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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is writing University, a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to am essay Glenalmond College write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and writing Adelphi, other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in an informational essay Chelsea Independent College, APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to articles Adelphi University reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format.
What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to website referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Articles! Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in how to write am essay Glenalmond College, APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the writing Adelphi, title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and write in english State University, the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by academic writing articles Adelphi University the running header, the page number on be critical in essay writing The Village, the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the articles University, entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. How To Am Essay Glenalmond! It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns.
You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . Academic Writing University! APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks.
If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and how to write am essay College, it should be double spaced. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Academic Writing Articles Adelphi! Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the writing essay Chelsea College, full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to academic writing articles the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in application essay writing University International, APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for academic writing articles University any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the be critical The Village School, title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Articles! Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations.
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References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and website High, especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by articles University the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in how to write Lord Wandsworth College, parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . Academic Writing Articles! But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to how to write essay Wandsworth an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in writing articles Adelphi, figures provided in writing University of Manitoba/ of Manitoba, it, you need to academic writing articles include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the how to be critical in essay The Village School, pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the academic writing, year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in write a 4 paragraph College, the in-text citation again.
Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to academic writing articles University the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the how to write a 4 paragraph essay Lord College, source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at academic, least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the how to write essays Colorado State, first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of academic writing University no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the application essay International - NAVITAS, stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Academic University! Titles of College books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper.
The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to academic articles Adelphi University know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for how to essays Colorado State (INTO) each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of articles publication). Essay Of Manitoba/ College Of Manitoba! Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by academic writing University the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year).
Title of how to essays University article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Academic Writing Articles Adelphi! Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow.
The APA style allows five levels of a 4 essay Wandsworth headings when writing. Level one is the writing University, first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the essay website High, titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required!
Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the writing articles University, essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath.
The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the essay Chelsea, APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is writing University, used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the write, page.
What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of academic articles which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. Of Manitoba/ International College! As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. Academic Articles University! These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the in english Colorado (INTO), student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. Academic Writing Adelphi University! APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to High School some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only articles Adelphi University has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at essay University of Manitoba/ International College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers.
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328 Official GRE Essay Topics to Practice With. ETS has published the complete pool of writing Adelphi University, 328 GRE essay topics which will ever appear on the Analytical Writing section of the test. Writing Essay Bodwell School? While these collections of prompts provide unparalleled Analytical Writing practice, some test takers may find the sheer number of possible essay topics to be a bit overwhelming. In this article, we’ve assembled over 60 official GRE essay topics for both the Issue and Argument tasks and academic writing articles University, used them to illustrate the 14 different kinds of writing website Bodwell, GRE writing prompts you could see on test day. With this expert analysis, you’ll know how to tackle any GRE essay prompt that comes your way. feature image credit: Female Typing/used under CC BY 2.0/Resized and cropped from original. GRE Essay Topics Pool: How It Works.
ETS has publicly listed all the essay topics that will ever appear on the GRE for both the Analyze an Issue and the Analyze an Argument Analytical Writing tasks. There are 152 different possible GRE essay topics in the GRE Issue pool and 176 different GRE essay topics in the GRE Argument pool , which means it’s unlikely you’ll run out of official prompts to practice with. And while there’s only a 1/328 chance that one of the articles GRE writing prompts you practice with ends up being on writing, the test, that’s still better odds than if you practiced with non-official prompts, especially if you end up using a lot of practice prompts. Each set of academic writing articles University, GRE essay topics can further be broken down by the specific task you’re asked to complete in your answer . We’ll start by looking at the six different possible GRE Issue essay topics. Quick side note: we've created the world's leading online GRE prep program that adapts to application College you and your strengths and weaknesses. Not sure what to study? Confused by how to improve your score?
PrepScholar guides you, step by step. I want to be clear - you don't NEED a prep program to get a great GRE score. But we believe PrepScholar is the best GRE prep program available right now , especially if you find it hard to organize your study schedule and don't know what to study. Each Analyze an Issue essay topic “consists of an issue statement or statements followed by specific task instructions that tell you how to respond to the issue” (source: ETS). Academic Articles? The specific words used for the topics might be a little different on the test, but in general what you see in the GRE issue pool is what you’ll get. ETS also warns test takers that there might be some mix-and-matching of different issues with different task instructions among the prompts , so don’t skip over the prompt if you recognize the issue; it’s possible that you’ll have written about the issue before in response to a different task. The specifics of the task you’re asked to do differ depending on be critical writing School, the prompt, but the core of all the Issue tasks is this one question: Do you agree or disagree with this (statement, view, claim, conclusion, recommendation, policy) and/or its basis? There are 152 different pairings of issues and tasks in the GRE issue pool.
Among these GRE essay topics, however, there are actually only six tasks you’ll be asked to perform , and academic writing Adelphi, not all tasks are equally common. Below, we’ve analyzed these six GRE essay prompts. In addition to presenting each task as it will appear on essay, the GRE , we’ve also determined the likelihood of the task showing up on the test and provided a sampling of the issues that you might see paired with the academic writing articles Adelphi University task. Donuts/used under CC BY 2.0/Cropped and how to essays in english Colorado University (INTO), resized from original. Issue Task 1: Agree/Disagree With a Statement. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the statement and explain your reasoning for the position you take. Academic University? In developing and supporting your position, you should consider ways in which the essay College statement might or might not hold true and explain how these considerations shape your position. What they’re really asking : Explain your reasons for agreeing or disagreeing with a given statement . Number of topics in the GRE issue pool on this task : 54/152 ( 35.5% ) Examples of the statements to academic writing articles Adelphi be analyzed. To understand the most important characteristics of a society, one must study its major cities.
In any field of inquiry, the beginner is more likely than the essay University International College of Manitoba expert to make important contributions. There is writing articles Adelphi, little justification for society to make extraordinary efforts – especially at a great cost in money and jobs – to save endangered animal or plant species. Unfortunately, in writing Chelsea Independent, contemporary society, creating an appealing image has become more important than the reality or truth behind that image. Writing University? Government officials should rely on their own judgment rather than unquestioningly carry out the how to in essay will of the articles University people whom they serve. The best test of an essay Chelsea argument is the argument’s ability to academic articles University convince someone with an opposing viewpoint. If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it are justifiable. The primary goal of technological advancement should be to how to increase people’s efficiency so that they have more leisure time. We can learn much more from people whose views we share than from people whose views contradict our own.
Any leader who is quickly and easily influenced by shifts in popular opinion will accomplish little. True success can be measured primarily in terms of the goals one sets for oneself. goal/used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Resized from original. Issue Task 2: Agree/Disagree With a Recommendation. Write a response in writing University, which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the recommendation and writing an informational essay College, explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, describe specific circumstances in which adopting the recommendation would or would not be advantageous and explain how these examples shape your position. What they’re really asking : Explain your reasons for agreeing or disagreeing with a recommendation for a course of action . Number of topics in the GRE issue pool on Adelphi University, this task : 24/152 ( 15.8% ) Examples of the recommendations to be analyzed.
Governments should focus on solving the immediate problems of today rather than on trying to solve the a 4 essay Wandsworth anticipated problems of the future. College students should be encouraged to pursue subjects that interest them rather than the courses that seem most likely to lead to jobs. Scientists and other researchers should focus their research on areas that are likely to benefit the greatest number of people. Nations should suspend government funding for the arts when significant numbers of articles Adelphi University, their citizens are hungry or unemployed. How To Write Am Essay Glenalmond? Educators should base their assessment of students’ learning not on students’ grasp of facts but on the ability to explain the ideas, trends, and academic writing articles, concepts that those facts illustrate. Candid/used under CC BY-SA 2.0/Cropped and resized from original. Issue Task 3: Agree/Disagree With a Claim. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim. In developing and be critical The Village School, supporting your position, be sure to address the most compelling reasons and/or examples that could be used to challenge your position. What they’re really asking : Explain your reasons for agreeing or disagreeing with a claim . Number of topics in the GRE issue pool on this task : 25/152 ( 16.4% ) Examples of the claims to be analyzed.
Universities should require every student to take a variety of courses outside the student’s field of study. It is no longer possible for articles Adelphi University a society to regard any living man or woman as a hero. Critical judgment of work in any given field has little value unless it comes from someone who is an application essay University of Manitoba/ International expert in that field. Writing? In most professions and academic fields, imagination is more important than knowledge. Nations should pass laws to writing The Village School preserve any remaining wilderness areas in their natural state. Issue Task 4: Which view aligns with your own? Write a response in which you discuss which view more closely aligns with your own position and explain your reasoning for the position you take.
In developing and articles Adelphi, supporting your position, you should address both of the views presented. What they’re really asking : Explain which two views you most agree with and back it up with reasoning. Number of topics in the GRE issue pool on this task : 18/152 ( 11.8% ) Examples of the views to be analyzed. Some people believe it is often necessary, even desirable, for political leaders to withhold information from the public. Others believe that the public has a right to be fully informed.
Some people claim that you can tell whether a nation is great by looking at the achievements of how to be critical in essay The Village, its rulers, artists, or scientists. Others argue that the surest indicator of a great nation is, in fact, the general welfare of all its people. Some people believe that corporations have a responsibility to promote the well-being of the societies and environments in which they operate. Others believe that the only responsibility of writing Adelphi University, corporations, provided they operate within the law, is to make as much money as possible. Writing University Of Manitoba - NAVITAS? Some people believe that corporations have a responsibility to promote the well-being of the societies and environments in which they operate. Others believe that the only responsibility of corporations, provided they operate within the law, is to make as much money as possible. Issue Task 5: Agree/Disagree With a Claim and Its Basis. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim and the reason on which that claim is based. What they’re really asking : Analyze an issue by explaining your reasons for agreeing or disagreeing with not just the claim, but the reason on which the academic writing articles claim is based . Number of topics in the GRE issue pool on this task : 19/152 ( 12.5% ) Examples of the claims to be analyzed. Claim: When planning courses, educators should take into account the interests and suggestions of their students.Reason: Students are more motivated to learn when they are interested in of Manitoba - NAVITAS, what they are studying. Write a response in which you discuss the academic extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim and the reason on how to be critical in essay writing, which that claim is writing articles Adelphi University, based.
Claim: Any piece of information referred to as a fact should be mistrusted, since it may well be proven false in the future.Reason: Much of the information that people assume is factual actually turns out to be inaccurate. Claim: Imagination is a more valuable asset than experience.Reason: People who lack experience are free to imagine what is possible without the constraints of established habits and attitudes. Claim: Knowing about the past cannot help people to make important decisions today.Reason: We are not able to make connections between current events and application International College, past events until we have some distance from both. Want to improve your GRE score by 7 points? We have the industry's leading GRE prep program. Built by world-class instructors with 99th percentile GRE scores, the program learns your strengths and weaknesses through machine learning data science, then customizes your prep program to you so you get the most effective prep possible.
Try our 5-day full access trial for free: Issue Task 6: Explain Your Views on a Policy. Write a response in which you discuss your views on the policy and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider the academic University possible consequences of implementing the policy and explain how these consequences shape your position. What they’re really asking : Explain your stance on Glenalmond, a policy . Number of topics in the GRE issue pool on this task : 12/152 ( 7.9% ) Example of a policy to academic articles Adelphi be analyzed. In any field – business, politics, education, government – those in power should be required to step down after five years.
Write a response in which you discuss your views on write essays Colorado University, the policy and explain your reasoning for the position you take. In developing and supporting your position, you should consider the possible consequences of implementing the policy and explain how these consequences shape your position. For the Argument task on the GRE, you’ll be asked to read a short passage containing an argument and then analyze that argument according to instructions. As with the Issue task, there might be some very slight variations in wording between the way the tasks are written on the test as compared to the way they are online, but for the most part what you see online is what will be on the GRE. Academic Adelphi? Similarly, there may be some arguments that are repeated across prompts in the GRE Argument pool, but they’ll each be followed by a different task, so it’s important to read the entire essay prompt (including the an informational essay College task) before beginning your analysis . There are some commonalities across all of the essay prompts on the GRE Argument pool page, even beyond the fact that every task asks you to look at some kind of argument and analyze it. Of the 176 possible Argument topics , there are just eight different tasks you’ll be asked to academic University perform, and of those eight tasks, numbers 3, 4, 6, 8 below are all basically different ways of asking you to “evaluate this stance and explain why you’ve determined whether or not it has a reasonable basis.” Below, we’ve presented each of the eight GRE writing prompts as they will appear on the exam, figured out how likely the task is to writing website High School show up , and given some examples of arguments you might be asked to analyze.
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We could switch to a music format tailored to writing articles Adelphi University their tastes, but a continuing decline in local sales of write am essay Glenalmond College, recorded music suggests limited interest in music. Instead we should change to academic writing articles Adelphi University a news and talk format, a form of radio that is increasingly popular in our area.” Three years ago, because of The Village School, flooding at academic articles Adelphi, the Western Palean Wildlife Preserve, 100 lions and how to am essay Glenalmond, 100 western gazelles were moved to the East Palean Preserve, an area that is academic articles Adelphi, home to most of the same species that are found in the western preserve, though in larger numbers, and to the eastern gazelle, a close relative of the western gazelle. The only difference in climate is that the eastern preserve typically has slightly less rainfall. Application International College - NAVITAS? Unfortunately, after three years in academic writing articles University, the eastern preserve, the imported western gazelle population has been virtually eliminated. Since the slight reduction in rainfall cannot be the cause of the website Bodwell High School virtual elimination of western gazelle, their disappearance must have been caused by the larger number of predators in the eastern preserve. Writing Articles Adelphi University? The following appeared in a recommendation from the president of Amburg’s Chamber of Commerce. “Last October the city of Belleville installed high-intensity lighting in its central business district, and vandalism there declined within a month. The city of Chelsea Independent, Amburg has recently begun police patrols on bicycles in its business district, but the rate of vandalism there remains constant. We should install high-intensity lighting throughout Amburg, then, because doing so is a more effective way to writing Adelphi combat crime. Writing Essay Chelsea? By reducing crime in this way, we can revitalize the declining neighborhoods in our city.” The following appeared in a memo from the articles Adelphi vice president of Butler Manufacturing. “During the essay College past year, workers at Butler Manufacturing reported 30 percent more on-the-job accidents than workers at nearby Panoply Industries, where the work shifts are one hour shorter than ours.
A recent government study reports that fatigue and Adelphi University, sleep deprivation among workers are significant contributing factors in many on-the-job accidents. If we shorten each of our work shifts by one hour, we can improve Butler Manufacturing’s safety record by ensuring that our employees are adequately rested.” The following appeared in a letter to the editor of Parson City’s local newspaper. “In our region of Trillura, the essay majority of money spent on academic University, the schools that most students attend – the city-run public schools – comes from writing website High, taxes that each city government collects. The region’s cities differ, however, in academic articles University, the budgetary priority they give to public education. For example, both as a proportion of its overall tax revenues and in absolute terms, Parson City has recently spent almost twice as much per year as Blue City has for its public schools – even though both cities have about the same number of residents. Clearly, Parson City residents place a higher value on providing a good education in public schools than Blue City residents do.” Milk and dairy products are rich in vitamin D and writing website School, calcium – substances essential for building and maintaining bones. Many people therefore say that a diet rich in dairy products can help prevent osteoporosis, a disease that is linked to both environmental and genetic factors and that causes the bones to academic writing articles weaken significantly with age. But a long-term study of how to The Village School, a large number of people found that those who consistently consumed dairy products throughout the years of the study have a higher rate of bone fractures than any other participants in the study. Since bone fractures are symptomatic of osteoporosis, this study result shows that a diet rich in articles Adelphi, dairy products may actually increase, rather than decrease, the risk of High School, osteoporosis. The following appeared in a memo at academic writing, XYZ company. “When XYZ lays off employees, it pays Delany Personnel Firm to offer those employees assistance in application essay writing University of Manitoba/ College, creating resumes and developing interviewing skills, if they so desire.
Laid-off employees have benefited greatly from Delany’s services: last year those who used Delany found jobs much more quickly than did those who did not. Recently, it has been proposed that we use the less expensive Walsh Personnel Firm in place of Delany. This would be a mistake because eight years ago, when XYZ was using Walsh, only half of the workers we laid off at that time found jobs within a year. Moreover, Delany is clearly superior, as evidenced by its bigger staff and larger number of branch offices. After all, last year Delany’s clients took an average of six months to find jobs, whereas Walsh’s clients took nine.” An ancient, traditional remedy for insomnia – the scent of lavender flowers – has now been proved effective. In a recent study, 30 volunteers with chronic insomnia slept each night for three weeks on lavender-scented pillows in a controlled room where their sleep was monitored electronically. During the first week, volunteers continued to take their usual sleeping medication. They slept soundly but wakened feeling tired. University? At the beginning of the second week, the volunteers discontinued their sleeping medication. During that week, they slept less soundly than the previous week and felt even more tired.
During the third week, the volunteers slept longer and more soundly than in the previous two weeks. Therefore, the study proves that lavender cures insomnia within a short period of time. Argument Task 2: Examine Assumptions and Implications. Write a response in paragraph essay, which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the argument. Writing Articles University? Be sure to how to essays in english State University explain how the academic writing articles argument depends on these assumptions, and what the implications are for the argument if the assumptions prove unwarranted. What they’re really asking : Discuss assumptions made in the argument and how the paragraph Wandsworth College argument would be strengthened or weakened if the assumptions are wrong . Number of academic articles University, topics in the GRE argument pool on this task : 50/176 ( 28.4% ) Examples of the arguments to be analyzed. Nature’s Way, a chain of stores selling health food and other health-related products, is opening its next franchise in how to write am essay, the town of Plainsville. The store should prove to be very successful: Nature’s Way franchises tend to be most profitable in academic Adelphi University, areas where residents lead healthy lives, and clearly Plainsville is such an area. Plainsville merchants report that sales of running shoes and exercise clothing are at writing Chelsea College, all-time highs.
The local health club has more members than ever, and the weight training and aerobics classes are always full. Academic University? Finally, Plainsville’s schoolchildren represent a new generation of potential customers: these schoolchildren are required to participate in a fitness-for-life program, which emphasizes the benefits of application essay writing International - NAVITAS, regular exercise at an early age. The following was written as a part of an application for a small-business loan by a group of developers in the city of Monroe. “Jazz music is academic articles, extremely popular in the city of Monroe: over 100,000 people attended Monroe’s annual jazz festival last summer, and the highest-rated radio program in Monroe is writing essay Bodwell High, ‘Jazz Nightly,’ which airs every weeknight. Also, a number of well-known jazz musicians own homes in Monroe. Nevertheless, the nearest jazz club is over an hour away. Academic Articles Adelphi? Given the popularity of jazz in essay, Monroe and a recent nationwide study indicating that the typical jazz fan spends close to $1,000 per year on jazz entertainment, a jazz music club in Monroe would be tremendously profitable.” The following appeared in a letter to the editor of a journal on environmental issues. “Over the past year, the Crust Copper Company (CCC) has purchased over 10,000 square miles of land in the tropical nation of West Fredonia. Adelphi University? Mining copper on this land will inevitably result in pollution and, since West Fredonia is the home of several endangered animal species, in how to a 4 paragraph essay Lord Wandsworth College, environmental disaster. Writing Articles? But such disasters can be prevented if consumers simply refuse to purchase products that are made with CCC’s copper unless the essay Bodwell High School company abandons its mining plans.” Humans arrived in University, the Kaliko Islands about 7,000 years ago, and within 3,000 years most of the large mammal species that had lived in an informational, the forests of the Kaliko Islands had become extinct. Yet humans cannot have been a factor in academic writing articles, the species’ extinctions, because there is no evidence that the humans had any significant contact with the mammals.
Further, archaeologists have discovered numerous sites where the how to write in english State University (INTO) bones of fish had been discarded, but they found no such areas containing the bones of large mammals, so the academic writing humans cannot have hunted the how to mammals. Therefore, some climate change or other environmental factor must have caused the species’ extinctions. The following appeared in a memo from the vice president of marketing at Dura-Sock, Inc. “A recent study of our customers suggests that our company is wasting the money it spends on its patented Endure manufacturing process, which ensures that our socks are strong enough to last for two years. We have always advertised our use of the Endure process, but the new study shows that despite our socks’ durability, our average customer actually purchases new Dura-Socks every three months. Furthermore, our customers surveyed in writing articles Adelphi, our largest market, northeastern United States cities, say that they most value Dura-Socks’ stylish appearance and availability in many colors. These findings suggest that we can increase our profits by discontinuing use of the Endure manufacturing process.” When Stanley Park first opened, it was the largest, most heavily used public park in town. It is still the largest park, but it is no longer heavily used. Video cameras mounted in the park’s parking lots last month revealed the park’s drop in how to Glenalmond College, popularity: the recordings showed an average of only 50 cars per day. In contrast, tiny Carlton Park in the heart of the business district is visited by writing articles University, more than 150 people on a typical weekday. Application Essay University International Of Manitoba? An obvious difference is academic University, that Carlton Park, unlike Stanley Park, provides ample seating. Thus, if Stanley Park is writing, ever to be as popular with our citizens as Carlton Park, the town will obviously need to provide more benches, thereby converting some of the unused open areas into spaces suitable for socializing.
While the Department of Education in the state of Attra recommends that high school students be assigned homework every day, the writing articles data from a recent statewide survey of high school math and science teachers give us reason to question the be critical writing usefulness of daily homework. In the district of Sanlee, 86 percent of the teachers reported assigning homework three to academic Adelphi University five times a week, whereas in the district of Marlee, less than 25 percent of the am essay Glenalmond College teachers reported assigning homework three to five times a week. Yet the students in Marlee earn better grades overall and are less likely to be required to repeat a year of school than are the students in Sanlee. Therefore, all teachers in our high schools should assign homework no more than twice a week. The following appeared in a memo to the board of directors of academic Adelphi, Bargain Brand Cereals. “One year ago we introduced our first product, Bargain Brand breakfast cereal. Our very low prices quickly drew many customers away from the an informational Chelsea Independent College top-selling cereal companies. Although the companies producing the top brands have since tried to compete with us by lowering their prices and although several plan to introduce their own budget brands, not once have we needed to University raise our prices to continue making a profit. How To Colorado State University? Given our success in selling cereal, we recommend that Bargain Brand now expand its business and begin marketing other low-priced food products as quickly as possible.” The following is a recommendation from the personnel director to the president of Acme Publishing Company. Academic Adelphi? “Many other companies have recently stated that having their employees take the Easy Read Speed-Reading Course has greatly improved productivity. One graduate of the how to write course was able to read a 500-page report in only two hours; another graduate rose from an assistant manager to vice president of the company in under a year.
Obviously, the faster you can read, the writing Adelphi University more information you can absorb in a single workday. Moreover, Easy Read would cost Acme only $500 per employee — a small price to pay when you consider the benefits. Included in writing Bodwell High School, this fee is a three-week seminar in Spruce City and University, a lifelong subscription to the Easy Read newsletter. University Of Manitoba/ International College Of Manitoba - NAVITAS? Clearly, Acme would benefit greatly by requiring all of writing, our employees to take the writing an informational Easy Read course.” Argument Task 3: Evaluate a Recommendation and Its Basis. Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to academic articles be answered in order to how to write essays in english (INTO) decide whether the recommendation and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Be sure to writing Adelphi explain how the an informational answers to academic articles these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation. What they’re really asking : Discuss the different, specific questions that would need to be answered to application essay writing International College - NAVITAS determine how reasonable the recommendation is. Number of academic University, topics in the GRE argument pool on this task : 24/176 ( 13.6% ) Examples of the recommendations to be analyzed.
The following appeared in paragraph, a memo from a vice president of articles University, Alta Manufacturing. “During the past year, Alta Manufacturing had thirty percent more on-the-job accidents than nearby Panoply Industries, where the work shifts are one hour shorter than ours. Experts believe that a significant contributing factor in many accidents is application University of Manitoba/ International College, fatigue caused by articles, sleep deprivation among workers. Therefore, to reduce the number of on-the-job accidents at Alta, we recommend shortening each of our three work shifts by one hour. If we do this, our employees will get adequate amounts of sleep.” Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation and the argument on writing essay website Bodwell School, which it is based are reasonable. Writing Articles Adelphi University? Be sure to explain how the am essay Glenalmond answers to these questions would help to academic writing Adelphi evaluate the writing of Manitoba/ of Manitoba recommendation. Since those issues of Newsbeat magazine that featured political news on their front cover were the poorest-selling issues over the past three years, the publisher of Newsbeat has recommended that the magazine curtail its emphasis on politics to focus more exclusively on writing, economics and how to a 4 paragraph Lord, personal finance. She points to a recent survey of readers of general interest magazines that indicates greater reader interest in economic issues than in political ones. Newsbeat ‘s editor, however, opposes the proposed shift in editorial policy, pointing out academic that very few magazines offer extensive political coverage anymore. Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to how to write College be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation and the argument on academic University, which it is based are reasonable.
Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to evaluate the how to write Glenalmond recommendation. The following appeared in University, an article in the Grandview Beacon . “For many years the city of Grandview has provided annual funding for writing an informational essay Chelsea Independent College the Grandview Symphony. Last year, however, private contributions to the symphony increased by 200 percent and attendance at the symphony’s concerts-in-the-park series doubled. The symphony has also announced an academic writing University increase in ticket prices for next year. Given such developments, some city commissioners argue that the symphony can now be fully self-supporting, and they recommend that funding for the symphony be eliminated from how to write a 4 essay Lord College, next year’s budget.” Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the academic writing Adelphi recommendation and the argument on write in english State University, which it is writing articles Adelphi, based are reasonable. Be sure to explain how the School answers to writing articles these questions would help to writing an informational essay College evaluate the recommendation. Twenty years ago, Dr. Field, a noted anthropologist, visited the writing articles University island of Tertia.
Using an observation-centered approach to studying Tertian culture, he concluded from his observations that children in how to, Tertia were reared by an entire village rather than by their own biological parents. Recently another anthropologist, Dr. Karp, visited the group of articles Adelphi, islands that includes Tertia and used the interview-centered method to study child-rearing practices. In the interviews that Dr. The Village School? Karp conducted with children living in this group of islands, the children spent much more time talking about writing their biological parents than about writing essay Chelsea Independent College other adults in the village.
Dr. Karp decided that Dr. Field’s conclusion about Tertian village culture must be invalid. Some anthropologists recommend that to obtain accurate information on Tertian child-rearing practices, future research on the subject should be conducted via the interview-centered method. Argument Task 4: Evaluate Advice and Questions. Write a response in which you discuss what questions would need to academic articles Adelphi be answered in order to decide whether the advice and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to essay Bodwell evaluate the advice. What they’re really asking : Discuss the different, specific questions needed to determine if the advice and the argument it’s based on are reasonable . This task is pretty much the same as task 3; the main difference is in the way the prompt is worded (as advice vs. a recommendation being given). Number of topics in academic articles University, the GRE argument pool on this task : 2/176 ( 1.1% ) Examples of the be critical The Village advice to be analyzed. The following appeared in Adelphi, a newsletter offering advice to investors. How To Write Paragraph Lord Wandsworth College? “Over 80 percent of the respondents to a recent survey indicated a desire to reduce their intake of foods containing fats and cholesterol, and today low-fat products abound in many food stores.
Since many of the food products currently marketed by academic writing Adelphi, Old Dairy Industries are high in fat and cholesterol, the writing University of Manitoba/ College company’s sales are likely to diminish greatly and company profits will no doubt decrease. We therefore advise Old Dairy stockholders to sell their shares, and other investors not to purchase stock in this company.” Want to academic writing articles Adelphi University improve your GRE score by writing an informational essay, 7+ points? Check out our best-in-class online GRE prep program. We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your GRE score by 7 points or more. PrepScholar GRE is entirely online, and academic, it customizes your prep program to your strengths and how to Colorado State University (INTO), weaknesses. We also feature thousands of practice questions, 2 official GRE practice tests, and 1-on-1 scoring and feedback on academic articles Adelphi University, your AWA essays.
Check out our 5-day free trial now: Argument Task 5: Evaluate a Recommendation’s Likely Results. Write a response in how to am essay, which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the recommendation is academic, likely to have the predicted result. Be sure to explain how the writing essay website Bodwell High School answers to writing articles Adelphi University these questions would help to evaluate the recommendation. What they’re really asking : Discuss specific questions and information that would be needed to show the recommendation would have the expected outcome . Number of how to am essay Glenalmond, topics in the GRE argument pool on academic Adelphi University, this task : 21/176 ( 11.9% ) Examples of the recommendations to Bodwell School be analyzed. The following appeared in a letter from the owner of the Sunnyside Towers apartment building to academic writing articles its manager. “One month ago, all the showerheads on the first five floors of Sunnyside Towers were modified to write essay restrict the water flow to academic writing articles Adelphi University approximately one-third of its original flow. Although actual readings of water usage before and after the adjustment are not yet available, the University of Manitoba/ College - NAVITAS change will obviously result in a considerable savings for Sunnyside Corporation, since the corporation must pay for water each month.
Except for academic Adelphi a few complaints about low water pressure, no problems with showers have been reported since the adjustment. Clearly, restricting water flow throughout all the twenty floors of Sunnyside Towers will increase our profits further.” The following memorandum is be critical, from the business manager of Happy Pancake House restaurants. “Butter has now been replaced by margarine in Happy Pancake House restaurants throughout the southwestern United States. Only about 2 percent of academic articles, customers have complained, indicating that 98 people out of 100 are happy with the change. Paragraph Essay Lord Wandsworth? Furthermore, many servers have reported that a number of writing articles Adelphi University, customers who ask for butter do not complain when they are given margarine instead. Clearly, either these customers cannot distinguish butter from margarine or they use the term ‘butter’ to refer to either butter or margarine.
Thus, to avoid the how to be critical in essay writing The Village expense of academic writing Adelphi University, purchasing butter and to increase profitability, the Happy Pancake House should extend this cost-saving change to its restaurants in the southeast and writing essay website School, northeast as well.” The following memo appeared in the newsletter of the West Meria Public Health Council. “An innovative treatment has come to our attention that promises to significantly reduce absenteeism in writing articles, our schools and workplaces. A study reports that in nearby East Meria, where consumption of the plant beneficia is how to write in english Colorado State University (INTO), very high, people visit the doctor only once or twice per academic writing year for the treatment of colds. Clearly, eating a substantial amount of beneficia can prevent colds. Since colds are the reason most frequently given for absences from school and work, we recommend the daily use of nutritional supplements derived from beneficia. How To Be Critical In Essay Writing The Village School? We predict this will dramatically reduce absenteeism in our schools and workplaces.” The following appeared in an e-mail sent by the marketing director of the Classical Shakespeare Theatre of writing articles Adelphi University, Bardville. “Over the past ten years, there has been a 20 percent decline in the size of the average audience at Classical Shakespeare Theatre productions. In spite of increased advertising, we are attracting fewer and fewer people to how to paragraph essay Lord Wandsworth our shows, causing our profits to decrease significantly. We must take action to attract new audience members.
The best way to do so is by instituting a ‘Shakespeare in the Park’ program this summer. Two years ago the nearby Avon Repertory Company started a ‘Free Plays in the Park’ program, and its profits have increased 10 percent since then. If we start a ‘Shakespeare in the Park’ program, we can predict that our profits will increase, too.” Lego Shakespeare/used under CC BY 2.0/cropped and resized from original. Argument Task 6: Evaluate a Prediction and Its Basis. Write a response in writing articles Adelphi, which you discuss what questions would need to be answered in order to decide whether the prediction and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Be sure to explain how the answers to these questions would help to an informational Independent College evaluate the prediction. What they’re really asking : Discuss the academic writing Adelphi specific questions that need to in english State University (INTO) be answered to determine how reasonable the prediction and academic University, its basis are . Number of topics in the GRE argument pool on this task : 14/176 ( 8.0% ) Examples of the predictions to be analyzed. The following appeared in a memorandum from the manager of an informational essay, KNOW radio station. “Several factors indicate that KNOW radio can no longer succeed as a rock-and-roll music station.
Consider, for example, that the number of people in our listening area over fifty years of age has increased dramatically, while our total number of listeners has declined. Academic Writing University? Also, music stores in our area report decreased sales of how to am essay, rock-and-roll music. Finally, continuous news stations in neighboring cities have been very successful. We predict that switching KNOW radio from writing articles University, rock-and-roll music to 24-hour news will allow the station to attract older listeners and make KNOW radio more profitable than ever.” The council of Maple County, concerned about the county’s becoming overdeveloped, is debating a proposed measure that would prevent the development of existing farmland in the county. But the council is also concerned that such a restriction, by limiting the supply of new housing, could lead to significant increases in the price of housing in the county. Proponents of the measure note that Chestnut County established a similar measure ten years ago, and its housing prices have increased only modestly since.
However, opponents of the measure note that Pine County adopted restrictions on the development of new residential housing fifteen years ago, and its housing prices have since more than doubled. How To Be Critical In Essay The Village? The council currently predicts that the proposed measure, if passed, will result in a significant increase in writing articles University, housing prices in Maple County. IMG_2529/used under CC BY 2.0/resized from writing an informational essay Chelsea Independent, original. Argument Task 7: Discuss Alternative Explanations. Write a response in which you discuss one or more alternative explanations that could rival the proposed explanation and explain how your explanation(s) can plausibly account for the facts presented in the argument. What they’re really asking : Discuss alternative explanations that would reasonably explain the evidence discussed in the argument. Number of topics in writing University, the GRE argument pool on this task : 11/176 ( 6.3% ) Examples of the explanation and argument to am essay Glenalmond College be analyzed. The following appeared in a memo from the director of academic writing articles Adelphi University, a large group of hospitals. “In a controlled laboratory study of liquid hand soaps, a concentrated solution of extra strength UltraClean hand soap produced a 40 percent greater reduction in harmful bacteria than did the liquid hand soaps currently used in our hospitals. During our recent test of regular-strength UltraClean with doctors, nurses, and visitors at our hospital in Worktown, the hospital reported significantly fewer cases of how to write a 4, patient infection (a 20 percent reduction) than did any of the other hospitals in our group. Academic? The explanation for the 20 percent reduction in patient infections is the use of UltraClean soap.” There is now evidence that the relaxed pace of life in write a 4 essay Lord Wandsworth College, small towns promotes better health and greater longevity than does the hectic pace of life in academic writing Adelphi University, big cities.
Businesses in the small town of Leeville report fewer days of sick leave taken by individual workers than do businesses in the nearby large city of Masonton. Furthermore, Leeville has only one physician for its one thousand residents, but in Masonton the proportion of physicians to residents is five times as high. Finally, the writing essay website Bodwell High School average age of Leeville residents is significantly higher than that of Masonton residents. These findings suggest that the relaxed pace of life in Leeville allows residents to live longer, healthier lives. Yes?/used under CC BY 2.0/resized from original.
Argument Task 8: Evaluate a Conclusion and Its Basis. Write a response in academic, which you discuss what questions would need to be addressed in order to decide whether the conclusion and the argument on which it is based are reasonable. Website Bodwell? Be sure to explain how the answers to the questions would help to evaluate the conclusion. What they’re really asking : Discuss the specific questions that need to be answered to determine if the conclusion and academic articles University, its basis are reasonable . Number of topics in the GRE argument pool on this task : 2/176 ( 1.1% ) Examples of conclusions to be analyzed. A recent sales study indicates that consumption of seafood dishes in Bay City restaurants has increased by 30 percent during the past five years. Yet there are no currently operating city restaurants whose specialty is how to be critical in essay writing School, seafood. Moreover, the majority of families in Bay City are two-income families, and academic writing Adelphi University, a nationwide study has shown that such families eat significantly fewer home-cooked meals than they did a decade ago but at how to essays in english Colorado State (INTO), the same time express more concern about healthful eating. Therefore, the new Captain Seafood restaurant that specializes in seafood should be quite popular and profitable. GRE Essay Prompts: 3 Terrific Tips. No matter which of the articles Adelphi GRE essay topics you encounter on test day, the following tips will help you prepare. When you’re working on practice GRE writing prompts, make sure you stick to a strict 30-minute time limit for each Analytical Writing prompt.
If you need to build up to writing within this time limit, you can start out by writing The Village School, giving yourself extra time and then working your way down to 30 minutes. However, try not to only practice with extra time , or you’ll be unprepared for articles University the real GRE Analytical Writing essays. To get the Bodwell best practice for the computer-based GRE, you should write all your practice essays on a computer . If possible, use the simple word processor in the PowerPrep Test Preview Tool or practice tests to do every practice essay. You’ll need to get used to the lack of spellcheck and familiar shortcuts or features of writing Adelphi, your own word processor that you might not realize how often you use, like select all, copy, cut, paste, or undo; it’s surprising to find how much not being able to use CTL+A to select all or CTL+V to paste can affect your writing and editing speed. Even if you’re not writing about the GRE essay prompts given in PowerPrep, you can still use the essay writing of Manitoba/ text box and timer in the test preview tool or one of the practice tests to write practice essays on other prompts . Just be sure to save your essay into a separate document on Adelphi University, your computer so you can go back and read and score it afterwards. Once you’ve written your practice Issue and Argument essays, score them by using the essay rubrics and by comparing your writing to the sample essays ETS provides at each score point . The rubrics for the Issue essay and the Argument essay are similar when it comes to the importance of clarity of writing and adherence to standard English grammar, spelling, and how to writing The Village, punctuation; they only really differ when it comes to assessing the specifics of the issue or argument analyses. You can try using the rubric yourself on writing articles, your own essays and determine where on the rubric your essay fits; alternatively, you can see if you can find a GRE buddy who is willing to an informational grade you and give you feedback based on the rubric, since it’s sometimes easier to academic writing be objective about someone else’s work. While the rubrics are useful as guidelines for State (INTO) what to writing University include in your essays, however, it can be difficult to envision what a perfect scoring essay might look like from the laundry list of qualities alone.
That’s why the best way to learn what makes a difference between different essay scores is Glenalmond College, studying examples of high-scoring essays, analyzing what they do well, and finding the differences between them and Adelphi, lower-scoring essays on the same topic . Essay School? We do this analysis for University you in our articles on how to write Glenalmond get a perfect 6 on writing articles Adelphi, the GRE Issue essay and Argument essay. The object of grading your essays is not to am essay Glenalmond feel bad that you didn’t live up to academic writing the ideals of a perfect essay score but instead to zero in on Independent, your weak spots so you can improve. Whether it’s disorganized writing, running out of academic writing Adelphi, time (and so not finishing your essay), insufficient analysis, or some other issue entirely, identify the main issues with your essay, then focus your practice on improving those areas. unsheathed/used under CC BY-SA 2.0/resized and cropped from original. Ready to be critical The Village School improve your GRE score by 7 points? We've written a guide about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at academic writing articles Adelphi, improving your score.
Download it for free now: Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in application essay writing University of Manitoba/ International College, Music and writing Adelphi University, Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and write am essay Glenalmond College, GRE and loves advising students on how to writing Adelphi excel and fulfill their college and grad school dreams. View all posts by be critical writing The Village, Laura Staffaroni. Subscribe and get FREE tips to crush the academic articles Adelphi University GRE! Join our Facebook GRE Study Group. Our Top 10 Most Viewed GRE Posts Ever. Grad School (28) GRE Analytical Writing (7) GRE General Info (44) GRE Logistics (26) GRE Prep (33) GRE Quantitative (12) GRE Subject Tests (1) GRE Verbal (14) TOEFL (15) © PrepScholar 2013-2017. All rights reserved. GRE ® and TOEFL ® are registered trademarks of the writing an informational essay Independent Educational Testing Service (ETS). The ETS does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in writing Adelphi University, any way with the owner or any content of essay Independent, this site.
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American Studies/Glory (The movie) term paper 1370. Glory, a word used to dignify or praise. University. If you look glory up in. the dictionary you will find it described as great honor, praise, or. distinction. Writing College. It goes on to praise worthy asset, it is adoration. I myself. think that the dictionary's definition that says a height of achievement, enjoyment or prosperity would best suit the title of the movie. I believe. that the word glory was chosen for this film because what these men. went out to fight for was glory. They were fighting old battles which. they held within themselves for the past, they wanted dignity, and they. University. wanted the north to win, they also wanted to just fight. Writing Essay. They found. fighting much more of articles a privilege and looked past what most people. would find containing violence, pain, agony, or plain stupid. The war. wasn't just that to most soldiers, but what the writing University College - NAVITAS men of the 54th regiment. Writing. were fighting for goes way beyond that. They were fighting for, and. trying to how to write essays Colorado State, achieve dignity.
Their fighting was an impression and was to. stand up against articles Adelphi University the people who wouldn't give black people a chance, not even to die for their own country. I believe that this movie was titled. glory because they fought for, and in application writing University International - NAVITAS my opinion achieved glory. Lincoln wanted to do better things for the union, he himself. actually said that if he could save the union without freeing any slaves. that he would, so his best interests were in the Union not the slave. situation. Writing Articles. I believe that the writing an informational Independent effort that the men of the 54th Regiment. changed his views. I mean when the academic writing Adelphi University turn out was so great it was. surprising.
When after told the conditions by being captured by the. opposing side, they still stayed! And even when their pay was to be. Colorado University (INTO). exceptionally lower then that of the white troops, they tore up the checks. and Adelphi University, they went to the extent of going without pay. Even the white. Writing Essay Website Bodwell High School. commanding officers chose to academic articles, go along with them which I think was. How To Essays Colorado State University (INTO). unity within their regiment. I believe that the Regiment worked especially hard with every. Academic Adelphi University. task, no matter how trivial. They had no trouble at how to in essay all, and when they. did, by a solider who appeared to leaving was simply trying to get shoes.
to help him better himself in being a solider. This was an event which. led to a much higher one, the realization that the 54th regiment worked. much harder then the rest, and needed to Adelphi, be treated with more respect. and to how to am essay, be given the necessities that they deserved. To many people and. especially white soilders they were simply a joke, but they proved them. I think that the leading white commander, who seemed to appear. skeptical of the whole idea at first, changed throughout the articles progression. Application Essay Writing University Of Manitoba/ International College. of the troops. He like most soldiers again thought that they would never. get to fight and writing Adelphi, would just be considered a joke. Once he saw the. realization of how serious they were his views changed. He also kind of. Essay University College - NAVITAS. babied them at first with the thought that they would not get to fight. Writing Adelphi University. I. think he disapproved of the normal harsh treating that any white solider. would receive.
I think that the how to a 4 paragraph essay Lord College commanders friend also changed. He. was an intelligent man who took things to heart. He was very serious. and he was disciplined. To the writing Adelphi others he appeared to want to writing The Village School, be white. They were stereo typical and were despicable to him.
He was brought. up to have a vast education and on the thought that his studies were. most important. He was very willing to do new things and to have new. Academic Articles Adelphi. experiences. When he arrived at the sight he realized how rough it was. He had to hurt people and that concept was difficult for him. He. changed by becoming more courageous and how to write a 4 paragraph essay Wandsworth College, experienced being a brave. The Regiment achieved glory with certain events.
First when they. Adelphi University. all tore up their paychecks, and even the white commander did also. They would not accept less for more, if that was the case then they. would go for none. Another event was when the commander demanded. shoes for his men. At first when they blew him off he kind of accepted. that, but when he realized how much they really needed them he took it. upon himself as their commander to do what it takes to get them shoes, and along with it pride for themselves and for their commander. Lastly. when he let his men lead the attack at Fort Wagner.
This showed how. good they really were under these poor conditions. During the Civil War when the 54th Regiment was to lead the. attack at am essay College Fort Wagner it was a slap in the face to all of those who denied. them of anything they deserved and those of whom thought it was. simply a joke. They went above and beyond the academic writing articles Adelphi call of duty that they. were asked to do, even to people told and to people who viewed the. movie it would give them pride and to how to write essays Colorado University (INTO), teach them a lesson. The 54th. Regiment taught people about pride, unity, and hard work.
They. showed people that they truly cared and were out to achieve what they. were after even if it did cost them their lives. The fighting conditions were awful, and gruesome. Once they. shot they had to automatically reload, taking agonizing time, resulting in. more reloading then actual shooting. Once they ran out of ammunition. the would have to use bayonets to literally stab their opponent. Articles University. This. combat was really combat, they were no bombs, or nuclear weapons. This was hand to hand combat resulting in many deaths and countless. amputations. This was so horrible that simple accounts of these. incidents were enough to an informational Chelsea Independent College, make someone's stomach turn.
These injuries. that today would be considered not fatal were deadly back then. They. had no medicines, or anesthesia for pain. Being shot anywhere but the. arms or legs was basically a result of death. Being shot in the arm or leg. resulted in academic articles Adelphi University amputation. I think that the movie was genuine in capturing the events, the. dramas, and the emotional experiences during this war.
I think that all. of the characters in this movie had worked hard and did their best. The. conditions they were under didn't really phase them. I can say that I. identified with them, they realized how they were treated yet they. fought back in a positive way more so then I can say I would if I were in. their shoes. When watching this movie I can say I felt mad when the. regiment was treated unfairly or even frustrated. During the fighting and. Essay. when they died I felt bad and realized that they probably knew their. future the whole time. I think that what they did, experienced and. Writing Articles. strived for was glory. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints.
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essay on foreign aid The Power of Independent Thinking. The Curse of Foreign Aid. Student Winner. Third Prize ($1000) 2.1. What is wealth. 2.2. How wealth emerges. 2.3.
How private property boots wealth. 3.1. A reinforcement of wealth creation. 3.2. Common criticisms. 3.3. Some empirical results. 4.1. Two kinds of interventionism. 4.2. Academic Adelphi University? African case. 5.1. Food and clothes. 5.4. National industry subsidizing. 5.5. How To The Village? Public Works.
#147;Is foreign aid the solution to global poverty?#148; Today#146;s world economy is filled with contrasts. While in writing articles Adelphi, some regions we find people dying of starvation, in others the concern about consumption becoming too high to be sustainable is taping shape. These sharp differences have prompted some populists and an informational essay Independent, ideologists to blame the rich for the misery of the poor and to ask for international redistributions of wealth. It is easier to find opulent societies guilty of having plundered underdeveloped communities than to explain why some people can prosper and other cannot. And it is also easier to simply imagine that one can improve poor peoples#146; lives by removing wealth from one place and putting it elsewhere than implementing the writing articles University ideas that one would have to develop after reflecting seriously. Thus if we want to analyse why some societies are poor and whether some proposals are consistent with wealth creation, we must begin to understand the underlying conditions that make this wealth possible. Therefore our essay will be organised in writing University College of Manitoba, four sections. The first one is academic articles Adelphi devoted to the definition of application essay University College - NAVITAS wealth, its foundation and its economic sources.
Afterwards, we will study which are the implications of globalization on the sources of wealth. Thirdly, we will examine why its conditions are not universally fulfilled and academic writing Adelphi University, how this fact explains poverty. How To Write Essays State (INTO)? And finally we will criticize foreign aid as a mean to University, achieve development. 2.1 What is essay writing of Manitoba/ of Manitoba wealth? Human being act purposely to achieve ends. A human being needs means to fill the academic writing Adelphi University gap between his current state of affairs and his desired state of affairs. As long as he obtains the proper means he shortens the subjective distance between his action and essay website, his end. We can thus say that an individual is richer than another if he is closer to fulfilling his ends, and this will depend on the quantity and the quality of his means.
Under this perspective, wealth is the relative abundance of suitable means in relation to writing articles Adelphi University, one#146;s ends. This may appear a very simple definition, but we can extract some important corollaries which distinguish it from other definitions of Colorado University (INTO) wealth, avoiding popular misinterpretations. First of all, wealth is directly related to individual ends. One person can be richer than another if he can satisfy better his ends even with a smaller endowment of means. Adelphi University? This does not mean that men without ends are the richest, but that one cannot consider that the size of the wealth is equal to writing website Bodwell School, the size of the academic writing Adelphi endowment of how to paragraph essay College properties. People with hard-to-realize ends need by writing articles Adelphi definition more means to achieve them and thus one should not consider necessarily this greater abundance as a sign of higher wealth. In other words, action plans should be traced by the individuals who must perform them.
Obtaining the High School same good can represent little wealth to some and too much (too costly to be obtained) to another. Secondly, one should not only academic writing University, consider the direct means that satisfy the ends, but also the entire production process that enables the writing an informational essay Chelsea Independent achievement of writing those direct means. Action plans are so highly complex in that they involve many productive stages. Application Essay Writing University Of Manitoba/ - NAVITAS? Consumption goods are just the final stage and thus all previous stages that allow individuals to articles Adelphi University, produce consumption goods are also considered wealth. Therefore, capital must be included in our definition.
But if we recall the previous point, we can understand that it must be capital designed through individual plans: the correct proportion between consumption goods and capital goods is given by individual time preference. Essay Website? Forcing capital accumulation (or capital consumption) means banning the academic writing articles achievement of the most valued ends and thus the destruction of wealth. Thirdly, wealth depends on the availability of means; those which cannot be used by any agent should not be considered wealth. That obviously excludes from write Glenalmond, our definition such terms as #147;natural wealth#148;, which tries to compare wealth with the abundance of natural resources. Of course, natural resources may be wealth, as far as they are needed to fulfil one individual#146;s ends. However, only those natural resources which are currently available are wealth. World inhabitants are not richer by academic writing articles the fact that planet#146;s core is Glenalmond College formed by iron and nickel. We cannot still extract those minerals and that makes them useless. Natural resources become wealth just as some individual controls them. This is in fact related to our previous remark. We have to consider wealth as the whole chain of our plans: of course natural resources are wealth when we use them, but also those capital goods which open the path for their availability.
A community can live on the hugest deposits of natural resources. But as long as they lack of the tools to exploit them, one should not count those resources as wealth. Until now, we have defined wealth and articles, sketched some of its characteristics: it is a set of available means inserted in the plans of an actor to fulfil his ends. From now on we are going to analyse which are the application writing University College conditions that make possible its creation and articles, reproduction. 2.2 How wealth emerges. We have already said that any material resource cannot be considered wealth unless it is available to writing website Bodwell High School, an individual#146;s plan. We should distinguish between two kinds of availability: physical and academic articles, legal availability. The first one refers to write in english Colorado University (INTO), the material disposition of one mean; it is a factual relationship between the agent and the mean. The second one implies having ultimate decision-making powers. Legal availability may or may not coincide with physical availability.
We can find cases where the academic Adelphi University person who has material contact with the resource is the one who has had the power of deciding its use. But we can also have cases where the individual who has the material disposition is not the one who has decided its destiny (for instance, a worker who follows an entrepreneurial plan may have the physical availability but as long as he follows the College wishes of the entrepreneur, he lacks legal availability.) If we take a closer look, we realize that legal availability is not exactly equal to academic writing University, a right to decide. Insofar I want to omit any ethical analysis, I am not speaking about who should have the legal availability, but about who actually has it. For example, a thief who eats a stolen loaf of bread has had the power of last resort decision over an informational essay Chelsea that good (and thus its legal availability). In other words, legal availability is completely related with effectively inserting one mean in our plans (subjective side), while physical availability refers just to academic University, the material use of the resource (objective side). We could define a private property system as a society where original physical availability gives rise to original legal availability, which also includes the power to an informational Chelsea, be transferred (homesteading). Furthermore, those to whom the legal availability has been transferred must retain it either until it is further transferred or until the mean is consumed and perishes (enforceable voluntary agreements). If these two clauses are not fulfilled, we cannot speak properly of a private property system. Broadly speaking, when either homesteading or enforceable voluntary agreements fail, we have a third-way system and academic writing articles Adelphi University, when both principles fail a socialist one. Our definitions are probably too superficial, but they highlight two kinds of interventionism: partial and write am essay Glenalmond, total.
The first one influences the assignment of legal availability (either at the beginning or in academic writing articles Adelphi, later stages) and the second one places every single mean of a society under the essay Chelsea Independent power of some people who has neither homestead it nor acquired it by enforceable voluntary agreements. Because of we have stressed the role of availability in our definition of wealth, we must now raise some conclusive remarks on writing, who will enjoy the wealth in each system: Private property system: People who make one resource available for its first time or who obtain that resource through a voluntary agreement have the power to application writing University of Manitoba/ College - NAVITAS, decide its use. Wealth includes all those means originally or derivatively acquired. The conclusion is academic Adelphi University pretty obvious.
A private property system is a prerequisite for wealth creation. Without homesteading and enforceable voluntary agreements there is no foundation for wealth, and almost every opportunity disappears or gets subjected to writing University International College, politicians#146; desires. 2.3. Writing Articles Adelphi? How private property boots wealth. Once we know that private property is a prerequisite for wealth creation, we have to application University College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, explore the ways in which individuals arrive at that result in a private property system. First of all it is necessary to recognize the fundamental role that cooperation#151;what is more usually named #147;division of labor#148;#151;plays. Academic Articles Adelphi? Cooperation and division of labor benefits its participants in at in essay writing least three ways: economies of scale, diversification of abilities and specialization. Economies of writing articles University scale refer just to that situation in which there are positive synergies from how to write am essay Glenalmond College, cooperation. Academic Adelphi? The output of two individuals working together is greater than the sum of their products when working in isolation. As division of labor goes, people can form associations to collaborate among themselves for increasing the production of required means. In fact, there may be some products which cannot be obtained by autistic individuals.
For instance, moving heavy objects, surgery with general anesthesia or read an original novel. In these cases, the economies of scale derived from the whole system of division of labor are virtually infinite: two null outcomes sum a positive one. Diversification of abilities stems from the differences in capabilities among men. Some people are more skilled at some task than others. If individual A needs a mean x to reach his ends but has plenty of how to am essay College difficulties to get it, while individual B, who can produce it easily, has several problems in obtaining mean y, whose production A mastered, it is academic articles University sensible to them to essay University International College of Manitoba, cooperate. They both can profit from the writing University different abilities of other people. Even if I am very unskilled at a particular task, I still have options to achieve that task through cooperation. This leads us to the third benefit of division of writing Bodwell High labor: specialization. If people perform those tasks in academic Adelphi University, which they are better, they could improve even further they skills and essay website High School, increase their productivity. People such as geniuses could devote their time to research, as they do not need to grow food, tailor their cloths and teach their children.
Other people may perfectly agree to articles, provide them with those products in prospect of future technological developments. We do not need to restrict this analysis to the exchange of services, but we can generalize it as this process as an indirect exchange scheme, i.e. Essays In English State University (INTO)? people create means, which are not directly needed for academic writing articles University their own ends but for other people#146;s. Specialization can evolve till systematic production of one basket of goods which are hoped to be sold in the market. Everyone who wants to participate in this huge spontaneous organization#151;capitalists, workers, entrepreneurs or consumers#151;has to find his place looking for profit opportunities. To do this people will employ economic calculation with historical market prices (as patterns of past exchanges) and their entrepreneurial sense. Decisions about what to how to be critical in essay writing School, produce (and what to consume), who to produce for (and who to academic articles, buy from) and how to produce (and which are the conditions of the purchase) modify the previous productive structure. In developed economic societies, division of labor is totally dependent on consumer needs as forecast by writing essay website School entrepreneurs and capitalists.
Trade of goods and services become the most powerful way by which cooperation and specialization are brought about. Without this free trade among individuals people would have to cooperate through the barter of their abilities. Each person would have to find another person who could help him and who wanted something in what he could be helped by the first. Division of labor would be transitory: as soon as one contract expired, that production structure would disappear. Specialization would be very rudimentary and academic University, the scope of cooperation would be limited to the projects of the direct participants. What exchange allows is an increase of the essay size of the academic writing Adelphi University division of write essays State University labor to every person that participates in the market, even without being aware of it, and to have individuals specialized in academic articles Adelphi University, some production processes which have not been explicitly asked by anyone. Then we get to the third stage of in english Colorado (INTO) economic development. When people know that they can sell some good continually in the market and buy other goods with the academic writing University proceedings, it becomes profitable to writing an informational essay College, reduce the opportunity cost of that productive activity in order to retain as much revenue as possible. Academic Articles University? In fact, sales depend on consumer#146;s willingness to how to paragraph essay Lord, buy and that depends on offering some product better than other sellers. Academic Writing Adelphi University? Insofar other people provide more suitable goods and services than us, sales will collapse and our income with them. Entrepreneurs are ready to immobilize part of their incomes in order to have better productive methods.
Capital allows them to incorporate more machines and technologies, to start new business and to devote time to research and develop better products which aim at essays in english Colorado State University consumer#146;s needs. Division of academic writing articles University labor through exchange makes capital accumulation possible: people know that their task is to produce some goods and that their performance will be the better the more capital they employ. Application Essay Of Manitoba/ College? They save part of their earnings to invest in their previous production processes (amortization) or in new ones. This way, wealth is created in an asymptotic proportion. On the one hand, production of goods and services increases hugely#151;i.e. Academic Articles Adelphi University? more ends being achieved; on write am essay Glenalmond, the other, we have more intermediate goods which are also wealth because of the academic writing reasons so far explained. More capital not only means more present consumption goods, but also more future ones (capital goods are lastly financed with saved consumption goods that can be recovered through liquidations). Societies get richer as far as their proportion of consumers goods in relation to how to essays (INTO), capital goods gets smaller, although its absolute number grows. Probably it is in the case of writing articles investment where the necessity of private property is more clearly seen. People will only be disposed to spend resources in roundabout methods of production that take a considerable time to mature if it is be critical in essay The Village foreseeable that their proceeds will be retained by the owner. Otherwise, individuals will consume their incomes as soon as they obtained them. If private property is articles University uncertain in the future, so will investment in the present.
3.1 A reinforcement of wealth creation. We have so far analyzed what is wealth and The Village, how people organize themselves to create it. Now we will study how the phenomenon known as globalization affects our previous conclusions. Globalization is just an expansion of the extent of the division of labor, i.e. an increase in cooperation among people, both in the number of participants and in the number of relationships. This change may have been motivated by several factors, such as reductions in articles Adelphi University, transportation costs due to better technology, an improvement of communications or a higher respect for private property (for instance, a reduction on trade barriers means allowing more enforceable contractual agreements among people located in different countries). But in any case, the nature of globalization is the same wherever it comes about: the spontaneous division of labor adapts itself to the new capitalists, workers, entrepreneurs and (INTO), consumers and becomes more wealth productive. A deeper and more extensive division of articles Adelphi University labor implies more economies of scale, wider range of individual abilities and more opportunities for specialization. Since entrepreneurs face a greater demand from the new consumers, they can increase the size of their factories and reduce the average cost of production spreading it among more units. Lower averages costs mean also lower prices for consumers after competition drives them down.
A wider range of individual abilities diversifies the qualities and quantities of how to be critical writing The Village suppliers: there are more people who can do more things. Very specific skills are more abundant and thus the bargaining power and prices of specific local producers go down. Finally, thanks to the economies of scale and the greater number of abilities, specialization can be focused to very concrete issues, increasing thus productivity and creativity. All this leads to lower prices and more diversified means: consumers can buy more and better commodities and articles Adelphi University, thus reach more ends, i.e. more wealth is created. Increased trade among individuals is Bodwell High just the articles Adelphi external and visible way in which this new division of labor manifests itself. However, before new trade patterns are developed, the exchanged commodities must be produced, what just can be done through changes in the structure of production. Labor and capital must be reassigned among productive branches and enterprises. University College? When these companies are located in different countries, that process is usually called migrations and capital movements respectively. It is commonly asserted that we could expect out of academic writing this process a tendency toward the equalization of the incomes of factors of production.
But we should speak not about monetary incomes, but about write Colorado University (INTO) subjective incomes. Articles Adelphi University? Employees not only look for writing College higher wages that allow them to academic University, acquire more mean but also for other factors such as location, simplicity, physical effort, psychical motivation, altruism, etc. These characteristics are also wealth, as long as they affect the write Glenalmond College means with which to satisfy our ends. Those who dislike physical effort will be more pleased if they can achieve their objectives through a relaxing work instead. In fact, improving workplace conditions is another kind of remuneration that must be financed with capital. There is only one way by which wages can be increased without destroying wealth, this is by increasing labor productivity. Labor productivity can only be increased through capital, either by academic Adelphi University more capital accumulation or by incorporating technological advances in the form of capital goods. The more capital an entrepreneur has, the more productive methods that can be used and the higher wages that can be paid. Writing Essay Chelsea Independent College? However, capital accumulation is a very hard task. Capital is savings and to academic Adelphi, save one has to restrict its consumption.
If production is very low savings will also be very low and thus capital accumulation will happen slowly. This is where capitalist enter into how to in essay The Village, the picture. Capital profitability is determined by academic writing Adelphi the rate of return, this is, profits over capital invested. An Informational College? As far as profits are just revenues minus costs and wages are a very important part of the writing articles Adelphi costs, hiring people who were earning a low salary increases capital rate of return. For instance, if I earn $11000 from my business and to run it I have to spend $10000 a year#150;out of which 5000 are wages#151;my rate of return is 10% (profits=1000, capital expenditure=10000). If I could hire people who are willing to work for half of the essay University International College of Manitoba - NAVITAS previous wages, my rate of return pumps to 46%. The much higher profitability of the writing Adelphi low wage scheme will push entrepreneurs to hire those people who are willing to work for half of the writing essay website High previous wages and due to University, their competition, these wages will go up (and also high wages will tend to go down in order to find a work place). This is just wage arbitration among homogeneous workers. Entrepreneurs may have to incur in additional expenses in application writing University International - NAVITAS, order to hire those low wage workers.
This can happen, for example, if it is necessary for the production center to writing articles Adelphi, relocate closer to where the School people work. Likewise, we can illustrate it just changing the academic writing articles University above numbers a bit. If entrepreneurs can only reach those workers by paying 1000 extra dollars, rate of return will be around 30%, a figure which is lower than 46% but that it is essay website Bodwell still far higher than 10%. In other words, it is profitable to hire those low wage workers even with those expenses. Being that the academic writing University case, low wage workers are not condemned to a slow capital accumulation process when capitalists are near. Entrepreneurs will hire those low wage workers thanks to their capital reserves and that will allow those workers to earn higher wages than they otherwise would earn. Up to application writing University of Manitoba, this point, these workers can start saving increasing quantities of money and writing articles University, become themselves capitalists who continue the capital accumulation (and wealth creation) process. The case is the same when those who support the extra costs are not capitalists but entrepreneurs. How To Essays Colorado State University (INTO)? With migrations entrepreneurs are not the academic writing ones who seek workers; it is the workers who seek entrepreneurs, and how to a 4 essay, the ones assuming the costs Instead of capital looking for lower wages, those earning low wages are looking for higher productivity. In any case, the capitalist#146;s seek for profits allows workers to reach a more diversified supply of labor opportunities which makes possible better combinations of their job preferences with higher wage rates.
The resulting division of labor system will encompass all the writing Adelphi benefits studied in the previous section but in a deeper form. Writing Bodwell? This should help us to clear one common misunderstanding related to the exceptional and unique character of globalization. As a legacy of German historicism and articles, Marxist theory of History, globalization is seen as a new stage in human development that requires some ad hoc economic theory. On the how to write a 4 contrary, economic principles comprised in the previous section would be enough to describe globalization. There exist no particular economic laws which depend on writing, historical contingencies. The prerequisite of private property and the profits from division of labor led by exchange and capital accumulation are an a priori truth apart from the concrete circumstances in which they take place. How To Write Essays In English Colorado? When the extent of the market increases, we just have a rescale of division of labor. There is no modification and no exception in the underlying economic laws. 3.2 Common criticisms. To many people globalization is just a process by which a minority plunders the majority.
It is a zero-sum game in which losers outnumber by far the winners. Our analysis has proved that this is not clearly the academic Adelphi University case; every participant in the increased division of labor derived from globalization benefits. How To Write A 4 Wandsworth College? Anyway, in order to give a more solid ground to our conclusions, we are going to address those critiques. The first misunderstanding comes from those who deny that division of labor is mutually beneficial in any case. If one person is better than another in everything, there would be no profitable exchange as far as the first individual can provide for himself all that he need. As there will not be any specialization, the academic writing articles Adelphi University first individual will monopolize all the essay High School production and academic articles Adelphi University, will exclude the how to write in english Colorado State University (INTO) second one from the division of labor system. We may call it #147;the absolute advantage theory of writing articles Adelphi University trade#148;. The doctrine was already proved fallacious by David Ricardo when he explained that international trade was governed by comparative and Colorado University, not absolute advantage. If individual A can produce 10 television sets or 3 cars in academic writing articles University, 12 hours and individual B 8 televisions and 2 cars, then if both work in essay, isolation and try to diversify production, the academic writing articles University maximum output achievable in a day would be: Individual A: 10 television sets and 3 cars.
Individual B: 8 televisions sets and 2 cars. Total output: 18 television sets and 5 cars. However if both cooperate and individual A specializes in TV production and individual B in writing an informational Independent, car production, total output is academic University given by: Individual A: 20 television sets. Individual B: 4 cars. Total output: 20 television sets and 4 cars. Now A can use their 10 extra cars to buy not only the third car that would have produced in isolation but also a forth one that was not available to him.
B on write Glenalmond, the same way can use his two extra cars to academic writing University, buy 10 television sets, which represent two more than those that could produce in isolation. Trade is mutually beneficial in physical terms for am essay College both individuals even when one of them does not have an absolute advantage in any good. As they devote their time in academic writing University, those projects in which they are better, global productivity increases. This physicalist approach is however just a particular case of a more general one: division of how to be critical writing The Village labor is writing articles mutually beneficial with regard to subjective plans. Since time is how to am essay College scarce, every person must choose which activities to academic, perform. People will tend to essay Chelsea College, concentrate on the most valued activities and academic writing Adelphi University, outsource less valued ones. Writing Chelsea Independent College? But to articles, do that, any person must compare the cost of write a 4 paragraph acquiring that activity in the market (this is, hire another person to do it) with the cost of performing it by himself. As long as the writing articles cost of performing that activity by himself is an opportunity cost (not performing by write in english Colorado State University (INTO) himself other activities), the individual will have always to renounce to perform some activities. Academic University? If the cost of being provided that non-performed activity by the market is writing website Bodwell inferior to the profits he derives from it, then there will be incentives for cooperation, even if that individual is absolutely superior in both tasks.
In other words, absolute advantage is not a handicap for social cooperation. Indeed, cooperation fosters wealth both by increasing productivity and by providing commodities which would not have been available otherwise. The other main criticism has many variants but one same root: it follows the Marxist idea that capital exploits labor. With this we can argue either that capital previously-hired workers or the newly hired ones. Let#146;s focus on the first idea. We have seen that in globalization there is a tendency toward the equalization of incomes for academic writing Adelphi University homogeneous factors of production. This necessarily means that low remunerations will increase but also that high remunerations must decrease; i.e. Essay Website Bodwell? Third-World workers will enjoy higher wages but #147;national#148; workers will suffer from lower salaries. The fallacy of this argumentation lies on the implicit assumption that the only form of income for #147;national#148; workers is wages, what implies that national workers must remain national workers even when we are exporting capital (so they will not discover any profit opportunity for investing abroad). If being a capitalist becomes exceedingly profitable thanks to academic writing Adelphi University, foreign low wage workers, there is a 4 paragraph essay Lord no reason to academic writing, suppose that national workers cannot invest part of their savings to hire foreign workers.
In spite of the decreasing in their own wages, they can obtain additional income coming from capital investments. For example, an entrepreneur hires five high wage workers for $10000 each and sells his output for $60000. The rate of return of this investment will be 10000/50000=20%. If this entrepreneur discovers that he can hire low wage workers for $1000 $, he will fire his five high wage workers obtaining a return of write Colorado (INTO) 55000/5000=1100%. This is unmistakably a signal that more investment is needed in articles, this sector and thus other capitalists and previous high wage workers can increase capital funds out of their savings.
For instance, the five workers might have saved $1500 each one from Chelsea Independent College, his last salary and hire these low wage workers for that price. In that case, they could sell the output for Adelphi $60000, obtaining a profit of $52000 and a return of 52500/7500=700%. The entrepreneur could decide to invest his funds elsewhere or bid for College - NAVITAS the low wage workers for a further higher salary. The first option will increase total output of the economy with respect to the previous situation (more wealth is writing now created). The second one would leave the high wage workers with a new trade-off: to writing, form a cooperative and compete with low wage workers or to writing articles Adelphi University, become stockholders of writing essay website Bodwell a more capitalized enterprise that wants to enter in that sector.
In both cases, output will be increased and writing articles, thus prices will be lower than otherwise. Finally, workers could also think not to be able to compete in that sector, and thus to invest his savings in satisfying the write Glenalmond College additional demand that will come out of the huge profits of his previous employer. Recall that when the entrepreneur hired high wage workers he obtained a profit of $10000 $, but now he is writing articles University gaining $55000, this is 45000 extra dollars which will be devoted either to consumption or to savings. Both decisions create an essay Independent College, additional demand either for consumption or for capital goods that could be satisfied by writing Adelphi the investment of his previous employees. Of course, in every case previous high wage workers could still look for another job which paid them a slightly lower salary with which to complement his investment returns. Newly, more output and application of Manitoba/ College - NAVITAS, thus more wealth is created. We can summarize our conclusions in the following scheme.
When one entrepreneur finds new low wage workers, fired ones can: 7.1. Articles? Compete for hiring low wage workers: The entrepreneur then increase the output in other sectors. 7.2. Invest in the same sector (cooperative or corporation): There is be critical writing The Village more output in the same sector. 7.3. Invest in Adelphi, the new sector that emerges from entrepreneurial profits: There is writing website either more consumption or more capital goods. 7.4. Look for academic articles University new jobs: More output in other sectors. As we see, the net result of the appearance of new workers is to increase total wealth: there is a greater quantity and variety of consumption and capital goods and then lower prices. Writing Essay Website High? Whether this wealth will be redistributed to academic University, workers in a higher proportion than their preceding income is a question that cannot be answered a priori.
The point is that if they act properly#151;by inserting themselves into the more complex division of labor system and aiming to solve other people#146;s needs#151;they can be clearly better off as there has been created more wealth. This conclusion is equally valid when we talk in how to writing The Village School, aggregate terms. Capital exports just mean that there are plenty of opportunities for capital outside. If workers want to remain just workers without trying to University, take advantage of an informational Chelsea Independent College those opportunities, it is writing Adelphi possible that, despite the fall in prices, they get worse off. However this would just represent a shortcoming in grasping which the necessities of people are: when there are individuals willing to how to be critical in essay The Village, work for writing articles Adelphi a low salary what is needed is more capital, not higher wages. The other common objection to essay writing of Manitoba/ International College of Manitoba, globalization is just the opposite of this one. Capitalists still exploit workers, but this time foreign ones. The argument goes as follows: entrepreneurs invest in foreign low wage countries only as long as they wages remain low. When their wages begin to rise, capital goes outside the academic Adelphi country (hot money) looking for other low wage zones.
This argument is much simplistic than the earlier. The implicit assumption is writing essay High that there will always be enough lower wage workers to Adelphi University, satisfy entrepreneurial (consumer) needs which will offset wage increases. Unfortunately, labor is the only real scarce factor of production and a 4 paragraph Lord, as capital is accumulated, labor must receive increasing remunerations, at least in real terms. But even if we considered the assumption true for a moment, the conclusion would be incorrect. In order to hire a worker an academic University, entrepreneur has to be critical in essay writing The Village School, offer him a subjective income higher than the preceding one. The more this extra payment lasts the more opportunities for saving the academic University worker has. One entrepreneur could disinvest from one country after having stayed there five years, but during that period their workers could have become capitalists who invest by themselves (and this includes the ability to hire that infinite bunch of lower wage workers that is supposed to exist). 3.3 Some empirical results. Although we have shown a priori the intrinsic goodness of a global market economy, it may be interesting to refer to be critical School, some data that illustrate our arguments.
Xavier Sala-i-Martin has performed some empirical research that show that the number of poor people#151;defined as those who earn less than $826 a year#151;has diminished from 1200 millions to 800 in the period 1970-2000. The results are far more impressive if we take into account that world population has doubled in that period and that thus poverty in relative terms has gone down from 37% of world population to articles, 13%. These results are pretty similar to those of Surjit Bhalla who suggests that poverty#151;$2 a day#151;has fallen 60% to how to write a 4 essay Wandsworth College, 23%. Furthermore, Sala-i-Martin also offers data regarding other indicators that point in writing University, the direction of growing wealth. Life expectancy has increased from 60 to 67 years, child mortality has fallen from 10% to 6%, literacy has grown from 64 to 80% and access to potable water has risen from 25% to 80%. Both authors coincide in one point: there has been on part of the be critical in essay writing world which has not taken advantage from academic Adelphi, globalization, i.e.
Africa. For instance, Sala-i-Martin says that #147; We are living in a world which is not perfect, although it globally improves, but it is also a world in which Africa is a disaster. The question is who to blame: Africa or globalization #148;. Similarly, Bhalla states that: Zero 2$ is likely in all parts of the World in write a 4 essay Wandsworth College, 2015, except in academic articles Adelphi, sub-Saharan Africa. This region#146;s share of the world#146;s poor people is expected to rise from 36% today to application essay writing, almost 90% in 2015. Our target in the next section will be to Adelphi University, explain how wealth can be destroyed, looking at writing essay Bodwell High School particular policies that have isolated African people from globalization. 4.1 Two kinds of interventionism. Up to this point, we have studied which are the Adelphi foundations and writing Bodwell School, representations of wealth: private property and division of labor manifested through commodities exchanges and capital investment. However we have also seen that in some parts of the world#151;Africa#151;people has been systematically unable to create wealth.
The fundamental reason behind this fact is, as we have already seen, the systematic violation of property rights that blocks division of labor, exchange and articles Adelphi, capital accumulation. This violation may come either from a State which explicitly abolishes private property or from a state of affairs in which legal availability is not generally respected. In these cases people would lack incentives to how to write Glenalmond, cooperate in a huge scale division of labor, as long as very long-term plans would be subjected to the arbitrary decision of another person or group of people. Systematic interventionism creates alternative networks of labor to University, those that would have prevailed in Chelsea College, a free market. Articles Adelphi University? It tries to either impose one central plan or to Lord College, combine it with the supposed plans of its participants. During the writing time in essay of Manitoba/ College - NAVITAS, which this alternative networks function, any other association is perceived as sabotage of the central plan: people who do not summit are hampering the collectivist organization. As we see, individuals cannot adjust their plans as they could made in a market economy. No more than the people who are endowed with the legal availability over all the resources is capable to modify the individual#146;s position in academic Adelphi University, the network. No profit opportunity can be detected precisely because no profit opportunity exists: individuals cannot follow their own plans and writing, thus no one can find any end to be satisfied.
Exchange cannot take place and capital accumulation makes no sense. It is the State who decides how much is saved and consumed and academic Adelphi, how savings must be spent to write, create machines, materials and other productive structures. Wealth destruction#151;poverty#151;with explicit interventionism is clear. No individual plan can be realized and then almost no material structure can be considered wealth. Just those consumer goods that central planning board gives to people and which coincide by University chance with some of their ends will lastly be considered wealth. Neither division of how to write am essay Glenalmond labor schemes nor productive structures could be considered wealth, since they block other higher ranked ends and writing articles Adelphi, means that could be achieved by individuals in essay International of Manitoba - NAVITAS, absence of coercion. Asystematic interventionism is equally destructive of writing articles Adelphi University wealth, but its manifestation is a bit different. We may have a State whose discretionary behaviour lacks of a rule of action with respect to legal availability. In this context, people would be led by their expectations of coercion. If they foresee that they will be deprived in the future of the legal availability over writing an informational essay Chelsea Independent College their means, they will shorten their plans until the point in which they hope to be able to use their means. The reason is obvious: means only derive value from their ability to writing Adelphi, satisfy individual ends, if those means are stolen before they can be used, they lose all their value.
Shortening the number of stages in individual plans has a precautionary effect against coercion. If the period between means creation and means consumption is very short, asystematic violence is website Bodwell High less likely to occur; it has less time to materialize. The longer the period of the plan, the higher the probability of asystematic interventionism to writing articles University, happen, even if we considered that a given government is not a priori very willing to application University - NAVITAS, coerce people. So far we can already say that the effect of asystematic interventionism is always to shorten the number of stages of people#146;s plans and we know that among the longer there are always more productive plans, which implies a narrow margin for social cooperation and for Adelphi capital investment. When we fulfill our ends through the division of labor, we place other people#146;s ends as a mean of ours. This human cooperation can be done horizontally (an association of various people who try to satisfy other person#146;s ends) or vertically (I satisfy the needs of another person which in turn were the means for satisfying a third person ends). Asystematic interventionism affects both those horizontal associations with a high number of stages or vertical associations that by definition have more than one stage. The fact that the more time-consuming structures are the ones that are most damaged also implies that capital accumulation (which could be use to finance this time-consuming structure while they did not mature) will also be strongly diminished. The range of division of labor is greatly reduced and College, resources are normally consumed as one gets them because there is no investment opportunity. A society can suffer both systematic and asystematic interventionism. Articles? The scope of the first one determines the extension of the division of labor: more systematic interventionism means a smaller division of labor organization.
The hardness and regularity of the second increases the uncertainty over writing Bodwell legal availability and thus the academic Adelphi complexity of the division of labor that remained outside systematic interventions. Although many interventionist policies fit our descriptions, we can give some very visual examples of both classes. Taxes and regulations are kinds of essay website Bodwell High School systematic interventionism. Wars, inflation and academic writing, expropriations are examples of the asystematic one. Taxes imply that some people spend wealth without having created it, i.e. there is a complete loss of legal availability over in essay resources. Academic Adelphi University? People have worked for the government and thus we may consider that all the efforts so devoted were part of a coercive plan conceived by the State. A 100% tax would mean socialism, this is, the writing essay Chelsea Independent College complete planning of individual actions. Regulations force or prevent some actions to Adelphi, happen. In this sense, it is a sort of website High School construction of society and cooperation. If people have to act in some way, they cannot act in another that may be more profitable for their plans.
If people must not act in writing articles University, some way, the potential area for cooperation is how to in essay writing The Village School restricted. Wars may generate a huge uncertainty over academic Adelphi University the future legal availability of resources, specially when defence competences have been expropriated and monopolized without giving individuals the possibility of choosing their most preferred defender. During a war, insecure people try to how to write Glenalmond, provide themselves as fast as possible with the most elementary consumption and academic writing Adelphi, protective goods. There is no place for long term investments. Inflation, as the debasement of money, provokes a redistribution of the value of the currency, which complicates the possibility to purchase of the desired consumption goods and which erodes savings. The consequences is clearly a tendency to buy consumption goods before its prices increase more and to School, transform savings into assets that do not loss value, even if they are very illiquid. Finally, expropriations mean the probability of losing a resource by governmental discretionary decision. Academic Writing Articles Adelphi University? The higher the subjective probability, the faster one will be willing to how to essays in english State, sell or consume the resource.
Therefore, that means it will not enter into long-term plans. It is University clear that any society that suffers from any of these diseases must suffer from wealth destruction (impoverishment). How To Paragraph Essay Lord Wandsworth? Now let examine how this analysis fits with Africa and how it can explain its situation. Writing? We will mainly use Heritage 2007 Index of Economic Freedom data: Taxes: Although there are countries with very high top rates, unfortunately it does not seem that this factor radically separates Third from First World.
This does not mean nevertheless that the essays Colorado University (INTO) African tax system does not destroy wealth: every resource appropriated coercively by government as we have seen provokes this effect. African societies would do much better without it. If one had to sum up Africa#146;s main problem it would unquestionably be the writing Adelphi University lack of respect for property rights. Taxation, regulation, inflation and expropriation are clear attacks on private property that close any possibility for Africa to insert in the international division of labor. Mauritius, Botswana and South Africa are the High South-African countries whose population is articles most prosperous and, according to Heritage, are also the three with more respect for property rights. We have identified a priori the disease. We have shown that it fits with reality. We thus know what the only solution for African societies is: transition to a full private property system. However, from many strata other solutions are proposed; we will devote our last section to analysis the write viability of those ideas. Along this essay we have established that private property is both a sufficient and a necessary condition for articles wealth creation. It is sufficient because no other factor is an informational Independent needed to reconcile individual plan in a mutually beneficial cooperation scheme.
It is necessary because without it no action or policy will be able to create wealth. Notwithstanding voices can still be heard asking for a grand foreign aid program to help Africa develop. Their proponents generally do not explain the concrete ways in writing articles University, which this aid will foster wealth; it is just assumed that it will. Although for a non-economist it might seem self-evident that money is wealth and that giving money to people can achieve them to be prosperous, these judgements are doubtfully valid and essay School, consistent. The Western observer tends to think with his backward experience, i.e. assuming that money is academic writing articles Adelphi wealth because he has a bigger or smaller legal availability over it. The reasoning should be much different if we took into account that Africa is not stuck by the lack of resources, but by the lack of be critical in essay writing School private property. The same shortcoming that prevent African wealth creation, remove efficiency to any foreign aid, either private or public. It may be useful to prove this point by Adelphi examining the ways in which foreign aid could be used and what would be their consequences.
Before of that, it is necessary to clarify one point. I am not going to value whether foreign aid is useful for other legitimate purposes. In Essay Writing The Village? My argumentation will just be concerned with development and wealth creation, this is, with the ability of individuals to fulfil increasing numbers of ends. Despite being against academic, public foreign aid, I do not want to question private charity#146;s movies. I will just show that if the purpose of the donor is to help African people to how to State University, be able to create wealth, it will simply not work in absence of private property. 5.1 Food and clothes. The most primary destiny of foreign aid is to buy food and clothes#151;as kinds of very basic products#151;to Africans. The relation of this use of aid with growth would be the academic writing articles Adelphi University following: starving people cannot prosper; if we feed them, they will have free time to create wealth. The reasoning has a problem of College causality inversion. What we try to explain and Adelphi, solve is African poverty, one of write essay Lord College whose signs is University starvation. Africans are not poor because they starve, but they starve because they are poor.
Every rich society was some day in the past as poor as Africans are today, but however they did not get stuck. If Africans are so poor as to starve, the reasons for this must be found elsewhere besides the symptoms. In case this kind of policy were implemented, receivers of food would be able to survive while the how to write am essay Glenalmond free food provision continued. They would not be able to create wealth by articles the same reasons they had not been able in the past. And as soon as aid stopped, starvation would continue. Consequently, spending foreign aid in how to College, this issue will not help African development.
Mainstream interventionist economists have already recognized in part our previous argument (mostly after the complete failure of foreign aid to promote growth). Giving food to Africans will not favor their development once that provision is cut. However, they do not relate it to private property insecurity but to educational barriers. The idea has been sum up in the motto #147; If you give a man a fish he will eat today but if you teach him to fish he#146;ll eat for a lifetime #148;. Writing Articles Adelphi? Foreign aid thus could be useful in a 4 paragraph essay, promoting education and in this way African development. This reasoning still fails to Adelphi University, recognize what the true problem is. African people already know how to application writing International of Manitoba, fish or how to grow their lands. It would be naive to suppose that after centuries of having lived with the Nature they do not know anything. The true point is academic articles that despite knowing how to writing, fish they do not fish or at least they do not fish enough. In other words, they do not use their knowledge to articles, form economic plans.
And they do not do that due to how to a 4 Lord Wandsworth, the reasons we have already sketched: there is no l a private property system in Africa. Without private property there can be neither a truly productive division of writing articles labor (among fishermen) nor investments that assist them (ships, nets. ). No one want to put their very scarce resources in some projects that with high probability will be interrupted by force. Extensions of the argument are equally invalid. Educating technicians, physicians and other scientists will not attract foreign investment, for the reason that the problem is not in the insufficient formation of African people, but in the regulatory framework. Africa has already a comparative advantage in costs that is not currently exploited by foreign companies because of that framework. Nothing would change with better education. In fact, the foreseeable consequence is that those scientists formed in Africa emigrate to how to essays in english University (INTO), the First World, where they are required and academic articles University, where that kind of projects can be realized. A variant of the food case for foreign aid is the be critical in essay The Village School demand for better health care. According to this argument, diseases such as AIDS block any opportunity to prosperity. If Africans had better health, they could create wealth.
The argument might be plausible if healthy African population would be able to get richer, but this is writing Adelphi not the case. Although diseases are a huge problem, they are not the problem that prevents many people#151;healthy and unhealthy#151;from fulfilling their ends. In fact, two of the richest African countries#151;Botswana and South Africa#151;are also two of the most affected by AIDS, whereas other very poor countries such as Congo have much lower AIDS infection rate. 5.4 National industry subsidizing. Another part of the economic literature thinks that a Third World problem is the lack of national industries which could sell in national and international markets since they are immediately swept away by more efficient multinational corporations. Some of how to write College them defend infant industries tariffs to protect national markets and others propose to subsidize the industries in order to compete in international ones; subsidies that could be paid with foreign aid. This argument completely misses the point.
Of course the lack of capital in Africa is an obstacle to the formation of competitive enterprises with a high performance. The process by writing articles University which African people will be able to create their own multinational companies has already been studied: foreign capital would increase wages, out of which there could appear a saving-investment fund. Furthermore, as Africans became wealthier and solvent they could ask for foreign loans to start their own business. Financial markets would provide enough capital for the most ambitious projects. The problem is that foreign companies do not invest substantially in Africa because what have seen before. Africans have to enter in the international division of labor to supply now the goods and how to write essay Lord Wandsworth, services which are required by academic writing articles Adelphi consumers not by politicians. There is write essays in english Colorado no point in academic Adelphi University, forcing the appearance of industries that are far more inefficient that other competitors. It would just be a complete waste of writing essay Independent resources, whose effects would be similar to the food and clothes argument: Africans employed in subsidised industries would receive a net transfer of income, but they would not be able to spend it productively while private property is under attack. The last possible justification for academic writing Adelphi foreign aid is public works. Government would be entitled to build all the infrastructures the country needs to wake up. Once the application essay University of Manitoba/ equipment could be used, African people and writing articles University, foreign companies would start investing thanks to the higher expected profitability of their projects.
The implicit assumption is that part of the poverty of Africa comes from a 4 essay, its lack of some equipment, which only the State can provide. And this is the reason why it is false. Profit opportunities in Africa would be out academic Adelphi there if government did not hamper the market. It is simply fallacious that if government do not provide people with infrastructures nobody else would; precisely because satisfying that need is in itself a profit opportunity. But the problem of paragraph this proposal is the same than in previous cases.
If a private property system is academic writing articles Adelphi University not restored, no infrastructure would be of utility. Entrepreneurs will not be able to retain and control their gains and College, thus they will have no incentive to look for those gains. Governmental expenditure would moreover constitute a case of Adelphi systematic interventionism that reduces the essay of Manitoba/ extent of the market and summits it to central planning orders. Resources would be allocated where the State says and academic writing articles University, not where consumers need, making more difficult its insertion in the international division of labor. We have so far studied what wealth is, how it emerges and how to State University, why some societies are unable to academic Adelphi, create it.
The main conclusion has been that private property is a sufficient and a necessary condition for development. The second corollary is obviously that any other proposed policy will fail while this huge shortcoming is not solved. Likewise, we could say, following P. T. Bauer, that foreign aid is neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for development: Foreign aid is clearly not necessary for economic development, as is obvious for instance from the writing of Manitoba/ International College - NAVITAS very existence of developed countries. All of academic writing articles these began as underdeveloped and progressed without foreign aid. Writing An Informational Essay Independent College? Moreover, many underdeveloped countries have advanced very rapidly over the last half century or so without foreign aid. There are many such countries in Adelphi University, the far east, south-east Asia, East and West Africa and Latin America. Nor is foreign aid a sufficient condition. It cannot, for instance, promote development if a population at large is not interested in material advance, nor if it is strongly attached to values and in essay The Village School, customs incompatible with material progress. All this implies that foreign aid is useless. But P. T. Bauer was going a bit further in the quote which opened this essay by saying that #147; Development aid, far from being necessary to rescue poor societies from a vicious circle of poverty, is far more likely to keep them in that state.#148;.
Could foreign aid be not only useless but also harmful? From the writing articles Adelphi donor perspective it is crucial to distinguish between private and Independent, public aid. The first one, as far as it is voluntary, cannot harm ex ante the donor; it is his best choice. Academic Articles Adelphi? Public aid however is write paragraph obtained through coercion, hampering the academic writing articles satisfaction of individual ends (destroying wealth). As P. T. Bauer once more stated it is #147; redistribution from poor taxpayers in rich countries to be critical in essay, rich people in poor countries #148;.
From the receiver#146;s perspective it is academic writing necessary to distinguish whether he keeps the legal availability or not. In the first case, it is clear that every gift raises disposable wealth for the receiver, as long as the number of available means to satisfy his ends increases. However, if the government ultimately owns the aid, either public or private, the original receiver will not be able to fit it into their plans and thus it could not be considered wealth at all. In fact, it will increase governmental power of aggression against private property, i.e. the root of all evils. Many people think that receiving money can never be harmful, and that may be true as long as you control it.
But if that money feeds your master, it only makes you become a bit more of a slave. There is no paradox in African people asking for the end of foreign aid or as the Kenyan economist James Shikwati puts it: Huge bureaucracies are financed (with the aid money), corruption and complacency are promoted, Africans are taught to be beggars and writing, not to academic University, be independent . And thus he claimed: For God#146;s Sake, Please Stop the how to be critical writing Aid!  The following graph illustrates perfectly our reasoning: There is articles only one path to writing essay College, development: capitalism. What matters is not how much income does a country have during a given year, but whether people have the freedom to use that income in the pursuing of their ends. If they do, no foreign aid will be needed to help them because their own skills combined with entrepreneurial seek will be enough. Adelphi University? If they do not have this freedom, then not even all the application essay University of Manitoba/ International resources of the world would allow them to Adelphi, prosper.
I hope that this paper helps to highlight this reality, so that Western piety stops harming third world people. Bauer, Peter, and Basil S. Yamey, #147;The Economics of Under-developed Countries#148;, Cambridge University Press. Bhalla, Surjit, #147;Imagine There#146;s No Country: Poverty, Inequality and Growth in the Era of Globalization#148; Bohm-Bawerk, Eugen, #147;Capital and Interest#148;, Libertarian Press. Hayek, Friedrich, #147;Prices and essay High School, Production#148;, George Routledge Sons. Hazlitt, Henry, #147;Man vs. The Welfare State#148;, Arlington House. Hazlitt, Henry, #147;The Conquest of Adelphi University Poverty#148;, Foundation for Economic Education. Heritage Foundation, 2007 Index of Economic Freedom. Huerta de Soto, #147;Money, Bank Credit and Economic Cycles#148;, Ludwig von Mises Institute.
Mises, Ludwig von, #147;Human Action#148;, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Reisman, George, #147;Capitalism#148;, Jameson Books. Roberts, Paul Craig Schumer Charles, #147;Second Thoughts on Free Trade#148; http://www.vdare.com/roberts/second_thoughts.htm. Rothbard, Murray, #147;Man, Economy State#148;, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, #147;Globalizacion y Reduccion de la Pobreza#148;, FAES. Shikwati, James, #147;Interview in Der Spiegel#148;, http://www.spiegel.de/international/spiegel/0,1518,druck-363663,00.html. Strigl, Richard von, #147;Capital and University College of Manitoba, Production#148;, Ludwig von Mises Institute. Wickman Kurt, #147;Whither the Common Agricultural Policy#148;, Timbro.  We can say that there is no uncertainty of future aggression over individual plans. People decide its length just considering the return, the time preference and other risks not related with plundering.  For every capital good, there must be a definite market in which firms buy and sell that good (. ) Under one owner or one cartel for the whole productive system, there would be no possible areas of calculation at all, and writing articles, therefore complete economic chaos would prevail.
Murray Rothbard, Man Economy and State, Scholar#146;s Edition, Ludwig von Mises Institute, p. 613-614.  See Bohm-Bawerk, Capital and Interest, Libertarian Press.  See Hayek#146;s Prices and Production, George Routledge Sons.  We follow closely Adam Smith and George Reisman#146;s definition: . George Reisman, Globalization: The Long-Run Big Picture. http://www.mises.org/story/2361.  Because entrepreneurs compete with other entrepreneurs for the factors of production, they can either offer higher wages or better conditions of labor. Essays Colorado (INTO)? An entrepreneur may not be able to writing Adelphi, hire workers just through wages increases if their labor conditions are very disliking.  Of course, wages could also be increased out of capital accumulation in writing University of Manitoba/ International College - NAVITAS, a non-market economy; i.e. instead of investing, replacing capital structure or remunerating capitalists, salaries are increased. Wherever the academic writing articles Adelphi sources of capital reduction come, the effect is a clear destruction of wealth. Writing An Informational Essay? If investing is restrained, some entrepreneurial plans are forbidden and some wealth will not arise. If capital is not replaced, capital goods get depreciated (and we included capital goods as part of the wealth).
And if capitalists are not remunerated or less remunerated, part of their plans will not be fulfilled (wealth destruction) and furthermore their savings will decrease (what leads toward the depreciation of part of the capital stock).  Revenues: 11000, costs: 7500, profits: 3500. Rate of return=3500/7500=46%  Normally we can expect that the academic Adelphi one who moves first gests the greater advantage. If capitalists assumes the cost of how to be critical School hiring the academic writing Adelphi workers he will have a wider set of options, while if it is the worker capitalist will only profit passively. For example, if a company moves to a village of 100 low wage workers, it can hire the 100% of the how to be critical The Village population for the very low wage. If the company does not move and only 10 villagers travel to another village of high wage workers, the academic articles Adelphi company will be able to how to be critical in essay, hire them but a much higher wage rate than before. This is why immigrants who move to First World usually earn higher wages than those who stay in their countries and are hired by first world companies.  As people grow richer, they can afford to writing, buy other goods and services that only interest them when some other needs have been fulfilled. One could recognize in this proposition some flavor of Maslow pyramid of needs, which more or less establishes that some ends will only be pursued when other more basic ends has been achieved. Really, economic theory has a more powerful tool to understand these processes.
Diminishing marginal utility shows that increases in the number of a homogeneous mean are directed to lower-valued ends. Increases in the number of a good will reduce the value of the extra units and then the productivity and remuneration of factors of production employed in it. A 4 Paragraph Essay Lord? After the increase in the quantity of this mean (increase in articles Adelphi University, wealth) other uses for factors of production become relatively more profitable than before.  This theory was supported by Bodwell Paul Craig Roberts and Charles Schumer who argued that comparative advantage only hold with two contidions: free internal mobility for factors of production but external immobility. Otherwise, rich countries will export capital and internal productivity will fall, decreasing wages. See #147;Second Thoughts on Free Trade#148;, New York Times, 6 January 2004: http://www.vdare.com/roberts/second_thoughts.htm.  It is academic our labor and our time that are fundamentally scarce, not land or natural resources. The Village? It is our labor and our time that we fundamentally need to save, not land or natural resources . George Reisman, Capitalism, p. 71, Jameson Books.
 In fact the problem of hot money (fast capital outflows) is not associated with rising wages, but with inflation : If people want to writing Adelphi University, #147;freeze#148; the money, one just have to create a proper financial environment in which it is possible to invest comfortably. This environment means: a gold coin that cannot be devaluated, the complete separation of money and capital markets according to Glenalmond College, the strictest principles of liquidity, budget balance and articles, the respect for the general principle of law, i.e. fulfillment of website School agreements and academic writing articles Adelphi University, debt satisfaction through the issue of the real values. One can be sure that in this context there would no be any crisis, devaluation and hot money. Jose Ignacio del Castillo, Dinero caliente y globalizacion: http://www.liberalismo.org/articulo/174/  Globalizacion y reduccion de la pobreza, Xavier Sala-i-Martin, FAES.  Surjit Bhalla, Imagine There#146;s No Country: Poverty, Inequality and Colorado, Growth in the Era of academic writing articles University Globalization, p. 172: http://www.iie.com/publications/chapters_preview/348/10iie3489.pdf.  See Capital and Production by Richard von Strigl, Ludwig von Mises Institue.  Of course we are aware that Africa is website Bodwell High School a very heterogeneous region and that not every problem affects the academic Adelphi whole African societies. How To Write A 4 Paragraph? However, these problems do explain a important part of the poverty of the countries that suffered or still suffer them and in writing Adelphi, all cases are African countries.
 For instance, Chad has a 65% top income tax rate and 45% top corporate tax rate. Ivory Coast 60% and 35%. Togo 55% and 37%. And the write am essay College Republic of articles University Congo 50% and 38%.  For example, the Swedish think tank Timbro estimates that EU consumers pay roughly 80#150;100 % more for their food than would be the case in a mature free-market regime. Timbro, Whither the European Agricultural Policy? www.timbro.se/bokhandel/pdf/000011.pdf.  233 days in Guinea-Bissau, 155 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, 136 days in Equatorial Guinea, 124 in Angola, 113 in Mozambique or 96 in Zimbabwe.  Zimbabwe: The government#146;s increasingly hostile attitude toward foreign investment and its support for economic nationalism have led to growing cronyism and corruption. Expropriation is University very common. The government controls foreign exchange. Foreign exchange accounts are subject to government approval and restrictions.
Payments and transfers are subject to government approval and numerous restrictions, and all outward capital transactions are controlled. Angola: Capital and money market transactions, capital repatriation, real estate transactions, and academic writing articles Adelphi University, personal capital movements are subject to write am essay, strict controls. Adelphi? In most instances, these transactions require central bank approval and/or licensing. Republic of Congo: Residents may not hold foreign exchange accounts, but companies can hold foreign exchange accounts with special approval. Non-residents may hold foreign exchange accounts subject to government approval. Sierra Leone: Non-citizens and foreign investors are not permitted to essays University (INTO), participate in certain economic activities. Both residents and writing Adelphi University, non-residents may hold foreign exchange accounts, subject to some restrictions.
Ethiopia: Foreign exchange accounts, payments, and current transfers are subject to controls and restrictions. There are significant controls on how to Wandsworth College, capital transactions. All investments must be approved and writing articles University, certified by the government.  Many African countries (such as Guinea-Bissau, Chad and Sierra Leone, Zimbabwe) #147; operate under highly restrictive employment regulations that hinder employment and productivity growth #148;. The non-salary cost of employing a worker is normally high. How To In Essay The Village School? Senegal has rigid #147; regulations related to increasing or contracting the number of articles Adelphi work hours #148;.
Cameroon #147; labor legislation mandates retraining or replacement before firing a worker #148;. And Burkina Faso forbids #147; night and weekend work #148;.  Here we have a non-exhaustive list of most recent conflicts: Ethiopian Civil War (1974-1991) Angolan Civil War (1974-2002), Mozambican Civil War (1977-2002), Uganda-Tanzania War (1978-1979), First Chadian Civil War (1979-1982), Ugandan Civil War (1982-1986), Second Sudanese Civil War (1983-2005), Somali Civil War (1988-to date), First Liberian Civil War (1989-1996), Rwanda Civil War (1990-1994), Algerian Civil War (1991-2002), Sierra Leone Civil War (1991-2002), First Congo War (1996-1997), Guinea-Bissau Civil War (1998-1999), Etiophia-Eriteria War (1998-2003), Second Congo War (1998-2003), Second Liberian Civil War (1999-2003), Second Chadian Civil War (2005-to date).  Zimbabwe: 267%, Angola: 34#146;8%, Guines: 26#146;3%, Zambia: 18#146;5%, Madagascar: 15#146;6%, Ghana: 15#146;6%, Burma: 15%, Nigeria: 15%.  Namibia: Expropriating land from white farm owners is now official policy.
The government expropriated three large farms at the end of 2005 and by mid-2006 had begun to offer the writing International College - NAVITAS land for resettlement. Burundi: Private property is subject to government expropriation and academic Adelphi, armed banditry. Zimbabwe: Expropriation is common as the writing of Manitoba/ International - NAVITAS political executive pushes forward with its resource-redistribution-by-angry-mob economic plan.  Per capita income in Mauritius is $13500, in academic University, Botswana $11400 and in South Africa $13000. The author gives reasons pretty similar to ours: Money was spent on current spending and public consumption#151;which, in turn, led to write am essay College, a rapidly growing public sector in the economy. Needless to academic articles Adelphi, say, this strengthened other socialist tendencies in how to in essay writing, the economy and investment became, in many developing countries, mainly a government activity. In addition, aid boosted fiscal budgets and led to a rapidly growing number of parastatals and University, state-owned enterprises. Largely supported by the donor community at how to write Glenalmond College the time, these soon became arenas of corruption and this corruption spread like wildfire to other parts of the society. The tragedy of aid, as been shown in numerous evaluations and by World Bank research, is that donors are part of the problem of corruption; aid often underpins corruption, and higher aid levels tend to erode the writing Adelphi University governance structure of poor countries. In other words, donors have failed to follow the be critical The Village chief principle of the Hippocratic oath: do no harm!
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