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Mordecai Richler Richler, Mordecai (Vol. 185) - Essay. Mordecai Richler 1931-2001. Canadian novelist, essayist, critic, screenwriter, short story writer, editor, memoirist, and children's writer. The following entry presents an english essays The University, overview of Richler's career through 2002. For further information on his life and works, see CLC, Volumes 3, 5, 9, 13, 18, 46, and how to Education 70. One of the most prominent figures in contemporary Canadian literature, Richler was best known for his darkly humorous novels in which he examines such diverse topics as Canadian society, Jewish culture, Quebec nationalism, the adverse effects of english creative of Nottingham, materialism, and relationships between individuals from different socio-economic backgrounds. A skilled and unrelenting satirist, Richler left Canada at the age of twenty, living as an expatriate in Europe for more than twenty years. However, a large majority of his fiction is set within the Jewish section of Montreal where he was raised, exploring the characteristics that define Jewish and Canadian self-identity. The typical Richler protagonist is an alienated, morally disillusioned individual who finds stability and inner-knowledge difficult to attain. Though known primarily for his novels, in his later years, Richler's critical works attracted considerable attention—his essay collection Oh Canada!

Oh Quebec!: Requiem for a Divided Country (1992) inspired a virulent national debate in Canada regarding the self-sovereignty of Quebec. Richler was born in Montreal, Quebec, on January 27, 1931. He was raised in a community dominated by the first large wave of Jewish immigrants to settle in Canada, those who fled from Russia during the massacres that followed the Russo-Japanese War. Though he received a traditional Jewish upbringing, Richler abandoned his family's orthodox customs in write a thesis for an essay International, his teens. Richler entered Sir George Williams University in 1949, but dropped out two years later, citing the belief that academia would distort and exhaust his creativity. In 1951 Richler left Canada and sailed to Liverpool, England. He worked as a freelance writer in Paris from 1952 to creative essays The University 1953, returning briefly to how to write an mla Hurtwood House Montreal in 1952. After the publication of his first novel, The Acrobats (1954), Richler settled in England, where he would live until 1972.

During this period, Richler continued to compose essays and novels which focused largely on his Jewish and Canadian heritage. In 1960 he married Florence Wood, with whom he had five children. He returned to Sir George Williams University to serve as a writer-in-residence from english writing essays of Nottingham 1968 to 1979 and edited an anthology of Canadian fiction, Canadian Writing Today, in 1970. In 1972 Richler moved back to Montreal permanently, writing extensively about Canadian politics and culture, particularly the how to write essay Institute, Quebec separatist movement during the 1990s. His vocal criticism of often-taboo political issues made Richler a Canadian national celebrity, frequently appearing in magazines and on television. Throughout his career, Richler has been awarded numerous honors, including the creative essays The University of Nottingham, Governor General's Literary Award for Cocksure (1968), Hunting Tiger under Glass: Essays and Reports (1969), and a thesis sentence for an Bromsgrove International Thailand St. Urbain's Horseman (1971). He was nominated for an Academy Award and the Screenwriters Guild of America award for his screenplay adaptation of english writing essays of Nottingham, The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (1959) and won the how to a thesis sentence for an essay School, Canadian Library Association Book of the Year Award for his children's book Jacob Two-Two Meets the Hooded Fang (1975). Solomon Gursky Was Here (1989) received the Commonwealth Writers Prize in 1990, and Barney's Version (1997) was awarded the Giller Prize in 1997.

Richler died of complications from cancer on July 3, 2001, in Montreal. Richler's first novel, The Acrobats, is devoid of the humor prevalent throughout his later works. Set in post-World War II Spain, the english writing essays, book recounts the experiences of Andre Bennett, a young Canadian expatriate trying to overcome his guilt caused by the suicide of write for money School, his pregnant Jewish girlfriend in Montreal. English Creative Writing The University. Richler's next two novels, Son of how to write essay International, a Smaller Hero (1955) and english writing of Nottingham A Choice of sentence essay Bromsgrove International Thailand, Enemies (1957), evidence a progression toward a more satirically humorous tone. In Son of a Smaller Hero, Richler recreates the Jewish community of his childhood, chronicling Noah Adler's attempts to liberate himself from the religious, economic, and english creative writing essays The University familial pressures of his past.

As the novel ends, Noah departs for persuasive essay, Europe, still searching for a sense of english creative writing essays of Nottingham, personal identity. Richler's stark, unsympathetic depiction of writing a research article Lancing, Jewish culture in the novel drew charges of anti-Semitism, a reaction provoked by several of english essays, his subsequent works. A Choice of Enemies focuses on Norman Price, who, like many of how to a self introduction essay Institute Of Higher, Richler's protagonists, is faced with a moral dilemma. Living in London with a group of American and Canadian expatriate artists, Norman must ally himself either with his bohemian friends or with a young communist whom the expatriates ostracize. Norman eventually realizes that both options are undesirable. The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz established Richler as a major literary figure and internationally recognized humorist. Frequently compared in theme and plot to Budd Schulberg's What Makes Sammy Run?, the writing of Nottingham, novel chronicles Duddy Kravitz's rise from Montreal ghetto-dweller to prominent landowner. Although Duddy is driven by how to write a self introduction essay Glion Institute, greed and his means of acquiring land are ruthless and creative writing exploitative, Richler depicts the surrounding Montreal society as equally immoral. Richler followed The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz with two caustic satires— The Incomparable Atuk (1963) and Cocksure. In The Incomparable Atuk, Richler derides the materialistic values of contemporary society through the experiences of an write essay House, Innuit poet who achieves wealth and writing of Nottingham popularity when his work appears in a series of Canadian advertisements. Cocksure, a black comedy that ridicules popular culture and the entertainment industry, details an unscrupulous movie mogul's takeover of a British publishing company.

Several Canadian and British booksellers refused to carry Cocksure, claiming that certain passages were overly graphic and offensive. In St. Urbain's Horseman, Richler returns to the less trenchant humor of The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz, detailing the life of how to a thesis sentence Bromsgrove International School, Jake Hersh, an affluent man who believes that his success is largely unmerited. To relieve his sense of disillusionment and remorse, Jake fantasizes that his cousin Joey is the Horseman, a fictional heroic figure committed to The University of Nottingham fighting Jewish oppression. Richler's next novel, Joshua Then and Now (1980), is write a self Glion Education, composed of extensive flashbacks describing the prominent events and personal crises in the life of essays The University, Joshua Shapiro, a prominent Jewish-Canadian author. Write An Mla Hurtwood House. By depicting Joshua's marriage to an upper-class Gentile, Richler explores problems inherent in relationships between individuals of different upbringings and social positions. Reuben Shapiro, Joshua's smooth-talking father, is writing essays of Nottingham, regarded as one of Richler's finest comic creations. The winner of the 1990 Commonwealth Prize, Solomon Gursky Was Here chronicles more than one hundred years of Canadian history, documenting the Gursky family's rise to power and essay conclusion University of California, (UCLA) wealth.

Utilizing flashbacks and creative writing essays The University a shifting narrative, Richler traces the Gursky lineage from Ephraim, a Russian-Jewish immigrant who was the only surviving member of an expedition searching for the Northwest Passage, to Bernard, the essay conclusion University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), president of a liquor dynasty in creative The University of Nottingham, modern Montreal. The narrator of the novel, Moses Berger, is a self-appointed biographer who becomes obsessed with the Gurskys and attempts to discredit their reputation as respectable community leaders. Write An Mla Hurtwood. After investigating the mysterious disappearance of english creative, Solomon, one of Ephraim's sons, Berger becomes convinced that Solomon is still alive and write article Bromsgrove School Thailand has secretly participated in such monumental political schemes as the plot to english The University kill Adolf Hitler, the Watergate burglary, and the Israeli raid on Entebbe. Berger, however, eventually abandons his work when he realizes his discoveries make him sound like a lunatic. How To Glion Of Higher. Although Solomon Gursky Was Here is often viewed as a parody of the historical saga genre due to the mythic quality of its eccentric characters, the novel also explores the repercussions of greed, revenge, and betrayal. English Creative Writing Of Nottingham. Richler's last novel, Barney's Version, is a fictional memoir of Barney Parnofsky, a Jewish writer living in Montreal.

Narrated in the first person, Barney describes his three marriages, the founding of his television company (Totally Useless Productions), and his best friend's mysterious death, which Barney may have inadvertently caused. As the memoir progresses, the reader begins to recognize Barney as an unreliable narrator after he admits that he is prone to writing a research Lancing embellishments and may be developing Alzheimer's disease. Among Richler's nonfiction works, a majority focus on essays of Nottingham his native country and his identity as a Canadian—though each book serves a distinctly different thematic purpose. Write Article For Money Thailand. Home Sweet Home: My Canadian Album (1984), for example, explores the defining elements of Canadian culture, addressing subjects from english essays The University of Nottingham Canadian patriotism to for money International School ice hockey. In Richler's most controversial polemic work, Oh Canada! Oh Quebec!: Requiem for a Divided Country, Richler turns his attention to the problem of Quebec separatism, a delicate political issue in Canada. Richler's essays condemn the province of Quebec for rampant nationalism and a history of anti-Semitism. In response, the Quebec government denounced Richler as a racist and some government officials suggested banning the english creative essays of Nottingham, book. This Year in Jerusalem (1994) is primarily concerned with examining Richler's identity as a Canadian Jew—a theme also present in Oh Canada! Oh Quebec!

The essays in how to write House, This Year in english of Nottingham, Jerusalem blend Richler's remembrances of write article for money Bromsgrove, growing up in the Montreal Jewish community with descriptions of his visits to Israel, where he questions some Western Jews' decision to emigrate to the Zionist state. Richler's final two essay collections, Dispatches from the Sporting Life (2001) and essays On Snooker: The Game and persuasive Ritz Сolleges Switzerland the Characters Who Play It (2001) recount the author's reflections on creative writing essays of Nottingham such sports as ice hockey, fishing, bodybuilding, and pocket billiards. Though sometimes faulted for excessive vulgarity, throughout his career, Richler has developed a reputation as one of the most skilled humorists of twentieth-century fiction. Write Introduction Essay Institute Education. Critics have consistently lauded Richler's ability to create comedy within family situations and his barbed satiric perspective on modern culture. Creative Writing Essays. However, several members of the Canadian-Jewish community—frequent targets of Richler's comedic vision—have condemned the author's works as degrading and anti-Semitic. Writing Essay Los Angeles. Commentators have debated these assertions with some arguing that it is impossible for english essays of Nottingham, Richler to be truly anti-Semitic—being that he is Jewish himself—and noting that Richler's parodies are inspired by how to write introduction essay Glion Of Higher Education, his personal life rather than a critical agenda. Rachel Feldhay Brenner has commented that his biting social commentary polarizes audiences, noting that “Richler's vacillations and his ambivalent world picture point to his inability to establish a true bond with either Jewish community or the Gentile society.” Out of Richler's collections of writing The University of Nottingham, essays and how to write a self Glion Of Higher criticism, none have attracted the attention of english writing essays, Oh Canada! Oh Quebec!, which has both been praised and reviled in Richler's native Canada.

While a number of reviewers have viewed the writing a research Lancing College, work as a frank and engaging look at creative essays The University, the history of Quebec politics, others have lambasted Richler's essays as prejudiced, bigoted, and inflammatory. Some critics who agreed with the dominant themes in Oh Canada! Oh Quebec! have argued that the collection's bitter and rancorous tone makes it difficult to support the author's admittedly intelligent insights. How To Introduction Of Higher Education. Overall, despite the controversy surrounding his work, scholars have continued to english essays The University of Nottingham regard Richler as one of the defining Canadian authors of the past century. Access our Mordecai Richler Study Guide for Free. The Acrobats (novel) 1954. Son of a Smaller Hero (novel) 1955. A Choice of Enemies (novel) 1957. Insomnia Is Good for You [with Lewis Greifer] (screenplay) 1957. The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (novel) 1959. The Incomparable Atuk (novel) 1963; also published as Stick Your Neck Out, 1963.

Cocksure (novel) 1968. Hunting Tiger under Glass: Essays and Reports (essays) 1969. The Street: Stories (short stories) 1969. Canadian Writing Today [editor] (short stories) 1970. (The entire section is 223 words.) Get Free Access to essay Bromsgrove International School Thailand this Mordecai Richler Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and The University thousands more. Get Better Grades.

Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the writing College, chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere. We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on english essays of Nottingham the go. Download our handy iOS app for free. Rachel Feldhay Brenner (essay date 1989) SOURCE: Brenner, Rachel Feldhay. Write Essay Glion Institute Of Higher. “Mordecai Richler in the Context of Canadian Jewish Writers' Response to the Holocaust: A. M. Klein, Irving Layton, Leonard Cohen, and Adele Wiseman.” In Assimilation and Assertion: The Response to the Holocaust in Mordecai Richler's Writing, pp. Essays Of Nottingham. 167-205. New York: Peter Lang, 1989.

[ In the write an mla essay Hurtwood, following essay, Brenner compares Richler's dualistic representation of the Jewish response to the Holocaust in his fiction and nonfiction with the works of A. M. Klein, Irving Layton, Leonard Cohen, and Adele Wiseman. ] Mordecai Richler's representation of the Jewish response to the Holocaust in his fiction and creative writing his direct response in his. (The entire section is 16690 words.) Get Free Access to this Mordecai Richler Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this resource and thousands more. Robert Fulford (review date 21 June 1992) SOURCE: Fulford, Robert. “Canada, From Inside and Out.” Los Angeles Times Book Review (21 June 1992): 3, 9. [ In the following review, Fulford evaluates the controversy resulting from Oh Canada! Oh Quebec!: Requiem for a Divided Country, calling the book “disorganized and rambling.” ] There are more French Canadians alive now than ever before, and they possess more wealth and write an mla power than at any point in the past; yet their politics is based on the profoundly held belief that they are in english creative writing essays The University of Nottingham, danger of essay conclusion of California, Los Angeles, disappearing into the fog of history like some preliterate tribe of the Amazon.

They see themselves, all 6.2 million of creative The University, them, succumbing to the demographic. (The entire section is 1410 words.) Rick Marin (review date 6 July 1992) SOURCE: Marin, Rick. “Maple Leaf Rag.” National Review 44, no. How To Write Sentence For An International School Thailand. 13 (6 July 1992): 52-4. [ In the following review, Marin commends Richler's wit and english creative essays The University cynicism in Oh Canada! Oh Quebec!: Requiem for a Divided Country.] I met my first Quebecois language Nazi at a French immersion course in Cap Rouge, a hamlet outside Quebec City occupied that summer by high-school students from Canada's Anglophone provinces. Guy was the fascist Francophone's name, and whenever he heard one of us utter un mot anglais, he barked a rebuke and issued a demerit.

Later, in 1980, I was an article International School Thailand, undergraduate at english The University of Nottingham, McGill University in write sentence for an essay Bromsgrove School Thailand, Montreal, “the Paris of english writing essays of Nottingham, Canada.” My French was as good as. (The entire section is persuasive Cesar Ritz, 789 words.) Harold M. Waller (review date 13 July 1992) SOURCE: Waller, Harold M. “The Folly of essays, Independence.” New Leader 75, no. 9 (13 July 1992): 18-19.

[ In the a research article, following favorable review, Waller provides a critical reading of the controversial subject matter of Oh Canada! Oh Quebec!: Requiem for a Divided Country, focusing on creative writing Richler's charges of anti-Semitism. How To For An Essay Bromsgrove International. ] Despite its proximity, Canada tends to be neglected in the United States. Of the Americans who do know it, probably few regard it as a funny place (although it has produced a fair share of comic talent). Mordecai Richler's highly controversial book, the subject of an abundance of newspaper articles and anguished outpourings in his native land, should. (The entire section is 1241 words.)

Paul Delany (review date 20 August 1992) SOURCE: Delany, Paul. Creative Writing. “Vivre Comme Chien et Chat.” London Review of Books 14, no. 16 (20 August 1992): 12. [ In the following review, Delany contends that Oh Canada! Oh Quebec!: Requiem for a Divided Country presents several important insights but notes that “the case for Quebec nationalism needs to be answered more seriously and scrupulously than Richler cares to do.” ] The population of Quebec is about seven million, all of how to a thesis essay School, them minorities. English Creative Essays The University. The Jews, for whom Mordecai Richler makes his complaint (though not only for them), are outnumbered by 11 to one in the English-speaking community. The English are outnumbered five to one by the French, but the. (The entire section is 2471 words.) Andro Linklater (review date 26 September 1992)

SOURCE: Linklater, Andro. “Your Tongue Shall Be Split.” Spectator 269, no. A Research Article College. 8568 (26 September 1992): 44. [ In the following review, Linklater compliments Oh Canada! Oh Quebec!: Requiem for a Divided Country as an “impassioned” critique of english writing essays The University, Quebec's history and politics. ] Perched on write Bromsgrove top of stridently excitable Americans and shrilly excitable Mexicans, and heaven knows what other excitements below the belt in South America, Canada has always conjured up the sort of cerebral kindliness you associate with Anglican vicars. Perhaps it lacked a certain definition—Air Canada, after all, promises to fly you to ‘A Land of Possibilities’ rather than one of. (The entire section is 728 words.) Barry Cooper (review date December 1992) SOURCE: Cooper, Barry. Review of essays The University of Nottingham, Oh Canada! Oh Quebec!: Requiem for a Divided Country, by Mordecai Richler.

American Spectator 25, no. 12 (December 1992): 71-2. [ In the following review, Cooper argues that Oh Canada! Oh Quebec! is a useful study of Quebec nationalism and recent Canadian politics, commenting that Richler's criticisms are the “only appropriate response of a concerned citizen in write for money International School, a democracy.” ] Canadians are prey to many myths, but the most important of them is english creative writing essays of Nottingham, that what makes us truly, uniquely, profoundly etc. Canadian is Quebec. Two peoples, working in two languages, together, building on conclusion of California, Los Angeles the northern half of the continent a more. (The entire section is 973 words.) SOURCE: Craniford, Ada. “ Solomon Gursky Was Here : Fiction or Fact?” In Fiction and Fact in Mordecai Richler's Novels, pp.

115-35. Lewiston, N.Y.: The Edwin Mellen Press, 1992. [ In the english creative writing essays of Nottingham, following essay, Craniford surveys the critical reaction to Solomon Gursky Was Here and essay Cesar Ritz Switzerland investigates Richler's inspirations for the Gursky family. Craniford notes that the “most compelling quality of creative writing of Nottingham, Richler's novel is the fact that it is based on and made out of other works of fact and fiction.” ] In Mordecai Richler's ninth novel [ Solomon Gursky Was Here ], the write article, Gurskys are here there and The University everywhere. The book celebrates and parodies not only the Jewish. (The entire section is 8027 words.) David Rieff (review date 30 October 1994)

SOURCE: Rieff, David. “A Special Relationship.” Washington Post Book World 24, no. 44 (30 October 1994): 11. [ In the writing a research article Lancing, following review, Rieff commends Richler's complex and poignant characterizations in This Year in Jerusalem but faults the work for its excessive political commentary and cursory travel narrative. ] It seems that for english, the young Mordecai Richler, growing up Canadian and Jewish in Montreal in the 1940s, the three great consuming passions were baseball, girls and Zionism. He was raised, he writes, “in homes where the pushke, the blue-and-white coin-collection boxes for the Jewish National Fund to buy land in … Israel, squatted on writing essay conclusion (UCLA) the. (The entire section is creative writing The University of Nottingham, 820 words.) J. B. Kelly (review date 19 December 1994) SOURCE: Kelly, J. B. “Holy Lands.” National Review 46, no.

24 (19 December 1994): 56-7. [ In the following review, Kelly criticizes the incoherent and disjointed structure of This Year in Jerusalem, labelling the book as “an exercise in self-justification.” ] It was only write a self when I was halfway through reading Mordecai Richler's book [ This Year in Jerusalem ] that I began to understand why I was so uncomfortable with it: why its structure is all over the place, why its constituent parts hang so awkwardly together, and why the The University, whole seems pervaded by argumentative, an air of maudlin introspection. It is because in large measure it is an expiatory work, an exercise in. (The entire section is 790 words.) Edward Alexander (review date January 1995) SOURCE: Alexander, Edward. “Bad Trip.” Commentary 99, no. 1 (January 1995): 82-5. [ In the creative essays, following review, Alexander offers a negative assessment of Richler's “lazy” intellectual tone in This Year in how to sentence essay Thailand, Jerusalem.] Mordecai Richler first came to prominence by virtue of english creative essays The University, two novels set among the Jews of Montreal.

The first, Son of a Smaller Hero (1959), recounts the struggle of its hero, Noah Adler, to free himself from the prejudices and how to write limitations of the Jewish community; the creative essays The University of Nottingham, second, The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (1959), later made into a movie, is a rags-to-riches story, formulaic but also satiric (it was reviled in some parts of the Jewish. (The entire section is 2050 words.) Geoffrey Wheatcroft (review date 22 January 1995) SOURCE: Wheatcroft, Geoffrey. “Lingering Questions.” Los Angeles Times Book Review (22 January 1995): 4, 7. [ In the following review, Wheatcroft compares This Year in Jerusalem with Glenn Frankel's Beyond the Promised Land, calling them both “complementary and absorbing” books. ] Just 100 years ago, in writing article College, late 1894, a French army officer of Jewish extraction was arrested, tried and falsely convicted of treason. The trial of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, and english creative writing essays of Nottingham his formal degradation on a barracks square in front of a mob that shouted “Death to the Jews!” was witnessed by writing article College, the Paris correspondent of a Vienna newspaper. Months later, Theodor Herzl wrote. (The entire section is 1923 words.) Norman Ravvin (review date winter 1996)

SOURCE: Ravvin, Norman. “What I'm Doing Here.” Canadian Literature 151 (winter 1996): 191-93. [ In the following review, Ravvin contrasts the portrayals of Jerusalem in This Year in Jerusalem and Bronwyn Drainie's My Jerusalem, commenting that Drainie's work is the more journalistic and creative writing The University objective of the two. ] Amos Oz has written of the “Jerusalem stillness which can be heard, if you listen for it, even in the noisiest street.” Like the famous Jerusalem light, it may take very sensitive instruments to pick up such sublime sensations. To most of us, Jerusalem is a fascinating enigma—constantly in a research College, the news, beloved of english writing essays The University, Jews, Arabs, evangelists and. (The entire section is 1194 words.) D. J. Enright (review date 5 September 1997) SOURCE: Enright, D. J. “Larger than Life.” Times Literary Supplement, no. 4927 (5 September 1997): 21.

[ In the for money Thailand, following review, Enright discusses Richler's characterization in writing The University, Barney's Version and compliments the of California,, novel's lean narrative pace. ] [In Barney's Version ] Terry McIver, a former friend and fellow Montrealer, is about to expose Barney Panofsky as a wife-abuser, an creative writing The University, intellectual fraud, a purveyor of pap and probably a murderer. In reply, and notwithstanding his lawyer's opinion that McIver isn't far wrong, Barney resolves to set out the true story of his “wasted life”. His entrepreneurial beginnings were humble: importing French cheese and. (The entire section is 819 words.) Francis King (review date 4 October 1997) SOURCE: King, Francis. “A Highly Amusing Shambles.” Spectator 279, no. 8827 (4 October 1997): 47-8.

[ In the following review, King offers a mixed assessment of Barney's Version, arguing that “for all its defects, this unruly book about essay a thoroughly unruly life contains not a page without its laugh and not a paragraph without its smile.” ] The Canadian, Jewish narrator of english creative essays, this fictional memoir [ Barney's Version ], Barney Carnofsky, writing when he is how to write House, beginning to show the first insidious symptoms of Alzheimer's disease, is, as he himself puts it, ‘a shrinking man with a cock that trickles’. A cynic, philanderer, boozer, adulterer, and writing of Nottingham possibly a. (The entire section is 732 words.) John Bemrose (review date 13 October 1997) SOURCE: Bemrose, John. “‘Do Not Go Gently. …’” Maclean's 110, no. 41 (13 October 1997): 76. [ In the following positive review, Bemrose regards Richler's “bitter, ironic sense of mortality” as the central theme of Barney's Version.] Across the write article for money Thailand, land, Mordecai Richler's face is almost as famous as his books. The longish hair, usually collapsing around his ears. The sad-sack eyes. The University. The big schnoz. The older he gets, the more he resembles Golda Meir.

His readers love him, hate him, and often do both—not a bad measure of success for for money Bromsgrove School Thailand, a satirist. He has poked fun at english writing of Nottingham, everything from essay conclusion University of California, (UCLA) vegetarians to Quebec's language police, and in one notorious magazine article he. (The entire section is 909 words.) Mark Schechner (review date 29 December 1997) SOURCE: Schechner, Mark. English Creative Essays Of Nottingham. “Commissar of the Contrary.” New Leader 80, no. 19 (29 December 1997): 30-1. [ In the following review, Schechner praises Richler for creating “a delectable, side-splitting comedy of humiliation” in Barney's Version.] At his wedding—his second—Barney Panofsky confides to a friend, “I'm in love. For the first time in my life I am truly, seriously, irretrievably in love.” His wife of less than an hour overhears this and embraces him, “And so am I honey, and so am I.” But he was not speaking of her. Write Sentence For An International School Thailand. He was speaking of creative essays, a woman he had met minutes ago and is about to flee the wedding party to pursue—to persuade her that she, and.

(The entire section is 1797 words.) Kerry McSweeney (review date winter 1998) SOURCE: McSweeney, Kerry. “Endgame Tap-Dancing.” Canadian Literature 159 (winter 1998): 188-90. [ In the following review, McSweeney offers a stylistic and thematic examination of Barney's Version.] If old age is a shipwreck, as Charles de Gaulle claimed, then Barney Panofsky, the write article International School, sixty-seven year old narrator of Mordecai Richler's latest novel, is english creative writing essays The University, already on Cesar the rocks. A successful producer of schlock (Canadian-financed films and Canadian television series), Barney's mid-1990s life consists of english creative writing The University, too much single-malt scotch and too many cigars, bar talk, channel surfing, health worries, and how to write Hurtwood House sour reflections on his wife of thirty years having left him, on the. (The entire section is english essays The University of Nottingham, 912 words.)

Gene Lichtenstein (review date 25 January 1998) SOURCE: Lichtenstein, Gene. “Memory Loss.” Los Angeles Times Book Review (25 January 1998): 6. [ In the following review, Lichtenstein discusses Richler's body of work and asserts that only the persuasive Cesar Ritz Switzerland, final section of creative, Barney's Version lives up to the legacy of the author's oeuvre. ] When Mordecai Richler burst on the literary scene in 1960 with his novel The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz, there were cheers and hosannas from critics who had “discovered” him. Essay Conclusion Los Angeles (UCLA). No less a figure than Alfred Kazin pronounced: “It comes off brilliantly.” Actually Duddy Kravitz was Richler's fourth novel, but the unknown Jewish writer from Montreal. (The entire section is 1107 words.) Mark Steyn (review date February 1998) SOURCE: Steyn, Mark. “Boy Meets Girl in Montreal.” New Criterion 16, no. 6 (February 1998): 67. [ In the english writing essays, following review of Barney's Version, Steyn lauds Richler's caustic wit and vivid depiction of Montreal. ] The first time I met Mordecai Richler was through his son Noah, a BBC producer with whom I've worked a couple of times. Richler fils had invited me over to the family home in Quebec's Eastern Townships on the day after Christmas, when Richler pere presides over a vast snooker tournament of family, friends, and locals.

As things turned out, I could only manage the lowest score it's possible to get on a snooker table. But then most of the. (The entire section is 2344 words.) Thomas R. Edwards (review date 5 March 1998) SOURCE: Edwards, Thomas R. Essay Cesar Switzerland. “Pulling Down the Temple.” New York Review of Books 45, no. Creative Essays Of Nottingham. 4 (5 March 1998): 40-1. [ In the Сolleges, following review, Edwards explores the writing The University, role of memory and truth in how to a thesis sentence School, Barney's Version.] “I dislike most people I have ever met,” says the leading character of the creative of Nottingham, latest of Mordecai Richler's tales about smart, ambitious Jewish-Canadian men at war with their culture. Barney's Version is wildly comic, but as with most good satire those who make fun of others also mock themselves. Richler's anti-heroes suffer from a kind of write Hurtwood, Samson complex, as if compelled to pull down the temple even though they are inside it at the time. Barney's.

(The entire section is creative writing essays, 2987 words.) Meredith Dellandrea (review date fall 1998) SOURCE: Dellandrea, Meredith. “Stumbling on Pride.” Essays on Canadian Writing 65 (fall 1998): 187-92. [ In the following review, Dellandrea regards Barney's Version as an unreliable memoir, praising Richler's examination of the essay, “authority of english creative writing essays of Nottingham, autobiography and the reliability of academic truths.” ] With characteristic wit, Mordecai Richler explores the limits of writing conclusion Los Angeles, knowing in Barney's Version. The novel is written as a memoir. It is Barney Panofsky's version of the truth, Barney says, “about me, my three wives, … the nature of my friendship with Boogie, and, of course, the scandal I will carry to my grave like a humpback” (1). Essays The University. However, as he. (The entire section is 2204 words.) Mordecai Richler and Robyn Gillam (interview date 1998) SOURCE: Richler, Mordecai, and Robyn Gillam. Writing Essay Los Angeles. “Versions of the Truth.” In The Power to english creative essays of Nottingham Bend Spoons: Interviews with Canadian Novelists, edited by argumentative Cesar, Beverley Daurio, pp.

141-52. English Of Nottingham. Toronto, Ont.: Mercury Press, 1998. [ In the following interview, Richler discusses Canadian politics and culture, the differences between Toronto and Montreal, and the main thematic concerns of Barney's Version.] [ Gillam ]: Barney's Version plunges right in, in medias res, and there's this character who starts off with a diatribe against argumentative Сolleges Switzerland, an enemy of his, and this is creative essays of Nottingham, why he's writing the book, and then there's this incredible stream of reminiscences and all these tiresome little. (The entire section is 3292 words.) Steve Brzezinski (review date winter 1999) SOURCE: Brzezinski, Steve. Review of Barney's Version, by Mordecai Richler. How To Write Sentence Essay Bromsgrove International Thailand. Antioch Review 57, no. 1 (winter 1999): 104-05. [ In the following review, Brzezinski offers a laudatory assessment of english writing essays The University of Nottingham, Barney's Version, noting Richler's “savage wit and precisely delivered irony.” ] Known in this country principally for the coming-of-age novel The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz, Richler is one of Canada's most prolific and best-known writers. Write A Thesis Essay International. This new novel [ Barney's Version ], brimming with savage wit and precisely delivered irony, can only add to his already established reputation as a master of serio-comic fiction.

Barney Panofsky, now 67, his. (The entire section is 312 words.) Branko Gorjup (review date winter 1999) SOURCE: Gorjup, Branko. English Writing The University Of Nottingham. Review of Barney's Version, by Mordecai Richler. World Literature Today 73, no. 1 (winter 1999): 149. [ In the following review, Gorjup contends that Barney's Version is “Richler's most remarkable accomplishment to date, the conclusion University Los Angeles (UCLA), work of a great master who has come to understand the pitfalls of writing essays of Nottingham, writing, the incompleteness of the text.” ] With the publication of a thesis sentence for an essay Bromsgrove International School Thailand, The Apprenticeship of english essays The University, Duddy Kravitz almost four decades ago, Mordecai Richler created a new hero in Canadian literature. American critic Warren Tallman saw Richler's creation as a latter-day Huck Finn, possessing a consciousness begotten in the seedy jungles of North. (The entire section is 910 words.) Angela Robbeson (essay date winter 2001)

SOURCE: Robbeson, Angela. “Screening the Jury: Textual Strategy and Moral Response in how to an mla Hurtwood House, Mordecai Richler's St. Creative Essays The University Of Nottingham. Urbain's Horseman. ” Critique 42, no. 2 (winter 2001): 205-17. [ In the following essay, Robbeson analyzes the function of writing a research article College, various textual strategies in St. English Creative Writing Of Nottingham. Urbain's Horseman, contending that each strategy provokes a specific moral judgment. ] The theme of moral judgment that is implicit in Mordecai Richler's early novels is explicit in St. Urbain's Horseman. Unlike Noah Adler and Duddy Kravitz, Jake Hersh faces more than metaphorical conviction on figurative moral charges. He stands before judge and argumentative persuasive essay Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland jury, family and friends, media and. (The entire section is 6319 words.)

Anthony Wilson-Smith (essay date 16 July 2001) SOURCE: Wilson-Smith, Anthony. “Richler Remembered.” Maclean's 114, no. 29 (16 July 2001): 18-19. [ In the following essay, Wilson-Smith offers a brief memorial overview of The University of Nottingham, Richler's life and career. ] Say this, among many nice things, about Mordecai Richler: he knew how to how to write a self essay Glion Education have things both ways. Imagine how he might have portrayed, in one of his books, a wealthy, well-connected novelist with residences in the best part of Montreal's old Square Mile, a winter getaway around London's trendy Sloane Square and a summer refuge in that great wealthy Anglo-Quebec enclave, the essays, Eastern Townships. How To Write A Self Introduction. Such a protagonist might have been a self-centred, utterly humourless WASP who. (The entire section is 1127 words.) Benoit Aubin (essay date 16 July 2001) SOURCE: Aubin, Benoit. “Mordecai Was Here.” Maclean's 114, no. 29 (16 July 2001): 20-1.

[ In the The University, following essay, Aubin recounts his relationship with Richler and offers some reminiscences of Richler's life and career. ] Two different Mordecai Richlers passed away last week. CBC TV's The National opened its program on Tuesday with the death of a national icon and stayed with the story for several minutes; for Radio-Canada, the death of an important author came third in the lineup, after Slobodan Milosevic and Stockwell Day. The Montreal Gazette gave the news half of conclusion, its front page, with a huge picture; La Presse mentioned the story on page 1. (The entire section is 1216 words.) Mark Steyn (essay date September 2001) SOURCE: Steyn, Mark. “Mordecai Richler, 1931-2001.” New Criterion 20, no. 1 (September 2001): 123-28.

[ In the following essay, Steyn characterizes Richler as a politically incorrect writer, placing him within the context of Canadian and Jewish authors. ] Mordecai Richler died on writing essays of Nottingham July 3, and argumentative persuasive Cesar within minutes of the english creative of Nottingham, announcement there was a stampede from the grand panjandrums of “CanLit” to how to sentence Bromsgrove International School Thailand conscript him posthumously into the ranks of “Canadian novelists.” Mordecai was a novelist who happened to writing essays The University of Nottingham be Canadian, which isn't quite the conclusion of California, (UCLA), same thing, and he spent much of english essays The University, his life making gleeful digs about all the essay conclusion University of California,, great writers who were, as he put it, “world famous in. (The entire section is writing essays of Nottingham, 3585 words.) Brian Bethune (review date 24 June 2002) SOURCE: Bethune, Brian. “Sex and Contempt.” Maclean's 115, no. How To A Thesis Sentence For An International School Thailand. 25 (24 June 2002): 26. [ In the following review, Bethune debates the quality of Richler's first novel, The Acrobats, concluding that the english creative writing essays The University, work is argumentative persuasive Switzerland, “pretty good on its own merits and full of promise for the future.” ] In 1951 Mordecai Richler, 19 years old and burning with writerly ambition, left Montreal for a two-year stay in Paris and Spain. There he completed his first novel, The Acrobats, published in creative essays The University, 1954 and long out of print. Writing Article College. Now reissued by McClelland Stewart, The Acrobats takes place in Valencia in 1951, during the Spanish city's famous spring fiesta. A large cast of. (The entire section is The University of Nottingham, 548 words.) Anderson, Jon. “Surveying Canada's Joys and Woes.” Chicago Tribune Books (7 June 1992): 4-5.

Anderson praises Oh Canada! Oh Quebec! and provides background on writing a research article Lancing College the political and cultural situation in Quebec. Drabelle, Dennis. Writing The University. “Canada Now and Then.” Washington Post Book World 22, no. 20 (17 May 1992): 9. Drabelle asserts that Richler's insights in Oh Canada! Oh Quebec! are “obscured by the rancor he vents.” Hyde, Anthony. “Anatomy of Barney.” Canadian Forum 76, no.

866 (January-February 1998): 42-3.

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Anish Kapoor’s “Memory”: A Tale of Two Cities. October 21, 2009—March 28, 2010. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. 1071 Fifth Avenue (at 89th Street) New York City 212-423-3500. Anish Kapoor, Memory 2008. Cor-Ten steel, 47 x 29 x 15 feet (approximate). Installation at writing essays, the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. How To A Thesis Bromsgrove! Anish Kapoor’s Memory , a 24-ton metallic blimp measuring approximately 47 x 29 x 15 feet overall, is imposing at a number of levels. It requires the english creative writing of Nottingham viewer to use his/her own memory to create an image of the piece.

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It appears to be bursting the boundaries of the room, thereby dramatically increasing its scale. You can stand back at least 10 feet but you can’t walk around the edges because of their proximity to the wall. You’re temped to squeeze by, but it’s impossible. At the Berlin Guggenheim one also had to experience the piece from three different viewing areas, but they were visually more generous with lots of room to enter the spaces and walk right up the piece. As a result, “Memory” in essays The University of Nottingham, Berlin seemed like it had been installed whereas in New York it seemed to have landed. It looked more contained, more static and smaller in persuasive essay Сolleges, scale in Berlin than in New York. A third space within the creative essays The University of Nottingham sculpture, as experienced in both cities, seems to open to “A Heart of Darkness”, a setting where one is confronted with a void, a black aperture, where the massive work is suddenly revealed to be open and cave-like. The void greatly complicates one’s experience of “Memory”. First, it slows one down. Active exploration suddenly shifts to quiet meditation.

Physically, the strong impressions of massive materiality are undercut by what now seems to be the hollowness of the work. The void functions as a kind of reversible figure, shifting from a radiant black monochrome painting to a pitch-black terrifying abyss. A long sonorous echo gives further evidence of its deep space, one that draws you in (see Homi K. Bhabha#8217;s 1998 essay, #8220;Anish Kapoor: Making Emptiness#8221;). Such voids can be interpreted as an embodiment of the unconscious or a womb-like portal for creation. Overall, the how to write a self Of Higher void shifts one’s impression from the materiality of “Memory” to its immateriality, what Kapoor has referred to as a proto-object, built out of fragmented experiences that the viewer needs to integrate over time.

Freed of the weight of the Holocaust in its New York venue, the work becomes less of a dialogue between long and short-term memory and more a demonstration of psychologist J. J. Gibson’s proposition that memory can become collapsed into perceiving-acting cycles. What one sees is english creative writing The University of Nottingham informed by what one does; what one does is informed by what one sees— in a continuous loop. In this context, memory is an extension of argumentative persuasive essay Ritz Switzerland, perceiving, of the writing essays of Nottingham processional aspects of the write Bromsgrove Thailand sculpture, not unlike the effects of Richard Serra’s massive sculptures of Cor-Ten steel (such as those currently on view at the Gagosian Gallery in Chelsea). Both Kapoor and Serra create complex viewing experiences. English Writing Essays Of Nottingham! Apart from the more obvious similarities of massive pieces of persuasive Cesar Switzerland, rounded Cor-Ten steel, both are physically and psychologically disorienting. English Writing The University Of Nottingham! Both require you to conclusion University of California, Los Angeles explore the entire piece in order to create a mental image of the whole. And both have either a dark void or a closed in void-like area in the center. However, while the center of Serra’s “Blind Spot” (2002-2003) creates confusion and feelings of being trapped, Kapoor’s void offers the possibility, or better the aura (given the limitations of a museum setting), of a meditative experience. As one is writing The University of Nottingham drawn into Kapoor’s seemingly endless black hole, it is write article Bromsgrove Thailand possible to begin a mental journey of self-exploration. English Creative Writing Of Nottingham! Kapoor’s “Memory” is not as disorienting perceptually as Serra’s “Blind Spot” within which one loses track of how to write for an essay, how to depart. Yet, “Memory” is disorienting at another level—one has difficulty categorizing what one has seen and one’s relationship to that experience.

For example, is what I am experiencing fear, surprise, or exhilaration—or perhaps all three, as in a Hitchcock film like Vertigo? Anish Kapoor, Memory 2008. English Writing Essays The University Of Nottingham! Cor-Ten steel, 47 x 29 x 15 feet (approximate). A Self Introduction Essay Glion Of Higher! Installation at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York. Robert Smithson’s perceptive interpretation of the minimalist sculpture of creative writing essays The University, Donald Judd is useful here. His term “uncanny materiality” seems even more apt for Kapoor’s “Memory” sculpture than it was for Judd’s. Kapoor’s sculpture creates various dilemmas of inbetweenness. A Self Glion Of Higher Education! “Memory” is both material and nonmaterial.

It resembles both agents of destruction, a bomb or grenade, and english creative writing of Nottingham those most generative of forms, an write introduction Glion Institute Of Higher, egg or womb. We don’t think, however, that Kapoor meant for us to choose. In “Memory” opposite states can co-exist. Most generally, Kapoor’s work is about complementarity—it is this and that, rather that this or that. So, what is it that makes “Memory” memorable? In both cities, it defamiliarizes the act of seeing and leaves us feeling uncomfortable. We are not accustomed to being offered only english creative, partial views of an essay of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), object and having to use our eyes, our bodies, and our minds to construct an image of the whole. English Writing Essays! Furthermore, the parts we do see are alien—like a space ship with a seemingly endless dark hole. In Berlin, “Memory” is also engulfed in the force-field of the Holocaust and persuasive essay takes on added meaning.

Therefore, whatever Kapoor’s specific intentions, in Berlin, the piece reflects the intertwining of collective as well as individual memory.

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cobra law essay This guide is written for students who are following GCE Advanced level (AS and A2) syllabuses in English Language. This resource may also be of general interest to language students on university degree courses, trainee teachers and anyone with a general interest in language science. On this page I use red type for writing essays of Nottingham, emphasis. Brown type is used where italics would appear in print (in this screen font, italic looks like this , and is unkind on write sentence essay Bromsgrove International Thailand most readers). Headings have their own hierarchical logic, too: Main section headings look like this. Sub-section headings look like this. Minor headings within sub-sections look like this. What do the examiners say about this subject? In preparing this topic area candidates should study: conversational analysis; stylistic analysis of texts; historical and contemporary changes, as appropriate.

In particular they should examine: influential power (e.g. advertising, politics, media, culture) instrumental power (e.g. law, education, business, management).. One obvious feature of essays of Nottingham, how language operates in social interactions is its relationship with power, both influential and instrumental. Neither rule nor law, neither discipline nor hierarchy sanctions influential power. It inclines us or makes us want to behave in certain ways or adopt opinions or attitudes, without obvious force. It operates in such social phenomena as advertising, culture and writing article the media. (Strictly, we are not coerced into buying what the creative writing essays The University of Nottingham advertiser shows us, nor will we suffer any penalty for our sales resistance.) Instrumental power is explicit power of the sort imposed by persuasive Cesar Сolleges the state, by its laws and conventions or by the organizations for which we work. It operates in english writing The University business, education and various kinds of management. (In many, but not all cases, if we resist instrumental power, we will be subject to College some penalty or in trouble.) Note: instrumental here does comes from the same root as the english creative The University of Nottingham instrument we play to make music - they are related etymologically. But it has a quite different meaning today from instrumental as used to how to an mla Hurtwood House describe music. In your studying instrumental power, please do not for a moment think it has anything to creative writing The University do with the power of music.

In some spheres of social activity, such as politics or law, both kinds of power may be present at the same time: we are subject to laws (enforced by penalties), but some legal processes, such as trial by writing conclusion of California, Los Angeles jury, rely on attempts to persuade. Politicians impose laws, taxes, and bureaucratic systems (instrumental power) but seek to influence us to endorse their policies or turn out to vote for them (influential power). They may wish to influence us to use our collective power to return them to office, where they will use their executive power to direct some aspects of our lives - a curious paradox of our system of parliamentary democratic representation. (That is they get us to give them the power to tell us what to do and how to live. And we really do have the choice, collectively, as we show when we vote for a change of english writing essays The University, government.) In looking at how power is exercised through language, you should be able to refer to real examples you have found, and explain these texts. But you should also have a theoretical approach that will enable you to interpret language data you are presented with in an exam. Among other things, you should look at writing essay conclusion of California,, pragmatics and speech act theory, lexis and semantics (forms and meanings), forms that include or exclude (insiders or outsiders), structures (at phrase, clause and discourse level), forms of address, phatic tokens , as well as structural features of speech, which may be used to exercise or establish power.

And in some contexts, you will need to creative writing essays be able to show how rhetorical devices are used to influence an audience. Consider, for example, how conversational maxims may be adapted for reasons of expedience, rather than integrity. Does all power corrupt in language, as (according to Lord Acton) it does generally? Persuasive techniques in language. This guide looks at write essay House, the different subjects that examiners specify, but there are many techniques that are common to various contexts.

In this section you will find some guidance on english writing The University of Nottingham these. As well as looking for them in texts that you study, you may try to use them in texts that you produce - for example in original writing or editorial writing tasks. You may think of these primarily as devices in write a self Institute poetry, but they abound, consciously or unintended, in almost all spoken and many written texts, as when political reporters talk of a raft of measures. Satan (Andy Hamilton) in an episode (from 2001) of writing essays, Old Harry's Game (a radio sitcom set in how to write an mla Hurtwood Hell) remarks of one of the characters that he is shaking like a Millennium Bridge and of another that he has the willpower of Bill Clinton at a cheerleaders' convention. Writing? The first is a simile, the second a metaphor. Both were topical in 2000, and exploit assumed attitudes in article for money Bromsgrove International School Thailand the audience - that we know (and are amused by) the engineering problems of the creative of Nottingham Millennium Bridge (good to how to write essay look at, perilous to writing The University walk on) and the reputation of President Clinton. George W. Bush uses it for essay Ritz Сolleges, more serious effect when (in a State of the Union address) he describes the American faith in freedom and democracy as a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. You will find these techniques not only in grand and english serious contexts.

If you want to collect metaphors, listen to conclusion University (UCLA) soccer reports on english creative The University Radio 5 #45; some of the how to write a thesis sentence Bromsgrove School Thailand summarizers even have their own favourite stock of images. Stuart Hall can be relied on for these, whether he is creative The University using the dead metaphor School of Science for article Bromsgrove School, Everton FC or likening the soccer player Emile Heskey to a wildebeest. Careless speakers or writers may mix metaphors inadvertently, but some authors do it intentionally. Even Shakespeare does this, as when Hamlet proposes to creative of Nottingham take arms against a sea of troubles #45; presumably both the write essay Hurtwood playwright and the Prince realize that this is a strange action. The audience sees it as a metaphor of an impossible struggle. (W.B. Yeats used this idea in a poem called Cuchulain's Fight With the Sea ) Mixing metaphors can have comic effects, as when a character in Mel Smith's 1989 film, The Tall Guy , remarks of an attractive woman that: She's like a hungry leopard in full bloom.

In fiction, mixing metaphors in dialogue is a stock way to make the reader question the intelligence of a character. In other contexts it may come from the attempt to creative The University compare or relate things others have said. Many years ago, the late Enoch Powell, warning about the future effects of write essay Glion Institute Of Higher, large#45;scale immigration referred to rivers of blood running in the UK. In January 2003 the UK Home Secretary David Blunkett referred to Britain as a coiled spring. In Any Questions (a radio programme in which various experts answer questions from the audience), Jonathan Dimbleby, the host, first said, (summarizing others' comments), the country's like a coiled spring and this could spill over. then asked, [is] David Blunkett's coiled spring a tributary of Enoch Powell's river of creative essays The University, blood? Mr. Dimbleby appears to have seen that this is an how to an mla inelegant mixing of metaphor, but his main purpose was, in posing the english The University of Nottingham question, to relate the statements of write International School, others, who chose the creative The University of Nottingham original images. In rhetoric, a speaker may return to or develop a metaphor, to make an argument seem more compelling.

In John F. Write Essay Glion Institute Of Higher Education? Kennedy's 1961 Inaugural Address to the American people, we find an extended metaphor of lighting a fire to english writing of Nottingham give light to the world: The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it, and how to an mla House the glow from that fire can truly light the world. Another powerful technique is to refer to, or even quote, a powerful phrase that the audience may already know. English Creative Writing Essays? There is some risk in this, as the author needs to be sure that enough of the audience will be aware of the allusion or reference, unless the write essay School quoted phrase works well even if its origin is not known. In the lines quoted above, Kennedy seems to allude to the image, in St. Essays The University Of Nottingham? John's gospel, of Jesus as the light of the world. Ronald Reagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan, borrowed an image from John Gillespie Magee's poem High Flight to explain the disaster in 1986 when the Challenger space shuttle exploded:

We will never forget them (the crew), nor the essay conclusion University Los Angeles (UCLA) last time we saw them this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye, and slipped the surly bonds of earth, to touch the writing essays face of God. (Magee's poem begins: Oh, I have slipped the how to write Education surly bonds of earth and ends . I've. Put out my hand and touched the face of God.) In commenting on language data, you may find it hard to detect allusion #45; in a way it is writing The University almost impossible unless you know what it is to which the speaker or writer alludes. On the other hand, there are many contemporary texts in argumentative essay Cesar Ritz Сolleges which a young person has more chance of detecting a reference than an older one. English Creative Essays? A good example is a short feature (in the conclusion of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Guardian newspaper's tabloid supplement) that purports to english of Nottingham be an essay University of California, Los Angeles extract from a chat forum, but is english of Nottingham really a spoof.

In a January 2003 edition, one of the chatroom guests was supposed to how to an mla Hurtwood be Kim Howells, a junior minister who has been in the news for attacking modern art. He rebukes the other users of the english The University chatroom for College, their non#45;standard spelling, adding: I blame Mrs. Dynamite. The author intends the creative essays of Nottingham reader to be amused by the way Kim Howells tries to show an persuasive essay Cesar Сolleges awareness of youth culture, yet reveals his ignorance in changing the title from Ms to Mrs (Ms Dynamite, as younger readers will know, is the stage name of the rap singer Niomi McLean#45;Daley.) Three#45;part structures and lists are memorable and resonant in many kinds of text. Here are some examples:

And now abideth faith, hope, charity, these three. St Paul, 1 Corinthians 13.13 (King James Version, 1611) The grandest of these ideals is an unfolding American promise that everyone belongs, that everyone deserves a chance, that no insignificant person was ever born. George W. Bush, Inaugural Address, 2001 If you're a daring designer, a budding botanist or simply green#45;fingered, we want to hear from you. Alan Titchmarsh, Gardeners' World Live , BBC TV, June 2001. Lists of three are not so common in unprepared speaking, but you should look out for them in any language data you have to study. A useful rhetorical device is to creative The University repeat a key idea or phrase #45; this may seem crude, but it may lodge in the minds of the audience. We see it in argumentative Cesar Ritz Сolleges a speech made by Harold Wilson, during the creative writing essays The University of Nottingham 1974 UK General Election campaign: This election is not about the miners; not about the College militants; not about the power of the unions. Many writers, especially those who write for public speaking, will divide a sentence or clause into two balanced parts.

This was the basic principle of poetry in The University much of the ancient world. There are almost limitless examples in the pages of the King James Bible, which was translated to be a version for public reading. Sometimes the second half echoes or develops the first half #45; this is synonymous parallelism . Sometimes the two halves are opposed or contradictory, and this is antithetic parallelism or simply antithesis . We see this in some lines from George W. Bush's Inaugural Address, where he refers to US history as: . the story of a power that went into essay Hurtwood the world to protect but not possess, | to defend but not to conquer. In this example the thought of to protect but not possess, is carried further by to defend but not to conquer. In speaking these lines, there will be a pause after possess. For a more familiar example, look at the British National Anthem: God save our gracious queen, | long live our noble queen.

Antithetic parallelism or antithesis. The first example comes from a speech of Winston Churchill, in which he challenges the Luftwaffe (the German air force): You do your worst #45; and english writing we will do our best. A celebrated example comes from Kennedy's Inaugural Address (quoted above): And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. How To Essay Hurtwood House? | Ask what you can do for your country. And we can see antithesis in George W. Bush's images of english, America's faith in freedom and persuasive essay Cesar Ritz Switzerland democracy, first as a rock, then, by contrast, as a seed:

Through much of the last century, America's faith in freedom and democracy was a rock in a raging sea. | Now it is a seed upon the wind, taking root in many nations. If you wish to make a statement, it may be a good idea to ask a question or series of questions to introduce it. Creative Writing Of Nottingham? This is a common technique in an mla essay Hurtwood information leaflets, which often pose the question from the reader's viewpoint #45; How can I protect my baby from common infections? and so on. It can also be powerful in political rhetoric #45; How can a Labour government raise standards in education? leading to an exposition of the party's policy. For example, Welcome to the Labour Party , a booklet which gives information to creative writing essays The University of Nottingham new members, contains pages where statements are introduced by persuasive essay Ritz Сolleges Switzerland questions, each set out as a section heading, such as: How can I get involved?, What happens at local policy forums?, Do I have to go along to a local policy forum to have my say? and What is the english writing The University of Nottingham future?

Using the same initial consonant is a common ploy of poets and advertisers. It can be irritating if it's overdone, but makes lines quotable or memorable. Writing A Research? In George W. Creative Essays The University? Bush's inaugural speech we note f aith in f reedom and r ock in a r aging sea. Winston Churchill, in how to write a thesis sentence essay Bromsgrove International School his speech about the english creative writing essays The University Luftwaffe addresses the Nazi leaders and refers to the Nazi party as the g risly g ang who w ork your w icked w ill. You can create some good effects by using similar words but with slight differences of form and meaning. Andy Bodle in a listings article for a research article College, the film Rancid Aluminium does this by describing the film as part arthouse, part shithouse. Here are a couple of english creative writing essays of Nottingham, examples.

The first comes from Dorothy L. Sayers' Introduction to her translation of Dante's great narrative poem, Purgatory : Between the bishops who assure us that the family is the one and how to write a thesis sentence for an essay Bromsgrove International only seedbed of all the english creative writing essays of Nottingham virtues, and the psychiatrists who warn us that it is a hotbed of all the vices, we hardly know how to advise any child to enter upon how to introduction Glion Education the hazard of existence. The second comes from Vladimir Nabokov's essay On a book Entitled Lolita . Creative Writing Essays? This is an appendix to his novel of the same name. In the essay, Nabokov claims (or pretends) that he can admire but cannot emulate: . the accuracy of judgment of those who pose the fair young mammals photographed in magazines where the general neckline is just low enough to provoke a past master's chuckle and just high enough not to make a post#45;master frown. Broadly speaking, advertisers persuade their audience to adopt attitudes to lifestyle, products and services. It is rare to find advertising that seeks to influence explicitly or directly. A Research Lancing? Less rare are advertisements in which the link to a product or service is implicit or ambiguous. Consider a TV advertisement (May 2000) which depicts Aimee Mullins a model (who is also a paralympic athlete, sprinter, and double below#45;the#45;knee amputee) preparing for the finale of english creative writing The University of Nottingham, a fashion show for Alexander McQueen #45; the advertisement was made for an Internet service provider, FreeServe, but did no more directly to how to write an mla Hurtwood House advertise FreeServe than show the company name and essays The University logo. There is an oblique link to argumentative persuasive Cesar Сolleges Switzerland the name of the english creative writing The University of Nottingham company in the idea of the model's freedom to run with the wild animals depicted in the fashion show. At the same time the argumentative Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland advertiser skilfully links a possibly un#45;sexy technical service with ideas of english writing essays The University of Nottingham, beauty, fashion and positive discrimination. Advertising has a lexicon, which may change over time, but is fairly stable #45; new, improved, proven and other qualifiers are seen as reliable.

David Ogilvy in Confessions of an Advertising Man (quoted by essay Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland Shirley Russell; Grammar, Structure and Style , Oxford, 1994, p. 177) identifies a basic lexicon of essays The University, qualifiers such as: new, good, crisp, better, fresh, natural, fine, free , and of verbs such as: buy, give, taste, go, look, feel and use . Writing A Research Lancing? Special registers (technical, scientific or pseudo#45;scientific) may be used for appropriate products. Torque, BHP, valve, ABS for english creative writing essays The University of Nottingham, cars or keramides, pro#45;B, hypoallergenic in personal hygiene products. A Research Lancing College? Look out for special lexical uses according to product, image and target market. Pot Noodle #45; everything else is just pants. Pants is (or was in 2000) fashionable as a mild term of disapproval among young people (especially young men) who may be supposed to want food which is inexpensive, quick to make, and needs no special preparation or utensils. Advertising borrows and english creative essays adapts structures and forms from texts of all kinds. Many broadcast advertisements are dramatic, with a narrative conducted through dialogue. Article For Money Bromsgrove International School? Others may show a narrative by images alone, to the accompaniment of music and/or a voiceover. Can you think of examples? Puns, alliteration, assonance, onomatopoeia, rhyme and other kinds of comic or poetic wordplay are common in advertising. English Writing Essays Of Nottingham? Ambiguity, irony and allusion (reference) are also powerful techniques.

Advertising often makes use of short texts #45; whether in print or broadcast media #45; where every word has to sentence for an International Thailand work hard (in this respect very much like poetry). It is very common for the advertiser to use words that belong to some other special lexicon, as if to english establish a rapport with the target audience. So a 2002 television advertisement for John Smith's Bitter (beer) opens as if it were a broadcast of an how to write essay Glion international diving event (the advertisement appeared shortly after the 2002 Commonwealth Games). After divers from other countries execute technically perfect dives, the British diver jumps in, making a great splash and english The University of Nottingham almost losing his trunks, to rapturous applause and perfect marks from the judges. The commentator utters the phrase, which is the slogan of the essay Cesar Ritz campaign: top bombing. The non#45;standard noun, bombing , suggests something which is typically male, fun and demotic #45; it is creative writing essays of Nottingham unpretentious, aimed at writing, people who have traditional ideas of bitter as a down#45;to#45;earth and blokeish drink, in contrast to continental lagers or drinks with other social pretensions. It is very easy to find special lexis in any advertisement. But in explaining how it works, you will need to think about english writing essays The University how far the an mla essay Hurtwood copywriter is using a particular register, or feature of style, which in turn is related to the product brand and image, and the attitudes or values of the audience. Look at the following examples of extracts of text from adverts, culled from a quick look through a selection of newspapers and magazines (the product and the producer appear in parenthesis after the advertisement text): The British Airways Sale. Go on.

Take off. (Reduced#45;price flights/British Airways) Imagine a healthier fitter you. (Tanita body fat monitor) Move Mountains. (Sim City 4 PC/Dixons) Not so much a price as an invitation. English Of Nottingham? (Flights to Spain/Iberia Airways) Every year 39,200 women are newly diagnosed with breast cancer. (Medical insurance/AXA PPP healthcare) Go Mobile. (Voyager laptop computer/Evesham Technology) A win, win, win, win, win, win situation. International Thailand? (6 months' free business banking/Barclays) Demon slashes all broadband set#45;up fees. (Broadband Internet service/Demon) Not even the taxman can catch it. (Saab 95 saloon) We don't need your tears we need teachers urgently (Voluntary Service Overseas) Lose weight, the creative writing The University of Nottingham healthy herbal way. (Weight Loss Aid/Herbal Concepts) Great tasting nutritious supplements. (Build#45;Up Nutrition/Nestle) Helps reduce and overcome smoking at your own pace. (NicoBloc) Always on call. (Day Night Nurse) Technology with style. (DWF614SS dishwasher/Smeg) It only takes a few seconds to realize a diesel can have Va Va Voom. (Renault Clio) Kurt Geiger for her. Paul Smith for him. Tax#45;free prices for you. (Airport shopping/BAA) Authentically French mellow cheese. (Cheese/Port Salut) Having your own ringtone saves you answering someone else's call. (Call Sign/BT) Look for the lexical words ( nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs ). What ideas do they suggest? Does the text suggest the ideas of how to for an essay Bromsgrove School Thailand, good value (low price), of creative essays The University of Nottingham, style, status, sophistication, convenience, fitness and so on? The Iberian Airways advertisement repeats the idea found in many airline ads of good value, while at the same time suggesting something personal about visiting Spain, through the noun invitation #45; which we associate with parties and celebrations. The advertisement for BAA's Airport shopping works in a similar way: it refers to the low (tax#45;free) prices, yet targets its audience very precisely by naming the fashionable brands on sale #45; if we do not know what Kurt Geiger or Paul Smith makes, then the advert will pass us by. There is also an assumption that the brands appeal to the different sexes, which works in that the writer of this guide recognizes Paul Smith as a designer of formal clothes, but does not know Kurt Geiger. (The advertisement also has a three#45;part structure to writing conclusion of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) point up the special lexis .) The advertisement for BT's Call Sign service will appeal to creative of Nottingham a wide audience, but until we know what a ringtone is, we are not likely to wish to have our own.

The meaning of the noun is introduction essay Institute Of Higher self#45;explanatory #45; but here it moves from its original context of use (mobile phones) to the related context of fixed telephones #45; so the advertisement targets householders rather than predominantly young people with spending money. The Barclays advertisement uses a phrase that is a cliché or buzzword among business people: a win#45;win situation implies an arrangement that benefits people at either end, and challenges the received wisdom that if X gains then Y loses. So in using the phrase, the advertiser keeps to a register familiar to the business customer, while printing the english writing of Nottingham adjective six times to indicate the number of months for which the free offer runs. Technology with style is one example of a pattern familiar here #45; that suggests that the write article for money Thailand product has two things that the audience may think to be normally contradictory or oxymoronic (the idea of having your cake and eating it). Sometimes the opposition is of price and quality (as in creative The University of Nottingham the claim that good food costs less at Sainsburys). Writing Article College? Here the advertiser contrasts functionality and creative writing of Nottingham aesthetic appeal, and claims that the brand in question (Smeg) has both of these at Hurtwood House, once. English Creative Essays Of Nottingham? Similarly the advertisement for NicoBloc combines the Cesar Сolleges Switzerland idea of efficaciousness (it works) with that of its not being too difficult for creative writing, the would#45;be non#45;smoker to stop smoking. This appears in the suggestion of reducing (consumption) before stopping altogether. The verb overcome has connotations of victory in battle, rather than the breaking of a habit or a simple change in behaviour. An Mla Essay Hurtwood? These is probably very apt, since the target audience for this advertisement may well have an The University extreme view, and see the attempt to article for money International Thailand stop smoking as akin to a great military action. (The advertisement comes from Healthy Times a magazine distributed, free to readers, by the retail chemists UniChem #45; so the audience has already been targeted.

Advertisements for products that help people stop smoking do of course appear in more general contexts, as in TV advertising.) This same contrast also appears in the Renault Clio advertisement #45; but here the lexis is more explicitly making the distinction, in creative The University diesel and Va Va Voom . The adjective diesel has immediate denotations of the known properties of how to write Hurtwood, this engine type #45; the engine has a longer life, is more dependable and english writing The University of Nottingham gives better fuel economy, but takes longer to reach high speeds. The advertiser wants to suggest that the argumentative Ritz car nonetheless has a combination of creative essays of Nottingham, style, flair, power and youth appeal (not normally associated with diesel engines). Rather than use any of these words, Renault has invented its own compound abstract noun #45; Va Va Voom . This is alliterative, and has an interesting sound #45; being quite memorable. The advertisers develop the image by association with, for example, the soccer player Thierry Henry #45; who is French, but lives and works in England, and is exceptionally talented and how to write an mla essay Hurtwood athletic. Writing The University? At the same time, M. Henry is shown in situations that suggest a caring and feminine side #45; with pets, sitting at home among soft furnishings, for instance. In this way the advertisements appeal to potential drivers of both sexes, and are highly specific to one make and how to write a thesis for an International model of car. By inventing the word, the advertisers are able to adapt it so that it carries exactly the english creative writing essays of Nottingham suggestion they wish to make to University of California, Los Angeles the audience #45; it should have no prior negative connotations . One of the advertisements playfully suggests that the new term is part of the standard English lexicon by creative essays asking what is the French for Va Va Voom ? Does advertising have distinctive grammar ? Yes #45; in several ways. First, advertising, like poetry, often allows the author more licence to depart from standard forms than in other kinds of text. And second, it makes use of short forms, of what Professor Crystal calls minor sentences . Essay Ritz Switzerland? There is a connection with pragmatics , therefore, in that the creative writing The University advertiser makes very great assumptions about the audience.

It is acceptable to puzzle or intrigue in ways that would not be at all appropriate if the audience really depended on the advertisers' information. One very common technique is for the author to set nouns and noun phrases or verbs on their own, where the reader or listener supplies the missing elements by conjecture #45; rather as in interpreting notes, so that, for instance, does what it says on the tin is understood as this product meets the claims that are printed on the side of the tin. This form may sometimes but not always resemble the forms used in headlines, so that it is especially suitable for adverts in newspapers. Here are some examples taken more or less at random from a trawl through some daily newspapers (January 2003): Happy New Rate Deals to remember Currys sale/Free delivery plus Buy now pay 2004 EMAIL, INTERNET TEXT MESSAGES Winter welcome Free servicing for 3 years Summer seats on sale new year new fares The confidence to succeed Precious metal for precious little. On their own, these do not tell you how typical they are.

A casual mental count suggests that, in essay conclusion University Los Angeles these newspapers, the advertisements in which the first line (or text nearest the top of the display box) is not a grammatically complete structure (sentence or main clause) outnumber those that are complete in a proportion of at english creative writing The University of Nottingham, least three to one. But a more complete survey from a bigger sample would be a suitable task for research. Among the few complete structures are: i want extra MONEY Apply now How do you see yourself? Look at the clues Travel with Eurotunnel from just £5. In the 1960s advertisers would often use grammatical conversion , taking a brand name (a noun) and using it as adjective, adverb or verb . How To A Thesis For An School? This tendency has recently returned as in these examples: There is no attempt to alter the form of the word to correspond to its grammatical category, such as by adding an affix like #45;ish, #45;ic or #45;esque , nor of english writing essays of Nottingham, using an extra word: that's so like Suzuki how like Heineken. In the UK, there are some state controls on what advertisers may or may not claim about article for money their products.

Advertisers, therefore, often exploit the possibilities of connotation (suggested meaning) rather than strict denotation (stated meaning) and imply that products have various merits, without saying so explicitly. One common way of doing so is to creative writing of Nottingham use pseudo#45;technical lexis or scientific names for everyday things. However, this is not desirable in all contexts. How To A Self Introduction Essay Glion Of Higher? In cosmetic and pharmacological products, most advertisers will use scientific lexis to suggest efficacy, as in these examples: Perle de Caviar draws the essential elements of english writing essays The University of Nottingham, long#45;lasting beauty and a youthful complexion from the essay University of California, (UCLA) depths of the ocean. trace elements, amino acids, mineral salts, iodine and plankton. Combining a perfect balance of these precious elements, each Perle de Caviar product provides an writing The University intense thalassotherapy treatment designed to hydrate and writing a research article College regenerate. Regime elevates the use of cosmetics to something complex, while the english writing The University of Nottingham ® symbol suggests that there is something technically sophisticated in the product. It may really simply denote the registration of the trade name to protect against a thesis, misuse. This pseudo science is not simply found in the advertisements proper but in the joined#45;up marketing, so that people who apply and demonstrate the english creative products are beauty therapists #45; which may imply similar learning, academic qualifications and how to write introduction essay Institute Education status to, for example, speech therapists or physiotherapists.

The beauty therapist wears a white garment like a lab coat, implying some kind of english essays The University, likeness to a pharmacist. Compare the examples above with one designed for a scientifically qualified readership. This is an essay Ritz Сolleges advertisement for english, Xalatan a 0.00#37;5 eye drop solution of latanoprost, licensed for use in March 2002, and advertised in The Pharmaceutical Journal of November 2002. The advertisement includes details of nine references to the product in published scientific sources, followed by detailed prescribing information, divided under standard headings such as Presentation, Indication, Dosage and Administration, Contra#45;indications, Precautions, Side Effects, Interactions, and information about the drug's effects in Pregnancy, Lactation and for Driving, Overdosage, Pharmaceutical Precautions, Legal Category, Packaging Quantities and Basic NHS price and details of the Product Licence Number and how to Hurtwood House Holder . This degree of information distinguishes licensed pharmaceutical products from beauty treatments. In the latter case, the advertisers might wish us to english creative writing essays The University of Nottingham believe that Laboratoires Garnier and the Ponds Institute are comparable to medical research institutions. In the write article for money Thailand west, Ponds appears to english essays The University have dropped references to the fictitious institute #45; a search on the Web leads to some amusing spoofs, though the Ponds Institute is persuasive Ritz Switzerland still used in advertisements in the developing world. Writing Of Nottingham? A register of pharmaceutical laboratories in France (at does not show Laboratoires Garnier under entries for the letter g. In relation to food and drink, however, advertisers are usually keen to stress its naturalness. So while the product packaging will list all additives, flavourings and Lancing colourings, advertisements will identify the brand and creative writing The University basic food content, as in Filippo Berio/The World's Finest Olive Oil/Filippo Berio/Olive Oil/Pure Genius #45; the brand name and the principal ingredient appear twice, along with the adjective pure, to writing University of California, suggest the idea that there is nothing but the natural oil in the bottle that the advertisement depicts.

A full#45;page advertisement for Cobra beer, in Sainsburys Magazine for January 2003, shows lots of blank space, a small photograph of english creative essays, two bottles of Cobra, the essay Web site address, and this text: If you like Cobra,/drink Cobra and The less gassy bottled beer that puts you under no pressure. There are some exceptions to this rule of thumb, however #45; vitamins and mono#45;unsaturated fats, for example #45; which advertisers do sometimes mention. Advertisers occupy the spaces where we are typically attending to writing essays other things #45; watching television, reading or browsing a magazine on the way to persuasive Ritz Switzerland work, looking at posters on an underground train, platform or escalator, or from a car, bus or bicycle. They will try to appeal to all our senses and different language processing faculties at the same time. Creative Writing The University? It is quite common for write School, a TV advertisement to english The University of Nottingham feature any or all of these at writing conclusion of California, (UCLA), the same time: musical track, sound FX, voiceover, dialogue spoken by writing of Nottingham character or celebrity in or out of role, static text, moving text or text spelling out letter by write an mla letter on screen, with or without extra graphic embellishment . What we do, if anything with these, may vary from english writing The University person to person #45; but is something one can research. You can do this, for example, by showing advertisements to people (categorizing the people by whether they have seen the advertisement before, and how often, as well as by other things like sex and age), then asking them whether they think the advert contains an example of each of the kinds of text that the researcher has identified. (It is possible to article Lancing College add some that are not there, as distractor questions, to eliminate some kinds of respondent.) A very good pragmatic approach is to consider the position and english creative essays The University of Nottingham viewpoint that the audience is being asked to adopt. This can be something very simple, as in an assumption that we all want to save money. This assumption is very widespread among advertisers and marketers.

Regularly someone telephones me to ask if I would like to save a given figure on my utility bills. My stock response is to say that I do not wish to save this amount (or even a lot more) to how to introduction Glion change something with which I am currently content, thinking it a fair price for writing essays, a reliable service. Bromsgrove International? This often leads the caller to question whether I really mean what I say, and to revert to a script that stresses this potential saving. By no means all advertisements make this assumption. Others assume that the reader or listener has anxieties about his or her self#45;image, and that he or she can become more attractive by wearing the watch or clothes advertised, or driving a different car. An extreme (and offensive) example was a TV advert that featured a young man mounting a supermarket trolley and racing it around a supermarket. A female voiceover spoke the phrase: Inadequate car. (The advert is offensive in creative essays suggesting that the choice or ownership of conclusion University of California, Los Angeles, a marque of car is the measure of a human being.) Various advertisers of mobile phones try to writing persuade existing owners that they need to replace a model that is writing article not stylish and writing essays The University a likely cause of ridicule, as in an advertisement series (shown on writing University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) UK television) for Phones4U. In these adverts the comedian Paul Merton speaks a voiceover: We'll find the right phone for you. Does the advertiser consider how far the audience may resist the notion that there is a right phone for us? A more objective approach to pragmatics might be to consider what grammatical person or form of address advertisers use, if they try to speak directly to us.

Do they use imperatives (Look at the clues), do they make statements (We don't serve lobster in the directors' dining room) or do they plant noun#45;phrases (Free servicing for 3 years) and leave us to work out english writing essays of Nottingham, what to do about these? Discourse structures in advertising. Advertising is highly derivative and imitative (if not parasitic or plagiarizing) in the genres, text types and structures it uses. Write Sentence For An Bromsgrove School? In effect, any kind of text that exists for any other purpose may be the blueprint for writing, an advertisement. (This is not a one#45;way relationship: dramatic narratives and comic animations often borrow structures and techniques that first appeared in advertising. And there are many examples of television or print fiction that started life as advertisements #45; the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles in the 1990s or Torchie the a research Lancing College Battery Boy in the 1960s.) A very common general approach (for any broadcast medium and writing essays of Nottingham cinema) is to article College create narratives #45; which may be self#45;contained or episodic. English Creative Essays The University? While the advertiser may not wish to point out that these are narratives, this is not always the a thesis Bromsgrove School Thailand case.

A series of advertisements for the BMW Mini car uses the format of stories with a plot consisting of three or four statements, read as voiceover with accompanying action #45; the subject of each sentence is usually New Mini, and each example ends with: The end. It's a Mini adventure. At the opposite extreme would be a series of advertisements produced by the agency McCann Erickson for Nescafe's Gold Blend brand of instant coffee. This campaign ran from The University November 1987 to 1993, containing twelve episodes released at the rate of one or two a year. The agency produced a compilation of the first eleven episodes before screening the conclusion. The story was adapted as a romantic novel, entitled Love Over Gold . An even longer#45;running series featured the OXO couple Katie and Philip, in a series of writing, domestic scenes. The Gold Blend series may have prompted the advertisers of the Renault Clio to make a series of advertisements featuring a French father and daughter (Papa and Nicole) into a more coherent narrative, ending with a wedding, which sends up the classic film The Graduate . In this advertisement, two entertainers, then at the height of their popularity (Vic Reeves and Bob Mortimer) played the jilted groom and the successful old flame who runs off with the girl. A Channel 4 poll showed this series to be the most popular of all UK TV adverts, while other studies have claimed that the series was the most successful in terms of the audience's ability to identify the essays of Nottingham product advertised. As styles of TV broadcast have developed (say lifestyle programmes or reality shows), so advertisements have moved to emulate them. So we see the home makeover and DIY show mirrored by advertisements for Homebase, in which Neil Morrissey and Lesley Ash appear as a couple (loosely resembling the characters they played in the sitcom Men Behaving Badly ) while post#45;watershed documentaries about sexual behaviour clearly have inspired the how to write an mla campaign (starting in 2002) for Pot Noodle (It's dirty but you want it) in which a young man visits various clubs and english creative writing essays of Nottingham asks young women in underwear or bondage gear whether they do Pot Noodle, or in which a young woman (seemingly a girlfriend) accuses the young man of indulging in his Pot Noodle habit. You can find many advertisements by going to the Web sites of the various agencies, or looking for named directors of commercials.

But two big portals worth visiting are: As a critique of advertising, you should look at Adbusters , at write article Bromsgrove, The features of political language vary, as do its purposes. Where politicians interact with society generally, their purposes may be, to persuade voters with a party loyalty to turn out to vote; to move a floating voter's party allegiance, or to make us adopt general political or social attitudes, so we support a given policy. Politicians may also use particular language forms when answering journalists' questions. Where politicians engage in language interactions with other politicians, they may use other particular forms #45; either loosely or under the rule of an arbiter, such as the Speakers in the UK House of Commons and the US House of Representatives. And finally, a contemporary feature of political language use is what is known as spin #45; providing information to the media in writing essays The University of Nottingham such a way as to favour a desired interpretation, not explicitly stated. Persuasive language techniques, especially in speech, take their name from the Greek noun for a professional speaker, rhetor (the Latin equivalent is orator ). Many of article for money School, these techniques are found in english creative written records of write Institute, speeches in the ancient world #45; such as Jesus' use, in Matthew's and Luke's gospels of parable, antithesis and patterned speech which even survive translation into creative writing essays English: Blessed are those who mourn, | for they shall be comforted.

Blessed are the pure in article Lancing heart, | for they shall see God. We have similarly ancient records of political speeches, such as those of Demosthenes, that show the use of techniques that are as effective today, as they were in the past. Max Atkinson, of creative of Nottingham, Oxford University, suggests that political speechwriters consistently rely on a range of powerful techniques: alliteration, allusion, antithesis (inversion), asking questions and suggesting answers, lists (especially of three items), metaphor (especially extended metaphor), parallelism, parenthesis, repetition and redundant questioning. To see these in action, you should look at examples of speeches written for conclusion (UCLA), politicians, and find out how these work. Obtaining example data for this purpose is very easy. You can use the official record of the UK House of Commons. (This is called Hansard after Thomas Curson Hansard, who began producing reports unofficially, and put his name to the record in essays of Nottingham 1829.

Hansard's reports were so accurate that they became the standard record on merit. At the start of the 20th century the write International UK government established an Official Report. It dropped the creative of Nottingham Hansard name, but popular usage preserved it, and in 1943 the name was officially reinstated, even though the a thesis sentence for an essay Thailand report now has no connection with the Hansard family.) Hansard 's reports are available in print and on the World Wide Web, as are records of creative essays The University, proceedings in the parliaments of many other countries (which also use the name Hansard ). In the UK, the how to write for an essay Bromsgrove International Thailand BBC has a digital television channel ( BBC Parliament ) that broadcasts debates and meetings of writing The University, select committees #45; from writing which you can make recordings and transcripts. The federal government and state governments in the USA also publish the text of speeches, such as the President's Inaugural Address and State of the Union speeches. Once you have found your transcript, what can you do with it? One exercise is to look for rhetorical techniques in action. Essays The University Of Nottingham? Consider this extract from a speech made by the late Harold Wilson, the Labour leader, before the 1974 UK General Election: This election is not about the miners; not about the militants; not about the power of the College unions: it's about the disastrous failure of three and a half years of Conservative government which has turned Britain from the english writing essays path of prosperity to the road of ruin. What is write a self introduction Institute Of Higher Mr.

Wilson doing here? We find. repetition of the writing essays The University of Nottingham formula not about, and antithesis between is University Los Angeles (UCLA) not about and english essays it's about. Path of prosperity and road of ruin repeat the same form, use alliteration and how to essay House are related metaphors. In John F. Writing Essays The University? Kennedy's Inaugural Address from January 20, 1961, we find an extended metaphor (of lighting a fire to give light to the world) and a concluding antithesis: The energy, the faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it, and the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for you. Ask what you can do for how to introduction essay Of Higher Education, your country.

The last two sentences use many of the same lexemes , but transpose (switch) the subject and the indirect object. (You can find the whole text of the speech and an audio recording [Real Audio] to download at the JFK Library and Museum, hosted by the University of Massachusetts Department of essays, Computer Science at: For a humorous allusion, consider Margaret Thatcher's: To those waiting with bated breath for how to an mla essay Hurtwood House, that favourite modern catchphrase the creative The University of Nottingham 'U#45; turn', I have only writing Lancing College, one thing to say: You turn, if you like; the lady's not for turning! There is wordplay on the homophones U#45;turn/you turn, and a reference to Mrs. Creative Essays Of Nottingham? Thatcher's Iron Lady nickname, while the final phrase is argumentative persuasive Cesar Сolleges Switzerland a painful pun on the title of Christopher Fry's play (about a witch): The Lady's Not for Burning . Ronald Reagan's speechwriter, Peggy Noonan, borrowed an image from John Gillespie Magee's poem High Flight to explain the disaster in 1986 when the Challenger space shuttle exploded: We will never forget them (the crew), nor the last time we saw them this morning, as they prepared for their journey and waved goodbye, and creative essays The University slipped the surly bonds of a research, earth, to english essays touch the face of God. Now look at these longer extracts (from which some of the examples above come), and see if you can find other ways in a research article which the english creative writing essays writer (not the same person as the speaker, usually) uses specific techniques to achieve particular effects. In the how to Hurtwood House long history of the world only a few generations have been granted the rle of creative writing The University, defending freedom in its hour of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this responsibility; I welcome it.

I do not believe that any of us would exchange places with any other people or any other generation. Article For Money International Thailand? The energy, the of Nottingham faith, the devotion which we bring to this endeavour will light our country and all who serve it, and article School Thailand the glow from that fire can truly light the world. And so, my fellow Americans, ask not, what your country can do for creative writing The University, you. Ask what you can do for write introduction essay Education, your country. I'll tell you what happens with impossible promises: you start with far#45;fetched resolutions; they are then pickled into a rigid dogma cold. And you go through the years, sticking to that: outdated, misplaced, irrelevant to the real needs. And you end in the grotesque chaos of a Labour council #45; a Labour council #45; hiring taxis to scuttle round a city, handing out redundancy notices to The University its own workers. I'm telling you now: no matter how entertaining, how fulfilling to short#45;term egos #45; I'll tell you and you'll listen #45; I'm telling you, I'm telling you #45; you can't play politics with people's jobs and people's services. Parliamentary and article International School unparliamentary language. In the UK Parliament, a range of creative essays, special language features marks proceedings.

These include: a special lexicon and forms of address, disallowing personally abusive epithets use of special structures Parliamentary privilege #45; freedom from liability for slander rules for taking and holding turns procedures for supportive and explicatory interventions submission to essay the arbitration of the chairman or woman, the Speaker and Deputy Speakers. David Crystal ( Cambridge Encyclopedia of the english essays The University of Nottingham English Language , p. 378) suggests also that maxims of conversational theory do not apply to parliamentary dialogue. Other participants or commentators do not assume that speakers are telling the truth, are speaking clearly or with relevance. This may need some clarification. In some ways, debate is like social conversation #45; people speak in Cesar Сolleges sequence, respond to each other and develop ideas. And outside of writing essays of Nottingham, occasions when MPs adopt ritual enmities (Prime Minister's Question Time or the presenting of a new draft bill, say), the write Thailand speakers may follow cooperative rules and observe conversational maxims. But they have other motivations than the success of the creative writing essays of Nottingham conversation #45; and (in pragmatic terms) may want the exchange not to be successful, that is in coming to an accommodation. For an exhaustive discussion of how different theoretical models usefully explain parliamentary discourse, have a look at Chris Christie's Politeness and the Linguistic Construction of Gender in Parliament: An Analysis of Transgressions and Apology Behaviour at essay Of Higher, In this article, Chris Christie effectively qualifies Professor Crystal's assertion, as she does see what happens if one uses models from Pragmatics (specifically politeness theory) to explain Parliamentary exchanges. The UK parliament has a s pecial lexicon #45; something you will find in the political systems of many states. This includes terms denoting the institutions, practices and officials of the parliament #45; things like bench (back bench, cross bench, front bench), Black Rod, speaker, under#45;secretary, whip (noun and verb).

This lexicon is very extensive (there are many guides available to explain the meanings of writing essays The University, terms). Some are descriptive and more or less self#45;explanatory, such as: Committee of Los Angeles (UCLA), Selection, Disclaiming a Peerage and Prime Minister's Questions (though here we need to know that the questions are asked of or to, but not by, the Prime Minister, who gives the The University answers). Others are opaque #45; we need to know more information in order to understand the meaning, as with: 1922 Committee, Another Place, Chiltern Hundreds, Hansard and how to a thesis International I Spy Strangers . You can find explanations of these and other terms on english The University various A to Z guides, but if you want to know the meaning of these particular terms they are as follows ( Hansard is explained above): Below is a list of further words and phrases which have a special meaning in the context of Parliament. How many do you know? Check the BBC's, or Parliament's own, A to Z guide to find out what they mean. Go to: Any hours motion. Below the introduction essay Glion Institute Of Higher gangway.

Cabinet Office Secretariat. Chairman of Ways and Means. Chancellor of the Duchy of english writing essays The University of Nottingham, Lancaster. Chancellor of the exchequer. Chief whip (government) Clerk of the Parliaments. Contempt of write Bromsgrove International, Parliament. Crossing the essays The University of Nottingham Floor.

Disclaiming a peerage. Early Day Motion. Father of the House. I Spy Strangers. Journal of the Commons. Leader of the House. Early Day Motion. Father of the House. I Spy Strangers. Journal of the Commons.

Leader of the House. Lord Privy Seal. Orders in Council. Orders of the Day. Parliamentary Private Secretaries (PPSs) Points Of Order. Prime Minister's Questions. Printed Paper Office. Private Bill Office. Private Member's Bills. Private Notice Question.

Public Accounts Committee. Public Bill Office. Readings of Bills. Recesses and Recalls. Serjeant at Arms. Ten Minute Rule Bill. Forms of how to write a self Glion Of Higher Education, address may confuse the outsider. Simple forms include my honourable Friend, the honourable Gentleman/Lady or the honourable Member for essays The University of Nottingham, Finchley . These denote an MP simply #45; other members are supposed to know who represents each constituency (electoral area). A friend is usually of the same parliamentary party as the person who uses this epithet.

If the MP is a Privy Councillor (usually a former minister), then he or she is the right honourable Lady or Gentleman . If the MP is a barrister (as many are) he or she may be a learned Lady or Gentleman . Article International School Thailand? The Speaker and Deputy Speaker chair debates. English Essays The University Of Nottingham? Remarks should be primarily addressed to them, using the Switzerland formula Madam/Mr. Speaker or Madam/Mr. Deputy Speaker. For example, here is a comment from Hansard for 21 January 2003, in which Mike O'Brien (Parliamentary Under#45;Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs) refers to english creative essays of Nottingham Ann Clwyd: I pay tribute to the work of my hon. Friend the Member for Cynon Valley. (In Hansard hon. Writing Lancing? is the standard abbreviation for honourable.) Directly addressing another person with the second person pronoun (You) is english essays The University of Nottingham disallowed and may earn a rebuke from the argumentative persuasive essay Сolleges Switzerland Speaker, as in writing this exchange: Mr. Prescott: You might be #45; perhaps that is new new Conservatism #45; but you should have a chat to your mate on the Front Bench. Mr.

Deputy Speaker: Order. I am sorry to stop the Secretary of State's speech, but I would be grateful if he would use the correct parliamentary language. In this case the Speaker signals his disapproval and calls Mr. Prescott to attention with the write article International School Thailand call: Order. This is technically a command , even though on occasions a rowdy House ignores it initially. English Of Nottingham? Interestingly, he says nothing about the mate on the Front Bench #45; so Mr. Prescott might have escaped rebuke, had he said, the honourable member for North Wiltshire should have a chat with his mate on the Front Bench, the [right] honourable member for X. Mr. Prescott's error is to use second person you, and speak directly to for an Bromsgrove Mr.

Gray. However, in choosing among possible alternative forms in a given context, speakers may illustrate pragmatic rules or principles #45; perhaps using a polite formula to cover hostility or aggression, while in a naturally friendly exchange a less explicitly courteous form may be acceptable. Writing The University? Also, even when a speaker refers to his or her honourable friend, he or she is writing a research article Lancing College technically addressing the Speaker, while the honourable friend is in writing essays the third person. In the write introduction essay Of Higher House of Commons speakers may assert things which elsewhere would allow others to sue them for libel #45; this is Parliamentary Privilege . On the other hand swearing (of almost any degree) and calling other speakers liars are formally disallowed. The Speaker asks any Member who breaches these rules to withdraw the remark. Of Nottingham? If he or she persists, the Speaker may ban the offender from the House for a given period. How To An Mla Essay? The Commons has other rules defining contempts, such as giving false evidence to a Select Committee, threatening MPs about how they vote , and offering bribes . To vote, members go through a lobby. If they support a motion, they go through the Aye (yes) lobby ; to oppose it, they enter the No lobby . To give the result, the english writing Speaker states the number of votes for Aye and No , and says that either the Ayes or the Noes have it. In a debate, the Speaker of the House calls MPs to take a turn . The holder of the turn may allow another speaker to write Bromsgrove Thailand interrupt his or her speaking. The new would#45;be speaker may ask, Will you give way? The MP who is speaking may agree to writing this, using the form: I will give way.

Etiquette dictates that the new speaker should make a brief contribution before allowing the first speaker back. This is a highly formalized version of turn taking. Of course, on many occasions, the person who has the floor will refuse to allow the how to write a thesis for an Bromsgrove International School Thailand interruption, for reasons of time or policy. MPs may not read aloud written speeches during debate, though they may use notes. They are not allowed to read newspapers, magazines and creative writing essays letters.

They may not make use of visual aids, such as diagrams and maps. Short slogans, like those in advertisements, often mark the speech of write a self essay Institute Of Higher Education, politicians answering questions from english creative writing journalists (or their opponents). These are repeated in such a way as to persuade the listener of their truth or reason. For example, in defending policies which apparently increased unemployment in the UK but raised the value of the currency, Mrs. Thatcher coined the phrase: There is no alternative. There obviously were alternative suggested policies but denying their existence made them seem impractical.

Whether or not they were really impractical is not the linguist's concern: we are interested in the linguistic means by which Mrs. Thatcher justified her dismissal of them. A very simple but effective sound bite is the name New Labour . New is well known as an effective qualifier in House advertising, and essays of Nottingham the UK Labour Party in the 1990s was keen to distance itself from the how to House (supposedly unelectable) Labour Party of the 1980s. Constant repetition of the name made it stick. Creative Writing Essays The University Of Nottingham? The Conservative Party, then in government, attacked New Labour in the 1997 election campaign with the slogan New Labour, New Danger. Arguably, this reinforced the idea that Labour had changed and helped the party win the election. (broadcast, print, new technologies) While any text may be influenced by the maker's preconceptions and world view, many media texts arise from an explicit intention of an mla House, promoting given values or attitudes, whether sincerely, because the author believes in them, or cynically, to creative writing essays The University of Nottingham attract an audience. As students of language, you have no interest in this #45; your concern is the language features in which these attitudes are embodied or expressed . Ritz Switzerland? It may be helpful not to think of these preconceptions as bias, since this implies disapproval. They are, rather, the speaker's or writer's outlook, assumptions or editorial stance . You should be aware that certain media texts proclaim and creative essays The University of Nottingham admit these underlying attitudes #45; opinion columns or current affairs broadcasts explicitly adopt such a stance.

But others, such as reporting, may aspire to neutrality, yet display the write a thesis sentence for an essay International Thailand author's value systems by choices of lexis or current metaphors . For example: Do we read of refugees, economic migrants or asylum seekers ? Are they bogus , and english writing essays The University of Nottingham are they passing through open (or about#45;to#45;be#45;open) floodgates ? (How often do you meet floodgates in how to essay a literal, rather than metaphorical sense?) Are those who resist the state guerrillas, freedom fighters or terrorists ? Does a writer introduce ideas of legality to creative writing The University of Nottingham confer (dis)approval, so legal intoxicants (alcohol, tobacco) are distinguished from those that are illegal, and so referred to as drugs . New media texts may reveal very different attitudes, but in similar ways #45; they, too, have distinctive lexis and metaphors. Writing A Research Lancing College? Individual expression rather than central editorial control may permit greater language diversity. Perhaps influential power is less monolithic, but appears in essays The University of Nottingham trends and fashions. There is plenty of persuasive Cesar, space for critics #45; the english creative writing World Wide Web abounds with sites that proclaim why X sucks , where X is write a self introduction Institute Education a powerful business corporation.

Lexical choices reflect shifts in subjective meaning or connotation or contemporary attitudes, so that they carry a sense of english of Nottingham, approval (approbation) or disapproval (pejoration). Write? They may also be euphemistic , appearing as an acceptable substitute for some word or phrase that the writer or speaker thinks too strong or direct #45; as when the inadvertent killing of soldiers by their own allies or compatriots is friendly fire, and the killing of creative writing The University, civilians is collateral damage. Political correctness (as a linguistic rather than social attitude) represents an attempt to find neutral terms. While PC language is often a subject for ridicule, it arises from a sensitivity to the connotations or implications of more common forms. It is write an mla essay Hurtwood worth paying attention to recurring forms #45; how often does anyone talk about addressing the issues (in the loose sense of talking about things or sorting them out). Context is very important #45; some areas of the english creative essays of Nottingham media will use traditional and quite literary forms to suggest seriousness and how to write a self introduction essay Glion Education dignity, as, say, on Alistair Cooke's Letter from America , broadcast on BBC Radio 4. Presenters of children's programmes on creative essays The University of Nottingham BBC1, BBC2 and CBBC will use forms closer to an mla essay those of english writing of Nottingham, everyday speech among young people #45; or will they? Perhaps this is argumentative essay Сolleges Switzerland generally true, but they will have their own taboos #45; so they will not normally refer to sex, violence, gambling and creative writing The University of Nottingham alcohol, or swear and blaspheme. We can apply the theories of pragmatics to language use in the media #45; but should note some special features of how they work. A simple example might be a political interview, broadcast on radio or television.

What the writing Lancing listener or viewer might miss is an understanding of how far the english of Nottingham speakers are aware of the wider audience , and write article Bromsgrove International Thailand how far the questions and english answers are, or are not, spontaneous, as the interviewee may have seen them before the interview is recorded. Another complicating factor is the effect of how to an mla essay, editing , where an interview is recorded for later broadcast #45; this can remove the sense of two or more people observing the cooperative principle or exhibiting politeness . In the case of broadcast texts generally, one should consider the relationship between the essays The University author or the publisher and the audience. Take news broadcasts, for example. We are familiar with the writing a research Lancing convention of a newsreader's sitting down at or behind a desk, but not all newsreaders do this. Some newsreaders greet the audience: Good evening, here is the news, while others say This is [name of news organization] news or simply: The six o'clock news from the BBC. Even things like the newsreaders' clothes may be important #45; suits and ties are common (for men) in the west and in the developing world, but in some countries newsreaders wear traditional or culturally significant clothes. This is something very easy to study: record a series of english writing, broadcasts on radio and write Bromsgrove School Thailand TV over english creative writing essays The University, a day or two #45; if you have digital TV and radio, you can record bulletins from a much wider range. Then study each and note down how they do certain things.

For example: How many are there #45; one, two, more and of what sex? What do they wear? Do they sit, stand, move, stay still and a thesis sentence International so on? Do they acknowledge each other? How do they introduce reports from other correspondents? How do they address the unseen audience? Do we see filmed footage (on TV news)?

Do we see any graphic images or captions? Do we see text giving people's names? These are just a few ideas #45; you should be able to think of many more. Once you have noted down the essays of Nottingham information, you might like to Los Angeles arrange it, say in a table. Now you can consider what, if anything, this tells you about the creative essays of Nottingham kinds of interaction going on. To take one example Channel 4's seven o'clock (p.m.) news bulletin on Saturday February 8th, 2003 carried a report on the pay rise awarded to the Lord Chancellor, Derry Irvine. To show the value of this rise (£22,000), the broadcaster used on#45;screen graphics showing what this amount would buy (a teacher's salary, so many bottles of Bromsgrove Thailand, claret and other things), while displaying an animated image of a fruit#45;machine bearing the name: Derry's Jackpot. Leaving aside the english writing The University question of article for money International School Thailand, how the viewer may feel about the news story here, we may consider how the use of these techniques affects that view.

The image of the creative of Nottingham fruit machine may be significant to some parts of the audience, but may give offence to how to write a thesis sentence for an essay Bromsgrove International School others, who disapprove of gambling. We may ask whether the broadcaster should use any images or animations to english writing essays The University suggest the writing conclusion University Los Angeles idea of an unmerited benefit and whether the fruit machine animation makes the story clearer. Should the english essays The University story be left to speak for itself? Or is some kind of editorial slant inevitable? We can apply similar considerations to other spoken media texts #45; say the way in which a programme host talks to a guest on how to write a self introduction essay Glion Education a phone#45;in quiz or similar activity. Writing The University? On a TV game show, for example, we may see the host's supporting the participants to avoid their being unduly humiliated or, worse, not keeping to the programme's format and structure. Recent broadcasts, of the so#45;called Reality TV genre, are quite different #45; in many of these, there is a thesis sentence for an essay Bromsgrove International School Thailand no such protection or nurturing of the participants. Instead they are subject to insult by the hosts or other participants. It is relatively easy to study grammar , by looking at The University, very specific features of language data such as verb tenses and pronoun choices #45; these can become conventional in certain forms or genres, and harden into a kind of style.

So, with broadcast news, we will be familiar with the argumentative Сolleges forms in: Fifty#45;three people died when their bus collided with a train in central China early this morning. The clause structure is subject + verb (past imperfect tense) + adverbial . This is an effective model or structure because the creative essays The University of Nottingham grammatical subject also signals the subject of the story (the victims of the crash), then says what happened, then gives information about how and why it happened, or further information about the circumstances of the how to introduction Education event. If we look at. The Prime Minister flew to english creative writing essays of Nottingham France this afternoon for a meeting with President Chirac. we can see that this is more or less the how to essay Institute Of Higher Education same structure. Some kinds of text, like reportage, use formulas like this, because the writers work at english creative essays The University, speed and are meant to conclusion publish the story rather than create literary work. Do persuasive media texts have distinctive grammatical forms that reinforce their tendency to persuade? Perhaps.

What might these be? Well, I have just used one in english creative writing essays The University of Nottingham the two previous sentences #45; taking what might be declarative sentences and recasting them as questions and answers . Qualifiers can be used, as their name implies to qualify the meaning of verbs and nouns #45; so that our view is affected #45; which really takes us back into semantics and stylistics . Are there distinctive structures for writing Lancing College, persuasive texts in the media? First, we may want to identify what such persuasive media texts might be. Writing? Some are easy to name, as they are explicitly intended to alter our view #45; as with party election or political broadcasts, editorials in newspapers and campaigns, such as the how to a self Institute Of Higher campaign in 2001 by the News of the World (a UK Sunday newspaper) to english introduce Sarah's Law (the equivalent of the argumentative essay Ritz Сolleges US Megan's Law, here named after murder victim Sarah Payne), such that families could know the identities of convicted paedophiles living near them. Other texts may have less obviously persuasive qualities #45; such as a documentary broadcast that leads the audience to some kind of english writing The University of Nottingham, position or view. How To For An Bromsgrove International Thailand? Sometimes the text will seek to persuade through ridicule, using the structure and style of some other kind of text, but subverting it. What are the structures for of Nottingham, these texts?

Editorials may be a few hundred words in length #45; a headline, a simple introduction, an elaboration of argument with examples, leading to a simple conclusion. While the lexicon and style may vary according to the target readership of the newspaper, the structure is more or less the same for different kinds of write for money International School, newspaper. English Creative Writing? The party election or political broadcast in the UK is write a thesis essay limited in time to a few minutes #45; so the writers have developed structures like extended advertisements. The extract below comes from a 1994 party political broadcast for essays, the Labour Party, which had a running time of 4 minutes 40 seconds: [Opening shot: Time#45;lapse photography of the sun rising over the Palace of Westminster] TONY BLAIR: [voice#45;over] It is an honour to lead this party. I accept it with excitement.. [cut to shots of Blair reviewing papers in the back seat of a car] .. but also with humility, and with a profound sense of the responsibility that is placed upon me. [cut to someone adjusting the rear#45;view mirror to show Blair] [Cut to Radio Two studio] VOICE#45;OVER: [station identifier] Radio Two #45; Jimmy Young.

JIMMY YOUNG: And in the studio with me now, the new Leader of the Labour Party, Tony Blair. Good Morning Tony. TONY BLAIR: Good Morning Jim. [Cut to vox pops] VOX POP 1: Tony Blair has a sense of how to write essay Hurtwood, vision. VOX POP 2: You know what they say about politicians, they never look you in the eye. English Creative Writing? He certainly does. VOX POP 3: I feel I can trust him. [Cut to Blair talking to camera; caption The Rt.Hon. Tony Blair MP Leader of the Labour Party]

This is more complex than a newspaper editorial. The editorial has a common theme, but also may have a reasonably clear argument, using examples to illustrate it. In the how to a self Institute broadcast, there is english creative writing The University still the common theme, but there is not a simple or clear line of argument, rather a series of elements that are assembled loosely. The writer relies on persuasive Cesar Switzerland the audience to creative essays The University of Nottingham supply the connections, so that we do not have an obvious sense of someone's telling us what to think. The image of the sunrise and the recording of Tony Blair's accepting the write a self essay Of Higher leadership of the party both suggest the idea of change #45; in 1994 the Labour Party was trying to persuade the english writing essays of Nottingham British electorate to return Labour to power.

We can see how the writer first shows Tony Blair or has him speaking on a voice#45;over, but does not have him speaking straight to camera until some way into the broadcast. The party political broadcast must have quite a distinctive style, since it lends itself to comic treatment. A search on the World Wide Web will turn up many spoof broadcasts, including several Monty Python Sketches. The extract below comes from a broadcast (November 2001) of the ruling People's Action Party of Singapore and published on the party's Web site at It is write International School Thailand far simpler than the Labour broadcast above: In two days' time, you will be casting your votes. English Creative Writing The University? Before you vote, ask yourself this question: in this economic downturn, who can help you find jobs? Nobody can say when our economy will recover. The US is fighting a war against terrorism #45; in Afghanistan and in the US itself.

If the war goes badly, the University of California, (UCLA) global recession could drag on. Singapore could then take one and a half to two years to recover. This is why I have called for elections now, as I want your strong mandate for our programme to save and create jobs for you. JOBS TODAY, JOBS TOMORROW. I am especially concerned for creative writing The University of Nottingham, older Singaporeans. Writing Lancing? They have families to look after. They find it harder to find and fit into new jobs. This is true of most older workers, factory workers, office workers, professionals too. How do we help you? First, let us try to save existing jobs.

Next, let us help retrenched workers find new jobs. Thirdly, for the longer term, we must create more jobs. This broadcast is no more than a speech #45; we do not (on the Web document) have an indication of what might be shown on TV or if it is a radio broadcast only, but it seems to be the text of a speech by the leader. In the Labour broadcast, Tony Blair eventually speaks about the english creative writing essays economy and jobs #45; but here the speaker moves straight to write article Bromsgrove School these subjects, without any real preliminaries. There is no suggestion of how to create jobs, but the noun is repeated many times. The notion of creative writing essays of Nottingham, a canon of essay University of California,, classic works of art has not gone away, but is in creative tension with alternative contemporary visions. We cannot readily call these modern since this label has been appropriated for works from the writing early 20th century, and post#45;modern smacks of the 1980s. Writing A Research Article Lancing? Some works, hailed in english creative The University the moment of publication or exhibition as masterpieces, are quickly forgotten. Nevertheless, most developed societies allow space for vigorous public debate about art and culture.

And we are comfortable with a distinction between popular, lowbrow or commercial music, writing and so on, and serious, classical or highbrow art. Culture, especially popular culture, exerts a massive influence on how people think and see the world. And this is reflected in a range of language forms. When we need comfort, our friends tell us that they are or will be there for us. Unless we are pedantic we do not ask where there is. Soap operas and advertisements present us with tidy versions of real life scenarios and the language forms we need to understand or endure them: a lexicon for our troubles and problems, helpful phrases and even extended discourse structures or paradigms for coping. Have a good cry we are told, because we have to grieve (a metaphor of pressure which must be released before it does harm, often appears). You owe it to yourself or because I'm worth it express positively attitudes that seem far less attractive when called selfish or narcissistic. The fictional trial of writing essay conclusion University of California,, a character for english creative writing essays, a topical crime (rape, wife beating, road rage) may provoke intelligent reflection leading to greater understanding. But it may be so plausible and convincing that it replaces proper public debate. What kinds of persuasive texts might there be in the general category of culture?

These would include satire, polemical writing, poetry and theatre . While some legal processes are used to enact power, others are devised to argumentative Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland allow lawyers to creative writing persuade a judge or a jury, within an adversarial system of persuasion. This has its own distinctive language forms, and is much more constrained by write article for money Bromsgrove International rules than other kinds of persuasion #45; so much so that failure to obey the creative essays The University of Nottingham rules can overturn the decisions of a court. David Crystal ( Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language , p. Write A Self Essay Institute Of Higher? 374) distinguishes between the language of the legislature (Parliament) which institutes a legal text (sets down the law in written form) and the language of the judiciary (law courts and judges) which interprets and applies it. The law also has its own lexicon: this preserves archaic terms, perhaps to promote respect for its processes or intimidate. While this continues to be acceptable in criminal law, in english creative essays April 1999 civil courts saw a change in their lexicon.

A Mareva injunction (which prevents the sale of assets during litigation) became a freezing injunction , in camera became in private , a minor or infant became a child , a plaintiff became a claimant , inter partes became with notice , ex parte became without notice , while pleading was replaced by statement of case . These changes were made on the recommendation of Lord Woolf, the College Master of the Rolls , whose own title reflects the english creative writing essays The University of Nottingham archaic origin of much legal lexis. The Norman Conquest established French (which included many Latin loanwords) as the language of law and politics. Later, Latin was used, and English only replaced Latin as the language of English law in the 17th century. For this reason Latin phrases abound ( mens rea, ab initio, certiorari, ex parte ) as do French loanwords ( lien, plaintiff, tort ). To show the difference between areas where one is under obligation and those where one has some room to choose, the law makes use of modal verbs such as may, must, shall . To establish its general applicability the law uses pronouns such as all and whoever or generic nouns such as vehicle or person . To simplify or modernize the language of the essay Hurtwood law seems desirable, but may be problematic. Creative The University? Ordinary people may have a better sense of understanding and writing essay of California, (UCLA) therefore more respect for writing essays The University of Nottingham, laws expressed simply and plainly. But some apparently obscure terms may have been coined precisely to express subtle or unusual meanings or distinctions. And if the law uses the common register, then an updated term may itself become obsolete, as its common meaning misleads people about its legal sense. How To Write A Thesis For An Essay? Fiona Kerr, who used to practise law, gives this example of what she calls the difference between lawyer#45;speak and normal language: The general public use murdered interchangeably with killed, no#45;one ever says he manslaughtered him.

Consider also what most people mean when they refer to personal property as compared with my understanding of it as everything which isn't land (roughly speaking). When Mrs Bloggins does her own will and leaves her personal property to the nice lady who looked after her cat whilst she was in hospital, she may intend to leave her collection of tin ornaments and a few skirts, but is she intending to also bequeath her savings to said nice lady or did she intend to leave them to her son, along with the house? Only a Judge can decide and by english of Nottingham the time he has, there won't be any savings left for the winning litigant to spend #45; and the loser could be in persuasive Ritz Сolleges Switzerland debt. Law is often expressed in lengthy sentences marked by english creative writing of Nottingham lists of items to ensure that nothing is missed out which the law should cover, so we know later whether or not it applies in a certain case. Parentheses or subordinate clauses appear frequently to clarify a preceding clause. Alternatively a number may refer to a footnote, where a phrase is how to a self Glion Of Higher Education more extensively or unambiguously defined. Creative The University Of Nottingham? Legal documents are notorious for hyper#45;complex syntax , with several degrees of write, subordination of english writing, clauses . They also allow, often without clarifying punctuation, lengthy adverbial phrases , such as: And any such release settlement discharge shall as between you and the undersigned be deemed to have been given or made upon the express condition that it shall become and writing a research College be wholly void and of no effect if the assurance security or payment on english writing essays of Nottingham the faith of which it was made or given shall be void. While literary texts (such as Dickens' or Hardy's novels) suggest that in earlier times ordinary readers could process complex syntactic structures, and understand their meaning, modern readers or listeners may find this troublesome.

Shorter and how to a thesis sentence for an essay School less complex syntax is easier to understand, while some features of punctuation, typography and english layout can all aid comprehension. It is not so much that lawyers in the past did not know how to write School Thailand make themselves understood. They perhaps never intended to do so. Advocacy , as practised by barristers in criminal courts, can be contrasted with advertising. In one case, there are no rules, while approaches change and are expedient #45; advertisers do whatever works. Advertisers are constrained by some standards and english creative essays The University a code of practice. But advocates in the law courts are subject to very precise rules about how to an mla Hurtwood evidence, kinds of argument and turn taking, among other things, in a forum (the court) over english writing The University, which a judge presides. As regards sequence, barristers must outline a case and then present it, with the counsel (advocate) for the prosecution going before the defence counsel. The prosecution must prove its case beyond reasonable doubt; the defence, as barristers and judges often remind juries, does not have to prove anything #45; it is enough to discredit the prosecution or show that the essay University of California, (UCLA) prosecution has not proved the case beyond reasonable doubt. Each side may question its own witnesses, but the other side may subsequently cross#45;examine (question) them. Writing The University Of Nottingham? Each side must sum up its case, and the judge must also sum up the whole proceedings and advise the jury about how to arrive at a self Of Higher, its verdict.

In asking a question of a witness, an advocate is not normally allowed to invite the witness to agree with a version of events the advocate has described #45; that is, by asking leading questions. Creative Essays The University Of Nottingham? In some state court systems of the writing essay of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) USA the opposing counsel may call out Objection and the judge may direct the The University of Nottingham jury to disregard what they have heard. In the UK, judges make such rulings directly without the protest of Objection. In order to make the trial fair to the accused, the prosecution may not refer to any crimes of which he or she has been convicted in the past, though the defendant may voluntarily disclose this information. Writing A Research Article Lancing College? (This is changing in english creative writing The University English law.) And each side must disclose to the other, before the trial begins, the evidence it intends to use in the trial. Unlike everyday argument or conversational disputes, each side makes its case largely without interruptions from the other side.

Each may take as long as the write article for money Bromsgrove International School Thailand evidence it presents allows #45; it is up to the judge to decide if something is The University of Nottingham not relevant and stop a line of questioning or argument. An Mla House? The closest thing to interruption is the chance to challenge a witness's testimony in cross#45;examination. The advocates do not at any point interrupt each other. But both sides may, in examining a witness, interrupt the witness where an answer is not forthcoming or seems open to writing essays of Nottingham challenge. The witness may be intimidated, but is not obliged to respond instantaneously. The judge may restrain an advocate who uses an inappropriate manner or asks questions that seem not relevant to a line of questioning. The fundamental principle of advocacy is so familiar that its strangeness is often overlooked #45; that is, that experts in argument (advocates) compete, under known rules, to secure conviction or acquittal for writing essay conclusion, another person. On occasions, in both criminal and civil trials, people do represent themselves #45; but this is very rare. Thus David Irving (2000) presented his own (civil) case in suing another historian who had called him a Holocaust denier. (He lost the case, so anyone may now describe Mr.

Irving as a Holocaust denier, without risk of libel.) A jury has a difficult task, in attending both to creative writing the detail of a witness's evidence or an advocate's interpretation, as well as to the whole case presented by either side. How To Introduction Essay Glion Education? Although the jury ultimately decides on matters of english writing essays The University of Nottingham, fact, the judge will help them by explaining matters of law. Thus, a verdict may depend not only on what the accused did or did not do, but also on the offence of which he or she is write article Bromsgrove School accused. English Writing The University Of Nottingham? In England and how to a self introduction Wales, for english creative writing essays The University of Nottingham, most criminal offences, a verdict of guilty is represented as beyond reasonable doubt. Write A Self Essay Glion Of Higher? The presiding judge may help the jury with the meaning of reasonable. In Scotland, as well as verdicts of guilty or not guilty, a jury may bring in a verdict of not proven. This allows them to indicate their uncertainty #45; the accused is not convicted, but does not walk away clear of suspicion. Essays The University Of Nottingham? According to Fiona Kerr: A guilty verdict means that the conduct complained of must have matched the a research article Lancing College conduct covered by the charge and that the conduct must be proved beyond reasonable doubt. In studying the language of the english creative writing essays law, you may think primarily of those who speak and writing essay conclusion University Los Angeles (UCLA) write it, but be aware also of english essays The University, listeners or readers.

In the case of a jury, a very unusual kind of article for money School Thailand, listening (and reading) is required. English The University Of Nottingham? The jury is a thesis for an essay International Thailand able to english make requests of the argumentative essay Cesar Ritz Сolleges judge, for example, to look again at a record of some part of creative essays, a trial, but its discretion is limited by what the argumentative persuasive essay Cesar Сolleges judge allows or thinks appropriate. Jurors may make notes, and keep these with them for the duration of a trial #45; these notes stay in court or the jury retiring room (a special room where jurors meet to english creative writing essays The University consider a verdict, or in some kinds of break during a trial). Once the jury reaches a verdict, these notes are destroyed. One interesting expression of courtesy is the write an mla legal fiction that every judge knows all the english creative essays The University law. A barrister who wishes to essay conclusion University correct a judge on english of Nottingham a point where his or her knowledge is not complete may use a form such as, As your lordship well remembers.

Fiona Kerr notes that: the Barrister may well be supplying the Judge's ignorance but everyone pretends that every Judge has an encyclopaedic knowledge which is frankly unrealistic. Their Lordships have to a thesis Bromsgrove International deal with every aspect of Law and there's no way they know that much, so Counsel tells them the arguments and the law as if they know it already, even if they don't. The barrister supplies the relevant information but effectively offers it to the judge for endorsement in a manner that signals deference. Creative Writing Essays The University? This may be the origin of with respect. At some point in article International Thailand the past it may have been necessary for a speaker to exhibit real deference while correcting a superior - since discourtesy would have led to a loss of honour or reputation, as well, perhaps, as advancement that would be in the gift of the person to whom the respect in question was due. Nowadays the function of english creative writing, with respect (an implied correction by one with better information) remains, but its literal denotation (showing respect to argumentative persuasive Сolleges Switzerland one who deserves it) may be lost. Beneath the The University of Nottingham explicit or official rules that govern the way barristers present a case, are some common tactics (some of which you may have observed in article Bromsgrove International School fictional representations as well as any real trials that you have attended). English The University Of Nottingham? Fiona Kerr observes:

There's the day#45;to#45;day code of insults with which you are probably familiar, such as with respect (i.e. you're wrong), with great respect (i.e. you are completely wrong) and, ultimately with the greatest respect (i.e. you are an utter fool). There are power structures in education, from nurseries to universities, but these are often concealed from those who are subject to conclusion them. Schools often produce codes or summaries or lists of rules, but these may have only a local or relative force, since the school itself is subject to laws that protect the interests of different groups. We can perhaps helpfully distinguish educational institutions (other than officer training colleges for english essays of Nottingham, the police and essay of California, Los Angeles armed forces) from the armed services, which have explicit published regulations, a clear hierarchy of command, and tribunals to resolve the creative writing few disputed cases that defy this system. In recent times some UK schools and universities may have required parents or students to give assent to a code of rules or home#45;school agreement, but there is no universal model for how to an mla essay, these, and few parents or students would accept that attending a school has the same force in imposing rules, as joining the army or police service. Educational establishments have some powers of creative writing The University of Nottingham, last resort, such as temporary or permanent exclusion but otherwise have very much to derive their power from the consent of those who are governed. Traditionally, schools have exerted power on their students, but we can also see how power lies with the pupils in many situations #45; at the least because most of article for money International, what teachers and parents expect to happen can do so only with some assent from the students. What happens if one adult (usually one, though in classrooms today there may be several adults present) spends an hour #45; or several hours in a primary classroom #45; in the company of between twenty and thirty young people? Experience suggests that there is a massive variety of of Nottingham, results. In one case, the adult imposes his or her will by various means on the students, who comply with the adult's lead or, if they defy it, find themselves excluded or subject to some kind of sanction. For An Essay International School? In another case, the children react to the adult in writing The University of Nottingham subversive and confrontational ways (sometimes more actively than the same children would be if left unattended in a classroom).

In yet another case, the adult and children achieve a kind of equilibrium, where each takes turns, gives way or takes the argumentative persuasive essay Ritz Сolleges Switzerland lead, and all work productively towards an agreed set of goals, or give outward assent to the majority who wish to do so. There will be other situations, and maybe the same group will at different times approximate more to one position than another #45; so a class that meets a new teacher for the first time may do things to test his or her character; while over time, a class may come to like and english creative writing of Nottingham respect a teacher, so that he or she can, on occasion, appeal to persuasive essay Ritz Switzerland a perceived obligation. Students can be very effective in nurturing and supporting an adult, where they judge that this is appropriate. Many of the causes of these relationships are found in creative writing essays the personalities of the teachers and the learners #45; but they also lie clearly in the nature of the language interactions that occur between adult and pupil. And we can study these objectively. For example, we can investigate. the frequency with which a request takes a given form #45; direct imperative (do X) or question (would you do X?), whether the how to write Bromsgrove International School person making the request uses a name or other form of address , whether there is a please and thank you and so on. We could also measure objectively whether use of direct commands is more or less efficient (in the time it takes) than use of requests. We might wish to relate these things to the age, ability, prior social experience and so on, of the learners. Another thing we might like to observe, and possibly quantify, is the ability of english essays of Nottingham, a student, by speaking in how to for an Bromsgrove School certain ways, to provoke a given response from the teacher. That is, how far each (student or teacher) is ready to adopt ritualised or predictable and practised rôles in an interchange: the student presses a particular button, and the teacher reacts in the expected way.

Of course, such ritual exchanges need not be confrontational or hostile. They may be playful in creative of Nottingham tone, but serious in an underlying dialogue. Or they may be very friendly interchanges, in which all parties are reinforcing an existing social relationship #45; the teacher tells a weak joke, the Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland pupils tell him how unfunny he is, then ask about his sick cat or whether the new baby is still keeping him awake. Study of classroom discourse may differ from conversational analysis, in that one person is trying to establish a rapport with a complete group at some points, with sub#45;groups at other points, and individuals at writing of Nottingham, other times. In any one lesson it is almost impossible to sentence for an essay Bromsgrove School achieve this, but over a series of lessons it is possible #45; though without any objective method, even the english creative writing The University of Nottingham best#45;intentioned teacher may not give a fair allocation of time to all. Are there devices that, addressed to a group, can make individuals feel that the comment is for them in particular? Almost any of the methods of analysis of spoken utterances that come under the general heading of pragmatics may be fruitful when used to study language exchanges in the classroom. Instrumental power #45; business and how to Education management. There are useful general approaches that we can take in analysing and explaining language interchanges in various social contexts, but some features are relevant to english essays one social context more than another. Private enterprise (in much of the English#45;speaking world) is argumentative Cesar Ritz Switzerland regulated by some laws that, for english The University of Nottingham, example, describe and how to a self Glion Institute Of Higher Education defend the human rights and writing The University welfare of employees, but it is not organized into a universal system, so that language use can emerge rather as a fashion #45; and how to write a self Glion Institute power may come partly from using the current or the most novel special forms. Like any social context, business and management have their own distinctive lexis . This includes both useful and necessary names for things that are peculiar to the way business works, as well as buzzwords . These are neologisms and phrases that disguise more familiar things or give them a temporary sense of novelty or mystique.

In time they may become seen as cliches or otherwise ridiculous. Let's look at some real examples. Guru , which denotes a religious teacher famed for great wisdom, has become compounded into other forms such as Internet#45;guru, management#45;guru, business#45;guru and english creative writing essays The University of Nottingham so on. One such management guru is Charles Handy, who has invented a special set of how to write a thesis sentence Bromsgrove, names for management structures, derived from the gods and goddesses of classical Greece. He describes four cultures: the Zeus Culture , the Athena Culture , the Apollo Culture and the Dionysian Culture . (It is creative writing The University not clear why he uses the noun form as attributive adjective for three of these, but uses an established adjectival form in conclusion University of California, Dionysian.) So what do the english essays The University of Nottingham names mean?

Zeus Culture: an organization dominated by the personality and power of one person, often the founder or owner, after the ruler of the gods. Apollo Culture: an organization dominated by rules and procedures, after Apollo the God of harmony and order. Athena Culture: the project organization that dominates consultancies, advertising agencies and, increasingly, all innovative businesses, after Athena, the warrior goddess. Writing Essay? Dionysian Culture: an organization in english of Nottingham which the individual has the freedom to develop his or her own ideas in the way they want #45; an artists' studio, perhaps, or a university. How To An Mla Essay Hurtwood House? They are hard to manage, these Dionysian places, but increasingly necessary if you want to employ really creative people. In an interview with the BBC, Charles Handy continues: What interested me, however, was not the downsizing or the re#45;engineering itself, as others began to call it, but the consequences for essays of Nottingham, our individual working lives.

Organizations, it seemed to me, would increasingly dispense with our services in our mid#45;lives as they concentrated on writing fewer and younger people in their cores, with only a few wise heads to keep the show on track. You can find the interview at. In this short extract we see the business#45;specific terms: downsizing, re#45;engineering and keep the show on track. Downsizing is now quite well established as a verb that means reducing the number of employees, and perhaps other features of the organization (physical premises, costs and so on). English Essays Of Nottingham? It is a research Lancing College self#45;explanatory but has rather odd morphology, being a compound of adverb, and english creative The University noun (size) converted to verb. An Mla Hurtwood House? Re#45;engineering is a metaphor whereby the reorganization of people is likened to a change in a mechanized process #45; it is therefore rather impersonal. Keep the show on track is english writing of Nottingham not confined to business, but used in many kinds of human activity #45; it is a metaphor derived from travelling stage shows.

More commonly people say they try to keep the show on the road. Charles Handy's use of track may come from how to write essay Glion Of Higher Education mixing the phrase with the ending of back on track. Business terms may be more or less well assimilated into the common lexicon. You can test this by looking for them in different dictionaries and seeing whether or not they appear as an entry, as with blue chip (a common stock that has consistently paid dividends over a long period of english creative essays, time); bundling (the grouping of several products and/or services into one package. It benefits buyers by condensing several purchases into one. Persuasive Cesar Ritz Сolleges? Companies benefit by reducing the ability of consumers to compare individual product prices with those of competing companies.) The term is writing essays very common in relation to how to write an mla essay Hurtwood computer software, bundled with a machine for consumers to english The University of Nottingham buy; cherry picking (purchasing products individually from a variety of companies rather than as a bundle from one company)

At a series of presentations from essay Cesar Ritz Switzerland bidders to supply products to the Yorkshire and creative essays of Nottingham Humberside Regional Broadband Project (October 2000), each presenter in turn referred to his or her product as best of breed and most described a mutually advantageous arrangement as a win#45;win situation. The former metaphor is taken from the Crufts annual dog show, but none of the presenters gave any hint of knowing this provenance, of essay conclusion University of California,, relating their presentations to it, or even that breed is a biological term, which they were applying to creative writing The University computer networks, hardware and a thesis sentence for an essay Bromsgrove International School software products. More recently, at a conference (February 2003, East Riding of Yorkshire), I heard almost every speaker refer to important things as key. A frequent collocation was key drivers #45; where drivers are influences or causes (key drivers of english creative writing The University, change and so on). Later I heard reference to key players which mixes metaphors from music (or locks) and sport: The early involvement of article, key players has enriched the curriculum. English Creative Of Nottingham? Speakers several times mentioned routeways in a metaphorical sense: All the routeways that they [learners] want and open up the routeways. Write An Mla Hurtwood House? Another image to suggest the idea of causing things to happen is trigger, so we heard of something that would be a trigger for partners collectively.

Deliver is a verb that has become fashionable to express the creative essays The University idea of how to write a thesis sentence for an essay Bromsgrove International, making something happen or simply doing something #45; so one speaker referred to those who are actively engaged with delivering the creative writing essays of Nottingham concept. Since the late 1990s issues has become an all#45;purpose noun for abstract things, in contexts where earlier we might have seen matters. A Research Article Lancing College? It is frequently joined by the verb address so that people address the issues #45; which usually means to talk, think or do something about some other things. Creative? Now issues has come also to denote things that concern one or call for special attention, in the simple phrase have issues, as in I have or she has issues around that. Less common but no less interesting are event horizon and hedgehog concept.

As we sit on the brink of writing Lancing College, this 'event horizon' for equity markets, you should ask whether this 'black hole' we are entering will deliver us to a new dimension where bulls run freely, or will it tear the market, destroying what we've built up? The term comes from astrophysics, but entered popular use after the publication of Professor Stephen Hawking's A Brief History of Time . In the The University of Nottingham example above Don Wellenreiter continues the astrophysical theme with black hole and new dimension, then mixes it with the traditional bull image (as contrasted with a bear market) and finally a third idea of tearing something up. Hedgehog concept appears to be derived from Isaiah Berlin's essay The Hedgehog and the Fox (1953). Berlin writes: There is how to write introduction Glion Education a line among the fragments of the Greek poet Archilochus which says: 'The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing'. The hedgehog concept is one that, if done extremely well and to english essays The University of Nottingham the exclusion of how to write introduction essay Institute Education, almost everything else, can help a person's career or a company's business achieve its full potential. Here's an example:

Walgreens' hedgehog concept is to run the best, most convenient drug stores with high profit per customer visit, Jorndt continued. English Writing Of Nottingham? We know who we are and what we are all about write for money #45; running drug stores. We work like crazy to execute it in our stores. The notion of buzzwords arises from a wish to english subvert or ridicule the pretentiousness and inelegance of much special lexis in business and a self introduction essay Education management: . drones and peons are slyly mocking the new corporate culture #45; and their cliche#45;spouting bosses. One of their weapons is an underground game called buzzword bingo, which works like a surreptitious form of writing The University, regular bingo. Buzzwords #45; 'incent,' 'proactive, 'impactfulness,' for example #45; are preselected and placed on a bingo#45;like card in random boxes.

Players sit in meetings and conferences and silently check off buzzwords as their bosses spout them; the first to fill in write a complete line wins. But, in deference to the setting, the winner typically coughs instead of shouting out 'bingo.' Buzzwords are particularly opaque when combined into phrases or longer structures #45; as in these examples from a satirical Web site. These use a basic structure and a range of metaphors: filter it though the cappuccino machine and see if it comes out frothy; run it up the writing The University of Nottingham flag pole and see who salutes it; throw a crumb in the cage and see if the budgie bites; let's put that in the lift and see which floor it stops at. It is hard to University of California, imagine anyone's using these phrases without a sense of their playfulness #45; and writing The University it is possible for how to write a thesis Thailand, people to creative writing essays The University invent new versions, following this basic formula: do X and see if/who/what/which etc. Here are some more words and phrases: assets#45;based assessment or approach best practices model democratising of information grass roots initiated if you'd like to climb into your helicopters so we can look at that from above inclusiveness infrastructure leave it up to the man on the coalface management bandwidth measurable outcomes multi#45;sector need based or deficit assessment or approach non#45;duplicative/reduces duplication one stop shops outsourcing quality of life reflects cultural diversity/culturally sensitive scuba in your think#45;tank singing from the same hymn#45;sheet systems change awareness window of write an mla essay House, opportunity.

Are these words or phrases useful? Can you think of simpler or more direct alternatives? Why might people use these buzzwords in preference to more basic forms? In the armed services and some other organizations there may be defined rules for addressing someone by rank, title or name. In business, the practice may vary according to the organization's culture and the relative status of two speakers. Two modes of address that may be distinctive to business and english creative essays The University of Nottingham management is the use of descriptive titles and of initials.

In some cases the title may reflect some kind of deference by the speaker, or recognition that the holder of the office is somehow dignified by argumentative persuasive essay Cesar it. Thus we speak of the Director or the Chairman and address them directly as Director or [Mr./Madam] Chairman. Some people like to english creative writing use their initials rather than name or title, as with M. Gerbeau, the chief executive of the Switzerland Millennium Dome, who liked to be known as P#45;Y: Pierre#45;Yves (he is always called P#45;Y) Gerbeau is a remarkable man. BBC profile, December 2000. We can also think of the fictitious oil baron J.R. in the TV series Dallas or CJ, the communications officer in The West Wing . The University? The implication is a thesis for an School Thailand that people in english creative writing essays The University the organization know who he or she is, so that use of the writing article Lancing College initials is a form of respect or recognition. If one speaker uses title and last name (TLN), and english the other first name (FN) only, we infer difference in status. The social superior (the FN speaker) may invite the inferior to use FN in response. In some occupations holders of particular offices may use their job title: coach (in the USA), chairman and so on. Write Bromsgrove School Thailand? Generic titles to indicate status are not as common as they were, especially in business, where we may speak about the boss but are less likely to address him or her directly as boss (chief and guv are even less common). Business does not have a series of honorary titles in the way that the courts and political institutions to, or ranks as in the armed services #45; sir may still be used, but does not have a very specific reference.

The guidance below is summarized from an article in the Guardian's Rise jobs supplement and a Web site (, which gives guidance on effective presentations: Fiddling with your tie is distracting and this, along with the stuttered 'ums' and 'ers', 'you knows 'and 'I means', will devalue your message and make you seem less confident.. When you're making a point, keep to it and don't digress. If you're a newcomer in a meeting do not become too cosy. Deal with interruptions. For example, say: Let me just finish this section, then I'll come back to english writing of Nottingham that point. Ask questions How often have you. Can you remember a time when. Use bridge words and phrases as well as; consequently; in closing.

Reiterate #45; repeat and go over important points. You can preface this with a rhetorical question: So what have I covered so far? Pausing can be very effective. It gives the audience a chance to think about write article Thailand what is being said. Creative Essays Of Nottingham? It also gives the speaker an essay University (UCLA) opportunity to breathe and think ahead. Michael Begeman, an english writing The University of Nottingham anthropologist and computer scientist of the 3M Meeting Network, suggests that meetings should follow different structures, according to their purpose.

He suggests that meetings can be built around three kinds of conversation: for how to write introduction essay Glion Education, possibility, opportunity and for action . Conversations for english creative The University of Nottingham, possibility: The group acknowledges that it has come together to how to essay Glion Institute Of Higher generate ideas, not to make decisions. Its goal is to maximize creativity. Writing Essays The University? Conversations for opportunity: The goal is not to reach a final decision but to narrow down a range of options. People gather information, do some analysis, and take positions. Conversations for action: The goal is to persuasive essay Ritz Switzerland decide, to commit: We want to leave this room with our four development priorities for creative writing The University, 2004. Begeman suggests that the meeting should have what he calls rules of engagement #45; and translate implicit expectations into how to write an mla House explicit agreements, about timing, and progress. You can even create rules of engagement about individual behavior. For example: Before anyone makes a point, that person has to find merit in english creative The University of Nottingham the point made by the previous speaker. Or, the senior people in the meeting can speak only after the junior people have had a chance to express themselves. A Thesis International? It's a pretty simple idea, really.

All you are trying to do is to english essays of Nottingham make the invisible visible, to make the automatic deliberate. These. rules of engagement give people a chance to design how they treat one another in write for money meetings. Michael Begeman suggests, too, that though social talk may seem inefficient or a distraction, it can be fruitful in english writing The University helping people relax or think creatively when the meeting proceeds to serious business. You can find his article at: According to Mr. Nik at mr.nik/business, corporate language is fundamental to business communication principles. These principles include: Stating things in a way that makes them hard to argue with. Write An Mla Essay House? Stating things in The University a way that makes you seem important and knowledgeable. Making sure what you say can't come back to haunt you. Repeating what your boss said, but trying to disguise it. nventing as many phrases for very good as possible.

Using warm, fluffy words to fool employees into write a self introduction Of Higher being happy and english creative essays of Nottingham fulfilled. This rather facetious description includes ideas familiar from pragmatics #45; such as conversational maxims and Hurtwood House politeness or mirroring other people's speech. English Essays? What Mr. Nik does not make clear #45; but pragmatic analysis does #45; is how one does these things. In fact, one need not try to disguise a repetition of what another says, either in content or manner #45; since this often is very effective in securing other people's cooperation.

It is possible to make some employees more contented at essay of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), work, without any extra expense to the organization, by a change of job title #45; ideally one that suggests a more elevated status, without significant extra workload. Stating things in a way that makes you seem important and knowledgeable is more problematic. Novel lexis can intimidate those who assume that their ignorance of the special forms or buzzwords is a mark of weakness. But it can easily excite ridicule among those who see it as pretentious, and are ready to cut through the vagueness or to challenge the speaker to essays The University use plain or direct forms #45; or who play buzzword bingo. As a technique for establishing some temporary advantage by confusing others, verbal inflation may work. But it does not help real understanding and collaboration, and impedes exchanges where people are trying to writing article College agree on english creative essays of Nottingham a course of action to follow. Specimen exam questions from Сolleges past papers.

I have not shown the texts used in some of the example questions #45; for two reasons: they come from sources which are protected by copyright, and teachers may want to use the questions (from real past papers) for practice exams in english writing essays of Nottingham school - so they won't want me to have shown them here. Text D is a research article Lancing College a transcript of part of a lesson at a primary school. The teacher is english discussing a visit made by an animal expert to the class on the previous day. Show by detailed reference to the transcript how both teacher and article for money Bromsgrove International pupils demonstrate power in this discourse. The following text is a transcript of the first part of a BBC Radio 4 interview by english creative writing essays The University John Humphrys on 5 May 2000. He is questioning Margaret Beckett MP about the local by#45;election results. Show by detailed reference to the transcript how both interviewer and interviewee demonstrate power and control in write a thesis essay Bromsgrove International Thailand their discourse.

Note: JH = John Humphrys; MB = Margaret Beckett; () indicates a brief pause; underlining indicates emphasis in speech; italicised words between vertical lines indicate simultaneous speech; [laughs] in square brackets indicates that speaker laughs. The text printed on pages 6 and 7 is the first two pages from Our Children's Education #45; The Updated Parent's Charter , issued by the Department for Education and sent to every home in England. Show by detailed reference to english writing essays The University of Nottingham the text how it demonstrates power and authority in persuasive Сolleges its use of english writing essays The University, language. In your answer you should refer to sentence Bromsgrove any relevant research and to any frameworks you consider appropriate. The following text is a page from a leaflet published by Plan International UK, providing information about how to sponsor a child. Show by detailed reference to creative essays The University the text how it tries to how to write a self introduction Glion Institute Of Higher make the reader feel powerful. In your answer you should refer to relevant ideas from english creative of Nottingham language study and to any frameworks you consider appropriate. Example texts with interpretation. Transcript of an advertisement for Head and Shoulders shampoo, broadcast on television in the early 1990s. WOMAN: Richard! (She is expressing surprise at his arrival #45; perhaps he is late #45; and his appearance.)

RICHARD: (Explaining both at once) The car! Richard goes to bathroom to wash oil from writing Lancing College hands. He turns the tap with his elbow and creative writing The University looks in the mirror, noticing the Head and Shoulders shampoo bottle on the shelf beneath it. RICHARD: Head and argumentative persuasive essay Ritz Сolleges Shoulders? (Half turns to address her over his shoulder) But you don't have dandruff! WOMAN: (Shakes hair to let it hang down; smiles to english creative essays The University the camera) No #45; but I do have great looking hair! This advertisement has the discourse structure of TV dramatic narrative #45; it resembles a scene from a soap opera (appropriate, given the how to write essay Hurtwood House product).

The advertisement must be brief, so the narrative is compressed, and english The University of Nottingham carried by the images as much as the essay University Los Angeles (UCLA) dialogue. We can look at pragmatics within the english The University of Nottingham narrative (how the characters speak to each other) and a research between us as the audience and the advertiser. In the english creative writing The University of Nottingham former case, we see that Richard suggests surprise and mild disapproval. How To Write Sentence? His going into the bathroom without asking suggests that he is on friendly terms with the woman, though his surprise at the bottle of english creative essays The University of Nottingham, Head and Shoulders shows that he does not live with her. The car alone means nothing, but as a response to Richard, and write introduction essay Institute Of Higher Education coupled with the oily hands, it suggests some unspecified mechanical problem which Richard has put right, since he has now arrived. Moving out of the advert and looking at its relationship with the The University of Nottingham audience, we see that the writer expects us to know the conventions of naturalistic television drama, so we know how to of California, Los Angeles read the scene. The writer uses the english creative writing essays common lexicon of argumentative persuasive Cesar Ritz, everyday speech #45; with the exception of the proper noun for writing The University, the brand name, Head and Shoulders. The last line of dialogue, however, includes the three#45;word slogan (great looking hair) that runs through the argumentative essay Cesar Сolleges whole campaign #45; which included similar stories featuring other characters.

This is not a transcript of natural speech, and thus avoids irrelevant or incomplete utterances #45; if these were real people, then their conversation would be exemplary in writing The University observing the cooperative principle . Argumentative Essay Сolleges? It is, of course, scripted dramatic dialogue. The grammar is writing essays The University marked by minor sentences #45; one of one word and another of two, though with more implied #45; so Richard may suggest Richard, you're late and your hands are covered in writing essay conclusion of California, (UCLA) oil while The car suggests I'm sorry I'm late, the creative The University car had a problem but I've fixed it now. The last two lines of dialogue are more literary #45; especially the but before you don't have dandruff where Richard is effectively responding to the idea that the persuasive essay Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland woman might have suffered from dandruff, since she is using Head and Shoulders. Second example - political rhetoric. From President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address, Friday, January 20, 1961. We dare not forget today that we are the heirs of english creative, that first revolution. Let the word go forth from this time and write a self introduction place, to friend and foe alike, that the creative writing essays The University torch has been passed to Bromsgrove International School a new generation of Americans #45; born in this century, tempered by war, disciplined by a hard and bitter peace, proud of our ancient heritage #45; and unwilling to witness or permit the slow undoing of those human rights to which this Nation has always been committed, and to creative The University of Nottingham which we are committed today at how to an mla Hurtwood House, home and around the world. Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and the success of of Nottingham, liberty.

To those old allies whose cultural and spiritual origins we share, we pledge the loyalty of write International Thailand, faithful friends. United, there is little we cannot do in a host of cooperative ventures. Divided, there is little we can do #45; for we dare not meet a powerful challenge at english creative essays of Nottingham, odds and split asunder. To our sister republics south of our border, we offer a special pledge #45; to how to write a self introduction Education convert our good words into good deeds #45; in a new alliance for progress #45; to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. But this peaceful revolution of english creative of Nottingham, hope cannot become the how to write for an Bromsgrove International School prey of hostile powers. Let all our neighbors know that we shall join with them to english creative essays The University oppose aggression or subversion anywhere in the Americas. And let every other power know that this Hemisphere intends to persuasive essay Cesar Switzerland remain the master of its own house.

Many familiar rhetorical devices mark this text: antithetic and creative writing The University synonymous parallelism , lists of three and complex patterning (structures within structures). There are metaphors, imperative verbs and parentheses . The speech opens with a direct address to some special guests and the audience more generally #45; both locally present and writing College listening to the broadcast #45; it will end by including all of these together as my fellow Americans. So the President first shows respect for the status of the distinguished guests, then cleverly reduces them all to english creative The University of Nottingham the common level of citizens of the great republic #45; making them seem all equal, as they are before God. At once we see uses of for an School, antithetic parallelism. The first antithesis is in a not. but structure. (There are several in this extract: can you find them all?) . English Essays? we observe today not a victory of party, but a celebration of freedom.

while the next comes in two pairs (end and write essay Of Higher Education beginning; renewal and change) . symbolizing an end, as well as a beginning #45; signifying renewal, as well as change. Conjunctive for creative writing The University, is used almost adverbially . The written text gives an indication of the pauses in speech #45; and President Kennedy completes sentences (twice) before starting others with for, that serves as comment on article Lancing College what precedes it: For I have sworn. and For man holds in his mortal hands. We see how the President begins a series of sentences with the object of the main verb, where the subject is always we (as in the American people) #45; so each sentence follows the pattern: To X we say or do A, B and creative The University C . In this section we find a list of six groups of people whom the President apostrophises: old allies, new (friendly) states, people in huts and villages (the developing world), sister republics (in Central and persuasive Сolleges Switzerland South America) and creative The University of Nottingham the United Nations . But the sixth group differs #45; these are the potential enemies to whom the President offers a warning. It appears that he is speaking to how to a self essay Education these various groups, but this is only a secondary concern (insofar as his speech will be reported in these places). English The University Of Nottingham? In reality he is speaking to the people of the how to House USA here #45; and letting them know his view of these other places in the world.

The language has a stately allusive quality that comes from creative essays The University of Nottingham echoing the style of the English bible #45; so we read four times imperative verb clauses beginning let #45; reminding us of how God said Let there be light, while the word has an echo of the opening of Saint John's Gospel. (Later in the speech, Kennedy uses the gospel image of the light of the world.) Let the word go forth and how to write let every nation know could almost (though they do not) come from the creative writing of Nottingham Bible #45; the lexis is College timeless here, and both forth and nation are words we meet throughout the Old Testament in versions in the King James tradition, such as the creative writing essays of Nottingham American Revised Standard Version of the Bible. As well as the Bible, the how to write introduction Institute Education President alludes to the Declaration of Independence in referring to english essays The University of Nottingham the rights of man that come from the writing a research article hand of God. (Note how he speaks of creative writing of Nottingham, God without hesitation, in vivid Old Testament terms, as having a hand #45; whether this is a metaphor or meant literally.) And he alludes to Rousseau's famous statement (that man is born free but everywhere in chains), and writing Lancing College slightly alters its application so that the chains do not come from simple political or legal oppression, but from being poor. He promises: . to assist free men and free governments in casting off the chains of poverty. English Essays The University Of Nottingham? The President uses simple verbal embellishment in a self essay Institute the repetition of sound ( alliteration ) in lines like: writ may run and dark powers of destruction. Frequently the lines have a metrical scansion : For man holds in his mortal hands the english of Nottingham power. and . Article For Money School? have far outpaced the instruments of peace. are both true iambic pentameters. We find other metres in . born in this century, tempered by war. and . to strengthen its shield of the new and the weak. The lexis of the speech comes from everyday speech #45; there are no specialist or obscure terms. And most are simple structurally #45; like a good poet he uses monosyllabic and writing of Nottingham two#45;syllable words: Let the word go forth. opens a sequence of twenty monosyllables and write article for money School Thailand a solitary two#45;syllable word (alike). His images are vivid and concrete #45; the hand of God, riding the tiger, handing on a torch, casting off chains and strengthening a shield. Third example - courtroom dialogue. Extract from the transcript of David Irving's High Court action against Penguin Books and Deborah Lipstadt.

MR JUSTICE GRAY: I saw the report. I did not read it. What about essays of Nottingham it are you concerned? MR IRVING: Very well, my Lord. Clearly, it would be improper for any of the parties in this case to start putting hand outs to the press in the way I appreciate the how to introduction essay Glion Institute Education law is on contempt which would disadvantage the other party.

MR IRVING: #45; for the next hour, shall we say? Firstly, there will be no more traps being sprung. I am sure that the Professor will appreciate advance notification. There are no more hidden booby#45;traps or mines, but I am going to be dwelling briefly on crematorium No. II still for a while because I believe the Professor wishes to english writing The University make certain comments on what I said yesterday. In this part of the trial before Mr. Justice Gray, David Irving attends to two kinds of persuasive Cesar Ritz Сolleges, business: first, to question the reporting of the trial in newspapers, to english writing essays The University ask the judge to consider the possibility that this may influence the outcome of the process, and second, to outline the part of his case that he will present next.

The exchange is marked by write article for money Bromsgrove International formal expressions of courtesy #45; and, on David Irving's part, deference to essays the judge, yet these do not really interfere with an efficient taking of turns, and a high degree of relevance in introduction Glion Education the way the exchanges proceed. English Creative Of Nottingham? If we can call this a conversation, then it observes the maxims of quality, quantity and relevance very well. A Research Article? (Usually, if an exchange in court does not observe one or more of english creative writing essays The University, these, the judge will intervene. Relevance is perhaps most important; quality and quantity may depend more on the judge's discretion and essay Glion attitude to the speaker.) Beneath this, we can see a struggle for power. David Irving invites Mr. Justice Gray to make some allowance for reporting of the case (which Irving believes to be hostile to english writing essays The University of Nottingham him) #45; in effect, he attempts to direct the judge in his conduct of the (UCLA) trial. Mr. English The University Of Nottingham? Justice Gray, firmly but courteously, tells David Irving that his particular plea is of no account, but in how to a thesis sentence for an doing so also reasserts his own direction of the legal process.

How does this work? Irving identifies a connection between mischievous and essays The University of Nottingham inaccurate reporting and public hostility to himself. Lancing? (This is plausible: he may be a Holocaust denier or a racist, but it is possible for the reporters to exaggerate or distort the true account of his racism.) From this premise he moves to the conclusion: This clearly disadvantages me. But at once he contradicts this apparently firm statement with the creative essays recognition that the judge is trying the case without a jury, so the only public opinion that affects the article Lancing outcome is his (the judge's) own. Mr. Justice Gray's reply is, on the surface, a firm rebuttal of the possibility of creative writing essays, his being influenced by the reporting: Really, what matters here for my purposes is whether I am going to be influenced by it and, as I have not read it, I will not be.

There is a hint of ridicule or sarcasm here #45; as the write for money Bromsgrove judge points out essays of Nottingham, what appears to be a truism or statement of the obvious: he cannot be affected by what he has not read. In saying this, he is saying rather more #45; that it is not for David Irving to alert him (the judge) to possible abuses or contempts of the Hurtwood House court. It is precisely the english creative writing The University of Nottingham judge's rôle (among other things) to decide such matters, with the benefit of his expert knowledge of the legal process. In saying . that really is a sort of fact of life that you just have to essay put up with. Creative Of Nottingham? Mr. Bromsgrove International Thailand? Justice Gray is drawing a distinction between a kind of english creative writing, rough treatment that anyone in such a case can expect to suffer from the press and a serious contempt or indiscretion in the reporting that might in some way interfere with the process of the law. (This has happened notoriously in many high#45;profile jury trials.) The judge is effectively telling David Irving to be a bit tougher, and making clear that it is for him (the judge) to say when any unfair play may affect the trial. A Research Article? Perhaps he is aware of his robustness in dealing with David Irving's expression of creative writing essays of Nottingham, worry, as he attempts some mitigation #45; inviting Irving, should anything appear that really does disturb him, to mention this. This is formally polite #45; but seems insincere, as he has just dismissed Irving's existing account of what really disturbs him. It allows the judge to move onto the real business of the trial.

When David Irving offers to essay Сolleges Switzerland outline the next part of his case, Mr. Justice Gray responds very differently from what has gone before. I would find that very helpful is formally polite and may really be so (it seems sincere). Now that David Irving is english creative essays falling into his appointed rôle in write introduction essay Glion Institute Education the trial, then the judge is happy #45; not least because the whole process moves on, whereas the english creative The University protests about the how to essay House reporting have threatened to delay the trial proper. Given the nature of this trial and the excited reporting of which David Irving has earlier complained we may be struck by the formal politeness of the english creative essays outline, in which Irving expresses a concern to treat his opponent in the case (the defendant, Professor Deborah Lipstadt) with fairness. There seems, however, to be some history implied in what he says. In mentioning no more traps being sprung, he evidently appeals to shared knowledge at least between himself and writing a research Lancing the judge (but probably also by the defendant) of some earlier traps. Since he gives the english creative judge this reassurance, we may ask why? Why deprive himself of a potential stratagem? One possible reason is essay conclusion (UCLA) that the judge has rebuked him previously for presenting evidence without giving the defendant's counsel notice of english writing essays The University of Nottingham, this.

So now he is essay School Thailand really reassuring the judge that he will follow the english The University proper procedures and etiquette #45; or asking the judge for an endorsement of the way he proposes to present the next part of his case. The judge's approval is not, of course, in any sense an writing a research article approval of David Irving's case. It is an approval of his complying with the expected procedure in creative writing essays The University of Nottingham presenting his case. Irving moves to a very specific outline of points of detail, identifying particular people whose testimony forms part of the accepted record of the Holocaust. A Research Article College? Finally (in this extract) he refers to alleged gassing facilities at Auschwitz. Given that part of his case relies on questioning the historic accuracy of accounts of genocide at Auschwitz, this seems logical, if shocking to the ears of people who do not question the Holocaust.

But it may not help influence the judge's opinion in his favour, as it is english writing The University likely to excite a strong emotional reaction. That is, here his argument is not there was a Holocaust and Professor Lipstadt is wrong in saying I denied it but I cannot have denied what never happened #45; in conclusion University effect, he is repeating the denial in court. We refer to an alleged crime or misdemeanour while a defendant is on trial, because we presume him or her to be innocent until proved otherwise. And if he or she is found not guilty, then, had we referred to the crime (without any alleged) we would have slandered the innocent suspect. But the gassing of Jews at essays of Nottingham, Auschwitz is not something that we attribute to anyone on trial now. (There were historic trials, and people were found guilty of war crimes.) So Irving's use of how to a self introduction essay Of Higher, alleged here is intended to challenge the common belief that gassing really happened in essays of Nottingham Auschwitz. It may be enough, of course, for David Irving to how to write Glion show merely that it is not absolutely certain that the english of Nottingham Holocaust happened #45; as this would make Professor Lipstadt's accusation seem libellous, as if she has called him a denier whereas he is how to write a self essay Glion Institute Of Higher Education really a doubter, only. So the surface courtesy may conceal the momentous nature of the trial. Professor Lipstadt has called him a Holocaust denier because she wants people to be aware of denial as a technique of english writing The University, historical interpretation, and, in argumentative persuasive essay Cesar Ritz Сolleges a real sense, pass a moral judgement or condemn those who do it. English Writing Of Nottingham? David Irving, meanwhile, intends to submit statements about how to write essay Hurtwood House history to the same kind of legal scrutiny which applies in trials where the witness statements are made in court and refer to the conduct of those being tried. In representing himself, David Irving does not (apparently) understand how to conduct his case in creative writing all respects. He has a rather shallow sense of how to do so, by aping the formal address he has noticed from counsel in observing trials #45; so we note how he calls Mr.

Justice Gray my lord rather easily, and write essay Bromsgrove International twice in writing essays successive answers uses the formula very well, my lord. Fourth example - parliamentary exchanges. This is an Cesar Ritz extract from writing The University of Nottingham Hansard. It is a report of Oral Answers to Questions on article for money School Foreign and Commonwealth affairs. The questions are put to Mr. English Creative? Jack Straw (Secretary of State) and Mr. Mike O'Brien (Parliamentary Under#45;Secretary) Richard Ottaway (Croydon, South): Does the Foreign Secretary agree that dialogue is the best way to combat terrorism?

Bearing that in mind, why did he decline to meet Mr. Netanyahu when he was in how to a self introduction Institute Education London? 21 Jan 2003 : Column 151. Mr. O'Brien: I will pass on my hon. Friend's thanks to english of Nottingham the high commissioner.

We are following closely the circumstances in Bangladesh and particularly the arrests of some journalists and Lancing College opposition leaders. Writing The University Of Nottingham? We welcome the release of Hussein Chaudry and others. Democracy means allowing disagreement and debate, and in Bangladesh that means that the Awami league as well as the Bangladesh Nationalist party must have the right to voice their opinions. We have raised our concerns informally with the Bangladesh authorities, and will continue to do so. I will write to my hon. Friend on the issue of the indemnity Bill.

Surat Miah, who was killed at Dhaka airport, was a British resident but not a British national. We have let the Bangladesh authorities know that there is widespread concern about the case in essay Cesar Сolleges Switzerland this country, and we have made representations in that regard. The transcript here uses some conventions, such as hon. where the speaker says honourable. English Writing Essays? All the a research article Lancing participants observe the english creative writing essays The University of Nottingham convention of indirect speech among themselves, mediated through the Speaker #45; so they always use the third person pronouns or a title : not Do you agree that. but Does the Foreign Secretary agree that. Where there is write an mla Hurtwood House a choice of a pronoun (he/him) or a title, we find the speakers mostly use the latter. You can check this for yourself. English Creative Writing Of Nottingham? How often does anyone say he/she/him/her?

How often does anyone use a descriptive title in referring to another #45; Foreign Secretary, (right) hon. Friend, Minister and so on? We note that the questioners often open their questions with a subordinate clause , expressing some condition or qualification of the question: Given that the military wing of the write article for money Bromsgrove International School Thailand Palestinian Authority. claims responsibility . and Following the writing essays reported human rights abuses. We note, too, how some of the questions are not really requests for new information, but an invitation to endorse a statement that the writing essay conclusion University questioner makes: does X accept that/agree that. Mr. Ottaway asks two questions.

But the second presupposes that Mr. Straw has answered the first by agreeing with the suggested statement #45; which Mr. Straw plainly has not done. So in Mr. Ottway's Bearing that in mind, that refers to the suggested maxim that dialogue is the english creative essays The University of Nottingham best way to combat terrorism. Mr. Write A Self Essay Institute Education? Straw does not endorse the essays The University suggestion, nor does he refute it.

Instead he evades both questions by saying that he did not meet Mr. Netanyahu (on the later occasion) because he had done so already on an earlier occasion. In doing this, Mr. Conclusion Los Angeles (UCLA)? Straw mitigates the essays of Nottingham suggestion of discourtesy to how to write a thesis sentence for an Bromsgrove International Thailand the Israeli Minister (Mr. Netanyahu), by english writing The University producing evidence of earlier courtesy.

At the same time, he avoids giving any recent or continued indication of approval of Mr. Netanyahu. In this respect, the mention of the very good lunch becomes relevant. We do not need to know that there was a lunch (of whatever quality) to establish whether Mr. Hurtwood House? Straw did or did not meet him. But the mention of the english lunch will appear as a tangible proof that the meeting happened, and write a self Glion Of Higher Education that Mr. Straw recalls this circumstantial detail #45; whereas he cannot, or will not, say anything about the essays The University of Nottingham content of the meeting in terms of who said what to argumentative essay whom. The junior minister supports this account by recalling the lunch. He appears to be giving evidence to the House that this is what indeed happened.

But, once more, they do not need someone's recollection of a meal to english creative essays The University of Nottingham prove it. Sentence Essay Bromsgrove International School Thailand? Mr. O'Brien is not so much telling the House about what happened, but signalling solidarity with his boss, the Secretary of State. Mrs. King initially asks an open question about the Minister's assessment. of the situation in Bangladesh. She does not (as earlier questioners do with Mr.

Straw) immediately invite Mr. O'Brien to agree with some statement of hers. In allowing him to give an answer that she has not suggested to him, she may be establishing trust in english essays the conversation #45; he can see that he is not having words put into his mouth. Next Mrs. King secures even more cooperation, in expressing gratitude to the servant of the essay Glion Institute Education crown, the British Ambassador. Essays The University? This is in question form , but is really a statement (to the question, May I thank. no answer of article Bromsgrove School Thailand, yes or no is possible, except as a comic non#45;sequitur).

Having secured, Mr. O'Brien's cooperation, Mrs. Creative Writing Essays Of Nottingham? King moves to a series of three questions #45; of which the first is open, but which she effectively reduces to the two specific requests that follow. For An Essay Bromsgrove? That is, she may seem to ask what (which may be anything at all) the Government is doing about of Nottingham democracy in Bangladesh. But really she is asking whether Mr.

O'Brien will do two very specific things: to ask the Bangladesh government about the killing of a British resident, and how to write introduction Institute whether he will write to her on a particular bill (a proposed piece of new legislation). Creative Essays? Mr. O'Brien answers both questions clearly and fully #45; observing conversational maxims of quality, quantity and relevance . Argumentative Cesar Сolleges Switzerland? He changes the order, as the second question needs only english creative essays of Nottingham, a yes or no (he says yes #45; he will write to how to School Mrs. English Creative Writing The University Of Nottingham? King). There is more to say about Surat Miah #45; and Mr. O'Brien appears to be well informed about the details of Mr. Miah's death.

This extract does not support a common view of Parliamentary exchanges. Argumentative Cesar Ritz Сolleges? It does not appear to essays be aggressive or confrontational, and we find Mr. Straw and Mr. O'Brien agreeing with some things, and not adopting a position on party lines. On the write International other hand, there is creative writing essays of Nottingham a huge difference between the very serious and informed answer to Louise Ellman and the seemingly facetious response to Richard Ottaway.

Does Mr. Straw do this because he is speaking to a man, who can take this kind of humour? Or is it a device to evade Mr. Ottaway's trap #45; which is to give Mr. Straw two choices, neither of which he can accept: If he says that he did not want to International Thailand meet Mr. Netanyahu, he may offend the Israeli state.

If he expresses approval of Mr. Netanyahu, he may appear to support Israel's policy in Palestine and offend Arab and english writing The University of Nottingham Muslim opinion. When the subject of the University Los Angeles (UCLA) questions changes from english creative writing The University of Nottingham Palestine to Bangladesh, the argumentative persuasive essay Cesar Ritz Сolleges Switzerland Secretary of State hands the speaking turn to his Minister #45; but Mr. O'Brien establishes some continuity with Mr. Straw in that, before answering Mrs. King's question, he backs up Mr. English Creative Writing Essays? Straw's story about the good lunch. The exchanges are marked by frequent use of modal verbs may and how to essay Institute Of Higher will. Generally, the The University speech is quite expansive #45; whoever holds a turn is able to speak at write for money Thailand, some length without interruption. The comment on english creative The University of Nottingham the good lunch is how to write an mla House therefore rather untypical in The University of Nottingham its brevity.

Either Mr. Straw has a gift for witty improvisation, or he has anticipated the question and prepared the answer, whereas elsewhere he and Mr. O'Brien are developing their responses as he makes them #45; the component phrases are sometimes elegant, often familiar collocations , and writing article Lancing College they are arranged loosely without elaborate rhetorical patterns. We can see a string of such collocations in horror and repulsion. Writing Essays? unnecessary and gratuitous. effective control. terrorist organizations. Mr.

O'Brien's made representations in how to write a self introduction essay Glion Institute that regard is an example of a diplomatic or bureaucratic register #45; in more demotic speech this equates simply to a statement that the UK government has asked the Bangladesh government about Mr. Miah's death. In fact, since it follows the statement We have let the Bangladesh authorities know that there is widespread concern about the case in this country, it appears to be a repetition of the initial clause #45; how much difference is english writing essays of Nottingham there between letting someone know a thing and how to write an mla House making representations about it? Perhaps there is a slight distinction between informing Bangladesh that people in The University of Nottingham the UK are bothered about Mr. Miah's death and their asking the Bangladesh authorities to take some action. Ultimately, in that regard is ambiguous #45; since it may mean either that the UK government has made representations about Mr.

Miah's death in itself or about the how to write introduction essay Glion widespread concern in the UK over the killing. Can I print this guide and photocopy it? This guide is free for individual users - for example, teachers or students working from home - in any part of the english writing world. You can print out the guide, but it is not ideal for printing and photocopying, and may run to writing essay University Los Angeles (UCLA) many more pages than you expect. If you are working in a school or college, you may purchase a high-quality printed version optimized for multiple photocopying. The cost of the printed version includes permission for unlimited reproduction within your institution - if you expect to make multiple copies, this will probably save on your bulk photocopying and printing costs. To obtain the printed guide, contact: ZigZag Education and Computing Centre Publications Greenway Business Centre Doncaster Road Bristol BS10 5PY Tel: +44 (0)117 950 3199. Click on the link to go to the ZigZag Education Web site:

Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the URL of any pages you use, and/or include the essays of Nottingham copyright symbol. How To Write House? Suggestions for creative of Nottingham, improvement are welcome. Thank you.