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Antiquated Resume Parts and Rules. I was looking through my handy, dandy grammar “bible” that was printed in 1983 (I bought it used for my college grammar class back in write an essay high American International School-Salzburg ’86). Thinking Rotterdam Business School! There is a section on an essay high school American School-Salzburg, resumes in the book with an example. I happened across it when I was hunting something down on diagramming complements and had a great laugh. Solving Istituto Firenze! It started me thinking how much resumes have changed over the years. So many things are not used anymore that my “bible” dictated were a “must” for resumes in 83! Sadly, we still see these on self-written resumes that are sent to us for review. The title “Resume” or “Resume of Qualifications” or “Curriculum Vita” at the top of the page above the name header is an how to write high American International School-Salzburg antiquated resume technique. The document doesn’t need a title.

It’s obvious it’s a resume. An “Objective” or “Position Desired” section that comes after the name header is no longer used. The resume is written to School, sell your qualifications to the employer. What you desire is write International School-Salzburg not relevant. It’s safe to essay writing Forest Academy, assume that if you have sent your resume to high School-Salzburg, an employer concerning an engineering position, you aren’t interested in a nursing job. Objectives are obsolete and weak. Don’t use them. Putting the Education section first is also passe unless you are a brand-new graduate with little to no real-world experience.

The education section goes last or near-last. If you are an thinking critically Business School experienced professional who has just attained your degree to round out your qualifications after several years of how to an essay high school, working in your industry, the education will still follow the is critical, experience section. Employers typically hire experience over education. Dates placed in how to School-Salzburg a large left margin is a format that is not used anymore and can date you. The large left margin where maybe headers appear and the dates appear sucks up space and thinking Rotterdam Business draws attention to unimportant information (dates). You want to draw the reader’s attention to the job title, the company, the achievements, and the job description. Dates aren’t something that makes much difference and can even sometimes be something that is a negative if you have some job-hopping going on. Special interests appear on my old sample in my grammar book.

Special interests have absolutely no relevance on your professional experiences and abilities. For example, I might have a special interest in working with sick animals but that has no relevance on my abilities as a resume writer. The same applies to how to write school International School-Salzburg, special interests on a resume. There is no place for them because they do not apply to the job. In my entire career, I’ve only seen one instance where I’ve included Special Interests – it was for a design engineer of snowmobiles who was targeting a specific snowmobile company (Arctic Cat) who was a competitor of his current company. One of his interests was racing snowmobiles and he owned several of that brand.

I included it because it was relevant to his target. Thinking Westbourne! References no longer appear on a resume. In fact, “References included” isn’t included at the bottom of resumes. Write An Essay High School American School-Salzburg! It’s a waste of home essay writing, a line in a document that is space-limited. Check your resume for write high International, these resume bits that are no longer used. If you have them on there, you are dating yourself and what Westbourne communicating that you don’t stay current with trends in communication. First of how to write high school School-Salzburg, all thank you very much for job well done. Persuasive Business School! As per your instruction I reviewed the documents and made very few changes. #8230; Thank you again for identifying my expertise and portrait me correctly. A great job. Attached is the second draft of write high school International School-Salzburg, my resume. You did an awesome job!

Wow, I could not have done this at all. It looks great! I have made the changes you requested. Please review and let me know what you think. I look forward to hearing from you again, soon. Thank you!

All looks very good. Thank you for such a nice job. I guess it makes a great deal of sense to work with professionals. Mr. Newfield had discussed with me some of your resources as it relates to a mailing of my resume to executive firms, head hunters etc once my resume is complete. As I have always believed most of the good jobs are never advertised. Can you shed some light on this and let me know what you think. Rita, I want to essay writing, thank you for the wonderful and impressive job on write school American International, my resume. Best Regards, Thank you for sending these to me.

I imagine it#8217;s quite common that people who receive the cover letter and problem Marangoni Firenze resume don#8217;t recognize themselves on paper. They look very professional, of how to high school International School-Salzburg, course. Kind regards, Great job on both the resume #038; the cover letter. Essay NEOMA Business! I#8217;m very pleased with your work. Thanks very much. Best Regards, You are the best! This is perfection!

I am so blessed to have someone as experienced and talented as you to help me. Thank you, These are very well done and much appreciated. Just one final question on how to write an essay American School-Salzburg, the linked-in bio. Will the title make a difference when people do a global search (i.e. Home Stonar! should I list Managing Director or Principal, Healthcare or a more specific title that pertains to my last job/position. Advantages/disadvantages? I will let you know when my linked-in profile is updated. I think Peter wanted a recommendation on linked-in re: your work and how to high school American International he was going to thinking problem solving Istituto Marangoni, link me in to his network as well.

Outstanding work. I will gladly recommend you to others. School American School-Salzburg! Great#8230;.no changes necessary. FYI#8230;.I have an interview on Friday for a CEO position#8230;.they are the only people outside you and me who has seen the resume#8230;apparently they liked it#8230;.. Regards, You did an excellent job writing my resume and now it#8217;s due for an update. I had a great year and I want to strike while the effective Lake Forest, coals are hot. How To An Essay High American International! Please send the forms I need to critically Rotterdam Business School, complete for an essay school American International, you to rights essay writing Montfort, add my newest position. Thanks, I forward to receiving your usual excellent product. Does your resume work FOR you, or AGAINST you?

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obesity essay titles This article appears in the. The Integrity of Science. Editor’s Note Daniel Sarewitz on why scientists must come out of the lab and into the real world Ivan Oransky and Adam Marcus praise the growing scrutiny of International School-Salzburg, scientific publications Barbara A. Spellman on the role of technological and demographic changes. [Publication of this special section was made possible through the thinking problem solving Istituto, support of a grant to The New Atlantis from the John Templeton Foundation; the opinions expressed are those of the write high International, authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the John Templeton Foundation.] Daniel Sarewitz Discusses “Saving Science” Enter your e-mail address to receive occasional updates and previews from The New Atlantis . Science isn’t self-correcting, it’s self-destructing. To save the enterprise, scientists must come out rights essay Montfort, of the lab and into the real world. S cience, pride of modernity, our one source of objective knowledge, is in deep trouble. How To High International? Stoked by human Colegio Montfort, fifty years of growing public investments, scientists are more productive than ever, pouring out millions of articles in thousands of journals covering an ever-expanding array of fields and phenomena. But much of this supposed knowledge is turning out to be contestable, unreliable, unusable, or flat-out wrong.

From metastatic cancer to climate change to growth economics to dietary standards, science that is supposed to yield clarity and solutions is in many instances leading instead to contradiction, controversy, and confusion. Along the way it is also undermining the four-hundred-year-old idea that wise human action can be built on a foundation of how to an essay American International, independently verifiable truths. Science is trapped in a self-destructive vortex; to writing Lake Forest Academy escape, it will have to abdicate its protected political status and write an essay school School-Salzburg, embrace both its limits and its accountability to the rest of society. The story of how things got to this state is difficult to unravel, in no small part because the scientific enterprise is thinking Westbourne so well-defended by walls of hype, myth, and denial. But much of the problem can be traced back to a bald-faced but beautiful lie upon which rests the how to write school American International, political and cultural power of science. Thinking Westbourne School? This lie received its most compelling articulation just as America was about to high embark on essay writing an extended period of extraordinary scientific, technological, and an essay International School-Salzburg, economic growth. It goes like this: Scientific progress on writing Stonar School a broad front results from the free play of free intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown. “The free play of free intellects. dictated by their curiosity” So deeply embedded in our cultural psyche that it seems like an echo of common sense, this powerful vision of how to an essay school International, science comes from Vannevar Bush, the M.I.T. engineer who had been the architect of the nation’s World War II research enterprise, which delivered the atomic bomb and helped to advance microwave radar, mass production of antibiotics, and other technologies crucial to the Allied victory. He became justly famous in the process.

Featured on the cover of Time magazine, he was dubbed the “General of critically Business, Physics.” As the war drew to a close, Bush envisioned transitioning American science to a new era of peace, where top academic scientists would continue to receive the write an essay high school American, robust government funding they had grown accustomed to home essay writing Stonar since Pearl Harbor but would no longer be shackled to the narrow dictates of military need and application, not to mention discipline and secrecy. Instead, as he put it in his July 1945 report Science, The Endless Frontier , by pursuing “research in how to American International School-Salzburg the purest realms of home writing Stonar School, science” scientists would build the how to an essay School-Salzburg, foundation for problem solving Istituto Marangoni, “new products and new processes” to high school American International deliver health, full employment, and essay Academy, military security to the nation. From this perspective, the lie as Bush told it was perhaps less a conscious effort to deceive than a seductive manipulation, for political aims, of widely held beliefs about the purity of science. Indeed, Bush’s efforts to establish the conditions for school International, generous and long-term investments in science were extraordinarily successful, with U.S. federal funding for “basic research” rising from $265 million in 1953 to $38 billion in 2012, a twentyfold increase when adjusted for inflation. More impressive still was the increase for basic research at universities and essay Stonar School, colleges, which rose from $82 million to how to an essay high International School-Salzburg $24 billion, a more than fortyfold increase when adjusted for inflation. By contrast, government spending on more “applied research” at universities was much less generous, rising to just under $10 billion.

The power of the papers NEOMA School, lie was palpable: “the free play of an essay International School-Salzburg, free intellects” would provide the knowledge that the nation needed to confront the challenges of the future. To go along with all that money, the beautiful lie provided a politically brilliant rationale for what is critical School, public spending with little public accountability. Politicians delivered taxpayer funding to scientists, but only high scientists could evaluate the research they were doing. Outside efforts to guide the course of human writing, science would only interfere with its free and unpredictable advance. The fruits of curiosity-driven scientific exploration into the unknown have often been magnificent. The recent discovery of gravitational waves an experimental confirmation of Einstein’s theoretical work from a century earlier provided a high-publicity culmination of billions of dollars of public spending and decades of research by large teams of how to write high International School-Salzburg, scientists. Multi-billion dollar investments in space exploration have yielded similarly startling knowledge about our solar system, such as the recent evidence of flowing water on Mars.

And, speaking of essay papers School, startling, anthropologists and geneticists have used genome-sequencing technologies to offer evidence that early humans interbred with two other hominin species, Neanderthals and Denisovans. Such discoveries heighten our sense of how to an essay high American International, wonder about the universe and home essay writing Stonar, about ourselves. And somehow, it would seem, even as scientific curiosity stokes ever-deepening insight about the fundamental workings of our world, science managed simultaneously to deliver a cornucopia of write high school American, miracles on the practical side of the equation, just as Bush predicted: digital computers, jet aircraft, cell phones, the Internet, lasers, satellites, GPS, digital imagery, nuclear and solar power. When Bush wrote his report, nothing made by humans was orbiting the Istituto Marangoni, earth; software didn’t exist; smallpox still did. So one might be forgiven for believing that this amazing effusion of technological change truly was the product of write American International, “the free play of free intellects, working on subjects of their own choice, in thinking Business the manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown.” But one would be mostly wrong. Science has been important for technological development, of course. Scientists have discovered and probed phenomena that turned out to have enormously broad technological applications. But the miracles of modernity in the above list came not from “the free play of free intellects,” but from the leashing of scientific creativity to the technological needs of the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD). The story of how DOD mobilized science to help create our world exposes the high American International School-Salzburg, lie for what it is and provides three difficult lessons that have to be learned if science is to evade the calamity it now faces.

First, scientific knowledge advances most rapidly, and home School, is of most value to society, not when its course is determined by the “free play of free intellects” but when it is steered to solve problems especially those related to write an essay school American International technological innovation. Second, when science is not steered to solve such problems, it tends to go off half-cocked in ways that can be highly detrimental to science itself. Third and this is the hardest and scariest lesson science will be made more reliable and more valuable for society today not by being protected from societal influences but instead by being brought, carefully and appropriately, into a direct, open, and intimate relationship with those influences. How DOD Gave Science Its Mojo. A lmost immediately after World War II, the Department of War soon renamed the human rights writing Montfort, Department of how to write high International, Defense began to harness together the complete set of players necessary to ensure the United States would have all the technologies needed to win the effective essay writing Lake Forest Academy, Cold War. This is what President Eisenhower, in 1961, would call the “military-industrial complex” and what today would be termed, more broadly, the “national innovation system.” It includes everything from university laboratories and how to write high International School-Salzburg, scientists, to the small and problem solving Firenze, large companies that develop and commercialize innovations, to the users of those innovations in write high school this case, the military itself. DOD was able to catalyze rapid innovation because money was, more or less, no object; the mission ensuring that America’s military technologies were better than anyone else’s was all that mattered. How do you create materials for jet engines and fuselages that are lighter and more durable under extreme conditions?

How do you obtain high-resolution images of an enemy’s military facilities from an orbiting satellite? How do you ensure that military communication links can still operate after a nuclear war? These are the types of questions that the military needed to have answered, questions that demanded advances in fundamental knowledge as well as technological know-how. DOD’s needs provided not just investments in rights essay but also a powerful focus for advances in basic research in fields ranging from high-energy physics to how to high school International materials science to fluid dynamics to molecular biology. At the same time, protected from both the persuasive papers Business School, logic of the marketplace and the capriciousness of politics by the imperative of national defense, DOD was a demanding customer for some of the most advanced technological products that high-tech corporations could produce. For example, the first digital computer built in the mid-1940s to calculate the trajectories of artillery shells and used to design the first hydrogen bomb cost about an essay high school International, $500,000 (around $4.7 million today), operated billions of essay School, times more slowly than modern computers, took up the write American School-Salzburg, space of a small bus, and had no immediate commercial application. Essay Stonar? Who but the Pentagon would buy such a crazy thing? But DOD also supported the science needed to keep innovation going. In the late 1950s and how to an essay school, well into the 1960s, as the role for computers in military affairs was growing but the science wasn’t keeping up, DOD’s Advanced Research Projects Agency essentially created computer science as an academic discipline by funding work at M.I.T., Carnegie Mellon, Stanford, and other institutions. Another example: The earliest jet engines, back in effective essay Lake Forest Academy the 1940s, needed to be overhauled about every hundred hours and were forty-five times less fuel-efficient than piston engines. An Essay School School-Salzburg? Why waste public money on such a technology?

Because military planners knew that jet power promised combat performance greatly superior to what planes powered by how to write high International School-Salzburg, piston engines. For decades the Air Force and Navy funded research and development in the aircraft industry to continually drive improvement of jet engines. Meanwhile, the Boeing Company could take the jet-engine-powered aerial fuel tanker it was developing for the Air Force and use a similar design for its 707 passenger jet, the effective Forest Academy, first truly safe and reliable commercial jet aircraft. And another: ATT’s Bell Labs, where the write school American, transistor effect was discovered, could use the demands (and investments) of the Army Signal Corps for smaller and more reliable battlefield communication technologies to improve scientific understanding of semiconducting materials as well as the reliability and performance of transistors. It was military purchases that kept the new transistor, semiconductor, and integrated-circuit industries afloat in the early and mid-1950s. As historian Thomas Misa explained in his study of DOD’s role in papers NEOMA Business School stimulating the how to write school International School-Salzburg, development of thinking critically Business School, transistors: “By subsidizing engineering development and the construction of manufacturing facilities . the military catalyzed the establishment of an how to write American International industrial base” helping to create the technological and industrial backbone for the information age. What Is Critical Thinking Westbourne School? And new weapons such as missile systems and how to school, ever-more powerful nuclear warheads continued to drive the development of and essay writing Montfort, demand for increasingly sophisticated and reliable electronic components such as microprocessors and supercomputers. Today, DOD continues to push rapid innovation in select areas, including robotics (especially for how to write an essay high School-Salzburg, drone warfare) and human enhancement (for example, to what thinking improve the battlefield performance of soldiers). But through a combination of several factors including excessive bureaucratic growth, interference from Congress, and an essay American International School-Salzburg, long-term commitments to hugely expensive and troubled weapons systems with little civilian spillover potential, such as missile defense and the F-35 joint strike fighter the Pentagon’s creativity and productivity as an is critical thinking School innovator has significantly dissipated. Yet the scientific and technological foundations that DOD helped to create during the Cold War continue to support the American economy. To take just one example, of the thirteen areas of technological advance that were essential to the development of the iPhone, eleven including the microprocessor, GPS, and the Internet can be traced back to how to an essay high school American vital military investments in research and technological development.

Americans lionize the scientist as head-in-the-clouds genius (the Einstein hero) and the inventor as misfit-in-the-garage genius (the Steve Jobs or Bill Gates hero). The discomfiting reality, however, is that much of today’s technological world exists because of DOD’s role in essay Forest Academy catalyzing and steering science and technology. This was industrial policy, and how to an essay high school American International, it worked because it brought all of the players in writing the innovation game together, disciplined them by providing strategic, long-term focus for their activities, and shielded them from the market rationality that would have doomed almost every crazy, over-expensive idea that today makes the world go round. How To An Essay American? The great accomplishments of the military-industrial complex did not result from allowing scientists to pursue “subjects of their own choice, in the manner dictated by critically Rotterdam Business School, their curiosity,” but by channeling that curiosity toward the solution of how to American School-Salzburg, problems that DOD wanted to rights Colegio solve. Such goal-driven industrial policies are supposed to be the stuff of Soviet five-year plans, not market-based democracies, and how to write an essay, neither scientists nor policymakers have had much of an home writing Stonar School appetite for recognizing DOD’s role in creating the foundations of our modern economy and society. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has been a much more appealing explanation, ideologically and write American School-Salzburg, politically. Not everyone, however, has been fooled. F ran Visco was diagnosed with breast cancer in 1987. A Philadelphia trial lawyer intimidated by no one, she chose to be treated with a less toxic chemotherapy than the one her doctor recommended.

She also started volunteering for a local breast cancer patient-support group, which soon led to an invitation to persuasive essay NEOMA Business the organizing meeting of what came to be called the National Breast Cancer Coalition. NBCC was conceived as a political advocacy organization that would provide a unified voice for local patient groups across the how to write high school International School-Salzburg, nation an approach that appealed to Visco’s activist nature. What Is Critical? She became the organization’s first president, and has ever since been a national leader for write an essay high International School-Salzburg, mobilizing science, medicine, policy, and politics around the Lake Forest Academy, goal of eliminating the disease. Visco was a child of the lie. “All I knew about science was that it was this pure search for truth and knowledge.” So, logically enough, she and the other activists at NBCC started out by trying to get more money for breast cancer research at the country’s most exalted research organization, the National Institutes of Health’s National Cancer Institute. But Visco was also a child of the Sixties with a penchant for how to an essay high International, questioning authority, and rights essay writing Colegio, she wanted to play an active role in figuring out how much money was needed for how to write an essay school American International School-Salzburg, research and how best to spend it. She and her NBCC colleagues identified a community of cancer researchers that they thought were particularly innovative, and brought everyone together in February 1992 to discuss what was needed to find cures more quickly and how much it would cost.

Together, the advocates and scientists determined that $300 million of new money could be absorbed and well spent by the scientific community a goal that found strong support in essay papers NEOMA Congress. Write An Essay High School-Salzburg? Meanwhile, Visco and other patient-advocates began to immerse themselves deeply in the science so they could “have a seat at the table and figure out how those dollars should be spent.” Through an accident of congressional budgeting, it turned out that the only way to meet the $300 million goal was to have most of the problem Istituto Firenze, money allocated to the Department of Defense. So in November 1992, Congress appropriated $210 million for an essay school, a peer-reviewed breast cancer research program to be administered by the Army. The initial plan was to School have most of the money transferred to the National Cancer Institute, but when Visco and her NBCC colleagues met with NCI officials to discuss how best to spend the how to an essay International, new dollars, Director Sam Broder explained how difficult it was to influence the momentum of science because priorities were established by the bottom-up interests of the research community itself. This, Visco said, “gave us absolutely no comfort that he was going to thinking Business School do anything differently.” When Visco went to DOD, “it was a completely different meeting.” With Major General Richard Travis, the Army’s research and development director, “it was, ‘you know, we’re the Army, and if you give us a mission, we figure out how to accomplish that mission.’” It was, “‘Ladies, I’m going to lead you into battle and we’re going to win the war.’” “At some point, you really have to how to write an essay School-Salzburg save a life”: Fran Visco speaks at human essay writing, an NBCC event at write school School-Salzburg, the U.S. Capitol in 2007 Nancy Ostertag/Getty Images. Although Visco was at first “terrified” to find herself working with the human rights essay Montfort, military, she also found it refreshing and empowering a “fantastic collaboration and write an essay high American International, partnership.” NCI leaders had reminded Visco that she was an activist and a patient, not a peer. But Gen.

Travis told her and her colleagues, “You want a seat at the table, I’ll make sure you have a seat at the table.” The Army welcomed the participation of patient-activists in the planning process for the breast cancer program, directly involved them in thinking School the final selection of scientific projects to be funded, and eventually even brought them into the processes for how to write an essay school, reviewing the thinking problem Firenze, merits of various research proposals. DOD’s can-do approach, its enthusiasm about how to high American International School-Salzburg, partnering with patient-advocates, and its dedication to solving the problem of breast cancer rather than simply advancing our scientific understanding of the disease won Visco over. And it didn’t take long for benefits to appear. During its first round of grantmaking in 199394, the program funded research on is critical thinking a new, biologically based targeted breast cancer therapy a project that had already been turned down multiple times by NIH’s peer-review system because the conventional wisdom was that targeted therapies wouldn’t work. The DOD-funded studies led directly to the development of the drug Herceptin, one of the most important advances in breast cancer treatment in recent decades. According to Dennis Slamon, the lead scientist on that project, the school American International School-Salzburg, openness of the DOD program to funding projects like his that went against what thinking School, mainstream scientific beliefs was due to the patient-activists. “Absolutely, unequivocally, no question. The scientific community, perhaps even myself included, were skeptical that it was going to be doable that a bunch of laypeople, who weren’t trained in-depth in science, were going to sit at the table and really be involved in the peer-review process in a meaningful way. And we could not have been more wrong.” There have been few major advances in breast cancer treatment since then, but one of the most promising a targeted therapy called palbociclib was funded by the same DOD program and was approved by the FDA in 2015 after successful clinical trials. Despite the write school International, objections of scientists advising the program, patient-advocates also pushed DOD to ramp up funding for immunological approaches to curing breast cancer, including support for vaccine research too unconventional to be supported by either NCI or the pharmaceutical industry. NBCC’s collaboration with DOD exemplifies how science can be steered in directions it would not take if left to scientists alone.

But that turned out not to be enough. Twenty years into the Army’s breast cancer program, Visco found herself deeply frustrated. The Army was providing grants for innovative, high-risk proposals that might not have been funded by NCI. But that’s where the program’s influence ended. What Visco and Gen. Travis had failed to thinking solving Marangoni appreciate was that, when it came to breast cancer, the write high American, program lacked the key ingredient that made DOD such a successful innovator in other fields: the money and control needed to coordinate all the thinking Firenze, players in the innovation system and hold them accountable for working toward a common goal.

And so, as NBCC and other groups brought more and more money into the research system through their effective lobbying campaigns, it grew clear to Visco that the main beneficiaries were individual scientists attracted by the new funding not breast cancer patients. To be sure, the DOD support for innovative research is International “better than what’s happening at NCI and NIH, but it’s not better enoug h . Effective Essay Forest? it’s innovation within the existing system.” Ultimately, “all the money that was thrown at high School-Salzburg, breast cancer created more problems than success,” Visco says. What seemed to drive many of the scientists was the desire to “get above the thinking Rotterdam, fold on the front page of the New York Times ,” not to an essay School-Salzburg figure out home essay Stonar School, how to end breast cancer. It seemed to her that creativity was being stifled as researchers displayed “a lemming effect,” chasing abundant research dollars as they rushed from write school American International, one hot but ultimately fruitless topic to another. “We got tired of seeing so many people build their careers around one gene or one protein,” she says.

Visco has a scientist’s understanding of the home writing School, extraordinary complexity of breast cancer and the difficulties of making progress toward a cure. But when it got to how to school American International School-Salzburg the point where NBCC had helped bring $2 billion to the DOD program, she started asking: “And what? And what is there to show? You want to solving do this science and wha t ?” “At some point,” Visco says, “you really have to an essay school International School-Salzburg save a life.” The Measure of Progress. F or much of human history, technology advanced through craftsmanship and trial-and-error tinkering, with little theoretical understanding. The systematic study of nature what we today call science was a distinct domain, making little or no contribution to technological development. Yet technology has contributed in obvious ways to scientific advance for centuries, as practical tools such as lenses, compasses, and clocks allowed scientists to study nature with ever greater accuracy and resolution. The relationship only started to swing both ways, with science contributing to technological advancement as well as benefiting from what is critical, it, in the nineteenth century as, for example, organic chemistry both emerged from and found application in the German dye-making industry.

And as the Industrial Revolution came to link technological innovation to historically unprecedented economic growth, scientists began to how to high American School-Salzburg make many important contributions to fundamental knowledge by studying phenomena whose existence was brought to Business School light only because of the new technologies of an industrializing world. Efforts to write International improve the performance of steam engines, wine manufacturing, steel-making, and telephone communication to name just a few guided much scientific inquiry, and, in some cases led to entirely new fields of basic research, such as thermodynamics, bacteriology, and radio astronomy. New technologies also provided discipline and focus for areas of fundamental science that had been progressing slowly, as vaccines did for critically Rotterdam Business, immunology and airplanes did for theoretical aerodynamics. Science has been such a wildly successful endeavor over the past two hundred years in an essay high school large part because technology blazed a path for it to follow. Not only essay Business have new technologies created new worlds, new phenomena, and new questions for write high American, science to explore, but technological performance has provided a continuous, unambiguous demonstration of the validity of the science being done. The electronics industry and semiconductor physics progressed hand-in-hand not because scientists, working “in the thinking problem solving Marangoni Firenze, manner dictated by their curiosity for exploration of the unknown,” kept lobbing new discoveries over the lab walls that then allowed transistor technology to advance, but because the quest to improve technological performance constantly raised new scientific questions and demanded advances in our understanding of the behavior of electrons in different types of materials. Or, again, consider how the rapid development of computers beginning in the 1950s, catalyzed by how to write an essay school International, DOD, led to rights Montfort the demand for new types of write an essay high International, theories and knowledge about how to acquire, store, and process digital information a new science for rights writing Montfort, a new technology. Thirty years later, computer scientists were probing phenomena in a rapidly developing technological realm that had never existed before cyberspace and the World Wide Web and were asking questions that could never have been imagined, let alone answered, before. The National Science Foundation funded basic research into this new, technology-created realm, including grants to two graduate students in computer science at Stanford University who wanted to how to write high school American School-Salzburg understand how best to navigate the novel and expanding landscape of digital information. They published their results in the 1998 article “The Anatomy of a Large-Scale Hypertextual Web Search Engine.” The abstract begins: “In this paper, we present Google . ” the persuasive essay papers Business School, web-search protocol that led to the corporate empire whose technologies are today woven into the fabric of daily life, and an essay, whose economic and social influence is every bit as powerful as the great railroad, steel, automobile, and telecommunications corporations of previous technological revolutions. Technology led; science followed.

If, as Visco says, “at some point you really have to save a life,” it will be a technology, perhaps a vaccine or drug, that does the job. Technology is what links science to thinking problem Marangoni human experience; it is what makes science real for us. A light switch, a jet aircraft, or a measles vaccine, these are cause-and-effect machines that turn phenomena that can be described by science the flow of electrons, the movement of air molecules, the stimulation of antibodies into reliable outcomes: the light goes on, the jet flies, the child becomes immune. An Essay School American International? The scientific phenomena must be real or the technologies would not work. Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie makes it easy to believe that scientific imagination gives birth to technological progress, when in reality technology sets the essay NEOMA Business, agenda for science, guiding it in its most productive directions and how to school American School-Salzburg, providing continual tests of its validity, progress, and value. Absent their real-world validation through technology, scientific truths would be mere abstractions. Thinking Critically Rotterdam Business? Here is where the lie exercises its most corrupting power: If we think that scientific progress is best pursued by “the free play of high school, free intellects,” we give science a free pass to define progress without reference to the world beyond it.

But if there is nothing by which to papers School measure scientific progress outside of science itself, how can we know when our knowledge is advancing, standing still, or moving backwards? It turns out that we cannot. Einstein, We Have a Problem. T he science world has been buffeted for nearly a decade by write high school American School-Salzburg, growing revelations that major bodies of scientific knowledge, published in essay writing Lake Forest Academy peer-reviewed papers, may simply be wrong. Among recent instances: a cancer cell line used as the basis for over a thousand published breast cancer research studies was revealed to be actually a skin cancer cell line; a biotechnology company was able to how to an essay school School-Salzburg replicate only six out of fifty-three “landmark” published studies it sought to validate; a test of more than one hundred potential drugs for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in mice was unable to reproduce any of the positive findings that had been reported from critically School, previous studies; a compilation of nearly one hundred fifty clinical trials for therapies to block human inflammatory response showed that even though the therapies had supposedly been validated using mouse model experiments, every one of the trials failed in humans; a statistical assessment of the how to write high school American, use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map human brain function indicated that up to thinking solving Marangoni 70 percent of the write an essay, positive findings reported in approximately 40,000 published fMRI studies could be false; and an article assessing the overall quality of thinking problem Istituto, basic and preclinical biomedical research estimated that between 75 and 90 percent of all studies are not reproducible. Meanwhile, a painstaking effort to assess the how to write American International, quality of one hundred peer-reviewed psychology experiments was able to human rights essay writing replicate only 39 percent of the original papers’ results; annual mammograms, once the frontline of the how to an essay school American International School-Salzburg, war on breast cancer, have been shown to confer little benefit for women in their forties; and, of course, we’ve all been relieved to learn after all these years that saturated fat actually isn’t that bad for effective essay writing Lake, us. The number of high International School-Salzburg, retracted scientific publications rose tenfold during the first decade of is critical Westbourne School, this century, and although that number still remains in the mere hundreds, the growing number of write an essay high American School-Salzburg, studies such as those mentioned above suggests that poor quality, unreliable, useless, or invalid science may in fact be the norm in some fields, and persuasive essay NEOMA, the number of write high International School-Salzburg, scientifically suspect or worthless publications may well be counted in Lake Forest the hundreds of thousands annually.

While most of the evidence of poor scientific quality is coming from fields related to health, biomedicine, and write an essay high, psychology, the problems are likely to be as bad or worse in many other research areas. For example, a survey of statistical practices in economics research concluded that “the credibility of the economics literature is likely to be modest or even low.” What is to be made of critically Business School, this ever-expanding litany of dispiriting revelations and reversals? Well, one could celebrate. “Instances in which scientists detect and address flaws in work constitute evidence of success, not failure,” a group of leaders of the American science establishment including the past, present, and future presidents of the National Academy of how to write an essay, Sciences wrote in Science in 2015, “because they demonstrate the underlying protective mechanisms of science at thinking solving Istituto, work.” But this happy posture ignores the systemic failings at the heart of science’s problems today. When it works, science is a process of creating new knowledge about the world, knowledge that helps us understand how what we thought we knew was incomplete or even wrong.

This picture of success doesn’t mean, however, that we should reasonably expect that most scientific results are unreliable or invalid at the moment they are published. What it means, instead, is write high International School-Salzburg that the home writing Stonar, results of research however imperfect are reliable in the context of the existing state of knowledge, and how to write high school International, are thus a definite step toward a better understanding of our world and a solid foundation for further research. In many areas of research, such expectations do not seem justified, and science may actually be moving backwards. Essay Papers NEOMA? Richard Horton, editor-in-chief of The Lancet , puts it like this: The case against science is straightforward: much of the scientific literature, perhaps half, may simply be untrue. How To Write High American? Afflicted by studies with small sample sizes, tiny effects, invalid exploratory analyses, and flagrant conflicts of interest, together with an obsession for pursuing fashionable trends of dubious importance, science has taken a turn towards darkness. C. Glenn Begley and papers Business School, John Ioannidis researchers who have been courageous and visionary in exposing systemic weakness in biomedical science concluded in a January 2015 article that “it is how to American International impossible to endorse an approach that suggests that we proceed with an ongoing research investment that is producing results the majority of which cannot be substantiated and home School, will not stand the test of time.” Similarly, an economic analysis published in June 2015 estimates that $28 billion per year is wasted on biomedical research that is unreproducible. Write An Essay High International? Science isn’t self-correcting; it’s self-destructing.

Part of the Business School, problem surely has to do with the pathologies of the science system itself. How To An Essay High? Academic science, especially, has become an onanistic enterprise worthy of Swift or Kafka. Thinking Critically Rotterdam Business School? As a university scientist you are expected to produce a continual stream of startling and newsworthy findings. Here’s how the great biologist E. O. Wilson describes the life of an high school American academic researcher: You will need forty hours a week to perform teaching and administrative duties, another twenty hours on top of that to conduct respectable research, and Rotterdam Business, still another twenty hours to accomplish really important research. Make an important discovery, and how to an essay school School-Salzburg, you are a successful scientist in the true, elitist sense in a profession where elitism is practiced without shame. Business? Fail to discover, and you are little or nothing. The professional incentives for academic scientists to assert their elite status are perverse and crazy, and promotion and tenure decisions focus above all on high school American International how many research dollars you bring in, how many articles you get published, and how often those articles are cited in other articles. To bring in research grants, you need to show that your previous grants yielded “transformative” results and is critical thinking School, that your future work will do the same.

To get papers published, you need to cite related publications that provide support for your hypotheses and findings. Meanwhile, the peers who review funding proposals and journal articles are playing in the same system, competing for write an essay high American International School-Salzburg, the same funds, motivated by the same incentives. To get the research done you need graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to do most of the grunt work of running experiments and Business School, collecting data, which is how they get trained and an essay school American, acculturated to become the next generation of academic scientists behaving the same way. Universities competing desperately for what School, top faculty, the best graduate students, and government research funds hype for International, the news media the results coming out of their laboratories, encouraging a culture in which every scientist claims to be doing path-breaking work that will solve some urgent social problem. (Scientists themselves are complicit in the hype machine: according to one study, the thinking critically School, frequency of write an essay high school School-Salzburg, positive words like “innovative,” “novel,” “robust,” and “unprecedented” in biomedical research publications in 2014 was nearly nine times as high as it was forty years earlier.) The scientific publishing industry exists not to disseminate valuable information but to allow the persuasive papers NEOMA School, ever-increasing number of researchers to publish more papers now on the order of write an essay high school School-Salzburg, a couple million peer-reviewed articles per year so that they can advance professionally. Essay Writing Lake Academy? As of 2010, about 24,000 peer-reviewed scientific journals were being published worldwide to accommodate this demand. These figures would not have shocked the how to school American International School-Salzburg, historian of science and physicist Derek de Solla Price, who more than half a century ago observed that “science is so large that many of us begin to worry about the sheer mass of the monster we have created.” In his book Little Science, Big Science (1963), Price noted presciently that the critically School, number of scientists was growing so fast that it could only lead to a “scientific doomsday” of how to school International School-Salzburg, instability and stress, and that exponential growth of the thinking Istituto Marangoni, scientific enterprise would bring with it declining scientific originality and how to write School-Salzburg, quality, as the number of home writing School, truly great scientists was progressively drowned out by how to an essay, the much more rapidly increasing number of merely competent ones.

One cumulative result of Westbourne, these converging stresses (a result that Price did not anticipate) is a well-recognized pervasive bias that infects every corner of the basic research enterprise a bias toward the new result. Bias is an inescapable attribute of human intellectual endeavor, and it creeps into science in many different ways, from bad statistical practices to poor experimental or model design to mere wishful thinking. If biases are random then they should more or less balance each other out through multiple studies. But as numerous close observers of the scientific literature have shown, there are powerful sources of bias that push in write American School-Salzburg one direction: come up with a positive result, show something new, different, eye-catching, transformational, something that announces you as part of the elite. Yet, to fixate on systemic positive bias in an out-of-control research system is to miss the thinking critically Business School, deeper and much more important point. The reason that bias seems able to write an essay School-Salzburg infect research so easily today is that so much of science is detached from the goals and agendas of the military-industrial innovation system, which long gave research its focus and discipline. Nothing is left to problem Istituto Marangoni keep research honest save the internal norms of the professional, peer-review system itself. And how well are those norms holding up? A survey of more than 1,500 scientists published by how to write high school American, Nature in May 2016 shows that 80 percent or more believe that scientific practice is being undermined by such factors as “selective reporting” of data, publication pressure, poor statistical analysis, insufficient attention to replication, and inadequate peer review. In short, we are finding out what happens when objective inquiry is guided by Bush’s beautiful lie. “Scientific doomsday” indeed.

Lemmings Studying Mice. A neuroscientist by training, Susan Fitzpatrick worries a lot about science and what Price called the home essay School, “sheer mass of the monster.” “The scientific enterprise used to an essay high be small, and in any particular area of research everyone knew each other; it had this sort of artisanal quality,” she says. “But gradually the home essay Stonar, system became more professionalized, it got more and how to write high school American International, more money, it made bigger and bigger promises. Writing Lake Academy? So the qualities that make scientific research reliable, honest, got undermined by International, the need to feed the beast, and the system got too big to succeed.” She worries especially about what this change will mean for the quality and value of the science being done in her field. As president of the James S. McDonnell Foundation, which funds research on effective essay writing cognition and how to high American, the brain, Fitzpatrick is concerned about essay writing Stonar School, where research dollars are flowing. Just as Visco observed what she called the “lemming effect” researchers running from one hot topic to the next Fitzpatrick also sees science as driven by an essay high American International, a circular, internal logic. “What the researcher really wants is something reliable that yields to their methods,” something that “can produce a reliable stream of data, because you need to have your next publication, your next grant proposal.” For example, scientists commonly use mouse brains to study neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s or Alzheimer’s, or to thinking problem Marangoni study behavioral problems such as addictiveness or attention deficit disorders. How To An Essay High School American International? What’s great about mice is that they yield to scientists’ methods. They can be bred in virtually limitless quantity, with particular traits designed into them, such as a gene mutation that triggers Alzheimer’s-like symptoms. This allows researchers to essay papers NEOMA Business test specific hypotheses about, say, the genetics or neurochemistry of a mouse-brain disease. More than one hundred different strains of mice have been developed for the purpose of studying Alzheimer’s, and numerous chemical compounds have been shown to slow the course of Alzheimer’s-like symptoms in mice. Yet despite the high School-Salzburg, proliferation of mouse and other animal models, only one out of 244 compounds that made it to the trial stage in the decade between 2002 and 2012 was approved by the FDA as a treatment for humans a 99.6 percent failure rate, and even the critically Rotterdam, one drug approved for use in humans during that period doesn’t work very well.

And why should it be otherwise? The last common ancestor of humans and mice lived 80 million years ago. “You’re using animals that don’t develop neurodegenerative disease on high school their own,” explains Fitzpatrick. Solving Firenze? “Even aged mice don’t develop Alzheimer’s disease.” So researchers force some characteristic to develop such as beta-amyloid plaques on the mouse’s brain, or age-related cognitive decline but that’s not the same as the human disease in write high question, “because the process whereby you create that model is essay not the pathogenesis of the how to write an essay American School-Salzburg, disease. Thinking Westbourne School? Your treatment is focused on how you created the model, not how the disease occurs naturally.” There is little reason to believe that what’s being learned from these animal models will put us on the right path to how to an essay high school understanding let alone curing human brain disorders. Not that such concerns are likely to put a damper on the research. What Is Critical Westbourne? A search for how to school International School-Salzburg, article titles or abstracts containing the thinking problem, words “brain” and “mouse” (or “mice” or “murine”) in the NIH’s PubMed database yields over 50,000 results for the decade between 2005 and 2015 alone. If you add the word “rat” to the mix, the number climbs to how to an essay American International about 80,000. It’s a classic case of thinking solving Istituto, looking for your keys under the streetlight because that’s where the light is: the write high school American International School-Salzburg, science is done just because it can be. The results get published and they get cited and that creates, Fitzpatrick says, “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge.” But it’s worse than that. Rights? Scientists cite one another’s papers because any given research finding needs to be justified and interpreted in terms of other research being done in related areas one of those “underlying protective mechanisms of science.” But what if much of the science getting cited is, itself, of poor quality? Consider, for example, a 2012 report in Science showing that an Alzheimer’s drug called bexarotene would reduce beta-amyloid plaque in mouse brains.

Efforts to an essay American reproduce that finding have since failed, as Science reported in critically Business February 2016. But in the meantime, the paper has been cited in about 500 other papers, many of which may have been cited multiple times in turn. In this way, poor-quality research metastasizes through the published scientific literature, and distinguishing knowledge that is reliable from knowledge that is unreliable or false or simply meaningless becomes impossible. A scientific model allows you to study a simplified version, or isolated characteristics, of a complex phenomenon. This simplification is sometimes justified, for instance, if the cause-and-effect relations being studied in the model (say, the response of an write School-Salzburg airfoil to turbulence in a wind tunnel) operate in thinking problem Istituto Firenze the same way in the more complex context (an airplane flying through a storm).

In such cases you can have some confidence that what you’ve learned from the model can be applied to how to an essay school American International the actual problem at hand. Fitzpatrick thinks that such reasoning is not justified when using mouse brains to model human neurodegenerative disease. But her concerns about this way of approaching brain science have more devastating implications when the models are extended still further to explore the neurological aspects of human behavioral dysfunction: Because these questions are incredibly complex and we’re trying to reduce it to some biological models, you have to essay writing Lake Forest Academy create proxies. A neuroscientist can’t directly study what makes somebody commit a crime, so instead they say, “Oh I know what it is, these people have a lack of inhibitory control.” So now that’s something I can put my arm around, so I need a task that I can reliably deliver in how to school American School-Salzburg the laboratory as a marker for inhibitory control. Effective Academy? “Oh, and we have one, there’s this reaction-time task . How To American International? ” Now we’re studying something, calling it something else, creating a causal hypothesis about people’s behavior that’s made up of tenuous links. The problem, as Fitzpatrick explains it, is that in this space between the proxy say, measuring inhibitory control in a mouse, or for that matter a person and thinking critically Rotterdam Business, a complex behavior, such as drug addiction, lies a theory about what causes crime and addiction and anti-social behavior. The theory “has ideological underpinnings. It shapes the kind of questions that get asked, the how to write high school American, way research gets structured, the findings that get profiled, the person that gets asked to give the big speech.” Fitzpatrick is persuasive School observing what happens when the interplay between science and technology is replaced by an essay high American International, the “free play of what thinking Westbourne, free intellects.” Scientists can never escape the influence of human bias. Write High American International? But human bias doesn’t have much room to get a foothold when research is tightly linked to the performance of a particular technology through, say, the desire for lighter, stronger automobile engines, or for Stonar, faster, more efficient web search engines. Technology keeps science honest.

But for subjects that are incredibly complex, such as Alzheimer’s disease and how to an essay high school International, criminal behavior, the connection between scientific knowledge and technology is tenuous and mediated by many assumptions assumptions about effective writing Forest, how science works (mouse brains are good models for human brains); about how society works (criminal behavior is an essay high school American School-Salzburg caused by brain chemistry); or about how technology works (drugs that modify brain chemistry are a good way to change criminal behavior). The assumptions become invisible parts of the way scientists design experiments, interpret data, and apply their findings. The result is ever more elaborate theories theories that remain self-referential, and unequal to thinking Westbourne School the task of finding solutions to human problems. All this may go some way toward explaining why the rate of failure of pharmaceutical interventions for write an essay School-Salzburg, Alzheimer’s is thinking Business so high. When mouse models are used to explore theories of how to an essay school School-Salzburg, human brain health and behavior, there is no reliable way to assess the validity of the science or the assumptions underlying it. This is not to say that scientists should just start conducting on humans the experiments they now perform on mice. But as Fitzpatrick emphasizes, the huge amount of mouse-brain research now being done is a reflection of the internal dysfunction of the research system, not of the potential for the “free play of free intellects” to what is critical thinking help alleviate the how to write American, human suffering caused by neurological disease and dysfunction. But Is It Science? P roblems of values, assumptions, and ideology are not limited to neuroscience but are pervasive across the scientific enterprise.

Just as Derek Price recognized the critically Business School, threat to how to an essay school American International School-Salzburg science from its unsustainable growth decades before the symptoms became painfully apparent, so was the home essay Stonar School, threat of ideology in science flagged long ago by the physicist Alvin Weinberg. A bona fide member of the military-industrial complex, Weinberg ran the Oak Ridge National Laboratory originally part of the Manhattan Project and was a tireless advocate for nuclear energy. Involved as he was in the early political debates over nuclear power, he was concerned about the limits of what science could tell us about write an essay American International School-Salzburg, complex social and political issues. In his 1972 article “Science and Trans-Science,” Weinberg observed that society would increasingly be calling upon science to understand and address the complex problems of modernity many of which, of course, could be traced back to science and technology. But he accompanied this recognition with a much deeper and more powerful insight: that such problems “hang on the answers to questions that can be asked of science and yet which cannot be answered by science .” He called research into essay papers NEOMA such questions “trans-science.” If traditional sciences aim for precise and reliable knowledge about natural phenomena, trans-science pursues realities that are contingent or in flux. How To An Essay High School International? The objects and phenomena studied by thinking Rotterdam Business School, trans-science populations, economies, engineered systems depend on many different things, including the particular conditions under which they are studied at a given time and place, and the choices that researchers make about how to define and study them. This means that the objects and phenomena studied by trans-science are never absolute but instead are variable, imprecise, uncertain and thus always potentially subject to interpretation and debate. By contrast, Weinberg argues, natural sciences such as physics and how to school American, chemistry study objects that can be characterized by a small number of measurable variables. For example, in classical physics, once the position, velocity, and forces acting on a physical object are known, the movement of that object be it a pebble or a planet may be predicted. (This is not the case in quantum physics, in which the position and velocity of individual particles can no longer be measured simultaneously with precision. But, Weinberg points out, “even in quantum physics, we can make precise predictions” about statistical distributions of molecules or atoms or particles.) Moreover, the objects of what is critical School, study whether the mass of an how to write high school electron, the structure of a molecule, or the energy released by a chemical reaction can be precisely defined and Istituto, unambiguously characterized in ways that all scientists can generally agree upon. As Weinberg puts it: “Every hydrogen atom is the same as every other hydrogen atom.”

This combination of predictable behavior and invariant fundamental attributes is how to school International School-Salzburg what makes the human rights essay Colegio Montfort, physical sciences so valuable in contributing to technological advance the electron, the photon, the chemical reaction, the crystalline structure, when confined to the controlled environment of the laboratory or the engineered design of a technology, behaves as it is supposed to behave pretty much all the an essay high school, time. But many other branches of science study things that cannot be unambiguously characterized and that may not behave predictably even under controlled conditions things like a cell or a brain, or a particular site in the brain, or a tumor, or a psychological condition. Or a species of bird. Or a toxic waste dump. Or a classroom. Or “the economy.” Or the Westbourne School, earth’s climate. Such things may differ from one day to write high school American the next, from one place or one person to another. Their behavior cannot be described and predicted by home writing School, the sorts of general laws that physicists and chemists call upon, since their characteristics are not invariable but rather depend on the context in how to an essay American International which they are studied and the way they are defined.

Of course scientists work hard to come up with useful ways to characterize the things they study, like using the notion of a species to classify biologically distinct entities, or GDP to define the scale of a nation’s economy, or IQ to measure a person’s intelligence, or biodiversity to assess the health of an ecosystem, or global average atmospheric temperature to assess climate change. Or they use statistics to characterize the behavior of a heterogeneous class of things, for example the rate of home essay School, accidents of drivers of a certain age, or the how to high school American School-Salzburg, incidence of a certain kind of essay, cancer in people with a certain occupation, or the likelihood of a certain type of tumor to metastasize in a mouse or a person. Write School American International? But these ways of naming and describing objects and phenomena always come with a cost the cost of being at best only an is critical approximation of the write an essay high School-Salzburg, complex reality. Writing? Thus scientists can breed a strain of mouse that tends to write an essay school American International School-Salzburg display loss of essay Stonar, cognitive function with aging, and the similarities between different mice of that strain may approximate the kind of homogeneity possessed by the objects studied by physics and chemistry. This makes the mouse a useful subject for research.

But we must bear the cost of that usefulness: the connection between the phenomena studied in how to an essay high School-Salzburg that mouse strain and the more complex phenomena of human diseases, such as Alzheimer’s, is tenuous or even, as Susan Fitzpatrick worries, nonexistent. For Weinberg, who wanted to advance the case for civilian nuclear power, calculating the probability of home writing Stonar School, a catastrophic nuclear reactor accident was a prime example of a trans-scientific problem. “Because the probability is so small, there is no practical possibility of determining this failure rate directly i.e., by building, let us say, 1,000 reactors, operating them for 10,000 years and write an essay school American, tabulating their operating histories.” Instead of science, we are left with a mélange of science, engineering, values, assumptions, and ideology. Thus, as Weinberg explains, trans-scientific debate “inevitably weaves back and forth across the boundary between what is and what is not known and knowable.” More than forty years and three major reactor accidents later, scientists and advocates, fully armed with data and research results, continue to debate the risks and thinking solving Istituto, promise of nuclear power. To ensure that science does not become completely infected with bias and personal opinion, Weinberg recognized that it would be essential for scientists to “establish what the limits of scientific fact really are, where science ends and trans-science begins.” But doing so would require “the kind of selfless honesty which a scientist or engineer with a position or status to maintain finds hard to exercise.” Moreover, this is how to high school American International School-Salzburg “not at all easy since experts will often disagree as to the extent and reliability of their expertise.” Weinberg’s pleas for “selfless honesty” in drawing the lines of expertise have gone largely unheeded, as scientists have, over the past forty years, generally sought not to distinguish trans-science from science but to try through what amounts to a modern sort of alchemy to transmute trans-science into science. In fact, the great thing about trans-science is that you can keep on effective essay writing Forest Academy doing research; you can, as Fitzpatrick says, create “the sense that we’re gaining knowledge when we’re not gaining knowledge,” without getting any closer to a final or useful answer. In the an essay American International School-Salzburg, absence of Rotterdam Business, a technological application that can select for useful truths that work in write high school School-Salzburg the real world of light switches, vaccines, and aircraft, there is School often no “right” way to discriminate among or organize the mass of truths scientists create. How To Write American International School-Salzburg? This is why, to take another endlessly contested example, after decades of intensive research about the essay writing Colegio Montfort, effects of salt reduction on health, there is much less clarity today than in 1972, when a paper reported: “The evidence that salt induces permanent and how to high, fatal hypertension is direct, quantitative, and unequivocal in the rat.” Four decades later, the head of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention was affirming that one hundred thousand deaths per year in the United States can be attributed to thinking Marangoni too much dietary sodium, even as a major meta-analysis of 167 randomized controlled trials and 13 population studies since 1950 found no clear connection between salt reduction and health outcomes. Scientists and interest groups line up on both sides of the salt debate, avidly impugning the motives and research of those they disagree with. The profusion of partial truths, each defended by its own set of write an essay high American School-Salzburg, experts, is what comes to pass when science tries to answer trans-scientific questions like: Are genetically engineered crops necessary for feeding a burgeoning global population? Does exposure to Bisphenol A (or any of ten thousand other synthetic chemicals) adversely affect childhood development or otherwise harm human health?

Do open markets benefit all trading partners? What will be the future economic costs of a warming climate to a particular nation or region? Does standardized testing improve educational outcomes? Why is obesity rising in human Colegio America, and what can be done about it? If both scientific research and political debates over how to International, such questions seem to drag on endlessly, surely one reason is writing Stonar School that we have the an essay high American School-Salzburg, wrong expectations of science. Our common belief is that scientific truth is thinking critically Rotterdam a unitary thing there is one fact of the matter, that’s why the light always goes on when I flip the switch. But trans-scientific questions often reveal multiple truths, depending in part on what aspects of an issue scientists decide to do research on how to write an essay and how they go about doing that research. There is no point in asking who is right in such cases; the best we can hope for is to understand why experts are disagreeing, which often hinges on highly technical choices about how to carry out Stonar School, research and analyze data, not to mention the hidden biases that help determine those choices. Consider the question “Are genetically modified crops more productive than conventional crops?” Some researchers prefer to answer this question by looking at how to write school American, field trials that allow variables like weather and soil type to home essay be carefully controlled.

Others prefer surveys of actual farms, because they reflect real-world variability. These two approaches often yield contradictory results, and there is no way of write an essay high school American International School-Salzburg, adjudicating based on the data which of the what is critical thinking School, two provides a better guide to how to write high school International School-Salzburg the future. Sometimes the problem is not that it is hard to come up with facts, but that it is all too easy. This is why science almost never provides a solution to politically controversial issues. Usually it does the what thinking Westbourne School, opposite, providing peer-reviewed and thus culturally validated truths that can be selected and write high school School-Salzburg, assembled in whatever ways are necessary to support the position and policy solution of your choice.

If this observation seems implausible or overstated, consider that after forty years of research on the risks and benefits of mammograms, their effectiveness is more contested than ever; similarly, after more than twenty-five years and persuasive papers School, $15 billion of research to assess the safety of the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository site in how to write American International Nevada, nothing has resulted beyond political gridlock. In neither case does the science add up to a unitary truth. What we have, instead, is essay trans-science that “weaves back and how to write an essay high International, forth across the boundary between what is and what is not known and knowable.” There is a very good reason why the problem of poor-quality science is showing up most conspicuously in biomedical research. Even as government funding for biomedical science in essay Colegio Montfort the United States equals that of how to write an essay high, all other fields of essay Lake Forest Academy, research combined, diseases remain uncured, pharmaceutical innovation has slowed to a crawl, and corporate investments are extremely risky because of the staggering failure rates of new drug trials. Biomedical science is failing the truth-test of technology. But the more difficult and dangerous threat to science comes from areas of research where the stakes are high but the validity of the science cannot be determined precisely because it is not closely tied to technological progress toward a specific, shared goal (like curing breast cancer). In these cases, science delivers partial truths, any one of write School-Salzburg, which can advance the career of a researcher and persuasive Business School, attract a constituency of believers among scientists, political interest groups, and members of the public alike.

Even the vaunted scientific consensus around climate change which largely rests on fundamental physics that has been well understood for more than a century applies only to a narrow claim about the discernible human impact on how to high school global warming. The minute you get into questions about the rate and severity of future impacts, or the costs of and best pathways for addressing them, no semblance of consensus among experts remains. Mathematical models of home essay writing, future rates and consequences of climate change are highly sensitive to assumptions about things that are totally unpredictable (such as trends in economic growth or technological innovation), and write an essay, so the models spew out endless streams of trans-scientific facts that allow for essay writing Stonar School, claims and counterclaims, all apparently sanctioned by how to write high American School-Salzburg, science, about how urgent the problem is and what needs to be done. If we were instead to exercise the “selfless honesty” advocated by thinking problem solving Istituto, Weinberg and own up to the assumptions that led us to the results of the climate (or mouse) models, then we would have to abandon any claim to write an essay school American School-Salzburg an absolute, scientific truth that gives those results their legitimacy in society. T hese difficulties are about to get much worse. Many fields of essay Stonar, science are now staking their futures on what is sometimes called “big data” the creation of enormous new data sets enabled by new technological tools for collecting, storing, and analyzing virtually infinite amounts of school School-Salzburg, information. So, for example, we are told that President Obama’s Brain Initiative will “open new doors to explore how the brain records, processes, uses, stores, and retrieves vast quantities of information, and shed light on the complex links between brain function and behavior.” The Obama administration’s Precision Medicine Initiative will “tailor treatment and thinking solving Marangoni Firenze, prevention strategies to people’s unique characteristics, including their genome sequence, microbiome composition, health history, lifestyle, and diet.” The international Future Earth project will seek “to observe, monitor, explain and model the state of the planet and its societies,” so that decision-makers can “move towards prediction and informed management of the Earth system.” The National Ecological Observatory Network will seek the same for how to an essay, ecosystems by human Colegio, deploying “measurement infrastructure and cyberinfrastructure that deliver standardized, calibrated data to write high International the scientific community through a single, openly accessible data portal.” The Ocean Observatories Initiative will “measure the physical, chemical, geological, and biological variables in the ocean and seafloor . for improved detection and forecasting of environmental changes and their effects on biodiversity, coastal ecosystems, and climate.” The imperative of technological advance focuses scientific inquiry, and home essay School, provides a test for the validity of new scientific knowledge. Big data does the opposite, casting science into a sea of data with few constraints on where it might drift.

The difficulty with this way of doing science is that for any large body of data pertaining to a complex problem with many variables, the number of possible causal links between variables is inestimably larger than the number a scientist could actually think up and test. For example, researchers have identified more than a hundred variables that may influence obesity, from genes to education to job stress to how fast you eat to whether you were breastfed. Exploring the how to write an essay high school American International, relations between even some small number of combined variables would give you billions of possible hypotheses to test. The likelihood that you will happen upon School, one that reveals important causal relations is thus extremely small, while the opportunities for introducing bias or discovering meaningless correlations abound. So even if you get a positive result, it will likely be spurious. An Essay High School-Salzburg? As John Ioannidis explains in thinking Westbourne School his famous 2005 article “Why Most Published Research Findings Are False,” the problem of searching for a small number of possible true relationships in large data sets “totally reverses the way we view scientific results. How To An Essay High School School-Salzburg? Traditionally, investigators have viewed large and highly significant effects with excitement, as signs of important discoveries. Too large and too highly significant effects may actually be more likely to be signs of large bias in Colegio Montfort most fields of modern research.” But no matter once you have a positive finding, the web puts the world’s scientific literature at your beck and how to write high school American International School-Salzburg, call, and thinking problem solving, you can effortlessly trawl for peer-reviewed published papers to lend credibility to your discovery. And even if you do happen to confirm a real causal link, for it to be useful you would probably have to connect it to how to school American International other such links, each of which is itself unlikely to be true. Perhaps obese people with less education, more job stress, and critically Rotterdam Business School, a specific genetic marker do eat more quickly than others, but the reason they are obese may be due to an essay high school School-Salzburg something else entirely, say, not having time to persuasive NEOMA exercise because they live far from work. If mouse models are like looking for your keys under the street lamp, big data is like looking all over the world for your keys because you can even if you don’t know what they look like or where you might have dropped them or whether they actually fit your lock.

So another reason why biomedical science is out in write high American International front of other fields in terms of revelations of irreproducibility and false results may be that it staked its future on thinking Westbourne big data earlier than other areas of science especially through mapping of the human genome, which pretty much everyone agrees has been an incredibly powerful catalyst for school American International School-Salzburg, scientific research while generating unfathomably huge amounts of data but, at best, yielding modest health care benefits. As Michelle Gittelman, a professor of management at Rutgers University who studies pharmaceutical innovation, puts it in a recent paper: The biotechnology revolution was bound to fail, given the human rights essay Montfort, limits of predictive science to solve problems in complex natural phenomena. [T]he experience of high American International School-Salzburg, genetics in medical research has demonstrated that a moving frontier in scientific knowledge does not translate to a corresponding advance in technological innovation. Indeed, she suggests that “the application of genetics and molecular science to writing Stonar School medical discovery could hinder, rather than accelerate, progress.” The situation with regard to high school American International School-Salzburg cancer is summed up in a 2014 essay in the journal Cell by effective writing Academy, M.I.T.’s Robert Weinberg, a leading cancer researcher: “The data that we now generate overwhelm our abilities of interpretation, and the attempts of the new discipline of ‘systems biology’ to address this shortfall have to date produced few insights into cancer biology beyond those revealed by simple, home-grown intuition.” Blinded by the lie, enthralled by the power of new technologies not to solve discrete problems but to write gather, store, test, and analyze billions of terabytes of data about everything that goes on anywhere from Earth’s core to the human brain to the outer atmosphere and what Westbourne, religiously dedicated to the notion that more information, more peer-reviewed publications, and more funding is always a step in the right direction, whatever direction that may be, the scientific community and its supporters are now busily creating the infrastructure and an essay American School-Salzburg, the expectations that can make unreliability, knowledge chaos, and multiple conflicting truths the essence of science’s legacy.

Science is in thinking problem Firenze a pincer grip, squeezed between revelations that entire areas of scientific inquiry are no good, and the willy-nilly production of unverifiable knowledge relevant to the unanswerable questions of write high School-Salzburg, trans-science. Even as the resulting chaos compromises technological progress aimed at, say, preventing or curing breast cancer the boundary between objective truth and subjective belief appears, gradually and terrifyingly, to be dissolving. Managing for Truth. F or twenty years Jeff Marqusee had to come up with practical solutions to environmental problems for essay writing Stonar, the Department of Defense. His approach was nothing short of an essay high school American International School-Salzburg, heresy. “You want to actually manage research.” With a Ph.D. from M.I.T., Marqusee too is a child of the Forest, lie. “Culturally I was very much trained as a basic scientist. I did statistical physics. My thesis was about as esoteric and write an essay school American International School-Salzburg, useless as you can be. It was fun.” He genuflects, as we all must, but then moves on: “You don’t need to manage the lone guy that’s brilliant.

That ain’t the problem.” Most scientists aren’t Einstein or E. O. Effective Essay Writing Lake Academy? Wilson, and most research doesn’t have the potential by itself to be particularly earth-shattering. Write American International School-Salzburg? If people expect scientific research even basic, long-term research to contribute to a larger goal, there must be some mechanism of accountability for driving it toward that goal. Critically Rotterdam? Like Visco and Fitzpatrick, Marqusee thinks that the absence of such accountability has led to write an essay American International School-Salzburg “a system which produces far too many publications” and has “too many mouths to feed.” When Marqusee talks about the need to home writing “manage research” he doesn’t mean telling scientists how they should do their work, or even what they should work on; he means making sure that the science that’s being done makes sense in terms of the how to write school International, goal to which it is supposed to contribute. The types of questions Marqusee needed to have answered at DOD were essentially trans-scientific the home essay writing Stonar School, necessary truths and effective solutions were contextual, varying from one situation to the next. They were biased toward the local and specific, rather than career-enhancing discoveries. To figure out, for how to write high American International, example, “how to protect my soldiers” from poisons like lead, cadmium, and chromium in thinking solving the soil on military bases, he first had to write an essay high American International School-Salzburg understand questions like: How does the dry, poor-quality soil typical of many military bases affect soldiers’ exposure to toxic chemicals? And how, in turn, do soldiers’ diets affect their stomach chemistry and the toxicity of various chemicals once they enter the body? Marqusee’s programs devised methods for cleaning up polluted groundwater that were more cost-effective than those developed by other government agencies or previously used by the private sector. His office funded research that allowed the Environmental Protection Agency to essay writing tighten standards for lead exposure on Army bases. He supported ecological research on how best to high school International School-Salzburg protect the Lake Forest Academy, endangered red-cockaded woodpecker, which nests in forests on military bases in the southeastern United States and how to write an essay high American School-Salzburg, improved both the ecosystem and military training in the process. “It turns out, if you treat your landscape to papers NEOMA School maintain good habitat for red-cockaded woodpeckers, you also create a forest which is write an essay a helluva a lot prettier, more resilient and better for dismounted training.

But you just have to be careful during certain weeks, when there is thinking Rotterdam Business certain nesting behavior happening, that you’re not firing small arms next to them.” The scientific knowledge necessary to how to high School-Salzburg solve these sorts of problems would never be spontaneously generated by “the free play of free intellects.” Marqusee came to realize that if he funded scientists and home essay writing, left them alone to do their work, he’d end up with a lot of useless knowledge and a lot of unsolved problems. How To An Essay International? It’s not as though he didn’t fund rigorous, fundamental research: “Sure we wanted to have high-quality publications, we wanted to advance the thinking problem Marangoni, scientific field, but why? Because we had a problem we wanted to solve.” The beautiful lie insists that scientists ought to be accountable only to themselves. Marqusee’s advice to his staff was precisely the contrary: “Have no constituency in the research community, have it only in the end-user community.” Sometimes he would have to put an end to projects that were scientifically productive but did not contribute to his mission. One such project “a basic research project, great proposal” promised to how to an essay American develop indicators that could show when activities on a military facility were having adverse effects on a protected animal species before it suffered severe population decline. But during a project review Marqusee came to understand that the thinking Rotterdam Business School, researcher was simply identifying and an essay, measuring “all sorts of biomarkers steroidal stress levels, dozens of them,” and that in the end he would find lots of correlations, just as you can find a million reasons for thinking Rotterdam School, why Americans are growing obese or why public school performance isn’t improving or why lack of how to an essay school, inhibitory control will make you a drug-addled criminal. Such findings would surely have stimulated debate and more research, leading to more publications and professional advancement but they would not have helped a military base manager predict the specific causes of the decline of a particular species. “So we killed the project.” And yet . “The scientist was looking at some very innovative biomarkers.

And there might have been some unanticipated spin-off which might have been useful which is thinking solving Istituto always the justification for all basic research, right? NSF would have never killed the project.” Right. How To Write International? Not only what is critical thinking Westbourne School would the National Science Foundation never have killed it, but it exemplifies the big data spirit that is fast becoming the an essay school International School-Salzburg, new face of persuasive papers Business, science. But if your constituency, to use Marqusee’s term, is an essay high school American School-Salzburg society, not scientists, then the choice of what data and knowledge you need has to be informed by the real-world context of the problem to be solved. The questions you ask are likely to be very different if your end goal is to solve a concrete problem, rather than only to advance understanding. That’s why the symbiosis between science and technology is so powerful: the effective essay Lake Forest Academy, technology provides focus and discipline for the science.

But Vannevar Bush’s beautiful lie has led to institutional cultures organized and an essay school American, incentivized around pursuing more knowledge, not solving problems. Writing Forest Academy? Marqusee quips that the best way to how to an essay American School-Salzburg reorient scientists would be to “pay them to care about the problem.” Or maybe just send them to the Peace Corps before they go to graduate school. At least that’s what A. J. Kumar did, after getting his undergraduate degree in physics at Stanford. Working in a small South African village for two years, Kumar began to see science as a way to leverage his impact on the world, and thinking critically Business School, this made him skeptical of the write International, culture of the lie. Like Marqusee, Kumar understands and appreciates the persuasive NEOMA Business School, role of fundamental science, but he also recognizes how the an essay high school, logic of the lie justifies “digging down deeper and deeper on rights essay writing Colegio a single subject without stopping to ask why we’re doing it in the first place.” He thinks there’s “room for more intentionality in how we do science.” In the how to high school American International School-Salzburg, applied physics Ph.D. program at Harvard, Kumar started with an interest in linking science to human essay writing Montfort health care needs in how to an essay high school American International poor countries. He quickly focused on a specific question: “How do we bring the information that we get from studying blood into low-resource settings?” The question pushed him in two directions: into Rotterdam the social context, to how to American School-Salzburg see what needs could be met with better information on blood; and into essay writing Forest Academy the science, to see what theories and how to school International School-Salzburg, tools could provide that information. So he talked to School doctors who had experience working in Africa, and he talked to scientists in his lab and elsewhere, and write an essay school American, this eventually led to a convergence between the two: a technique to separate proteins using a simple type of critically Rotterdam Business, centrifuge that had been around for fifty years. This technique could be used for separating blood cells, which could potentially help diagnose sickle-cell disease, a health problem that lacked a quick, cheap, portable, and how to high, reliable diagnostic procedure.

Kumar wraps up the story with modest alacrity: “So we were able to get some collaborators, start researching, doing the first experiments, and getting initial positive results,” showing that sickle-cell could reliably be diagnosed by density separation. “This allowed us to thinking Istituto Firenze really charge forward and start the quest for funding, clinical validation, and trials, which took up the rest of my Ph.D.” The test he came up with can be done on-site in fifteen minutes, and it costs less than a dollar. Kumar was a one-man medical-industrial complex, coordinating all aspects of the research process, including commercial development, and how to write an essay high International School-Salzburg, using technological performance as a ruthless arbiter of scientific progress. Papers NEOMA Business School? In short, he made his research accountable to how to write high school American International School-Salzburg the end-user rather than to his scientific peers. “More intentionality in how we do science”: A.J. Kumar in Zambia demonstrating the sickle-cell test Courtesy A.J. Kumar. This is really all that Fran Visco is thinking Istituto Marangoni Firenze asking for.

Of course ending breast cancer is a vastly more complex scientific and organizational problem than finding a cheap and fast way to diagnose sickle-cell disease. But that would seem to be all the more reason why, after all the billions spent and with forty thousand women a year still dying from the how to write an essay, disease in the United States alone someone needed to be accountable for driving the thinking Westbourne, system toward a solution. So Visco and how to write school, her colleagues decided that NBCC would shoulder that burden and start managing the science itself. “We just got tired after all of these years of seeing so much that really wasn’t going to make a big difference. We have no interest in the continued funding of these things.” Working first with the patient-advocacy community, NBCC identified a key question that it thought could focus research: How could you develop a preventative vaccine for breast cancer? In March 2010, NBCC brought together a diverse group of persuasive essay papers School, scientists to see if this was a question that could decisively be pursued given the current state of knowledge; the group’s consensus view was that it could and it should. Lacking a big checkbook to how to high School-Salzburg fund research directly, NBCC instead began to bring scientists together to compare ideas and results, foster collaborations that weren’t happening but should have been, and accelerate the thinking critically Rotterdam School, process of developing and testing a vaccine. It set a deadline 2020 for write American International, ending breast cancer and staked its credibility on achieving at least major progress by that date. The deadline has been much criticized by the mainstream research community “Discovery does not answer to deadlines” was the predictable dismissal in a Nature editorial. Visco totally gets this; it’s how scientists evade accountability.

The deadline is NBCC’s ballsy and high-risk alternative. Visco rejects the idea that after decades of research and billions in thinking critically Rotterdam School funding, ending breast cancer can still be a matter of just waiting for someone to make an unexpected discovery. “We decided that we just needed to take control because we have an how to an essay school American International School-Salzburg agenda, our agenda is to end breast cancer and save lives and that’s it.” NBCC has attracted about thirty scientists, many of them from leading cancer research groups, to work on the Artemis vaccine project, now in effective writing Academy its sixth year. An Essay High School International? “These are people who never would have collaborated and never would have been asking this question if it weren’t for us,” says Visco. They have selected the NEOMA, antigens that will be targeted by the vaccine, and are starting to plan for clinical trials, to think about how to write School-Salzburg, how they can ensure affordability and what is critical, access if the how to write an essay school American International School-Salzburg, trials succeed, and even to explore the idea of starting up a nonprofit vaccine company. With the vaccine effort successfully underway, NBCC also started a second leg of the Artemis Project, this one focused on stopping breast cancer from metastasizing to other parts of the body, a problem that had, like vaccine research, mostly been neglected by the mainstream research community. The Artemis Project is different from science-as-usual in many ways. It is small, collaborative, and focused not on producing good science for its own sake, nor on making a profit, but on solving a problem.

It takes its research agenda from thinking, patient advocates, not from scientists. Accountability to the end user past, present, and future breast cancer patients is built into the program. Frank Calzone, who for twenty years worked at write school American School-Salzburg, the biotechnology company Amgen, ultimately as a scientific executive director, and who is essay Montfort a longtime technical advisor to NBCC, sees the Artemis vaccine effort as combining the focus and deadlines of industry with the openness and collaboration of academia. “It’s an industry-academic hybrid, with advocates in charge, which is what’s unique.” Above all he credits the patient-advocates for understanding and driving the how to an essay American, science in ways it wouldn’t otherwise have gone. “They’re about primary breast cancer prevention. Nobody’s ever considered that feasible in the vaccine world or the pharmacology world.” In 2010, when Artemis was just getting organized, “there were traditional immunologists who said we’re crazy.” Six years later, Calzone finds himself “very impressed that we learn things that I would have never foreseen about the tractability of this approach.” He credits Visco: “Fran, by focusing on something impossible, has gotten people interested in revisiting dogma.” Will the vaccine succeed? No one can know, but it’s the wrong question. Westbourne School? The right question is why it took a fearless lawyer to get science to do what the lie tells us will happen automatically. Returning to how to an essay high American International School-Salzburg Our World. I s science today just the latest candidate for essay, inclusion in the growing list of failing institutions that seems to characterize our society? As with democratic politics, criminal justice, health care, and public education, science’s organization and culture are captured by how to write high school American International, a daunting, self-interested inertia, and effective essay writing, a set of values reflecting a world that no longer exists.

Yet science does have advantages over other sclerotic institutions. How To An Essay International School-Salzburg? Within the scientific enterprise lie innumerable niches in which other ways of organizing research can be explored. Yes, the system that each year generates twenty-five thousand promising new Ph.D. scientists and nearly two million new articles of mostly dubious value exemplifies the rigid paradigm within which much of science operates. But Kumar notes a “hunger” among the Istituto Marangoni, young scientists he knows to do more than just add to the piles of esoteric knowledge. Their challenge will be to find the niches in the system that allow them to contribute something more, allowing the system to evolve, gradually, in high International School-Salzburg a better direction. Indeed, an especially hopeful attribute of science is that it can be leveraged even by individuals and small organizations to have big impacts, as Visco, Marqusee, and essay papers Business School, Kumar have shown. In the future, the most valuable science institutions will be closely linked to the people and places whose urgent problems need to be solved; they will cultivate strong lines of how to write an essay high school International School-Salzburg, accountability to those for whom solutions are important; they will incentivize scientists to care about the effective writing Academy, problems more than the production of knowledge. They will link research agendas to the quest for how to an essay high American International, improved solutions often technological ones rather than to understanding for its own sake. The science they produce will be of higher quality, because it will have to be.

The current dominant paradigm will meanwhile continue to crumble under the weight of its own contradictions, but it will also continue to hog most of the resources and insist on its elevated social and political status. The renowned chemist George Whitesides (who, perhaps not coincidentally, was Kumar’s Ph.D. advisor) argued in The Economist in persuasive 2012 that, in the past century or so, purely curiosity-driven science has delivered only how to write high American International School-Salzburg one or two fundamentally transformational breakthroughs (quantum mechanics and perhaps genomics), and that, given this performance record, keeping science separate from technology “may or may not be an affordable luxury.” A different way to put it might be that the sort of is critical thinking, undisciplined exploration that Vannevar Bush was peddling back in 1945 should be seen now in much the same light as space travel, support for the arts or for public monuments, and wilderness protection. Write High International? However worthwhile and persuasive, ennobling it may be for its own sake, it cannot be justified in how to an essay terms of solving problems or guiding policy decisions or even of leading toward verifiable truth. In this light, Susan Fitzpatrick faces a particularly difficult challenge. She wants the philanthropic foundation that she leads to maximize the potential for neuroscience to help reduce human suffering, but she doesn’t think that this field has much to Montfort say yet about lessening the terrible burdens of most brain diseases. How To Write School American International? She thinks that much of neuroscience has been seduced by what she terms the “dogma” of reductionism. “Everyone is what is critical thinking Westbourne School convinced that if you can find the genetic molecular explanation for something now then you understand it and hence you can fix it, even though there is literally no evidence for write high American International School-Salzburg, this.” She wants to insulate the scientists that the foundation funds from some of the cultural pressures to do research that quickly leads to publishable results, and provide them time “to ask important questions, be careful about what they’re doing, be skeptical of their own results.” One project underway looks at extreme long-term survivors of malignant brain cancer to see how their tumors interact with the rest of the body and thinking problem Istituto Marangoni Firenze, other environmental influences. Why do treatment technologies that are ineffective for most patients show positive results for a very few? It’s a problem that links technological performance to scientific advance the sweet spot for fundamental research.

But Fitzpatrick also wonders if biomedical science undervalues other kinds of how to write American, research that could offer solutions to pressing problems. “There’s not a lot of research on how best to socially, emotionally, environmentally, support Alzheimer’s patients, that might ameliorate their own anxiety, their own stress maybe the disease, as horrible as it is, would be less horrible through a better care structure, but we do very little research on essay that.” Perhaps for now, research to help people with these diseases ought to aim at more practical questions. Write An Essay International School-Salzburg? “I don’t think you can tell people ‘Well, we’ve got another forty years of research that we’re going to have to do’ when we also don’t know if there are better ways of supporting people.” And maybe in the process of understanding how better to help patients, scientists will discover things about the course of the disease and its varieties that can lead to effective therapies. “What’s been lost is the continual back-and-forth between the science and the real disease” that has, historically, been the source of thinking, major medical advances. Advancing according to its own logic, much of science has lost sight of the better world it is supposed to help create. Shielded from accountability to anything outside of itself, the “free play of an essay International, free intellects” begins to seem like little more than a cover for indifference and irresponsibility. The tragic irony here is that the stunted imagination of mainstream science is Rotterdam a consequence of the how to an essay school International, very autonomy that scientists insist is the key to their success. Effective Essay Writing Lake Forest? Only through direct engagement with the real world can science free itself to rediscover the path toward truth. Daniel Sarewitz is a professor of write an essay school American International, science and society at Arizona State University’s School for the Future of Innovation and Society, and the co-director of the university’s Consortium for Science, Policy, and Outcomes.

He is also the co-editor of Issues in Science and Technology and a regular columnist for the journal Nature . Daniel Sarewitz, Saving Science, The New Atlantis , Number 49, Spring/Summer 2016, pp. 440.

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There may be times when it’s ok to what is critical Westbourne let your sense of humor shine through in your resume; it makes you more relatable, more likable. For instance, check out the write an essay high school International, pronunciation guide Nick Iannuccilli provided for his difficult last name. Using a border is a good way to add a little bit of color to your resume, as Evelien Callens has done here, without worrying about looking unprofessional. Stylistically, this design is a good compromise between customary and more creative resumes. The two-color, mostly traditional layout uses graphic elements sparingly but purposefully. As a nice touch, Dan Hernandez has branded his cover letter with the same style, which is a smart idea if your job application involves submitting multiple documents. Effective Lake Forest! Sometimes you have to do what you can to get noticed.

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essay on flower rose Below are all other entries received for the Children’s Essay Contest. For quick access, click a name on the table below: Roses make a Girl Smell Good. I love roses. They are very pretty. How To High School American International School-Salzburg! I love all types of roses.

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It goes without saying that roses are one of the thinking, best ways to how to write an essay high School-Salzburg, help express the emotion of love. So, let’s find out the various colors of roses and what they mean to understand their dynamics better. Roses have been the symbol of effective writing Academy, love and affection since times immemorial. They are the perfect example for many things like love, life, feelings, and identity. They work as metaphors in poems and how to high School-Salzburg, silent words in love stories. The importance of a rose cannot be left ignored. They cannot be replaced or underrated. So, now that we know how important they are, let’s check out their colors and what they mean. A red rose is the exhibitor of love and passion. Giving a red rose to someone also stands for honesty and courage, as that is what it takes to express your true feelings to Rotterdam Business, a woman. More so, it stands strongly for passion and desire.

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I love roses more than a lot of things like candy or other sweets. That is everything roses remind me of. Beginning as a seed, Becoming a beauty indeed. All around the universe, A flower so diverse. Yellow, red, pink, white, An endless color sight.

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She shyly said, “Bermuda, you should tell – that was bullying.” Later that day, Mrs. Roseplot had a meeting on the rose carpet. She said, “we are all different in our looks, smells, and human, culture. That’s what makes us unique and the world so pretty.

You shouldn’t tease other roses because they have a different rose-anality!” Afterwards, they played “Guess That Rose” to an essay high International School-Salzburg, learn more about each other, and what School, Rugosa won! Ruben Thomas Flores. Why I Love Roses. Because they have my favorite colors: orange, yellow, red, and how to American School-Salzburg, I like working at the Bidwell Mansion with mama Julie and I like how it is a circle and the circle is my favorite shape and mama Julie has a lot of flowers and roses and mama Julie is kind of a master at roses and what is critical thinking, flowers and my grandma has two roses and we have tomatoes and lettuce and it is good for bugs, like butterflies and how to an essay high school American School-Salzburg, bees, and mama Julie plants mix plants and she plants artichokes, poppies, thelrictrum borage, violets, and human essay Montfort, forget-me-nots. Plants are very good for nature and are useful for cakes when you get married and how to write high International, it’s useful for t-shirts. Persuasive Essay NEOMA Business! Roses are a good thing for our country and for our bugs and write an essay high school International, insects and effective writing Lake Forest, it is very good for high school International School-Salzburg our world and thinking problem Firenze, it is good for the soil and write an essay American School-Salzburg, it is good for the summertime and writing Lake Academy, mama Julie plants with boney manure and chicken manure, but manure roses are a good thing, America.

Once upon a time when I was little my mommy would take me to rose gardens and see a lot of plants. There were roses and flowers. American International! My mommy likes roses because they’re from my mommy’s birth month in June and she likes them because they are pretty. I like roses because they’re pretty and they’re lovely and thinking Westbourne School, gorgeous. My little sister likes roses because they are gorgeous. My daddy likes roses because he thinks they’re beautiful. I even love roses because I have Rose in my name. High School American International! My name is Taylor Rosemarie Fochs.

My favorite food to eat is persuasive essay NEOMA School, a lot of things like ice cream, milk, hot dogs, carrots, and cucumbers. I’m from Stark Elementary School. In my opinion, roses are one of my favorite flowers. I was born into a flower loving family. We always have beautiful roses in our gardens. We have had climbing roses, hybrid tea roses, and old fashioned roses. How To Write An Essay International! All of these flowers have also stuck me before with their thorns. Climbing roses are one of my favorite types of roses for one main reason. That reason is that they bloom a lot, and in result it makes a garden look pretty. Climbing roses might look nice, but hybrid tea roses blow them out of the water when it comes to looks and persuasive essay papers NEOMA School, smell.

Hybrid tea roses are my favorite types of roses. How To An Essay High International! In fact, I’m shopping for them right now. Old fashioned roses are also really cool for one reason. Writing Colegio Montfort! The reason is that old fashioned roses look and smell good without being a hybrid rose, (a rose being specifically grown for a certain purpose). The climbing roses, hybrid tea roses, and old fashioned roses are all beautiful roses. If I had to choose a favorite, it would be a three way tie. Well, at how to high school International, least that’s what I think. Nobody has the same opinion; well, at least I think so. Another really pretty rose is a floribunda rose, especially a ‘Day Breaker’. ‘Day Breakers’ are my favorite floribunda because on the outside of thinking Business School, it it is how to write an essay high American International School-Salzburg, pink and on the inside of human rights essay Colegio, it is orange. Floribundas are really pretty roses. Another really awesome rose is the how to write an essay high American, grandiflora rose.

Out of all the human rights essay Montfort, grandiflora roses, my favorite is the ‘Candelabra’. The ‘Candelabra’ rose is a light orange rose that smells fantastic. The last type of rose that I like is the miniature rose, now don’t get me wrong, I love all roses, it’s just these are the ones I really love. Anyways, I love miniature roses because they are very easy to grow. If you know what I mean. Miniature roses also don’t have big thorns to prick you, but that is write an essay high school School-Salzburg, another story. Roses are beautiful flowers, and they also are a florist’s dream come true. What Westbourne School! Thank you for reading my essay. Why I love Roses.

I love roses! Roses are so beautiful. My favorite colors of roses are the pink and red roses. I love the roses’ scent. they relax me when I smell them. My favorite type of rose is the American Beauty rose. There are roses everywhere.

I love roses. How To An Essay High School American International School-Salzburg! They can be in trees, shrubs, and herbs. Most of the fruits belong to roses. Rotterdam School! My two favorite things. the rose petals are so smooth and soft. High School International School-Salzburg! There are 100 species of roses. I love that.

Roses can be in perfume, which will make me smell good. Roses are also easy to human writing, grow. This will be good so you can plant a lot. Roses can grow tall and fat, which is really cool. It’s really cool that the rose is the how to school International, National Floral Emblem of the United States, which makes me like it more. Critically! The rose is also the state flower selected in Georgia, Iowa, New York, North Dakota, and District of Columbia, which is awesome.

You know what, George Washington was our first rose breeder. An Essay School School-Salzburg! I bet when I get older I will buy a lot of roses. Guess what: over solving Marangoni Firenze 1,200,000,000 roses were purchased by the U.S. flower buyers. Amazing! The rose is a native to the United States. About 60% of the write an essay high school International School-Salzburg, roses grown in the U.S. are produced in California. California is so lucky. The most popular rose holidays in the U.S. are Valentine’s Day, Mother’s Day, and Christmas. Did you know that Columbus discovered America because of effective writing Lake, a rose? Amazing! Do you know what is cool?

In the Middle Ages, it was usual for the wealthy to put rose petals and how to an essay high school International, rose oil in their baths. It’s really cool that the rose was first honored by persuasive papers NEOMA Business, the U.S. Postal Service in 1978 with its very own stamp. Guess what! There are 4,000 songs that have been written about roses. Did you know that the rose is called the ‘Queen of the Flowers’? Did you know that the how to write high International School-Salzburg, largest rose bud is nearly six feet around? When it is fully bloomed, it has more than 200,000 blossoms.

Roses are flowers. and flowers bloom. Roses are red, yellow, green, blue, and black to human essay, white. Some are big some are small. Some are high and some are low. All roses are cool. I love them because they come in so many different colors. They come in red, white, yellow, and lavender. Another reason is there are so many different kinds of school International School-Salzburg, roses. They come in shrubs, climbers, grandifloras, mini, hybrid teas, floribundas, and hybrids. I also love them for their sign of peace and love.

The roses are one of the prettiest flowers. Essay Writing Lake Forest! That is how to write high school American International, also why I love them. I love them for their two-thousand species of Stonar, roses. I love the pattern the an essay School-Salzburg, petals make. One more reason is thinking Rotterdam School, you can grow or regrow them with others or by yourself. I love them because you can pick them for others.

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I love roses because there is one rose in Germany that is one-thousand years old. I love roses because florists send millions of roses to write high American School-Salzburg, the United States. Grandparents are the people who are always there for you. You can spend the night at their house. They even get you presents when you don’t. But they still love you no matter what. So, every now and Business, then, you can get some flowers at a nearby flower shop. They deserve more than a picture to remind them of you. It also helps them feel happy about themselves.

If they feel happy about themselves, they will be nicer to how to write an essay, you and other people. Then they could laugh more and writing Stonar School, have more fun with you. You could even feel better, too, because you both could play games and do fun stuff together. School School-Salzburg! And so you won’t be bored and say, “There is writing Colegio, nothing to do here.” Roses could also make your grandparents feel loved and not ignored. Then they will probably not get mad or yell at how to International School-Salzburg, anyone.

And if that happens, it could most likely make it a better time for you and rights essay writing Colegio Montfort, your grandma or grandpa. Then they could feel more at write an essay school American School-Salzburg, ease and not be worried about upcoming things. They could also get more work done because they aren’t worried or upset. So, if they manage a business, they might be nicer and not as hard to their employees. They also might like getting them for decoration in their house. Roses could fin in effective Lake Forest Academy because they are brightly colored.

Also, some roses smell good, like Hybrid Tea Roses. Hybrid Tea Roses smell like fruit or tea. How To Write An Essay School American School-Salzburg! But, they come from China, so they are rare to find in the United States. Hybrid Tea Roses are white, so they look really beautiful. And they also grow few petals on each flower. You have to be careful because some roses have thorns. And I don’t think your grandparents would like to get cut by a thorn on a rose. Roses might remind the essay writing Stonar School, of their wedding day and how great it was. They also remind them of any other relationship, which could be good or bad.

Then it could remind them how much they love their spouse, children, and grandchildren. A lot of people in my family grow roses. My mom grows a rose bush in our backyard. There are yellow roses on my mom’s rose bush. My grandma grows roses all over her yard. She really loves roses. My other grandparents grow a rose bush by their mailbox. The roses on their rose bush are red. American! When I grow up, I want to grow roses to keep the family tradition going. When my brother grows up he should grow roses, too. I love roses because they are pretty.

They smell good and when a rose is given to someone they can make the person’s day. I think roses are pretty because they come in all colors and have a swirl at the top. Essay Writing! I like roses because they can go with all seasons and occasions. I like the little swirl at the top because it makes the rose look very elegant. I like the way roses smell because roses give off such a clean, fresh scent that smells good every day. I like how roses make people’s day, because giving someone a rose can make someone know that another person cares about them. How To School American International! It can brighten up their whole day.

It is funny how such a simple gift can make someone so happy. I like like that roses are used in different products. When roses are used in body sprays and perfumes, you smell really good. Roses can also be used to make rose jelly. Thinking Critically Rotterdam School! Someone gave rose jelly to my parents as a gift once and my parents said it did not taste very good. They said it tasted like roses smell. I think roses are given to people the most at Valentine’s Day. I think this is because certain roses are a sign of how to write school American School-Salzburg, love and what is critical Westbourne, Valentine’s Day is a holiday you tell someone how much you love them. After my dance recital, my parents gave me lavender roses for doing such a great job. The roses smelled really nice and how to an essay school American International School-Salzburg, stayed alive for about a week.

They looked really pretty sitting on top of the piano. Whether you have one rose or one dozen, they are beautiful and meaningful. Roses, Roses everywhere. Rose petals in the air: Roses, Roses on the ground. Roses, Roses all around. Roses, Roses in the sky. Rose petals go dancing by. Roses can be big and tall. Or they can be short and small.

Roses are pretty indeed. They look nothing like a weed. Oh how pretty they are at night. It is human rights writing Montfort, just quite a sight. Why I love roses. Why I love roses is because they’re pretty. They smell good. I like all colors of roses.

My favorite colors are red and an essay school American International, blue. I don’t like pink roses. Sometimes I don’t like roses because they have thorns. Sometimes I don’t like how they smell. Sometimes they are ugly if you don’t water them.

Why they have thorns is to keep the animals away. I wish I had roses in home essay Stonar my backyard. Write An Essay International School-Salzburg! My favorite color rose is red. What roses I want in my backyard are all the colors, except pink. My sister likes white and yellow. My mom likes blue and red. My grandparents like yellow and red. I don’t like the color yellow, but I do on flowers.

Sometimes I like yellow roses if they smell good. I don’t like the color orange, but I do on flowers. The blue roses are the color of the human essay writing Colegio Montfort, sky. White roses are the color of the clouds. International! There’s tie die, too! Sometimes roses come up from the ground. Orange is the color of the sunset. Purple is the writing, color of the rainbow. Yellow is the color of the sun. Lots of them come up in summer.

And sometimes spring, too! Sometimes the thorns will hurt. I LOVE purple roses. Some roses match my jeans. Sometimes you can put it on how to write International School-Salzburg your hat.

You maybe can put the petals in hot water and they drown. I think they do that in rights writing Colegio Montfort Hawaii. I have never been to American International School-Salzburg, Hawaii. I’ve never put my feet in water with rose petals. But I guess it makes your feet smell good. You can even make a necklace if you can get the thorns off. Maybe you can do a bracelet and maybe earrings.

But I have rose earrings and persuasive papers NEOMA School, a rose necklace. But they’re not real roses. The Woodland Fairies. So there I was, in write an essay high school American International a place called Woodland. The people there made a lot of stuff out of wood. Critically! From the stuff they made, they gave half to humans and half for themselves. They were very nice and how to an essay high school American School-Salzburg, playful.

They were like humans except for one thing: they were fairies. Thinking Rotterdam Business School! The fairies liked to have races in their free time. Mostly, they kept themselves busy by harvesting wood. They liked to eat nuts, nuts, and more nuts. They drank water from a nearby stream. The wood fairies’ leader was “Birch Wood”. Birch Wood organized The Wood and Nut Festival every year.

This is the only time of year that the fairies gather in the town square and have games. The town square has only three buildings: one tall building and two very small buildings. The two small houses are the homes of Birch Wood and Birch’s general, General Alders. The fairies at The Wood and Nut Festival like to fly from Birch’s house to the large building where the fairies keep their water, wood, and how to write an essay high school, nuts. Birch announces the NEOMA Business School, beginning of the festival from the top of this building.

The wood fairies’ population was very small. How To Write School International School-Salzburg! There are about ten wood fairies in all, including Birch and Alders. Their names are Oak, Cypress, Evergreen, Pine, Laurel, Holly, Dogwood, and Firewood. Is Critical Westbourne School! Oak, Cypress, and Firewood gathered the write school, wood. Evergreen, Alders, and home Stonar, Pine gathered the nuts. How To An Essay High School American International School-Salzburg! Holly, Dogwood, and Laurel gathered the sticks for the fires. The wood fairies were at war with the flower fairies. The flower fairies had ten fairies, also. Their names were Rose, Daisy, Tulip, Carnation, Tea Rose, Daffodil, Gardenia, Magnolia, Buttercup, Orchid. Rose was the leader of the flower fairies. Each fairy had a small garden in which she planted flowers.

After the festival, the wood fairies stayed in the town square while Birch and Alders gathered birds to make the flower fairies surrender, for they were terribly frightened of birds. In the end, all the fairies learned to essay School, get along as the birds would not help the wood fairies. I enjoyed by time in Woodland and loved seeing the school International, beautiful flowers. What School! My favorite flower is the how to write American School-Salzburg, rose and essay writing Academy, my favorite fairy was Rose. Long ago, I tried to grow a rose. I planted the seeds in my little pot. Longing to see the seedlings, I watered and write an essay school School-Salzburg, watched them each day.

One day, after many weeks, I saw a sprout. I hopped around the house telling my family, “I can’t wait for the roses to human rights writing Colegio Montfort, bloom!”

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As fancy and bursting with imagination as they are, be sure to consider who will be reading them. You may love them, but not every employer will find them appropriate. If a creative resume template is how to American, right for home essay Stonar, you, download one of our 40+ examples from the Creative Resume Library. Infographic resumes are a new trend, and how to International have gained a great deal of home essay writing Stonar, popularity in 2017. This resume type uses images, charts, and graphs to an essay high American International School-Salzburg, tell the story of your professional life. Creative resumes and visual layouts are not yet well accepted by all hiring managers, so be sure to consider your industry. Essay Writing School! We created 12 new designs featuring a variety of graphics for you to download – see our Infographic Resume Library. This new resume template library provides resume examples for various careers and career stages. If you are a student or recent graduate with little or no job experience, then try our entry-level job examples: For students or recent graduates with some work experience, see more of our entry-level resume samples:

Use these industry-specific examples if you have three or more years of professional experience in customer service or healthcare industries: If you live in one of the South Asian countries (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, India), then please see our country-specific examples: Good, bad or ugly? Should you use a resume template? Some recruiting professionals advise against using templates and write an essay school School-Salzburg resume builders. They believe using those tools makes your resume look generic and keeps you from is critical thinking Westbourne, standing out from other candidates. This concern is worth considering. Recruiters and hiring managers see hundreds of resumes every day. One that is poorly crafted in either its formatting or its content will be quickly spotted and moved to the slush pile. Templates fix the issue of poor formatting by how to school International doing it for essay Stonar School, you.

With a template, you will not spend hours trying to adjust margins and fonts. The content produced by resume templates and builders, however, is not meant to be the final result. Every job seeker’s experience is unique, and a template needs to be customized to match and promote that singular experience. A chronological resume template should not be used by a job-hopper, and a skills-based resume is not the best choice for write American School-Salzburg, executives with an critically Rotterdam School impressive vertical career progression. Templates are meant to be a place to start the difficult process of school American, creating your resume.

They aren’t one-size-fits all, cookie-cutter solutions, and they shouldn’t be treated as ready-made resumes. When used for guidance and inspiration when writing your own unique and original resume, resume templates can be a powerful weapon in landing more interviews more quickly. What are they and do you need one? If resume formatting is not your thing, you can get help from an online resume builder. What School! This resume-making tool handles both design and content, and write high can create excellent first drafts. The search for thinking Westbourne School, work is a race, and resume builders are starting blocks. An Essay High School-Salzburg! They don’t get you to thinking problem solving Istituto, the finish line, but can give you a head start over how to write an essay high school your competition. Resume builders offer many features that simplify the job-hunting process. Here are a few: Email and online resume – You can email prospective employers or post your resume online in many formats.

Writing Tips – Use tips and sample phrases to describe your work history and achievements. Cover letter templates and effective Lake Forest Academy builders – Build a strong cover letter with templates and tips. Design – Built-in resume templates take care of formatting and design. Resume samples – Compare your resume against samples. Resume analytics – Find out if your resume is how to write an essay high school International School-Salzburg, being viewed and downloaded. … but keep in persuasive essay papers mind. As powerful a tool as resume builders can be, they are still best treated as first drafts. The algorithms resume builders use are able to an essay American International, incorporate basic syntax and industry jargon. They do not, however, always sound natural. As Brenda Barron pointed out at business.tutsplus.com, “Using canned sentences can seem like keyword stuffing.” Resumes serve two functions.

Their overt function is to list your skills, experience, and education. But their covert function is to essay Colegio, show prospective employers how well you communicate, as well as your communication style. Because of this, you need to edit your resume so that it sounds close to how to write high school American International School-Salzburg, your natural, professional speaking voice. If you feel a resume builder is the papers NEOMA School tool for you, see this page to find an online resume builder. Starting off on the right foot.

A resume cover letter needs to do more than introduce you and highlight some of how to school International, your skills. It needs to home essay Stonar, be engaging, well crafted, and well researched. It needs to avoid sounding like a hard sell while still selling you to school American, the company. If a resume is effective writing Lake Forest Academy, a list of an essay high school American International School-Salzburg, your accomplishments, then its cover letter is where you get to tell the problem solving story of how you achieved those accomplishments. Use it to explain how your experiences will benefit the company. Tell the potential employer why this job is how to write high American International School-Salzburg, important to thinking solving Istituto Firenze, you. To help you avoid some common pitfalls and maximize the potential of your application, experts agree that you should consider the following guidelines. Don’t skimp – While not all hiring managers read cover letters, they are not a waste of time. Just having one could increase your chances of getting a job interview—even if the employer doesn’t read it. And if the hiring committee has a tough choice between you and a few other applicants, then a cover letter can be what separates you from your competitors. How To An Essay International School-Salzburg! Keep it brief – And the shorter the better.

According to a resume survey of employers in Orange County, California, “Nearly 70% of employers want either a half page cover letter or ‘the shorter the better’ approach.” But there is some leeway here. If the position or your experiences warrant it, then using more than half a page would be fine. Just make sure it’s well crafted. If possible, create a narrative – Especially when experience or the position warrants a longer cover letter—executive resumes, for example—make it tell a story. Human Rights Essay Writing Montfort! The narrative structure is a powerful device, and high school International if you can use context, conflict, and thinking Business resolution, then the write high school reader won’t care that it is long. For a resume, a narrative’s context might be your work history. The conflict may be experiences you’ve had in the past that left you wanting to essay, do more than your previous position allowed. And the resolution could be getting this new job. How To School American School-Salzburg! Do your research – Research each company you apply to, and craft a new cover letter for each of them. With social media, this is far easier than it used to persuasive essay Business, be.

Follow accounts of the company and its executives on Twitter, Facebook, and LinkedIn to write, study their content and the culture. Focus on details – Make sure that every word is essential. Critically Business! Use a spelling and grammar checker and how to high school American School-Salzburg writing apps. Ask someone else to read it and give you advice. Read from the end to the beginning and use other editing and proofreading tips. Learn how to format a resume by Westbourne School making the most of Microsoft Word’s features. Our short video tutorials will teach you some basic formatting tips and how to an essay school International School-Salzburg tricks. How to use paragraph styles and problem Marangoni Firenze themes How to change header, footer, margins, and page size How to how to, fit resume text on one page, and how to remove blank pages How to customize tabs, text boxes and tables How to Business, add and remove sections. Please keep in write an essay high American mind that:

All files are compatible with Microsoft Word, and effective essay writing Lake many of them will work in other applications such as Mac Pages, Google Docs and OpenOffice. We create our templates in Microsoft Office 2010 and we use Microsoft Word default fonts. If you do not have these fonts installed or use a different operating system, our templates might look different on your computer. Write International School-Salzburg! We use text styles and built-in color schemes to create our templates. Knowing how to use paragraph styles will ease the process of modifying a template. While most resumes are US Letter size, some are A4. You can change the page size to make it compatible with the size used in your country. Home Essay School! For creative designs with colored backgrounds, consider setting the page color to “none” and how to print on a high-quality colored paper. If the design requires borderless printing, a local print shop can help you if that feature is unavailable on Business your home printer. 855.213.0348 | MON-FRI 8A-8P, SAT 8A-5P, SUN 10A-6P CST. 2017 Bold Limited.

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