of an School view of one who believes that the only legitimate defense for war is write an essay for high College, self-defense. 10 It is, in this context, important to remember that one may legitimately plead self-defense even if one's belief that one's life is being threatened is false. The only features writing School, requirement is that the belief be reasonable given the descriptive Ridley College evidence that is available. If a man comes to features of an writing my door with a toy pistol and says, pointing the pistol at me, Prepare to write school Glenalmond meet your Maker for your time has come, I act in my self-defense if I kill him even if he was joking so long as my belief was reasonable, i.e., I had no way of knowing that the gun was a toy or that he was joking. Thus: combatants may be viewed as all those in the territory or allied territory of the enemy of whom it is writing, reasonable to believe that they are engaged in an attempt to destroy you. What about our Dresden octogenarian? Is he a combatant on write essay Ridley, this analysis? Since he does not act on authority, it is at least prima facie odd to features of an writing Stonar School regard him as part of a chain of write essay Ridley command literally construed -- the concept of article writing command being most at home in a context of authority. He does not, of course, have much to write an editorial essay University do with the war effort; and so we might find his claim that he is writing Stonar School, helping to defeat the Americans quaint on purely factual grounds.
And yet none of this prevents its being true that he can properly be said to how to compare and contrast essay be engaged in an attempt to features writing School destroy the enemy. For people can attempt even the how to an essay school impossible so long as they do not know it is of an article School, impossible. Thus I am prepared to say of him that he is, in fact, engaged in an attempt to destroy the enemy. But I would still say that killing him would count as a case of killing a noncombatant for the following reason: that the concept of attempt here is to be applied, not from the agent's point of view, but from the point of view of the write Ridley College spectator who proposes to plead self-defense in defense of his acts of killing. Combatants are all those who may reasonably be regarded as engaged in an attempt to destroy you. This belief is reasonable (though false) in the case of the frontline soldier who plans always to shoot over the heads of the enemy and of an article School unreasonable (even if true) in the case of writing Pacific our octogenarian. It would be quite unreasonable to plan a bombing raid on a nonmilitary and nonindustrial city like Dresden and say, in defense of the raid, that you are just protecting yourself or your country from all those warmongering civilians who are attempting to features of an article writing Stonar School destroy you. For making such a judgment imposes upon write school Glenalmond College, you a burden of proof which, given the circumstances of article writing Stonar war, you could not satisfy. You probably could not get any evidence for your claim.
You certainly could not get what the how to compare and contrast essay Academy law calls a preponderance of the evidence -- much less proof beyond a reasonable doubt. Combatants, then, are all those of of an article writing School whom it is reasonable to believe that they are engaged in an attempt at your destruction. Stevenson! Noncombatants are all those of whom it is not reasonable to features Stonar believe this. Having the distinction, we must now inquire into its moral importance. WHY IS IT WRONG TO KILL THE INNOCENT? From what I have said so far, it should be obvious that this question cannot adequately be answered unless one specifies the sense of writing travel Pacific innocence that one has in mind. First, with respect to moral innocence, we can take babes in arms as paradigms. Features Of An Article Writing Stonar School! Here I should argue that no reasons can be given for why it is wrong to kill babies: neither are any reasons needed.
If anything can be taken as a brute datum for moral philosophy, surely the principle Do not kill innocent babies is a very good candidate -- much more plausible for an ethical primitive than, say, promote your self-interest or maximize the general utility (other candidates that have been offered for ethical primitives). The person who cannot just see that there is something evil about an essay school killing babies could not, I suspect, be made to of an article writing Stonar see anything else about morality and thus could not understand any reasons that one might attempt to give. And any ethical theory which entailed that there is nothing wrong at an editorial essay City,, all with killing babies would surely deserve to be rejected on of an article Stonar School, the basis of this counterexample alone. Miss G. E. M. Anscombe puts the point in the following way: If someone really thinks, in how to of Massachusetts (Navitas) advance, that it is open to question whether such an action as procuring the judicial execution of the innocent should be quite excluded from consideration -- I do not want to argue with him; he shows a corrupt mind. 11.
Consider an features of an writing School example from a good and contrast Stevenson, literature: If a reader of Melville's Billy Budd cannot see why Captain Vere is deeply troubled because he has a legal obligation to execute Billy, a morally innocent (thought legally guilty) man, what would one say to him? What could one do except repeat, in a louder tone of voice perhaps, But, don't you see, Billy is morally innocent! What I am saying is that, though it is reasonable to expect ethical theories to correct some of our moral intuitions or pretheoretical convictions, we cannot reasonably expect these theories to correct all of them -- since there is a class of such intuitions or convictions which makes ethical theory itself possible and of an article Stonar testable. 12 Kant, I think, was perhaps one of the first to begin to how to a good compare essay Academy see this when he argued that utilitarianism cannot be correct because it cannot account for the obvious wrongness of making slaves of features of an Stonar people, punishing the innocent, etc. Now with respect to legal innocence (when this does not, as it often does, overlap moral innocence) a set of reasons for not killing (or punishing) the innocent can be given. Write An Essay Glenalmond! These reasons will be in terms of features of an Stonar School utility (it makes people insecure to live in a society which punishes them whether they obey the how to essay City, University rules or not), justice (it is not fair to features article Stonar punish people who conform their conduct to the rules), and general observations about the for high school purposes and techniques of the criminal law as a system of control through rules. As John Rawls has argued, 13 a system of features of an article Stonar criminal law can be viewed minimally as a price system for controlling conduct (i.e., the a good and contrast essay rules state a price that has to be paid for features of an writing School, certain bits of behavior in and contrast Stevenson Academy the hope that most people will regard the of an writing School price as too high to pay). And obviously this sort of system is going to work only if the price is generally charged when and only when the commodity (i.e., the behavior) is purchased. When we move to war, however, difficulties begin to how to write City, present themselves.
We have seen that what people have had in mind when they have argued for Stonar School, the protection of innocents in war was neither clearly moral innocence nor clearly legal innocence. Rather it was noncombatant protection. But when we put the principle as Do not kill noncombatants we lose the background of moral and legal thinking which makes the principle seem plausible when formulated in article writing on global Windermere School terms of innocence. Why, then, should we worry about killing noncombatants and think it wrong to do so -- especially when we realize that among the features School noncombatants there will be some, at any rate, who are morally and/or legally guilty of various things and that among the combatants there will be those who are morally and/or legally innocent? What I suggest is the following: If one believes (as I do) that the only even remotely plausible justification for writing of the Pacific, war is of an article writing Stonar, self-defense, then one must in waging war confine one's hostility to those against whom one is defending oneself, i.e., those in the (both causal and logical) chain of command or responsibility or agency, all those who can reasonably be regarded as engaged in write a good and contrast Stevenson Academy an attempt to destroy you. If one does not do this, then one cannot be said merely to be defending oneself.
And insofar as one is not defending oneself, then one acts immorally in killing one's fellow human beings. The enemy can plausibly be expanded to include all those who are criminal accomplices -- those who, in Judge Learned Hand's phrase, have a stake in the venture. 14 But it cannot be expanded to include all those who, like farmers, merely perform actions causally necessary for the attack -- just as in domestic law I cannot plead self-defense if I kill the one (e.g., the wife or mother) who feeds the man who is engaged in an attempt to features of an article writing kill me. 15. In passing, I should note why I described my position as weakly as I did -- namely, that self-defense is the only remotely plausible defense of war. I do this because, with respect to nations, the whole idea of self-defense is strongly in need of analysis. How To Write A Good Compare Essay Stevenson Academy! What, for School, example, is it for a state to writing on global die or to be threatened with death? Can nations, like individuals, fear death and act compulsively on the basis of that fear? And, insofar as the death of a state is not identical with the deaths of individual human beings, why is the death of a state a morally bad thing? Answering these questions (left notably unanswered in the Just War Theory) 16 would be an object for another paper.
I mention them here to point up latent problems and to further explain my unwillingness, expressed earlier, to affirm that even the killing of the guilty (combatants) is morally justified. Of An Article Writing! I am certainly inclined to suspect the how to a good and contrast essay Just War Theory's willingness to regard war as an activity giving rise to autonomous moral problems (i.e., problems solely about war and not reducible to ordinary moral problems) and thus to make moral capital out of suspect notions like national honor and national interests and national self-defense. Of An Writing Stonar School! Though I am obviously inclined to regard the concept of writing on global warming School self-defense as having an important application in the context of features of an Stonar School war, I am sceptical that the self to be legitimately defended must always be the nation or state. It is at least worth considering the possibility that the only moral problems arising in war are the oldest and most common and how to write a good compare and contrast essay Stevenson most important -- namely, are human beings being hurt and killed, who are they, and why are they? IS KILLING THE INNOCENT ABSOLUTELY IMMORAL? That is, is killing the innocent a prima facie immorality that can be overridden by other, more weighty, moral requirements or is it absolutely immoral, i.e., incapable of being overridden by any other moral requirements? Miss Anscombe 17 holds that the prohibition against killing the innocent is features article, absolute in write school College this sense. And one would suspect that she would echo Kant's sentiments that we should do no injustice though the heavens fall. Unfortunately, she tends simply to of an article Stonar School assert her position rather than argue for writing on global warming, it and so fails to come to terms with the worry that might bother anti-Kantians -- namely, does it not matter upon whom the heavens fall?
I agree with Miss Anscombe that no argument can be given to demonstrate that there is something wrong with killing babies, but it does not follow from this alone that this something is not capable of being overridden by another something -- saving the lives of even more babies, perhaps. Now in trying to come to grips with this issue, I propose to start with the features writing School case of killing babies as a clear example of killing creatures innocent in every possible sense. If a case can be made out that it is sometimes right to descriptive kill them, then I assume it will follow a fortiori that it is sometimes right to features of an article Stonar School kill those who may be innocent in a less rich sense, e.g., merely noncombatant. Of course if it is not ever right to kill babies, this will not in itself show that it is not ever right to kill noncombatants; for it may be the special kind of innocence found in babies (but not necessarily in noncombatants) which protects them. First of all, we need to ask ourselves the question What is it deliberately to kill a baby? I am certain that Miss Anscombe does not mean the an essay College following: that one deliberately kills a baby whenever one pursues a policy that one knows will result in the deaths of some babies. If anyone meant this, then that person would have to regard the features article Stonar construction of highways as absolutely immoral. For it is a statistical fact that on write, every completed highway a certain number of features Stonar babies meet their deaths in accidents. Yet normally we do not regard this as a moral case against highways or as a moral proof that highway engineers are murderers. What is done is to weigh the social value of a highway against the knowledge that some deaths will occur and how to write essay of London judge that the former outweighs the latter. (If we did not make this judgment, and if this judgment was not reasonable, then we would be acting immorally. Features School! For example: Suppose we let people blast with dynamite whenever and wherever they felt like it -- conduct with little or no social value -- in how to write an editorial City, of London spite of our knowledge that this would result in many children dying.) Of course, situations comparable to features of an article the highway example arise in war.
For example, consider the pinpoint bombing of a military installation in a war reasonably believed to be necessary and just coupled with the knowledge that bombs will occasionally go off target and that occasionally a wife, with baby in write University Lowell Lowell (Navitas) arms, may be visiting her husband on the base. The natural way to features of an writing interpret Miss Anscombe's view is an essay Glenalmond College, as follows: One kills a baby deliberately either when one (a) brings about the death of a baby as one's final purpose or (b) brings about the death of of an Stonar School a baby as a means to a feature article of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell one's final purpose. Of An Article Stonar! 18 Since war is hardly to be regarded as motivated by fetishistic infanticide, it is (b) which is crucial. How To A Feature Article Of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell (Navitas)! And (b) lets off the highway engineer. For the highway engineer, whom we do not want to regard as a murderer, will not be a murderer on (b). Features School! The deaths of babies in highway accidents are in no sense means to the socially useful goal of good transportation but are rather accidental byproducts. That is, highway transportation is how to, not furthered by these deaths but is, if anything, hindered by them. And so it is unreasonable to suppose that highway engineers desire the deaths of babies because they want to use their deaths as a means to their goal of features article writing School transportation. Similarly with the accidental deaths of babies resulting from article Windermere School, a pinpoint bombing raid on a military installation. But consider the following kind of case: One knows that one is fighting a war in defense of civilization itself. (It was not unreasonable to regard the war against features of an article writing School Hitler in such terms.) 19 Suppose also that one knows that the only way (causally) to bring a power like Hitler's to a collapse is to undercut his support among the German people by achieving their total demoralization.
Further suppose that one knows that the only way to do this is by the obliteration terror bombing of civilian centers (e.g., Dresden) so that, by descriptive Ridley killing many German babies among others, one can create a desire on the part of the German people to abandon the venture. I am not suggesting that we could ever in fact know these things (they might be false) or that we should ever even let ourselves believe such things. 20 But my worry here is of an article writing Stonar School, one of write essay College principle -- namely, assuming the factual situation is as described, would it be wrong on principle to initiate a campaign of antimorale obliteration bombing? Here I take it that Miss Anscombe will say that, even in such circumstances, those making a decision to initiate such a campaign are murderers. Features Of An Writing! For they will be deliberately killing the innocent as a means to their goal and that (no matter how good the goal) is absolutely wrong. But why?
Miss Anscombe fails to bring fully into the open a latent issue that is absolutely crucial here -- namely, are we as morally responsible for our omissions (e.g., failing to save lives) as for our commissions (e.g., killing people)? Of course there are differences between the two expressions, but are they morally relevant differences? If our basic value here is the sanctity of life, or the how to sanctity of innocents, or the writing sanctity of babies, then -- as Jonathan Bennett has pointed out 21 -- it is hard to of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell (Navitas) see their moral difference. For consider the of an article writing Stonar following kind of writing School case: Suppose we know that a victory by Hitler would mean the extermination of all or a great many non-Aryan babies. Of An! And further suppose that these babies far outnumber the German babies to writing travel University Pacific be killed in an obliteration bombing campaign. 22 Now, given this knowledge, what would a man who really values the lives of babies do? Is the moral case to features rest upon the different descriptions killing babies and letting babies die? If so, why? If the City, of London argument is that by not positively killing we will at least be preserving our own moral purity, then it is features article writing Stonar School, important to note that this argument, in addition to how to a feature article University of Massachusetts (Navitas) being rather selfish, is question-begging.
For to assume that one remains morally pure if one does nothing is to beg the features of an article Stonar School question of how to for high school whether we are as responsible for omissive as for features article Stonar, commissive conduct. If moral purity means never choosing anything which one will have to regard as in some sense wrong and regret for all one's days, then moral purity may be impossible in Ridley a complex world. Albert Camus based this theory of rebellion on this kind of claim -- a theory which Howard Zinn summarizes as follows: Camus spoke in The Rebel of the of an article writing Stonar School absurdities in which we are trapped, where the very acts with which we seek to do good cannot escape the imperfections of the world we are trying to change. Writing! And so the rebel's only virtue will lie in Stonar never yielding to the impulse to travel articles University Pacific be engulfed in features article Stonar the shadows that surround him, and in obstinately dragging the chains of evil, with which he is bound, toward the good. The issue here is on global warming School, not over whether we should ever allow ourselves to be persuaded by of an article writing School any argument that killing the Ridley innocent is in fact necessary; and features article I am certainly not suggesting that I find plausible such arguments as have actually been given in the past. For a practical maxim I am much in how to an essay school favor of the of an article Stonar School slogan. Never trade a certain evil for a possible good. However, this does not solve the issue of principle. If the write descriptive essay Ridley College good (e.g., saving the lives of scores of features of an writing Stonar babies) is certain and not just possible, is write an essay for high College, it anything more than dogmatism to assert that it would never be right to bring about of an writing this good through evil means?
The maxim Never trade a certain evil for a certain good is by no means self-evidently true and, indeed, does not even seem plausible to many people. A Good And Contrast Stevenson Academy! Thus I do not think that it has yet been shown that it is always absolutely wrong, whatever the consequences, to features of an writing kill innocent babies. And thus it has not yet been shown that it is absolutely wrong to kill those innocent in a less rich sense of the term, i.e., noncombatants. University Of The Pacific! Of course we may feel differently about features article School actually killing innocents and simply letting innocents die; but I do not think that this phenomenological evidence in itself proves anything. Bomber pilots no doubt feel differently about writing travel of the Pacific dropping bombs on babies from features article writing Stonar, thirty thousand feet than they would about shooting a baby face to face, but surely this does not show that the acts differ in moral quality. Feelings do not prove anything in morality; but they sometimes point to travel articles of the Pacific something.
And it is at of an article Stonar, least possible that we have not yet captured the worry which motivates the how to write a good and contrast essay Academy responses of people like Kant, Miss Anscombe, and features article School those ho want to defend some version of the doctrine of the how to write an essay school Double Effect. If what they really value is the lives of babies and other innocents simpliciter, then -- as Bennett argues -- it does not seem that the distinction between killing babies and letting babies die will help them to save their principle, But perhaps this is to features of an article School conceive their position too teleologically. That is, we have so far (with Bennett) been assuming that the person who says never kill babies says this because he sees the how to an editorial essay City, University maxim as instrumental to something else that he values -- namely, the lives of of an writing Stonar School babies. But it is at least possible that he does not hold this principle to be instrumentally right (in which case he would be subject to Bennett's refutation) but intrinsically right, i.e. right in itself or from its very description. The problem is to explicate this notion of an essay for high school Glenalmond intrinsic rightness in such a way that it does not involve either of the two following pitfalls noted by Bennett: Authoritarianism , e.g., God commands not killing babies. Dogmatism , e.g., It is just absolutely wrong to kill babies; and, if you do not see this, you are just too corrupt to talk to. Now the reason why (a) is a bad move is obvious -- namely, it is an appeal authority rather than reason and thus has no place in a philosophical discussion of moral questions. But (b) is more problematical. Article! For I have said that I am willing to accept such a move if made in write descriptive College the name of features article writing there being something wrong with killing babies. How To Article Of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas)! Why will I not accept such a move in favor of its being absolutely wrong to kill babies?
Roughly, I should argue as follows: That there is something wrong with killing babies (i.e., that A is a case of features article writing killing a baby must count as a moral reason against A) explicates, in part, what may be called the moral point of a feature article University Lowell Lowell view. To be worried about moral issues just is, among other things, to be worried about killing innocents. Stonar! But the judgment Never kill babies under any circumstances does not explicate the moral point of view but is, rather, a controversial moral judgment -- or, if you prefer, explicates a moral point of view rather than the moral point of view. Article Writing School! And so, to features writing Stonar School build it into the moral point of view is to articles of the Pacific beg a controversial question of moral substance -- something which presumably metaethics should not do. Someone who said I see nothing at all wrong with killing babies so let's bomb Dresden would be an a moral monster -- one with whom it would be senseless to conduct a moral argument. But one who sincerely said Of course it is terrible to School kill babies but I believe, to save more lives, we must regretfully do it in and contrast essay Stevenson Academy this case is not such a monster. He is one with whom, if we think him wrong ( im moral), we should hope to be able to argue. 24 Since, among war supporters, there are (one would hope) few of the former sort but many of the latter sort, being able to argue with and persuade the latter has some practical importance. It will hardly do simply to features of an Stonar say to them But I can just see the absolute wrongness of what you contemplate and, if you do not, I refuse to discuss the matter with you. We know, alas, what will then happen. Now I am not going to pretend that I can give anything resembling a proof that it is absolutely wrong to kill the write a good compare essay innocent (though not to allow them to die), but I hope at least to be able to elaborate a way of thinking which (a) does give some sense to such a prohibition and (b) cannot be condemned as simple dogmatism or authoritarianism, i.e., is a way of thinking . 25.
The way of thinking I want to elaborate is one in which the notion of features of an people's having rights plays a predominate role. (Kant's ethical theory, in broad outline, is one such way of thinking.) And an ethical outlook in which the write descriptive essay Ridley notion of rights looms large will want to draw a distinction between the following two claims: Doing A to Jones would be to violate one of his rights. It would be bad to do A to Jones. To use Kant's own examples: 26 If I have made a promise to Jones, he has a right to expect me to keep it, can properly regard me as having wronged him if I do not keep it, and features of an article writing could properly expect that others (the state) should coerce me into keeping it. Kant's opaque way of putting this is to say that keeping a promise is a perfect duty. A quite different situation is the following: If Jones is in distress (assuming I have not put him there) and I could help him out article writing Windermere School, without extraordinary sacrifice, he would certainly want me to help him and I would be doing something bad if I did not help him. But he does not have a right to expect my help, is not wronged if I fail to help him, and it would be unreasonable to expect the state or anyone else to coerce me into helping him. Helping him is of an article writing School, beneficence and (unlike justice) is a comparatively weak moral demand. Write A Feature Of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass! Kant's opaque way of putting this is to say that the duty to help others in distress is imperfect . When'a man has a right, he has a claim against interference. Simply to refuse to be beneficent to him is not an invasion of features of an Stonar his rights because it is not to interfere with him at write Ridley College, all. When a person uses his freedom to writing invade the rights of others, he forfeits certain of his own rights and renders interference by how to University of Massachusetts — UMass others legitimate. (Kant calls this a moral title or authorization -- Befugnis -- to place obstacles to obstacles to freedom.) 27 Thus if I have an features writing Stonar School imperfect duty to help others, I may interfere with those trying to writing travel harm those others because, by such an attempt, they have forfeited their right against article writing School interference. Here I have the imperfect duty; and, since those attacking have by the attack forfeited certain of article warming their rights, I violate no perfect duty in interfering with them.
Thus there is no conflict here. However, if the article writing School only way I could save someone from write school Glenalmond, harm would be by interfering with an innocent person (i.e., one who has not forfeited his rights by initiating attack against others) then I must not save the person, for this would be to violate a perfect duty. Of An Article Writing School! And, in cases of conflict, perfect duties override imperfect duties. Suppose that Jones is being attacked by Smith. In such a case it is certainly true to say that Jones's rights to liberty, security, etc. are being threatened and that Smith, therefore, is acting wrongly and thereby forfeits his right to be left free from interference. Thus I would not be acting wrongly (i.e., against Smith's rights) if I attacked him to how to write a good and contrast prevent his attack on Jones. Similarly, Jones would not be acting wrongly if he defended himself. Article Stonar! However, it does not follow from a good essay Academy, any of this that I have a duty to help Jones or even that Jones has a duty to defend himself. Article Stonar! Defense, though permissible, is not obligatory. This being so, it does not follow that Jones has a right to be saved by me.
Thus, since it is far from how to essay Academy, obvious that Jones has a right to be saved even from an attack by the guilty, it is even more implausible to assert that he has a right to be saved if so doing would involve killing the innocent. (Consider the features article writing following: We are all, at how to a good compare essay Stevenson Academy, this very moment, sitting and talking philosophy and are thus omitting to save the lives of features writing School countless people we might save throughout the world. Are we acting wrongly in write Lowell (Navitas) so doing? If we are, is this because all these people have a right to be saved by us?) Now what sort of a moral view could one hold that would make one accept the principle that perfect duties, resting on features of an article writing Stonar, rights, override imperfect duties, not resting on rights? I think it is this: a view which makes primary the status of persons as free or choosing beings who, out of respect for that status, are to be regarded as having the right to be left alone to write an essay for high school work out their own lives -- for better or worse. This is a basic right that one has just because one is a person. Respecting it is features Stonar School, what Kant calls respecting the write an editorial essay City, University of London dignity of humanity by not treating people as means only.
Part of respecting them in this sense is not to use them as a means in one's calculations of Stonar School what would be good for others. It is fine (indeed admirable) for a person to sacrifice himself for others by his own choice; but it is presumptuous (because lacking in respect for his choices) if I choose to sacrifice him. This is a feature of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell (Navitas), his business and not mine. I may only of an article writing, interfere with the person who, by his own evil actions, has forfeited his right against interference. Innocent persons by definition have not done this. And therefore it is how to write and contrast Stevenson Academy, absolutely wrong to sacrifice the of an School innocent, though not to kill aggressors. On this view there is something terribly perverse in arguing, as many do, that a defense of freedom requires a sacrifice of those who in no way give their free consent to College the sacrifice. 28. Of course babies are not yet, in the full sense, free or choosing beings who clearly have rights. They are, perhaps, only potential or dispositionai persons and enjoyers of rights. But if one accepts the maxim Innocent until proven otherwise they may be regarded as equally protected in the above way of thinking.
For they certainly cannot be described in the only way which, on this view, makes harmful interference permissible -- namely, described as having, through their own deliberate acts of aggression, forfeited their right to be left in of an Stonar School peace. Now this view that what is article writing on global warming Windermere School, central in morality involves notions like rights, dignity, freedom, and choice (rather than notions like maximizing the general utility) cannot be proven. But it is a plausible view which may lie behind the maxim Never kill the innocent and is a view which would be sacrificed. I (at least greatly compromised) by the maxim Kill the innocent to save the innocent. I am myself deeply sympathetic to this way of thinking and would make neither the compromise nor the sacrifice. But I cannot prove that one ought not make it. Article Writing! Neither, of course, can my teleological opponent prove his case either. For we lie here at the boundaries of moral discourse where candidates for ultimate principles conflict; and it is part of the logical character of an ultimate principle that it cannot be assessed by some yet higher (more ultimate?) principle. 29 You pays your money and you takes your choice.
It is simply my hope that many people, if they could see clearly what price they have to pay (i.e. the how to write for high kind of moral outlook they have to give up and what they have to put in its place) would make the features of an choice against killing the innocent. Consider the following example: Suppose that thousands of babies could be saved from a fatal infant disease if some few babies were taken by the state and given over to a team of medical researchers for essay City, University of London, a series of features of an article School experiments which, though killing the how to a feature of Massachusetts babies, would yield a cure for the disease. In what way except degree (i.e., numbers of babies killed) does this situation differ from the rationale behind antimorale obliteration bombing raids, i.e., is there not a disturbing parallel between Allied raids on Dresden and Tokyo and. Nazi medicine? With respect to either suggestion, when we really think about it, do we not want to features article writing School say with the poet James Dickey Holding onto another man's walls.
My hat should crawl on writing travel articles, my head. In streetcars, thinking of it, The fat on my body should pale. 30 How can any such thing be in of an article writing Stonar the interest of humanity when its practice would change the article University Lowell — UMass (Navitas) very meaning of humanity and prevent us from unpacking from it, as we now do, notions like rights, dignity, and of an article writing School respect? No matter how good the consequences, is articles of the Pacific, there not some point in saying that we simply do not have the right to do it? For there is, I think, an insight of secular value in the religious observation that men are the children of God. For this means, among other things, that other people do not belong to writing School me.
They are not mine to be manipulated as resources in my projects. It is write descriptive Ridley College, hard to imagine all that we might lose if we abandoned this way of thinking about ourselves and others. My appeal here, of course, is in a sense emotive. But this in features article writing my judgment is not an objection. Emotive appeals may rightly be condemned if they are masquerading as proofs. But here I am attempting to prove nothing but only to say -- Here, look, see what you are doing and what way of how to write an essay thinking your doing it involves you in. If one sees all this and still goes forth to article writing Stonar do it anyway, we have transcended the bounds of what can be said in the matter. What about noncombatants? Though they are not necessarily innocent in all the travel articles University Pacific senses in which babies are, they clearly are innocent in the sense I have elaborated above -- namely, they have not performed actions which forfeit their right to be free from execution (or, better: it is not reasonable for the enemy to believe this of writing School them). Thus, in a very tentative conclusion, I suggest the following: I have not been able to prove that we should never kill noncombatants or innocents (I do not think this could be proven in any ordinary sense of proof): but I do think that I have elaborated a way of thinking which gives sense to the acceptance of such an absolute prohibition.
Thus, against Bennett, I have at least shown that one can accept the principle Never kill the innocent without thereby necessarily being an authoritarian or a dogmatic moral fanatic. AUTHOR'S NOTE: Many people were kind enough to comment on this manuscript in various stages of its preparation, and I should like to writing travel University Pacific take this opportunity to express my sincere appreciation for the help that they provided. In particular, I should like to thank the following: Lewis White Beck, Robert L. Holmes, Gareth Matthews, Ronald Milo, Richard Wasserstrom, Donald Wells, Peter Winch, and Anthony D. Woozley. I should also like to thank the features writing members of my graduate seminar on war at the University of how to an editorial City, University Arizona for of an article Stonar School, stimulating discussion. Since I have perversely gone my own way on several points in spite of advice to the contrary, I alone am to be held responsible for how to an essay for high school Glenalmond, any errors that remain. In setting a philosophical framework for a discussion of the problem of article Stonar School killing the articles University of the Pacific innocent in war, I have been greatly influenced by Richard Wasserstrom's On the Morality of War: A Preliminary Inquiry in his useful collection of essays War and Morality (Belmont. Calif: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1970). I am presupposing that the reader is familiar with Miss G. E. M. Anscombe's two articles Modern Moral Philosophy, Philosophy , 33, No. 124 (January 1958), and War and of an article School Murder (in the Waserstrom collection). Write Essay College! I am also presupposing a familiarity with Jonathan Bennetts' Whatever the Consequences, Analysis , 26, No. 3 (January 1966).
1 Murder, writes Miss Anscombe, is the deliberate killing of the innocent, whether for its own sake or as a means to some further end (War and Murder, p. 45). Features Article Stonar School! Deliberate killing of the write innocent (or noncombatants) is prohibited by the Just War Theory and is a crime in national law. A traditional account of the Catholic Just War Theory may be found in Chapter 35 of Austin Fagothey's Right and Reason: Ethics in Theory and features writing Practice (St. Articles University Of The! Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., 1963). A useful sourcebook for features Stonar School, inquiry into descriptive College, the nature ot war crimes is the anthology Crimes of War , ed. by Richard A. Falk, Gabriel Kilko, and Robert Jay Lifton (New York: Random House, 1971). 2 By prima facie wrong I mean can be overridden by other moral requirements— not , as a literal translation might suggest, only apparently wrong. 3 For example: In the criminal offense of statutory rape, the defendant is strictly liable with respect to his knowledge of the age of a girl with whom he has had sexual relations, i.e., no matter how carefully he inquired into her age, no matter how reasonable (i.e., nonnegligent) his belief that she was of legal age of consent, he is liable if his belief is in fact mistaken. Features Article! For a general discussion of such offenses, see Richard Wasserstrom's Strict Liability in the Criminal Law, Stanford Law Review , 12 (July 1960). 4 In discussion, Richard Wasserstrom has expressed scepticism concerning my claim that there is something unintelligible about the concept of strict moral responsibility. One could regard the Old Testament and Oedipus Rex as containing a strict liability conception of morality. Writing Of The Pacific! Now I should be inclined to argue that the primitiveness of the Old Testament and features of an of Oedipus Rex consists in these peoples not yet being able to draw a distinction between legality and morality.
However, I am prepared to admit that it might be better to how to weaken my claim by maintaining simply that no civilized or enlightened morality would involve strict liability. 5 In California criminal law, for of an article School, example, vehicular manslaughter is defined as vehicular homicide in the commission of an unlawful act, not amounting to felony, with gross negligence; or in the commission of how to compare and contrast Stevenson Academy a lawful act which might produce death, in an unlawful manner, and with gross negligence . . . ( California Penal Code , 192, 3, a). 6 For an excellent discussion of moral and legal responsibility for negligence, see H. L. A. Hart's Negligence, Mens Rea and Criminal Responsibility, in his Punishment and Responsility: Essays in the Philosophy of Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963). 7 I say engaged in an attempt rather than attempting for the following reason: A mortar attack on an encampment of combat soldiers who happen to be sleeping is article writing Stonar, surely not a case of warming School killing noncombatants even though persons who are asleep cannot be attempting anything. Sleeping persons can, however, be engaged in article Stonar an attempt -- just as sleeping persons can be accomplices in crime and how to a feature article University Lowell parties to a criminal conspiracy. Being engaged in an attempt, unlike attempting, is of an Stonar, not necessarily a full time job. I am grateful to Anthony Woozley for pointing this out to an essay for high school Glenalmond me. 8 Thomas Nagel, War and Massacre. Of An! Philosophy and Public Affairs , 2 (Winter 1972). In the same issue, Richard Brandt replies to Nagei in his Utilitarianism and the Rules of War.
I am grateful to Professors Nagel and Brandt for allowing me to read their articles prior to publication. 9 For reasons of simplicity in later drawing upon important and write instructive principles from the criminal law, I shall use the phrase self-defense. (I shall later want to draw on the notion of reasonable belief in the law of self-defense.) However, what I really want to focus on is the concept of defense and not the concept of self. For it seems to me that war can be justified, not just to defend oneself or one's nation, but also to defend others from threats that transcend nationality, e.g., genocide. If one wants to speak of of an writing School self-defense even here, then it must be regarded as self-defense for the human, not just national, community. The phrase self-defense as it occurs in article writing warming what follows should always be understood as carrying this qualification. And, of course, even clear cases of self-defense are not always necessarily justified.
Given the morally debased character of features of an writing School Nazi Germany, it is by no means obvious that it acted rightly in trying to how to article of Massachusetts Lowell defend itself near the end of features of an Stonar Worlrl War II (i.e., after it had ceased to be an aggressor). 10 Remember that this carries the a feature University (Navitas) qualification stated in of an Stonar note 9. For a survey of the law of self-defense, the reader may consult any reliable treatise on the criminal law, e.g., pp. Essay College! 883 ff. of Rollin M. Perkins's Criminal Law (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Foundation Press, 1957). The criminal law is a highly moralized institution, and it is useful (though by no means always definitive) for the moral philosopher in that it provides an accumulated and systematized body of reflection on vital moral matters of our culture. For my purposes, I shall in what follows focus upon the reasonable belief condition in the law of self-defense. Features Of An Writing! Other aspects of the writing law of self-defense (e.g., the so-called retreat requirement), have, I think, interesting implications for war that I cannot pursue here. 11 Modern Moral Philosophy, p. 17.
For reasons I shall note later, Miss Anscombe weakens her point by adding the features writing School word judicial . 12 See William H. Gass, The Case of the Obliging Stranger, Philosophical Review , 66 (April 1957). 13 John Rawls, Two Concepts of Rules, Philosophical Review , 64 (January 1955). 14 See, fo example, United States v. Falcone , United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit, 1940, 109 F:2d 579. 15 Consider the case of the homicidal diabetic: He is chasing you through the woods of an enclosed preserve, attempting to kill you for write essay, sport with a pistol. However, because of his medical condition, he must return to a cabin in the middle of the preserve every hour in order that his aged mother can give him an insulin shot. Without it, he will take ill or will die and will thus be forced to features of an article Stonar abandon his attempt to kill you. How To And Contrast Essay! Even if blocking that insulin shot seems your only hope, killing the mother in order to do it would be a very doubtful case of features of an article Stonar School selt-defence. 16 Austin Fagothey, in University Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas) his well-known statement of the Just War Theory cited previously, allows injury to national honor to count as a ground for article writing Stonar School, a war of self-defense. I cite Fagothey's book because of its influence. How To For High School! It was, for example, appealed to by Justice Douglas in the 1971 Gillette case where the defendant refused induction on the grounds of his belief that the Vietnam War is unjust ( Gillette v. United States , 401 U.S.
437. 17 Moswern Moral Philosophy. 18 Another factor, relevant both to war and to the highway example, is the following: acting with the features Stonar School knowledge that deaths could be prevented by taking reasonable precautions and yet not taking those precautions. Such grossly negligent or reckless behavior, while perhaps not deliberate in the strict sense, is surely immoral in either context. 19 See Michael Walzer, World War II: Why Was This War Different?, Philosophy and Public Affairs , 1, No. 1 (Fall 1971). 20 As the citizens of London and Hanoi have illustrated, for example, terror bombing has a tendency to backfire. Rather than demoralizing the enemy, it sometimes strengthens their courage and how to write compare and contrast Academy will to features School resist. 21 Jonathan Bennett, Whatever the Consequences, Analysis , 26, No. 3 (January 1966).
22 I take it that, from article warming, a moral point of of an article writing view, their being German babies is irrelevant. Write Descriptive! As Howard Zinn has argued, we should accept the principle that all victims are created equal ( Disobedience and Democracy: Nine Fallacies on Law and Order [New York: Random House, 1968], p. 50). 24 One important metaethical inquiry that has been conducted in recent years concerns the features of an article writing School nature of moral judgments and for high Glenalmond the moral point of view or language game. Writing School! The task here is to distinguish the moral from the non moral or a moral. Normative ethics, on the other hand, is concerned to distinguish the moral from the immoral. This is too large a dispute to enter here, but I can at least make my own commitments clear. Unlike the so-called formalists (e.g., R. M. Hare, The Language of University of the Pacific Morals [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1952]), I am inclined to believe that the moral point of features of an writing School view must be defined, in a good and contrast essay Stevenson part, in terms of the of an article writing content of the judgments it contains. Here I am siding, if I understand them correctly, with such writers as H. L. A. Hart ( The Concept of Law [Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1961]), and G. J. Warnock ( The Object of a feature article University of Massachusetts Lowell Morality [London: Methuen, 1971]).
Someone who does not see that A is a case of killing an innocent is a relevant reason against doing A, does not understand what moral discourse is all about, what it is necessarily concerned with. And this is so no matter how much he is prepared to universalize and regard as overriding his own idiosyncratic imperatives. If this is true, then the gulf between metaethics and normative ethics is not quite as wide as many have supposed, since the relevance of certain substantive judgments is now going to be regarded as part of the meaning of morality as a point of view, language game, or form of of an writing life. There still is some gulf between metaethics and normative ethics, however, since I should argue that only the relevance, and not the decisiveness, of certain substantive judgments (e.g., do not kill the a good essay Stevenson Academy innocent) can be regarded as a defining feature of the moral point of view. Normative ethics, however, is primarily interested in which of the relevant moral considerations are, in certain circumstances, decisive. (I am grateful to Ronald Milo for discussing these matters with me. He is totally responsible for whatever clarity is to be found in my views.) 25 Though I shall not explore it here, I think that the of an article School religious acceptance of the principle could be elaborated as a way of thinking and writing University of the Pacific so distinguished from the features of an writing authoritarianism and dogmatism that Bennett so rightly condemns. The view I shall develop also has implications (though I shall not draw them out here) for the abortion issue. For more on this, see Philippa Foot's Abortion and the Doctrine of the Double Effect, Oxford Review (1967). This has been reprinted in Moral Problems: A Collection of Philosophical Essays , ed. by James Rachels (New York: Harper and write an essay for high Glenalmond Row, 1971), and in my An Introduction to Moral and Social Philosophy: Basic Readings in Theory and features article writing Stonar Practice (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1973). She sees the doctrine of the Double Effect as groping in a confused way toward an insight of moral importance: There is worked into our moral system a distinction between what we owe people in the form of aid and what we owe them in how to a feature article University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass Lowell (Navitas) the way of of an Stonar non-interference.
26 These well-known examples are drawn from Kant's Foundations of the how to write an editorial University Metaphysics of Morals , trans, by Lewis White Beck (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1959), pp. 39 ff.; pp. Features Article Writing Stonar School! 421 ff. of the Academy edition of Kant's works. Kant distinguishes perfect duties (duties of respect) and imperfect duties (duties of love) in many places. See, for example, The Doctrine of Virtue , trans, by writing articles of the Mary J. Gregor (New York: Harper and Row, 1964), pp. Features Of An Article Writing Stonar! 134-35; p. 463 of the Academy edition. 27 Kant, Metaphysical Elements of Justice , trans, by John Ladd (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co., 1965), pp.
35 ff.; pp. 230 ff. of the Academy edition. See also pp. Writing On Global Warming Windermere School! 94 ff. and 107-9 of my Kant: The Philosophy of features article writing Stonar School Right (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1970). 28 Someone (e.g., Jan Narveson in his Pacifism: A Philosophical Analysis, Ethics , 75 ) might say the writing travel University following: If what you value are the features of an article writing Stonar rights of how to City, University of London people, does this not entail (as a part of what it means to features Stonar say that one values something) that you would recognize an obligation to take steps to secure those rights against an editorial essay City, interference? Perhaps. But take steps does not have to mean do whatever is causally necessary. Such an obligation will presumably be limited by (a) what I can reasonably be expected to do or sacrifice and (b) my moral judgment about the permissibility of the means employed. It does seem perverse for a person to say I value the rights of writing School people above all else but I do not propose to do anything to travel secure those rights. However, it by no means seems to me equally perverse to say the features writing School following: I deplore interferences with human rights above all else and I will do everything in my power to prevent such interferences -- everything, of course, short of being guilty of write descriptive Ridley College such interferences myself.
29 See Brian Barry, Justice and the Common Good, Analysis , 21-22 (1960-61). Though the existentialists tend to overdo this sort of features of an writing School claim, there is truth in descriptive their claim that there are certain moral problems that are in principle undecidable by any rational decision procedure. Such cases are not perhaps as numerous as the existentialists would have us believe, but they do arise, e.g. when candidates for ultimate moral principles conflict. In such cases, we find it impossible to nail down with solid arguments those principles which matter to us the most. Perhaps this even deserves to be called absurd. In his article The Absurd ( Journal of Philosophy , 68, No. 20 [October 21, 19711), Thomas Nagel suggests that absurdity in human life is found in the collision between the seriousness with which we take our lives and the perpetual possibility of features of an writing regarding everything about write Ridley College which we are serious as arbitrary, or open to features article writing Stonar doubt. It is here that talk about faith or commitment seems to article writing warming Windermere have some life. 30 James Dickey, The Firebombing, in Poems 1957-1967 (Middletown, Conn.: Wesleyan University Press, 1967), p. 185.
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essay form outline Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to features article write an how to compare and contrast essay Academy, argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at features article writing a blank page. Putting together an article writing warming, argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into of an article a ready-to-use template.
All you have to write University — UMass (Navitas) do is fill in features article, the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to create an argumentative essay outline. At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started. Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture:
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Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and skip the cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up. Article Writing Stonar? The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to use real facts.) Now it’s time to set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of College hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the features writing Stonar School best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in how to an editorial essay City,, the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to develop the infrastructure to farm crickets in features writing School, a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah! The Beef Council has been served (crickets).
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Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to features of an article Stonar be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to get started. Before you go off into the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to writing travel University Pacific your course. While this is features of an article writing, a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. If you’re interested in learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of and contrast Stevenson Academy a Strong Argumentative Essay. Want even more knowledge?
Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for of an some ideas, check out writing articles University Pacific, these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of features of an writing Stonar School our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst. Write Of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas)? 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is a former Kibin editor, the of an writing Stonar former content manager for the Kibin blog, and forever a word nerd. wow this was really help full. Super!
I’m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to do on how to write a good and contrast Stevenson Academy the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Article Writing Stonar? Don’t know where to begin. Is this the same as doing an argument. This sounds more like an expository essay.
An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the goal of informing the audience on how to write a feature University — UMass Lowell a specific topic. Usually you don’t take an argumentative stance for or against these topics. For more information on expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on an argument . The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help. Do you think the internet is features School, a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for the internet: “The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.” OR you could focus on arguing against the internet: “The internet is an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and how to City, of London, evidence 3.”
OR, and features article Stonar School, this is the best option, you could focus on arguing how to best use the internet: “The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by an essay school Glenalmond evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an annoying distraction as shown by evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is important to set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.” Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and writing School, other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked? Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this.
Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn’t worked). What about people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims. Lay out how each of the writing two authors approach the topic of the features article writing School Crusades. What do they have in article School, common? What is different?
Super happy to help! thank you so much for features of an article School this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on freedom of write a good speech rights and features of an article writing Stonar, the 1st amendment and I have two sides of the argument. I am for freedom of write University Lowell (Navitas) speech if it doesn’t harm other people and I have some cases where the of an article writing Stonar supreme court are avoiding the on global laws stated in article writing Stonar, the amendment but I’m on the court’s side of how to an editorial essay restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out my argument? I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument.
Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in features of an writing, a school environment is actually harmful to other people? That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it’s not harmful) quite nicely. Write University Lowell Lowell (Navitas)? Good luck! it has helped a lot …… great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. Article Stonar School? #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for a feature article University Lowell (Navitas) reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked.
I am not sure where to start from. Hi–some of these example essays on human trafficking may give you ideas on how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to start from features writing Stonar, there. Hi Rosie– you might find inspiration on how to article on global warming get started by reviewing some of these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to think about after reading or is features article Stonar School, it unnecessary? Great question! Asking a larger question is essay City, University of London, definitely one great conclusion technique.
Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. Features Of An Article Writing School? I recommend you check out this post on the topic of conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down. I have a question though.
Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don’t want to leave your readers hanging on to just your opponent’s argument! You can learn more about writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to write a feature article of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to hear that.
That’s a really great idea… and one that I intend to implement in features writing, upcoming blog posts. However, at this time I don’t readily have access to a knock out example. –Naomi. HELP. College? I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to receive state benefits a.e. T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I’m getting so frustrated and I dont have any idea where to of an article writing begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You’re welcome a lot!
Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on article writing warming argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG. THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; You’re welcome! Wow that’s a great idea for an essay. Very intriguing.
is this guide ok for an eight grader test. Yasss…This blog is reliable…Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. #128578; I’m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for your comment. I have to write an argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. Features Of An Writing School? I’m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it’s importance in the world? It’s just something I am interested in a good and contrast essay Stevenson Academy, so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing.
I’m not sure what type of arguments I need to make. Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it’s importance in the world? It’s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. Hi there–I’d double check your assignment for clues on how to approach this.
If there really aren’t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to of an article writing School defend your choice of careers. Why are you interested? Is the write a good compare Stevenson pay worth it? What makes you cut out for this career in particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the features Stonar rest of your essay to fill out those key points. Thanks! That’s helpful.
Here’s what the assignment says: “In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and realistic career of write a good Stevenson Academy your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and rhetoric to features article writing Stonar School create an argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for personal statements, resumes and CVs, and even interviews in which you will be asked about your chosen career path and writing articles University of the, its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.” Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? Yes–I do. You’ll also want to find some hard facts and statistics to support your claims.
For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to get your degree and weigh that against of an writing School your potential income. You’ll want to start with a clear thesis statement. I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the write College country shouldn’t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to features of an Stonar accept Syrian refugees because of write University of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Or–if you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this: Hungary should be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to help!
Thanks for your comment. Hi ! I need help in writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of of an Stonar using a cell phone. Please help. I need to how to write of London submit it on thursday. Plz Plz help. This one is pretty straightforward.
You can frame it like this: Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and features of an School, B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in A, B, and C with your actual research. Thank you so much Naomi. This is a great help. Hi ! I need to write a thesis statement on the topic, ‘Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of J Alfred and write an editorial essay University, Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on this.
I have written – Unable to take the correct decision at features of an article School the right time can lead to a tragic end. A Feature Of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell (Navitas)? To be able to make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of features Stonar J. Alfred. Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in how to write a feature of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas), writing a good thesis statement. Thank you. I think you have the features of an writing Stonar School right idea, but your version is unclear and descriptive Ridley, a bit repetitive. Features School? How about this edit? Being unable to make the write descriptive right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is exactly what happened to Stonar School the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and how to for high school Glenalmond College, The Love song of J. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great. I can go ahead now.
You’re welcome, Rachel! First you’ll need to come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research.
this really works thanks. Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for your comment. Thanks but I’m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to article writing Stonar School be argued but not boring. I want to do something that isn’t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice.
thank you so much. I have to write an argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. But I don’t know how to break down my citations. Could you help me please? I’m not sure whether you need to write APA, MLA, or some other type of write an editorial City, of London citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to write it.
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can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I’m supposed to create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Stevenson Han China. Thank you so much. Features Of An Stonar? I think this is super helpful. Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto one page. (That’s the write a feature University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass (Navitas) limit our teacher gave us. Of An? he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funny–is that a common assignment this month? You’re not the first student to ask me about this Romans v Hans.
A topic that large is going to how to an essay for high Glenalmond be very difficult to explore in a single page–but hey, it’s a good exercise in article writing School, concision. In any case–at the risk of sounding sales-y–the Kibin editing team is how to write University Lowell — UMass Lowell, really good at meticulously cutting an essay down to size if you end up going over that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don’t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent’s argument and rip it to of an article Stonar shreds. So for write descriptive example, say your opponent’s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the best candidate for U.S. Features Of An? president, you could counter that argument by pointing out writing articles University, that he has zero experience in politics. hello again. I don’t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is really helped a lot. Features Of An Article Writing Stonar School? I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. It also explained clearly what I was looking for.
Thank you! 3. You are so welcome! Glad to help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey!
Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day! I wish you the very best in your English classes. Woot! Happy to writing articles help. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. #128578;
I’m writing about features article writing Stonar, functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the an editorial essay two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Love this blog. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix? And how long do I have to wait to get it back. Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for the comment. Of An Article? To have an essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading.
Our editors can have your essay back in as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). I’m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I’m kind of pumped thanks to your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome! I love hearing this. Writing can be fun as long as you don’t actively dread it. University Pacific? #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD’VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578;
This saved my life. Article? Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for how to an editorial essay University tmm… if crickets should be added to features of an article lunch school I need a sting essay I’m in 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to write and contrast Stevenson the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. For the features of an article writing rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!).
I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. Writing Articles Of The Pacific? It has helped me write a better argumentative essay. Features Article? Thanks. You’re welcome! Thanks for descriptive Ridley reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to hear feedback like this. Thanks for reading!
Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to help. You’re super welcome! Happy to features of an writing School help. Thank You sooo much for this blog. This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better.
THANKS xx. Thanks so much for reading! Happy to help. I’m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the travel articles of the Pacific two theories contribute to the knowledge of writing health practitioners.
Please hook me up!! Your topic is how to University, a bit over my head, but you may be able to features Stonar get the Ridley College creative juices flowing by using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You’re welcome! Thanks for reading. My name is Haley and i have to do an argumentative essay for LA and features article School, my topic is……..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to Pacific an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on your stance on the topic. If your paper is features Stonar School, pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the number of writing travel articles University of the women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and of an article Stonar, places where abortion is illegal. Descriptive Essay Ridley? If your paper is of an Stonar, pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short.
This is warming, very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on features of an School writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for the breakdown. Happy you found it useful. Thanks for reading!
Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. I’m going to assume that you are taking a stance in travel of the, favor of smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the features article writing Stonar health risks of secondhand smoke to write a good and contrast Stevenson Academy non-smokers. Here is a good source to get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to reason 1, reason 2, and features of an writing School, reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder.
Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. thank you! Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is travel, really good. Of An Article Writing Stonar? I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks. I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment. This is by far the how to write an editorial City, most helpful article I have read. Well done and of an School, thanks.
Heaps. Fantastic! Happy to help. I have to how to an editorial essay University write a argumentative essay and the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren’t they people too? I’m not sure what exactly im suppose to do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful. Do you add in a rebuttal for each of features article your points?? That is certainly one way to approach an argumentative essay. Take an opponent’s view on essay Ridley each of article writing your arguments and then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments.
Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to make interesting!! This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and this will be my first one. I already have a thesis chosen and I’m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to an editorial essay collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi there–yes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to support your stance. Here is a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I’m having a difficult time trying to find and discern what will be helpful in my paper. My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful!
But, I do have a couple of questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to features of an article School state your claim in the introduction? You might need to how to write an editorial City, University of London also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info. Stonar School? I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is this? The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed.
Usually your hook sentence is separate from write and contrast essay Stevenson, your thesis statement. The hook is the features writing School first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in article, this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too. Of An Article Stonar School? So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here’s a revision of a feature article Lowell (Navitas) your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in 21st century, and many gender roles are outdated and shouldn’t affect our lives in features of an article writing Stonar School, the ways they did before. One of these outdated gender roles is the idea that only boys can ask girls out–girls should be able to ask boys out too. this is very useful… but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the racism in america and how effect to descriptive essay Ridley College people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is a huge problem and a huge topic.
I think your first step is to features of an article writing Stonar narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city? Are there studies that show the effects in write a feature University of Massachusetts Lowell Lowell, these groups and regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about features article, writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/
This blog is Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to a feature University of Massachusetts Lowell — UMass use “eating insects” example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha!
I’m so sorry to have ruined your supper. Features Article? #128578; I think I was inspired to write descriptive essay Ridley write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work… nutty and a bit bitter. Thanks for reading! This is features of an writing Stonar, absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for how to an editorial essay University of London my school district using CK-12 as the platform.
With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about possibly including some of the features of an School information on articles University the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi Alisha–Thanks for your kind comment. Features Writing School? I’m totally in favor of you using the descriptive Ridley College content from this post in your textbook with attribution. Best of luck on features of an article Stonar School this very important project, and how to an essay school, if you need to features of an article writing discuss, you can easily reach me at write compare and contrast Stevenson Academy [emailprotected]
You’re going to have to features of an School take a stance for write a feature University of Massachusetts Lowell (Navitas) or against school uniforms and offer credible evidence to support your stance. I’d suggest reading this post on features of an article Stonar School how to write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for writing all these helpful hints! I’m currently writing one for college with the how to write a good compare and contrast Academy topic of legalizing lane splitting for motorcycles. I just finished writing found your blog which is helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic! Happy to help.
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Happy to help! Thanks for the comment. This seems to be very helpful! I have an English final tmrw and I am really scared. Our teacher is College, giving us four random articles and we have to create an argumentative essay on a question he provided us. Do you know what I can do because I’m really bad at writing and reading. Like what else can I do rather than read this blog? First off, relax, deep breath, no need to of an article writing be scared! As intimidating as this final seems right now, it will be over soon and you’ll barely remember it happened. #128578; I know you said that you want advice more than just this blog, but it happens that my best advice happens to be on article writing Windermere the blog.
I have a post that I think will help you make a game plan for tackling an features of an School, in-class essay. Here it is: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ wowwwwwwww niiiiiiiiiiice. This really help a lot keeeep uuuuuup the article on global warming School good woooork. Great! Glad you thought it was helpful. #128578;
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Thanks for how to write essay the comment. Features School? #128578; Hey!! This page was rlly helpful but I still need help with making an intro for “Why Teenager Should Not Have TVs In Their Bedrooms” I would really appreciate it if u could help ASAP plz!!O That will help you write a strong intro — including a strong thesis #128578; Ths for this it helped a lot. Awesome! Thanks for the comment. Write Descriptive Essay College? #128578; I really appreciate your help. didnt help at all sorry.
Sorry that it wasn’t more helpful, Trent. Let us know if you have any questions that are still unanswered! I’m going to of an Stonar write about how to a good compare and contrast Academy, how humanity should strive for immortality. Do you think the topic is too hard and features of an article writing, broad for a 10th grader like me? May I know your thoughts and suggestions, please? Thanks! Nah, you can totally handle that topic!
I don’t think it’s too broad, either, and I really like that it take a strong stance. How To Write Compare Essay Stevenson? Just make sure that you have 2-3 solid and specific reasons to back up your claim that we should strive for immortality, as you’ll want to include those reasons in your thesis and defend them throughout your paper. So the first question to answer as you write your thesis is features School, “Why do I believe this?” Hi, there. I saw your question asking for advice on the difficulty of writing a paper on immortality. I have a few views on that myself but of the opposite point. How To An Essay? I would be very interested in reading your thoughts on writing School the matter. How To Write A Feature University Of Massachusetts (Navitas)? So perhaps you would be inclined to email me your assignment once it’s finished. thanks this blog was very helpful. Awesome!
We’re happy you think so and of an article Stonar School, thanks for the comment. #128578; Super helpful! About to write a 6-7 page paper for my college professor and I needed advice on an effective argumentative structure outline. This is exactly what I needed to look at. Well designed.
Sweet! Love to hear that it helped. Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; Is Misdiagnoses of Mental Disorders a good topic to write about? And is it too broad?
I want to include toxic thinking as a huge contribution and impact to mental illness. I need direction– Please help!! It is a bit broad, yes. I would suggest narrowing it down to just one mental disorder. How To Write Of Massachusetts — UMass Lowell? Maybe depression or ADD. You could narrow it down even further to talk about these diagnoses in young adults or children rather than everyone. Finally, make sure you have some evidence to support your argument that toxic thinking is the contributing factor here! That’s a pretty big statement and you’ll definitely need to back it up. I COULD KISS YOU RIGHT NOW YOU SAVED MY LIFE. 3. can u send me your project on article writing Stonar my email [emailprotected] nice .. great work you have done.. thanks for help Naomi…
Thanks for reading and for your kind comment! Thanks for your comment! Argumentative essay known as a task challenging somehow but the write an essay Glenalmond thing you break it up, that was a sick info. Thanks so so much. P.S. loved your sense of humour. Aww, shucks.
Thanks for your sweet comment! #128578; bless you!! i have a paper due and this helps so much ^^ Woot! So glad to hear it. Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for the helpful outline.
This is by far one of the features article School most detailed and useful outline I have used. Keep up the good work. Thanks for your kind comment! Happy the outline helped you. Hehe love this comment. Thanks for school Glenalmond your kind words and happy to help. #128578; You’re super welcome! Thanks for the kind comment! A history paper isn’t necessarily the same as an argumentative essay, though it *can* be. It really depends on how you approach your topic. Features Of An? Read that suggested post though, it should help you get started!
man, i think you dont no what you did to me. thank U a lot. Hehe hopefully it was a good thing. Thanks for write a good and contrast Academy the thank you. #128578; this helped me so much. Thank you . Sweet! Happy to hear it. Thanks, very helpful. Yay! Happy you think so. #128578; i love this blog … you are an awesome teacher … Aww, shucks. Features? Thanks so much for reading. #128578;
Hehe I’m 100% positive you could be as smart as me. Happy this helped and thanks for the kind comment! #128578; I’m not the best at writing essays, especially argumentative ones… This is a huge help! Thank you so very much!! #128578; Sweet! Happy to help out. #128578;
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