Writing dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake
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English Writing Skills 5: Dates, Time, and Numbers (Part 1 of 2)
English Writing Skills 5 (intermediate/ advanced) Topics: - Dates - Time of day - Numbers (words vs. numerals) STUDENTS: ...
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book summery Effective Book Summary. (For the Shawnigan Lake, Back Cover, Data Sheets, or General Promotions) For marketing, promotions, back cover copy, and for essay on newspaper Norfolk School, your editor and/or publisher, you will often find you need to write book summaries of varying length. Brookes Lake. In addition, you are going to need to develop a summary you can quickly give verbally whenever you are asked what your book is critique of journal City Freemen's School, about. It is critically important that you be able to give the premise and effectively describe your book whenever asked. Every contact you have with a curious person-whether in person or by phone or e-mail-is an opportunity for you to dates Lake sell your book. A summary is essay Park School, a brief description of your book, and in essays Brookes Shawnigan it's filled with excitement and feeling. The summary introduces the main character(s) and the plot and main conflicts facing them and asks questions or presents quandaries that will pique the reader's interest. 2) written in writing St. Clair third person; 3) written to include cliffhangers and teasers, and it does not reveal any conclusions.
A summary is not exactly the same as a synopsis. It's shorter, punchier, and meant to encourage the writing dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan, reader to open the book and dive in. In contrast, a general synopsis is more detailed and persuation essay School is geared toward attracting an agent or publisher. The summary to which I refer is used after you have contracted your book. Writing Dates In Essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake. Writing a brief narrative description of your book can do a number of things for introduction of essay writing St. Clair, you. First, it will help you to consolidate your thoughts concerning what your book is about. It will also allow you to Lake concisely sketch out the details, which will give you confidence any time you need to talk about essay writing on newspaper Norfolk your book with a fan, at a reading, on the radio, or in written materials. You can use it on your personal websites, in notices to in essays Brookes Lake online groups, and for announcements to chat lists and internet book forums.
Most publishers do write summaries for use in promotions, for website updates, and for the back cover. But nobody knows your book better than you, and particularly in the early stages (before an editor has begun work with your story), it is of London, up to you to have information available. Start first paragraph with information about the in essays Shawnigan Lake, Lead's circumstances: Name of Lead Character: ________________________________ is how to write a good feature article Northfield Mount Hermon, a ____________________ who __________________________________ Write a very short description (from two to three concise sentences) about the character's circumstances/background/current situation. You might include where the story occurs, too. This can be a geographical thing or merely a mention of the type of world (race car driving, furniture store, university, the Wild West, etc.). Second Lead Character's Name (if there is one):____________________ is a ________________________ who __________________________________ Write a very short description (in two or three concise sentences) about this character's circumstances/background/current situation with an emphasis on how s/he contrasts with the First Lead character. How do the two characters contrast, and what is at stake for each that brings on conflict? Here is where the Brookes, plot thickens. Describe in two or three sentences the major complications that occur for the main character(s).
Think in terms of what stands in the way of the character(s) getting what they want. What are the main conflicts, the main obstacles? What is the School, story question? This paragraph will often start with words like Suddenly or But when or Little does ___ know… Use questions here with words like Can or Will: Will Wanda merely lose her lover - or also her life? Can she escape the clutches of the clandestine organization before she is captured and dates in essays Brookes they beat the on newspaper Glenlyon Norfolk School, secrets out of writing in essays Brookes Shawnigan her? Or Can Esme put aside her past and find a way to reach out to School Barrie? And will Barrie open her heart enough to let her in?
Or With the abusive Randall hot on their heels, will Allison and Mary escape the hell from which they flee? Or will the man use his powers to have them killed? Final Comment (optional) Add a final line which can be either a blurb or a publisher's marketing statement: Name of Book_______ is in essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake, a story of love and loss by St. Clair College the incomparable Author Name_______. Writing Dates In Essays Brookes Shawnigan. Or Author Name_______'s eighth novel is jam-packed with excitement and surprises. Don't miss this one from the undisputed master of suspense. Or This debut novel by essay writing on newspaper Glenlyon Norfolk School a talented new novelist breaks all the writing in essays Lake, rules and will keep you reading from sunup to sundown. Don't miss this one. SAMPLE - Long Version (355 words) Sally Remington, who comes from a blue-collar background, is a Connecticut painter just starting to receive attention for her unusual use of light and color. After twelve years of laboring in the interior design business and painting at argumentative essay Leighton School night, she is finally invited to New York City for her first professional showing at the top-notch Samples Gallery.
Her dream-come-true is complicated by her mother's terminal illness. More than anything, Sally wants Anne Remington to live long enough to see her daughter's art success. Shawnigan Lake. Painter Sally Remington, who comes from a blue-collar background, is just starting to a good feature Northfield Hermon receive attention for writing in essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake, her unusual use of light and color. After supporting her art for twelve years in a Connecticut interior design business, she is finally invited to New York City for her first professional showing at the top-notch Samples Gallery. Her dream-come-true is complicated by her mother's terminal illness. Sally prays Anne Remington will live long enough to see her daughter's art success. When painter Sally Remington is finally invited to New York City for her first professional showing at the top-notch Samples Gallery, her dream-come-true is complicated by her mother's terminal illness. Painter Sally Remington and her terminally ill mother travel to New York for Sally's first art show at Samples Gallery. There Sally meets wealthy administrator Virginia Samples who has had everything handed to her on a platinum platter. Sally is no match for Leighton Park School, Virginia's biting tongue, and the bitter socialite is repelled by Sally's demeanor but strangely attracted to Sally's art. Why does Virginia feel so drawn to her?
And why can't Sally get Virginia out of her mind? You can write a summary of your book at any time just as you might write a synopsis. The difference is in essays Shawnigan, that your summary asks questions and introduction writing poses problems while the synopsis lays everything out from in essays Brookes Lake, beginning to end. You could even use this tool before you write the book. Using the template above, you could easily create characters, plot, and conflict that you could then employ to Harrow write an entire novel. For expanded information about writing queries, synopses, and proposals, check out these books: Your Novel Proposal from Creation to Contract: The Complete Guide to Writing Query Letters, Synopses Proposals. By Blythe Camenson Marshall J. Cook. By Michael Larsen.
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Maya warfare: sources and interpretations. Cet article propose une revision des sources utilisees par les auteurs modernes pour l'etude de la guerre chez les Mayas. Les recherches archeologiques en cours ne cessent de fournir des informations a ce propos. Les representations peintes et sculptees s'ajoutent egalement au corpus des donnees a analyser. Les projets archeologiques, particulierement les prospections regionales, mettent au jour des modeles d'etablissements fortifies, desquels se degage une image tres detaillee de conflit a grand echelle. De courtes descriptions des communautes des Hautes et Basses Terres mayas sont fournies, avec une emphase particulieres sur la region de Petexbatun, dans le nord du Guatemala. L'auteur met en garde vis-a-vis des interpretations de modeles de guerre sur base du registre materiel. Writing Brookes. L'article se conclut par une discussion sur la saisonnalite et d'autres facteurs limitatifs de la guerre. The paper reviews the argumentative essay Leighton, sources modern researchers use to study Maya warfare. Dates. On-going archaeological research in the Maya area continues to critique article City School add information. Painted and writing Brookes Shawnigan carved representations of conflict also add to the corpus of persuation essay The Knox School data that needs to be analyzed.
As archaeological projects, especially regional survey projects, uncover patterns of fortified communities, a very detailed picture of in essays Lake conflict on a wide scale is an opinion essay Harrow School, emerging. Brief descriptions of fortified communities in Lake both the Maya Lowlands and Highlands are provided, with special emphasis on the Petexbatun region in northern Guatemala. The author cautions the reader about the interpretation of the patterns of warfare in the material record. The paper rends with a discussion of seasonality and other limiting factors of argumentative articles Leighton warfare. En el marca de este articulo, pasamos revista a las fuentes usadas por los investigadores actuales en el estudio de la guerra en la epoca Maya. La investigacion arqueo1ogica en curso en la area Maya sigue agregando informaciones nuevas al respecto.
Representaciones pintadas y esculpidas de conflictos aumenta tambien el corpus de datos que necesitan analisis. Los proyectos arqueologicos, especificamente las prospecciones a nivel regional, descubren patrones de comunidades fortificadas, 10 que permite la emergencia de una imagen muy detallada de conflicto a gran escala. Proporcionamos breves descripciones de asentamientos fortificados tanto en las tierras altas como en las tierras bajas de la zona Maya, con enfasis especial en la region de Petexbatun , en el Norte de Guatemala. Se presenta unas notas de circunspeccion sobre las dificultades de reconocer patrones de guerra en los datos arqueologicos. El papel de las estaciones en el conducto de la guerra concluye la revista de datos y interpretaciones. 1 Our appreciation of the Pre-Columbian Maya has changed considerably over the last fifty years. Writing Dates Brookes Shawnigan Lake. Initial reports on the Maya depicted them as peaceful almost pre-industrial flower power people. Maya centers served an introduction College organized priesthood, while the peasantry came in at regular intervals to dates in essays Shawnigan provide food to essay writing on newspaper Glenlyon their theocratic leadership and to receive admonitions and advise in writing Brookes Lake return. Half a century worth of data collecting has changed this view.
We now have a much better understanding of essay School who the Maya were. The more we learn about dates in essays Lake, these people, the more familiar their actions appear. One facet of critique of journal Freemen's School Maya behavior that ought to look familiar to us is warfare. 2 In the following pages, I will discuss three data sets on warfare: texts, iconographic representations and material remains. However, these rich sources of writing dates Brookes Shawnigan information need to be evaluated with caution, and it is with these caveats that I will start. 3 There is no substitute for written sources in write an opinion essay Harrow School reconstructing the past.
Written sources from pre-contact and contact periods inform us of warfare. Writing In Essays Shawnigan Lake. Maya rulers proclaimed their military successes on panels and stelae, for everybody to see. Spanish chronicles relate the bloody combat which ensued when the Spaniards decided to essay on newspaper School conquer Yucatan. While such sources are invaluable, we should also be aware of their limitations. Colonial records suffered from a double disadvantage: they were sometimes drawn up many centuries after the Classic period, essentially describing a Postclassic society in disarray.
This limits the inferences we can make with regard to Classic period social organization and warfare. Moreover, such sources also tend to embellish the Spanish exploits, while perhaps painting an oversimplified picture of their opponents. Writing Lake. The same critical approach, of course, should be applied to precontact Maya epigraphic sources. They too looked at the world from a skewed perspective. However, they do have a double advantage: some inscriptions were closer in time and space ta our subject of study: the an opinion essay Harrow, Late Classic Maya.
Moreover with each field season new texts appear and dates in essays Shawnigan Lake further breakthroughs in the decipherment are made. Write A Good Article. Maya epigraphs can now understand the overall message conveyed on a stela or on a polychrome vase. We have come ta appreciate the information these texts impart on political organization, regional alliances, and dates Lake warfare in a way only dreamt of a few decades ago. I will confine myself in the following pages to data pertaining ta pre-contact warfare. 4 The epigraphic record contains numerous references to wars. On the basis of the inscriptions, it seems that warfare became more important in the Late Classic period (Sharer 1994:143; Stuart 1993:333). Late epigraphic texts and the accompanying iconography abound with martial themes, which I will discuss farther below.
This represented a shift in introduction writing St. Clair the themes addressed in earlier texts, which, although less numerous, were more concerned with dynastic claims and descent rather than conflict. Brookes Shawnigan. There are, however, some exceptions. 5 One possible exception was Stela 5 at Uaxactun. It was dated ta 184.108.40.206.12, or January 13, 378 A.D. and related how Smoking Frog, a member of the Tikal royal family, was installed as ruler of an opinion essay Harrow School Uaxactun. Dates Shawnigan. We do not know whether this event was the result of persuation essay School inter-site warfare or a royal marriage.
Proskouriakoff (1993:8) interpreted Stela 5 as representing a conqueror from Tikal. Stuart disagreed, leaving unanswered the question just raised (1993:334). Others leave bath possibilities open (Matthews 1985:44; Sharer 1994:185). Proskouriakoff's argument was based on the martial iconography in Stela 5, which depicted an individual carrying an atlatl and a club set with flint knives (Graham 1986:5:143-146; Proskouriakoff 1994:8). 6 Less than ten years afterwards, about 385 A.D., Tikal may have been involved in the execution of eight or more elite individuals at Rio Azul. These executions were depicted on writing in essays Brookes Lake three round altars found at Rio Azul (Sharer 1994:192).
The executions must have been part of Tikal's conquest of Rio Azul (Sharer 1994:194, 265, Table 5.2). Essay Glenlyon Norfolk School. A last example comes from the tread of writing dates in essays Brookes Black II in the hieroglyphic stairway 3 at Yaxchilan. It allegedly contained a reference ta Yaxchilan defeating Lacanha in 564 A.D. (Culbert 1988:l39; Graham 1982:3, 168; Hassig 1992:220; Tate 1992:256, 271). 7 The epigraphic record is replete with references ta warfare during the Late Classic period. An Opinion Essay Harrow. References to warfare become explicit during the late eighth century (Stuart 1993:333,349). The Maya distinguished between military actions ta ken against a site and those taken against writing dates in essays Lake an individual. A campaign against a site was indicated by a « shell-star » glyph.
The « shell-star » glyph had celestial connotations (especially the Venus cycle), se en as portents for the success of an impending campaign (Houston 1987:58; Lounsbury 1982; Riese 1984:274-276). This glyph was often associated with a specific set of introduction of essay College costume elements worn by Maya warrior-rulers (Schele and Miller 1986:2l3; Baird 1989:105). Writing Dates In Essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake. The capture of an individual, usually as part of a wider military campaign against another site, was depicted with an axe glyph (Riese 1982:273), or by the u bak , « his captive » expression (Marcus 1992:418; Proskouriakoff 1963:150; 1964:188; Riese 1982:258-263). The axe glyph reads most likely as ch' ak, « ta chop », an ominous reminder of the fate that awaited the captive (Stuart 1992:176). Regarding the depiction of The Knox prisoners, Proskouriakoff made an important observation while studying the Yaxchilan imagery: « [T]hough I speak here of the captives as if they were individual men, I hold the reservation that they may be representatives or even embodiments of tribes or towns » (Proskouriakoff 1963:150). 8 In addition to the two expressions just mentioned, u bak and ch' ak, we know of other concepts and words related ta war. For example, Maya texts may have referred ta military ranks as well. Proskouriakoff suggested that the « vulture » glyph implied a military function (that of a general) (1993:10, 62, 101), an administrative one (that of a governor) (1993:56), or a combination of both (military governor of a subject town) (1993:22, 70). Writing Shawnigan Lake. Also, the jaguar glyph, in association with the parrot-feather glyph, may refer ta a military order, similar to the « vulture » glyph (Proskouriakoff 1993:104). Finally, a rank in of essay writing St. Clair College the army may be referred ta by the double cauac sign (Proskouriakoff 1993:57).
9 This rich data set has shown how war during the Classic period did not always lead ta the incorporation of the land of the dates in essays Brookes, vanquished into the realm of the victor. Argumentative Articles Park School. Moreover, warfare was a very patent source of ideological and secular power for the rulers, especially when massive transfers of land, people and goods were involved. Dates Brookes Shawnigan Lake. Finally, it has become apparent from the written record that the Maya elite used warfare as an important tool of culture change (Fash and Stuart 1991:167). 10 The Maya differentiated between hostilities against a site versus hostilities against a particular individual. The former was signalled as a « shellstar » event, the latter appeared on Dos Pilas Stela 1 (Houston 1987:51, n. 9). Aguateca Stela 2 and Dos Pilas Stela 16 were the first texts where this association was made (Graham 1967:9-19; Houston, 1987:120; Baird 1989:114). On Newspaper School. Both carry dates of 220.127.116.11.4. (November 29, 735). Their text is very similar, recording a « star » event, a battle involving the capture of a ruler and a follow-up event six days later (Lounsbury 1982:152).
An initial interpretation by Proskouriakoff that this might refer to « some sort of raid on Tikal by joint forces from writing dates Brookes Shawnigan Lake, Seibal and Aguateca » (Graham 1967:19) was later changed into a campaign against a lord of persuation The Knox Seibal by writing in essays Lake, Ruler 3 of how to a good feature article Mount Hermon Dos Pilas (Riese 1982:275; Johnston 1985:53; Houston 1987:58-59; 1993:115). 11 Another famous instance of inter-site warfare attested in the epigraphic record is that between Caracal and Tikal. Altar 21 at Caracal relates two successful engagements against writing dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan Tikal, in 556 A.D. and 562 A.D. (Chase and Chase 1987:60-61; Culbert 1991:l35). 1 Other instances of the « ax-event » glyph are listed in Riese (1982:274). 12 One of the primary goals of warfare seems ta have been the School, ta king of captives. Writing Brookes. The « axe-events » and of journal article City Freemen's School the title of « ah bak, » or « holder of captives » in the written record point to this aspect (Marcus 1976:l35-l36; Proskouriakoff 1993:72; Riese 1982:272-274) 1 . Its iconographic component, the writing Brookes Shawnigan Lake, representation of captives, is elaborated on below, in the section on iconography and warfare.
The Maya also had a term for persuation School « contingent of soldiers, » the katun sign (Fox 1987:133; Coggins 1980:733; Proskouriakoff 1993:56,61, l32-l33, 140). 13 Logistical restraints operated in Maya warfare as weIl. Written sources indieate that Maya warfare rarely engaged in long-distance campaigns (Hammond 1991:17). The me an distance between centers recording war is 49 km, a distance one could coyer in two days, perhaps even one day by river (Hammond 1991a:277). This correlates well with Early Postclassic incidences of warfare, when Maya sometimes called upon kin up ta 20 km away for aid in battles (Fox 1989:675, n. 17; see also Fox 1987:32-33). 14 ln addition ta written sources, we can also rely on artwork to study warfare. Furtunately, several mural paintings depieting conflict have survived.
To judge from the writing Brookes Shawnigan, frequency of known iconographie depictions of warfare, it seems that war occurred more commonly during the writing on newspaper Glenlyon Norfolk School, Late Classic than du ring the Early Classic (Miller and Houston 1987:50). Whatever their temporal designation, these representations not only complement our written sources, the y also provide us with a glimpse of warfare before the arrival of the Spaniards. Of the dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake, wide array of essay warfare imagery, I will discuss muraIs first and then carved monuments. 2 Three radiocarbon dates have been reported in association with the mural paintings: 755 ± 75 AD. ye (. Dates Shawnigan Lake. ) 15 One of the best-known muraIs with a martial motif is the one in Cacaxtla, especially the painting in structure B (Baird 1989:108; McVicker 1985:84). Stylistic evaluation and radiocarbon dates associated with the paintings date them ta between 655 and 835 A.D. (Baird 1989:105) 2 . On Newspaper Norfolk School. The interpretation of writing dates in essays Brookes what we are looking at varies. Some have suggested we are seeing the actual battle (McVicker 1985:86, 94; Berlo 1989:23).
Others have proposed we are witnessing the aftermath of battle, with its associated sacrifices (Ruiz 1986:41; Baird 1989:105-106). How To A Good Mount Hermon. However, the iconography leaves no doubt these paintings relate ta conflict. 16 The figures carry all kinds of weaponry, such as spears, atlatls, obsidian knives, and shields (Baus de Czitrom 1986:529-530; Ruiz 1986:221, Figures 166-177, 179-192). The star shell motif and its connotation with war appear as part of a costume worn by one of the individuals in the murals (Baird 1989:105). Two sets of in essays Shawnigan Lake warriors can be identified on the basis of essay The Knox School differences in accoutrements (McVicker 1985:86), iconographic elements associated with persans (McVicker 1985:95), as well as physical types (Lapez de Molina 1979:464). Iconographic studies of dates in essays Brookes Lake all the Cacaxtla muraIs point to the importance of an opinion sacrifice in relation ta warfare, intimating blood sacrifice was one of the aims of battle (Baird 1989:119; Schele and Miller 1986:214, 221 n.8). 17 There is no agreement among archaeologists and art historians as ta whether or not these paintings represent a historic event. Some have discounted this (Ruiz 1986:41), while others have suggested that we are possibly seeing the outcome of a clash between inhabitants of the Gulf Coast and Maya.
The most likely place for such a battle ta take place, it has been suggested, was the southern Veracruz or Campeche region (McVicker 1985: 98; Baird 1989:119). 18 Another set of mural paintings of equal importance is the murals of writing dates Brookes Shawnigan Lake Bonampak. They consist of a number of Harrow narrative scenes depieting preparation for battle, the battle and the aftermath (McVicker 1985:94). Recent computer-enhanced analysis revealed dynamic details of the conflict. We can see how one individu al is grabbed by the hair and pulled down. The defeated warrior's legs fly and his spear snaps as he is flung down (Miller 1995:67). 19 In 1901 and 1902, Adele Breton copied mural paintings found in the interior of the Upper Temple of the Jaguars, in the ballcourt group at Chiehen Itza. It took almost 75 years before these watercolors were analyzed (Miller 1977). The murals depict, among other things, two different military episodes, each represented by three narrative panels.
20 The murals at writing Shawnigan Lake Chichen show one encounter set in of journal article Freemen's School a hilly territory. It involves a battle between two groups of warriors, distinguishable by the form of their shields. One group of writing Brookes Lake warriors is shawn occupying the essay The Knox, base of a hill, while the others are in writing in essays Shawnigan Lake control of hilltops above (Miller 1977:211). How To Write Feature Hermon. The men on the hilltops are rolling down boulders onto the troops below. Writing Shawnigan Lake. It seems the attackers were successful, since in parts of the feature Mount Hermon, mural we can see how some of the in essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake, defenders were retreating across a bridge connecting two hill tops (Miller 1977:204, Figures 5, 211; Coggins 1984:158, Figure 17). Essay Writing Norfolk. The drawings also reveal a village built on hilly ground, with the same two groups of warriors involved in conflict (Miller 1977:211). The murals apparently showed a sequence of writing Shawnigan events, for in another panel, we can see how the village was sacked after conquest (Coggins 1984:165, Figure 20; Miller 1977:202, Figures 3, 212). Critique Article School. It is possible that these drawings depict the conquest of a village possibly in Oaxaca, based on the presence of the red hills (Miller 1977:212-214). Writing In Essays Brookes Lake. Others have suggested the red hills refer ta the Puuc (Robles and Andrews 1986:84; Dunning 1992:152).
21 A second set of essay articles Park School narrative panels at Chi chen Itza depicts another village scene located in a hill and gully setting. The vegetation points ta a tropieal environment (Miller 1977:214, 218). The first of the three scenes show soldiers in writing in essays Lake various stages of preparing for essay battle, including possibly preparing or repairing cano es (Coggins 1984:163, Figure 19; Miller 1977:206, Figures 7, 214). Another scene may portray an actual siege, involving siege towers against a fortified hilly position. Standing on these scaffold-like constructions are soldiers throwing their projectiles at their opponents.
Some of the warriors have jumped off the towers into the fortification and are battling the writing dates Lake, defenders (Coggins 1984:159, Figure 17; Miller 1977:207, Figures 8, 215). Some warriors have already been captured and are being prepared for sacrifice (Miller 1977:215). The final scene depicts warriors unleashing their darts (Coggins 1984:162, Figure, 19; Miller 1977:208, Figures 9, 216). It is Glenlyon Norfolk School, unclear, however, if actual combat is shawn here, or rather a portrayal of the military capabilities of the two groups. In Essays Brookes Lake. We might even be looking at write an opinion essay a manual of military drill (Miller 1977:216). The village scene in the same panel shows conquest and exile. Women carrying their belongings on their back are leaving the village, looking back in despair at their dwellings (Miller 1977:217). Writing In Essays Brookes Shawnigan. Considering the more tropical scenery it is possible these scenes depict events that occurred in the Maya lowlands, perhaps in the Peten (Miller 1977:218; Wren and Schmidt 1991:209).
22 Dating these mural paintings is problematic in more than one way. The date of the structure in whieh they were found is disputed. Parsons (1969) favors a seventh-century date for of journal article of London Freemen's School the construction, while others assign this ta a later peri ad (Kubler 1962:148). 23 Other examples of writing dates in essays late monuments featuring martial imagery would include Kabah Altar 8 and the sculptured doorjambs from Structure 2A3 and Structure 2C6 (Codz Poop) at Kabah (Pollock 1980:Figures 333-334, 372-373, 381). Persuation Essay The Knox School. The late monument, Stela 21 at writing Shawnigan Oxkintok, features a pro minent warrior in the central panel (Pollock 1980:Figure 547). The most obvious emphasis on warfare and a good article Northfield Hermon captive taking is at Brookes Shawnigan Lake the Nunnery Quadrangle at Uxmal where warrior figures and naked and bound captives adorned the facades of the North and West structures and appear as graffiti in the South building (Foncerada de Molina 1965:151- 152, Figure 38; Kowalski 1987:165-166; 1990:29, Figures 5-7; Se 1er 1917, Abbildung 47, 52; Dunning and Kowalski 1994:81, n.ll.). 24 Iconography of warfare appears on carved monuments as well. This set of monuments includes stelae, altars, lintels, and panels. An Opinion Harrow School. These monuments usually refer ta warfare in two complementary ways: through a text component - as discussed earlier - and a graphic representation. The imagery involved consists of bound captives, and the representation of warriors and dates Brookes Shawnigan weapons. 25 An early example of a depiction of bound captives is Lintel 12 from Piedras Negras, dating ta the beginning of the sixth century A.D. (Proskouriakoff 1993:29).
In the Late Classie period, at times when royal power is declining, carved monuments sometimes carry blatant propaganda messages. As noted earlier, at Copan, the final ruler is shown brandishing shield and lance on his last known carved monument. This representation is qui te a departure from his previous monuments, and essay Glenlyon School implies serious troubles for the ruler and writing dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake his court (Fash 1983 Volume 1:331; Volume 3, Appendix C:39; Fash and article of London Freemen's School Stuart 1991:173). 26 ln the Petexbatun area in northern Guatemala warfare-related iconography abounds. Iconographically, the costume of Dos Pilas Ruler 3 as represented in stela 2 at Aguateca, signaIs warfare in a special way. His outfit, a headdress with trapeze-and-ray insignia, fringed square shield, a Tlaloc mask in front of his face and in essays Shawnigan a Tlaloc symbol on his loincloth panel, invokes images of argumentative essay articles School Teotihuacan (Stone 1989:165). It is suggested that the message broadcast here is in essays, one of political domination of writing on newspaper Norfolk one site over another, conceivably of Dos Pilas over Seibal, analogous ta Uaxactun's Stela 5 message of Tikal's dominance over Uaxactun (Stone 1989:165).
27 Because of the dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan, nature of warfare, we will always be better informed about Maya defensive measures than offensive tacties. The presence of moats and ramparts signal the critique article City School, imminence of war. Brookes Lake. The dimensions of these constructions inform us of the size of the threat. Our perception of the past invariably is incomplete, as time has ravaged many of the remains (Webster 1979:101). Write Harrow. Fortunately, eyewitness accounts and colonial descriptions of conflicts and fortifications exist so that we can fill up some of these lacunae. 28 The archaeological data comprise two sets: the dates Brookes Lake, physical remains of constructions, and their spatial patterns. Warfare and its reflection in material remains will be discussed first, the influence of war on critique City settlement patterns second. With regard to Brookes the material remains, 1 will initially deal with walls in the Maya area.
Then evidence from the Lowlands will be presented with information from the an opinion School, Highlands following. Finally, 1 will discuss the other functions walls may have had. 29 Detecting defensive walls is not always easy. Writing In Essays Shawnigan Lake. The earliest reports on such features usually mistook them for partially destroyed field walls or even eroded sacbeob. Fortunately, the absence of a true ra in forest in the northern portion of the Lowlands and the concomitant damage through root action has preserved many of on newspaper Glenlyon Norfolk these features.
Thanks ta modern techniques such as aerial reconnaissance, detection is now easier. 30 The center of writing dates in essays Uxmal was once enclosed by a low wall (Marcus 1993:135). First reported on by Stephens in Freemen's 1843, very little remains of the wall today (Dunning 1992:168; Dunning and Kowalski 1994:69; Graham 1992: 4:77-78, 83; Kurjack and writing in essays Shawnigan Lake Andrews 1976:322; Saenz 1972:36; Stephens 1963:195-196). Allegedly, this wall enclosed some 50 ha (Adams 1981:303). Other walls existed at Uxmal, some of them perhaps serving as field walls, devoid of of London School defensive value (Graham 1992:4:78). 31 Much better known are the writing dates in essays Brookes, fortifications at Mayapan. The site was surrounded by a wall about nine kilometers long (Shook 1952:8). The stones used in write an opinion essay Harrow the construction were quarried from nearby outcrops of bedrock.
Often, large slabs of limestone were cut from the surface and placed in an upright position along the line of the wall. These slabs formed a retaining wall for a core of dry fill (Shook 1952:9). The outer wall had a parapet, accessible by stairs (Shook 1952:9, 11, 15-16). The wall's height varied between 1.5 and writing in essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake 2.5 m. It is likely, therefore, that it supported a palisade (Shook 1952:19). Writing On Newspaper Norfolk. The precinct containing the Brookes Lake, temples and the palaces of the elite had its own wall, about 700 m long. It tao consisted of dry masonry. 32 The interior wall had only of journal article City Freemen's School two gateways (Armillas 1948:148). The larger, exterior wall had twelve entranceways (Shook 1952:10). In Essays Shawnigan. They were between one and two meters wide (Armillas 1948:148). Write Hermon. The gates varied in complexity, ranging from simple gaps in writing Brookes Lake the wall ta a portico-style gate. Gate D is an example of the latter (Shook 1952:11).
In this case, the gate projected several meters beyond the an opinion Harrow, exterior line of the wall. A narrow passageway led through this protrusion un ta an enlarged rectangular space inside the wall proper. This space had a masonry column in its central axis (Shook 1952:11, 26 Figure1-d). 33 Mayapan's city walls were constructed during the major occupation as a politieal center (Shook 1952:18). They may have served ta defend the city. Other suggested uses include: delineating the city's (administrative and/or politieal) boundaries, controlling access to the site for writing dates in essays taxation (Shook 1952:19). Mayapan's dames tic structures were also walled. 34 Another well known fortified site is Tulum. Write An Opinion Harrow. It is defended by bath a wall and its position along the shore of the Caribbean.
The wall, ca. 800 m long surrounds it on three sides, while the cliffs and the sea form a natural barrier on the fourth side (Armillas 1948:148-149). This wall had a parapet, similar to Mayapan, accessible by stairs (Armillas 1948:149). The main city wall was se ven meters wide and five meters high (Armillas 1948:151). 35 North of Tulum, close ta the ruins of Xelha along the Caribbean coast, lies a small fortified peninsula. A single wall bars access ta the peninsula from the land side. The wall is about 50 m long and has one gate, partly protected by dates Lake, a baffle (Armillas 1948:150). The wall was between three ta eight meters wide and up ta three meters high (Armillas 1948:151).
36 On the western side of the Yucatan peninsula, in Campeche, lies the site of essay The Knox School Champoton. Brookes Shawnigan. It was surrounded by articles Leighton School, a wall in dry masonry as weIl as a moat (Armillas 1948:150). Other fortified, i.e., walled, sites in Yucatan include: Ake (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:322), Chacchob and Ichpaatun in Quintana Rao (Armillas 1948:151). Interpretation of aerial photographs point ta fortifications around the writing Brookes, site of Chunchucmil in western Yucatan . This was confirmed by persuation, recent research (Dahlin 2000). 37 Chacchob lies north of the Shawnigan, Puuc Hills, ca. 15 km southeast of the modern town of Teabo (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:82; Webster 1978:376, Figure 1). Its occupation was very short, probably limited to the Terminal Classic period, with no signs of earlier occupation (Webster 1978:380; 1979:109-111, 161; 1980:837). Chacchob was enclosed by a wall, 1.4 km long (Roys 1943:68; Webster 1978:376; 1979:73).
The wall enclosed various structures and several sinkholes (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:84-85; Webster 1978:376). The original bedrock had not been altered, and some of its outcrops were incorporated in mounds. Essay School. The builders also took advantage of topographieal differences to dates in essays Shawnigan Lake increase the effective height of the write article, wall (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:85; Webster 1978:377-378; 1979:100; 1980:843). Writing Dates In Essays Brookes Shawnigan. Traces of plaster on parts of the wall suggest it may have been completely plastered (Webster 1978:378, 380; 1979:95). 38 The wall enclosed the elite residential compound (Webster 1980:835-837). It was coeval with the founding of the town or built very shortly thereafter (Webster 1978:378-380; 1979:98, 103, 161; 1980:835; Hassig 1992:l31). The wall was up ta two meters high and argumentative Leighton Park School five ta six meters wide (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:86; Webster 1978:378, 380). The core consisted of large-sized rocks and writing Shawnigan Lake sail between retaining walls of roughly shaped or naturallimestone blocks (Webster 1978:378; 1979:101). 39 There were three gates, each less than two meters wide (Hassig 1992:l31; Webster 1976:98; 1978:376-380; 1979:73, 88-98, 100-101). The gates were filled in and never reopened (Webster 1978:378; 1979:104, 161-162; Hassig 1992:l31). These entrances were very simple in write feature Mount Hermon design; there were no abrupt turns or other impediments to dates Brookes Shawnigan traffic (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:86, 96 Figure 1; Webster 1978:378).
40 The design of the essay writing on newspaper Glenlyon Norfolk School, wall at Chacchob was very similar ta that of Mayapan: it consisted of an inner bench and a slightly higher outer parapet (Webster 1979:101). The limited height of the parapet makes it likely it was the writing in essays, foundation for a palisade (Pollock and Stromsvik 1953:86). However, there was no evidence of a palisade (Webster 1978:380; 1979:101). The wall at Chacchob represents a major labor expenditure. Its volume is about half of all the how to write a good feature article Northfield Mount, non-temple architecture at the site.
Webster suggests its construction probably required between one-fifth and one-four th of all labor expended in in essays Shawnigan construction (Webster 1978:380; 1979:103). It is very likely the local work force was reinforced by conscripted labor from outlying settlements (Webster 1978:380; 1979:103). 41 Northwest of School Chacchob lies Cuca, a much larger site (Webster 1978:376, Figure1). Writing Dates Brookes Shawnigan. It dates ta the Terminal Classie period. It was founded on a location not previously occupied by a dense population (Webster 1979:64, 71, 72, 160, 161; 1980:837). Cuca was defended by essay Glenlyon, two concentric walls (Hassig 1992:245, n.l35; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319; Webster 1978:382; 1980:838). The outer wall is 2.25 km long (Webster 1978:382; 1979:9,59). It is still up ta two meters high in places, and Lake between six ta ten meters wide (Webster 1978:384; 1979:59). This wall enclosed 33 ha. The inner wall which measures 828 m, is up ta three meters high in places and article City Freemen's is ten ta twelve meters wide (Webster 1979:9, 61; 1992:382,384). The walls protected the organizational center of the writing in essays Lake, site; there is virtually no decrease in density of structures outside the wall (Webster 1978:382; 1979:9).
3 Construction continued after the walls were built. Harrow School. At least one structure, Str. VII, conformed to t (. ) 42 The inner wall ran over a major structure (Webster 1978:376, Figure l, 384). The outer wall in places bulged so as ta include certain pyramids (Webster 1978:381, Figure 5, 383-384). It is clear that bath walls were built ta enclose preexisting structures, as well as a cenote (Webster 1978:383; 1979:16, 65, 160; 1980:838-839) 3 . This makes the Terminal Classic period a terminus post quem for their construction (Webster 1978:386; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320; Webster 1979:59, 61).
43 The wall construction was simple. Dry masonry walls retained limestone rubble (Hassig 1992:l30-l31; Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319-320; Webster 1976:364; 1978:382-384; 1979:9, 59, 61). No gateways are discernible today. Perhaps they were filled up with debris from the writing in essays Brookes Lake, collapsing walls, or people entered the site over ramps and stairways (Webster 1978:84-385; 1979:61-62). 44 The inner and outer zones at Cuca probably served different purposes.
The inner area contained all the religious and administrative structures, as well as elite residences. The outer area accommodated mostly residential structures (Webster 1979:16). 45 The two walls at essay on newspaper Glenlyon Cuca clearly differ in the degree and amount of protection they could have provided. Given its present-day low height, it is hard to imagine that the writing dates Brookes, outer wall would have made an effective barrier (Webster 1979:63; 1980:838). Essay Writing On Newspaper Glenlyon School. The addition of dates Brookes Lake a palisade or a hedge of thorny plants would have achieved that goal, but no traces of such features were found (Webster 1978:385; 1979:63). However, the School, inner wall did make up a strong barrier. Perhaps the outer wall served as an initial defensive screen, designed to slow the enemy down, while the inner wall was intended to actually shield the site center and its inhabitants (Webster 1978:385; 1979:63). The inner wall was probably built first, and the second wall added later as an writing Brookes outer defensive screen (Webster 1979:71). 4 Lawrence and Shook originally interpreted these walls as sacbeob (Lawrence and argumentative articles School Shook 1966:43-45). A (. ) 46 Roughly ten kilometers northeast of Cuca lies Ake (Lawrence and Shook 1966:2, Figure 1; Kurjack and dates Shawnigan Andrews 1976:319, Figure 1). This site had defensive walls estimated ta enclose a 25 ha area 4 . Essay The Knox. They are dated to writing dates in essays Shawnigan Lake the Late Classic ta Terminal Classic period (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320, 322).
The walls trajectory ran over pre-existing structures, including a sacbe to Izamal (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:322). 47 Another walled site, Dzonot Ake, lay northeast of Chacchob (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:319, Figure 1). This community had a much longer occupational history than either Chacchob or Cuca (Webster 1978:389; 1979:169-171). A single wall enclosed a 6 ha-area, thought ta be the core of a much larger site (Webster 1979:112, 114; 1980:840). 48 The wall was never more than 2-3 m in width or 1.5 m high (Webster 1979:148; 1980:840). It did not completely enclose the community. Instead, it began at how to a good Hermon the northern edge of a cenote, curved around the site, and then left no trace along the southern edge of the site (Webster 1978:386-387, Figure 9, 388).
This « wall » probably served as a foundation for writing dates in essays Shawnigan a perishable superstructure (Webster 1978:388; 1979:148; 1980:840). A ditch seems ta have run along part of the wall (Webster 1978: 388). Of Essay. The wall postdates the fa un ding of the site, similar to the walls at Cuca (Hassig 1992:l31; Webster 1976:364; 1978:388; 1979:149). It was one of the latest constructions on in essays Brookes Lake the site. Essay The Knox. It enclosed three small elite residential groups squatting among the ruins of a much larger and aIder center (Webster 1980:840). 49 Less than 20 kilometers southwest of Cuca lies Muna. Traces of a wall remain today, enclosing a 25 ha area. This defensive feature was dated to the late ta terminal Classic period (Kurjack and Andrews 1976:320).
50 Oxpemul is classified as a hilltop fortress. Its main component occupies the top of a hill, with a steep slope of at least 17 meters ( Adams 1981:234; Ruppert and Denison 1943:Plate 67). The area surrounding the center is Shawnigan, terraced, with heights reaching 7 meters (Adams 1981:234). The defensive function of this feature could have been enhanced by a palisade, sharpened stakes (Adams 1981:234). 51 The site of Las Victorias, south of Tzibanche, is located on an east-facing natural slope. Several hectares are enclosed by right-angled walls that follow the slope contour and writing St. Clair cross at right angles ta it, thus forming a rectangular compound in which mounds are enclosed. The walls are constructed of rough rock rubble and reach over two meters in height, reminiscent of those on the coast at Brookes Ichpaatun, but lower and less well preserved than those of Tulum. Las Victorias was not mapped, but surface collections indicated late Postclassic ceramics (Harrison 1981:284). 52 A site whose fortifications made people rethink the long-accepted peaceful nature of the Maya was Becan in Campeche. The fortification was built at the end of the Preclassic, and critique of journal School probably served as a barrier weIl into the Late Classic period, when the ditch was widened (Webster 1976:1, 101, 103). Its massive defenses consisted of a dry ditch and an artificial embankment.
The ditch was 1890 m long and surrounded the site's center (Webster 1976:8, 14). Dates In Essays. Seven causeways across the ditch provided access ta the site was gained. These causeways were naturallimestone bridges left in place when the ditch was dug (Webster 1976:90). Critique Article Of London Freemen's. The bridges were not pierced ta let water through, nor was the ditch lined, confirming the in essays Brookes, ditch had never held water (Webster 1976:90). Ruppert and Denison, who found the site, claimed that the ditch varied in width between three and twenty-five meters, and was between two and four meters deep (Armillas 1948:152; Ruppert and Denison 1943:54). Webster's measurements range from 12 to School 27 m wide (Webster 1976:14). 53 The defenses were farther strengthened by in essays Brookes, an artificial embankment built along the inner edge of the ditch (Webster 1976:8, 14, 88).
Originally, this parapet was 2 m high, which meant that any attacker was faced with a barrier more than 11 m high (based on an average ditch depth of 9 m) (Webster 1976:89). 54 No traces of any wood en palisade were found, although Webster surmises there must have been one (Webster 1976:89). Large, ceremonial architecture inside. the ditch may have added a desirable elevated platform for any defender (Webster 1976:93). Although excavations yielded no evidence of a successful attack on essay The Knox the site, it is safe ta assume that, in times of danger, the causeways may have been barricaded or even cut (Webster 1976:95). Writing Dates Lake. Based on the scale of the defenses, Webster suggested that a successful hostile force would have required between 3000 to 4000 men ta subdue the site (Webster 1976:96). 55 The site of Edzna in Campeche possessed a feature known as the writing on newspaper Glenlyon Norfolk School, « Fortress. » This rectangular area, delineated by writing dates Brookes, a moat, lay south of the site's center and on newspaper Norfolk School measured about 500 x 30 m (Matheny et al. 1980b: Map sheet 9). Although no evidence of warfare was ever found, this « Fortress » had a number of defensive features. The area was surrounded by a moat, 1873 m long (Matheny et al.
1980a:191). Writing Lake. Access was possible via a causeway raised about three meters above the writing College, bottom of the north moat, or by canoe (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). The causeway narrowed at in essays Lake its passage through the of essay writing College, moat, and its banks sloped steeply on either side (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). A lO-m high structure in the center of the « Fortress » did provide an excellent vantage point ta observe the immediaie surroundings.
Furthermore, at the end of the causeway, two low mQJUnds located on Lake the causeway's centerline could have served as the write a good, « Fortress'« gate (Matheny et al. 1980a:169). Ceramics dated the structures inside the « Fortress » to in essays Shawnigan the Late Preclassic Period, the same period during which the St. Clair, Becan defensive works were built (Matheny et al. 1980a:191; Webster 1976:103). 56 Aguacatal, a peninsular site in western Campeche, also relied on water as a defensive barrier.
A long embankment isolated the tip of the'peninsula, and may have served as a defensive wall. It has tentatively been dated ta the Late Classic and Postclassic period. There was no moat, probably due to the high water table in writing Brookes the area. (Matheny 1970; Webster 1976:101). 57 Research conducted farther south in the Peten has unveiled the of journal article Freemen's, existence of writing Shawnigan numerous defensive features. The most famous ones are the earthworks north and south of Tikal. This Maya metropolis had an earthen wall and ditch at about 4.5 km north of the center of the site. The wall and dry ditch were 9.5 km long, with swamps at either end (Puleston and Callender 1967:43). The trench was three meters deep and four meters wide (Puleston and argumentative essay articles Leighton School Callender 1967:42- 43). It layon the writing Shawnigan, north si de of the wall (Puleston and Callender 1967:40).
58 There were four or five gaps in the wall and essay The Knox School ditch system, probably serving as entranceways (Puleston and Callender 1967:43). The date for these two features ranges between the early Classic and writing dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake early Late Classic period (Puleston and Callender 1967:43, 48). Of Essay Writing. Another walliocated some 8 km south of Tikal's center (Rice and Rice 1981:272). 59 The function of both systems remains open ta suggestions. Dates Shawnigan Lake. In bath cases, the y were too far away from the site and too long ta have been continuously guarded. Therefore, it is possible these earthworks were intended to delay aggressors long enough ta alert the city, and to funnel them along certain routes where they could then be attacked (Webster 1976:367; Hassig 1992:78). Others suggest they were primarily boundary markers, without any defensive function at all (Culbert, personal communication 1993). Perhaps they served ta lev y taxes on commercial traffic in and out of the city (Puleston and introduction of essay St. Clair College Callender 1967:43). 60 At Calakmul, there is a 200-meter segment of a wall (Ruppert and Denison 1943:22).
It lies in the northwestern part of the city. Writing In Essays. The wall still stands 6.15 meters high, and essay writing School is about 2 meters thick. Another possible wall (Ruppert and Denison 1943:Plate 61) runs north next ta the writing, quarry area (Adams 1981:234). Conceivably, the wall may have protected only a section of the city (Adams 1981:234). 61 South of Calakmul, at El Mirador, Graham reported on a 600-m-Iong wall at the site (Adams 1981:234; Graham 1967:Figure 29). Richard Hansen informed me that there were additional massive fortifications around the site, consisting of dry ditches and ramparts, similar to Becan (Hansen, personal communication 1993). 62 Lundell reported the write an opinion essay Harrow School, existence of « two walls, each approximately 150 meters in length, forming a main entrance to the central plaza » at writing in essays Brookes Shawnigan the site of Polol (Lundell 1934:177).
Polol is essay articles Leighton Park, located seven kilometers south of the modern community of La Libertad, El Peten, Guatemala (Lundell 1934:175), about half way between Flores and Sayaxche. These walls do not enclose any structures, and therefore must have had a non-defensive function (LundeIl1934:180, Figure 3). 63 Finally, we turn ta the Petexbatun region, which abounds with fortified sites such as Aguateca, Dos Pilas and Punta de Chimino. Each of writing in essays Brookes Lake these communities was fortified, and each related a different story. Dos Pilas was essentially defended by wall systems, Aguateca combined walls with natural topography such as the escarpment and of journal City Freemen's the grieta running through the writing in essays Lake, site, and finally, Punta de Chimino had massive ditch and rampart systems, as well as the lake to essay writing Glenlyon Norfolk defend itself. 64 Perhaps the most dramatic of all fortifications are the walls at Dos Pilas.
65 Two portions of the site were protected: the main plaza, and Structure P5-7, known as « El Duende, » a temple complex east of the writing Shawnigan, plaza (Houston 1987:384-385). Both areas were surrounded by concentric walls, no more than 30 meters apart. « El Duende » had a third interior wall forming a parapet along the edge of the basal platform of the temple (Houston 1987:385). 66 The walls are modest in appearance. They are preserved up ta a meter in height and width in a good Northfield most places. The construction material was local fieldstone, although some construction materials had been incorporated as weIl. Portions of structure L5-33, south of the main plaza, had been dismantled and re-used in the wall superimposed on it (Houston 1987:385). This superposition of wall and architecture is a feature unique ta Dos Pilas, it does not occur at Aguateca, or anywhere else in the Petexbatun. 67 Access to dates the plaza area occurred via simple gaps in the wall. School. The only dates Shawnigan possible exception is what could have been a baffled gate some 35 m south of the « El Duende » complex (Houston 1987:385-386).
Often, the walls ran along the highest topographic points, which occasionally included existing architecture, yet sometimes, the persuation School, wall deviated and crossed lower-lying areas which offered no defensive advantage at writing dates in essays Shawnigan all (Houston 1987:387). Three test pits were dug into the wall: DP 11A, DP 11C, and DP 11D. They were intended to illustra te the stratigraphic relationship between the wall and the underlying structures. Sub operation DP 11A uncovered Hieroglyphic Stairway no. Persuation The Knox School. 4, with the wall bisecting it (Symonds et al. In Essays Brookes. 1991:239-258). In all cases, there is write an opinion essay Harrow, no humus between the walls and the underlying structures, indicating that the walls were built while the structures were still in use, or immediately after they were abandoned (Symonds et al. Brookes Lake. 1990:239).
68 The walls may have had a perishable superstructure. They were built hastily as illustrated by introduction of essay writing College, the superposition of wall and architecture and the quarrying of monuments for in essays Shawnigan Lake construction materials. The areas they enclosed were small: about 4 ha in the main plaza, and introduction writing about 3.5 ha at the El Duende complex (Houston 1987:385). 69 Aguateca's defenses were laid out much more carefully and ta ok advantage of the topography. The site was bisected by the grieta, a crevasse running NE-SW, creating two foci: the in essays Shawnigan Lake, main plaza and the royal palace. The main plaza lay ta the west of the grieta, the palace groups were built east of the grieta, between this feature and the escarpment (Beekman 1991:398-399; Inomata 1991). This plaza was protected by four sets of walls. All walls around the plaza, except the essay articles Park, exterior one, define a well-circumscribed space, using the grieta as a starting and writing dates in essays Lake en ding point. The exterior wall started by the grieta, in the south, and then arched west and eventually north. It suddenly stopped in flat terrain.
Perhaps it was intended ta continue farther north and ta link up with the grieta as well (Inomata 1991:409). 70 The second focus of occupation was ev en better protected. The royal palace group, the avenue leading up ta it, and the structures on persuation essay The Knox either side of it lay ta the east of the cha sm and the escarpment ta the west. Ta these impressive natural defensive features walls were added. Walls blocked the natural flow of traffic on the avenue (See Sharer 1994:226 Fig. 5.8), and walls were built along the narrow passages of the grieta (Inomata 1995). 71 At Punta de Chimino the defenses consisted of three large parallel moats cutting off the base of the peninsula, effectively transforming it in ta an island.
The lake itself provided protection as well. The construction of these moats represented an enormous energy investment. Their size speaks eloquently of the magnitude of the perceived threat. Writing Dates. Yet, it also implied that there was enough time to complete all these defenses. This notion is further underscored by Dunning's findings of agricultural activities between the moats (Dunning et al. 1991:842). Punta de Chimino's defenses bespeak a sizeable threat, yet the agricultural activities and the fact that the moats were completed signal that the threat was not imminent, but rather must have loomed on the horizon for a while. 72 Our archaeological knowledge of fortified sites in the Maya Highlands is of essay writing College, often amplified by the chronicles left behind by the Conquistadores. Most sites took refuge behind walls, usually on in essays Brookes Shawnigan a promontory.
Additional defensive techniques involved booby trapping the argumentative essay articles, approaches to the sites. 73 An example of the writing Brookes Lake, latter occurred at Cehache, whose inhabitants had its access roads booby trapped. For its protection, the site further relied upon topography and two walls separated by a moat (Armillas 1948:151-152). The interior wall had towers up ta six meters high at regular intervals (Armillas 1948:152). 74 A number of Postclassic sites in writing the Highlands of Guatemala were built with their defense in mind.
They were usually located on either plateaus surrounded by steep slopes on several sides or on hill tops. Examples are Zaculeu, Rabinal, Utatlan, Iximche, Chutix- Tiox and Rio Blanco (Armillas 1948:152), and Cambote (Woodbury and dates in essays Shawnigan Lake Trik 1953:23). 75 Zaculeu was built on Park School a promontory. Writing Dates Brookes Lake. Access was possible only along a narrow land bridge. This and introduction of essay writing St. Clair College the steep slopes of the promontory create a very defensible location (Boggs 1946:1; Woodbury and Trik 1953:16, 23). According to Spanish eyewitness accounts, the site was fortified with a wall built across the narrow neck of land (Boggs 1946:3; Woodbury and Trik 1953:16-17). The wall had one entrance closed off by dates, a thick stone slab (Woodbury and Trik 1953:16). Apparently, the how to write article Mount Hermon, site was defended by a number of bulwarks. They were placed at particular strategic points. They included a ditch, with the earth used ta build up a wall behind it strengthened by timbers (Woodbury and Trik 1953:17). 76 The site of Utatlan was located on a promontory, protected by steep slopes on all but one side (Fuentes y Guzman 1951:23, 59).
It had only dates in essays Shawnigan one entrance (Boggs 1946:2). Essay The Knox. Farther north on the Guatemalan Highlands the site of Huehuetenango was surrounded by a wall and a ditch. Writing Brookes. We do not know whether this wall was made out of stone or wood (Woodbury and Trik 1953:15). The town of write an opinion Harrow Mazatenango had a wall and wall ara und it. The wall consisted of earth and wood (Woodbury and Trik 1953:14-15). 77 Iztacamaxtitlan was a hill top site fortified with a wall, barbicans and ditches (Armillas 1948:153). Associated with the dates Brookes Shawnigan Lake, site, in introduction of essay St. Clair College the valley was a wall blocking access to writing dates in essays Brookes the valley, two and a ha If meters in height, and ca. six meters wide. It had a breastwork on top, enabling soldiers to take caver and The Knox fight from an advantageous position (Armillas 1948:153-154). 78 Iximche accu pied an easily defensible position.
It was built on a promontory. Steep slopes protected it on Shawnigan two sides, while a ditch and associated wall cut off access from the essay The Knox School, plateau side (Fuentes y Guzman 1951:23; Guillemin 1965:14- 15; Villacorta and writing in essays Shawnigan Villacorta 1927; 103-104). The wall may have been up ta three meters high (Guillemin 1965:15). Its gate had two doors (Guillemin 1965:40). The site also had small fortified outposts to prevent surprise attacks (Guillemin 1965:40). Concluding remarks on Maya warfare.
79 The data presented in the preceding pages permit us to reconstruct Maya warfare. Argumentative Essay Leighton School. Archaeological and historic sources have helped to identify various forms of dates Brookes Shawnigan warfare, some of which may not leave any imprint at all in write an opinion essay Harrow the material record. Inscriptions also shed light on the pertinent details and in essays Brookes Shawnigan the seasonality of war. Finally, the interaction between all this information and settlement pattern studies help define the role played by war in the political organization of essay writing Glenlyon Norfolk School Maya society. Warfare and its visibility in writing in essays Brookes Shawnigan the material record. 80 As we seek to improve our understanding of precolumbian conflict resolution, we must be aware of the St. Clair, limitations imposed on our search. Warfare is in essays Shawnigan Lake, a complex form of human behavior, some facets of which simply leave no tangible remains behind. Critique Article. Other aspects of warfare can be surmised only indirectly, such as, for example, the writing Brookes Shawnigan Lake, purported seasonality of wars, or efforts ta mitigate conflict.
81 Population nucleation, especially in of journal article School hilltop sites, and walled sites are a common phenomenon in the Maya area. Writing Brookes Shawnigan. Aerial surveys combined with extensive ground checking yield more examples every year, as the preceding overview hopefully showed. Walls and essay moats are visible expressions of fear, and this fear is often translated into huge tangible defensive measures, such as moats and masonry walls. However, their absence from the material record should not always lead us to believe things were peaceful. Wars were fought in many ways, and included techniques that left no physical remains behind. 82 Written sources tell us of writing Shawnigan Lake palisades in the Maya area. Essay Leighton. The Maya referred ta them as tulumche (Armillas 1948:141). Sometimes people would dig holes in the road, place sharp sticks in these holes and then caver everything up with branches (Armillas 1948:151, 156). Sometimes people would grow or place spiny plants to writing in essays Lake act as barriers (Armillas 1948:156).
In their war with the Aztecs, the Chontales blocked roads with boulders, tree trunks, branches, dried magey, spiny plants and Glenlyon Norfolk School pitfalls (Armillas 1948: 158). Dates In Essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake. Moctezuma had one of the access roads ta Tenochtitlan blocked with a wall of maguey plants (Anderson and Dibble 1978:26-27). The Quiche of highland Guatemala employed a fighting technique which le ft behind no traces either: they threw gourds full of wasps among the enemy ta disrupt them (Carmack 1968:79-80). 83 Pre-industrial warfare was limited not only by logistical constraints, but aIs a by cyclical natural phenomena. The agricultural cycle caused the man ta prefer certain months ta engage in conflict. Major battles in human history were fought following harvest time (Keegan 1993:73; Schele and Miller 1986: 221, n. 8; Vayda 1976:16-17).
ProskouriakoH suggested this trend also applied to the Maya, referring ta sculptured panel 4 at writing Altar de Sacrificios. This panel dated the start of a campaign in in essays late December, the beginning of the dry season (Proskouriakoff 1993:56). Epigraphic information on warfare supports this idea. Before discussing these data, we need ta remind ourselves that this seasonality is caused by several factors, which probably reinforce each other. 84 The Maya did not have a standing army. Arlen Chase (1994:45) suggested that the Late Classic Maya middle class owed their success to participation in warfare. Essay Writing Norfolk. Moreover, Chase (1994:41) posited that some of these middle class people, at least at Caracal, had interests in writing in essays agriculture. It therefore follows that the times when these people can engage in warfare is how to feature Northfield, closely tied the agricultural calendar. April could have been a harvesting month in precolumbian times, as it is writing in essays Shawnigan, today. Of London. Afterwards, there was time for warfare.
85 Logistical problems forced the generals ta favor the dry period over the rainy season. Large-scale intersite wars involved many men and presumably a host of supporting personnel carrying supplies and equipment. Dates Shawnigan. Such a crowd can only move successfully during the dry season, when the trails are dry, and not tao many tree falls black the roads. During the rainy season, climatological conditions alone could have prohibited intersite warfare. 86 Finally, we know that the Maya sometimes timed their wars according to the astronomical considerations, related to persuation essay The Knox Venus and Jupiter /Saturn stations (See Schele and Freidel 1990:44-446, n. 47).
Such considerations favored action during the months of December and January, farther reinforcing the dates Brookes Shawnigan, agricultural and climatologieal cycle. 87 Maya texts referring to dated warfare events support the suggestion of how to article Mount seasonality in warfare. Warfare is waged primarily during the Shawnigan, dry season, from December until April. 88 This seasonal trend becomes even more evident when we differentiate between the capture and defeat events, as identified above. These following remarks are based on a number of presumptions: capture refers to writing on newspaper Glenlyon School the taking prisoner of an individual, while defeat refers ta large-scale warfare between sites, entailing a difference in manpower involved. Prisoners could be taken by small raiding parties, ambushing unsuspecting victims, whereas the defeat of a site requires a hast of writing in essays Brookes Lake warriors. School. When we differentiate between these two types of hostile exchanges, the suggestion of seasonality is writing Shawnigan, reinforced. 89 ln July and August, only of essay writing St. Clair College a few intersite wars occurred, and most of the hostile acts in these months were probably small-scale raids aimed at capturing individuals. 90 The data from dates Lake, Yaxchilan for which we have many more dated occurrence of warfare, supports the contention that warfare was a rare event during the rainy season. For the period between 564 ta 808 A. D., there are two capture events and one war episode in critique article of London Freemen's July. 91 These data show that Maya warfare was limited not only writing dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan because of logistical problems, but also because of persuation The Knox School a preoccupation with agricultural, climatological, and astronomical considerations.
These limitations imposed by dates, nature worked hand in hand with man-induced limitations outlined earlier. However, 1 suggest there was at least one more limiting factor, and that was the of essay College, ballgame (Leyenaar and Van Tuerenhout s.d.). Rules of warfare and Late Classic Maya behavior on the battlefield. 92 The introductory part of this presentation dealt with limitations on warfare. Brookes. 1 outlined how several factors, bath man-made and natural, mitigate some aspects of warfare. These limiting factors tend ta have a stabilizing influence on the conduct of an opinion School war, until a technological breakthrough pushes back the natural impediments on warfare. Man-made restrictions are prone ta change as well, especially when new technology requires a new appraisal of what is acceptable and what is not. The laws of war and in essays Brookes constraints on warfare have been on people's minds for centuries (Howard et al. Articles Leighton Park. 1994). 93 While it is impossible to completely reconstruct prehistoric battlefield behavior, nor even ta ascertain what, if any, the restrictions were that applied in prehistoric warfare, the material correlates of war indirectly inform us what some of that behavior may have been.
Fortifications are a main source of information in this regard. 94 Their presence implies warfare and instability, their absence could imply political stability and writing dates Shawnigan an absence of warfare. School. Absence of fortifications does not necessarily mean there was absolutely no organized violence. Instead, we might have carefully choreographed armed encounters, with a minimal impact on the surroundings, pre-empting the writing dates in essays, need for fortifications. The appearance of fortifications in regions where none had ever existed before or the re-emergence after a long absence herald important changes in battlefield comportment. Studies of Glenlyon Norfolk School pre-indus trial societies, and their adherence limitations on warfare have shawn how developments in methods, techniques and writing Brookes Lake equipment dramatically changed the conduct of war. These reinterpretations invite us all ta also re-evaluate the essay writing on newspaper Norfolk, law of arms.
ADAMS, R. E. W. 1981, Settlement Patterns of the Central Yucata n and in essays Brookes Southern Campeche Regions. Argumentative Articles Park. In Lowland Maya Settlement Patterns, edited by W. Ashmore, pp. 211-257. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. ADAMS, R. E. W., and JONES, R. C. 1981, Spatial patterns and regional growth among Classic Maya cities American Antiquity 46(2):301 - 322. ANDERSON, A. J. O., and CH. E. DIBBLE, 1978, The War of Brookes Shawnigan Lake Conquest. Article Mount. How It Was Waged Here in Mexico. The Aztecs' Own Story As Given Ta Fr. Bernardino de Sahagun.
The University of writing in essays Brookes Shawnigan Utah Press, Salt Lake City. ARMILLAS, P. 1948, Fortalezas Mexicanas. Cuadernos Americanos 41 (5):143-163. BAIRD, E. T., 1989, Stars and War at Cacaxtla. In Mesoamerica After the Decline of Teotihuacan. A.D. Of Essay Writing College. 700 - 900, edited by dates in essays Lake, R. Essay On Newspaper Glenlyon Norfolk School. A. Diehl, and J. e. Brookes Shawnigan. BerIo. pp. 105-122. Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, Washington, o.e.
BEEKMAN, CH. 1991, Levantamiento deI mapa y patrones de asentamiento. Of Essay Writing. In Proyecto arqueol6gico regional Petexbatun. In Essays Brookes. Informe preliminar # 3. Tercera temporada 1991, edited by A. Persuation Essay School. Demarest, T. Inomata, H. Writing Shawnigan. Escobedo, and J. On Newspaper Glenlyon School. Palka, pp. 398-403. Vanderbilt University, Nashville.
BERLO, J. C. 1989, Early Writing in Central Mexico: In TWli, ln Tlapalli before AD. 1000. Dates Shawnigan. In Mesoamerica After the Decline of Teotihuacan. A.D. 700 - 900, edited by R. A. Diehl, and writing J. e. BerIo, pp. Writing In Essays Shawnigan. 19-47.
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128-146. A School of American Research Book. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. DAHLIN, B. 2000, The barricade and abandonment of Chunchucmil: Implications for Northern Maya warfare. Latin American Antiquity Il (3), pp. 283-298.
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11. Dates. Department of introduction writing Anthropology, The Pennsylvania University. WEBSTER, D. 1980, Spatial Bounding and Settlement History at Three Walled Northem Maya Centers. American Antiquity 45(4):834-844. WOODBURY, R. B., and A. S. TRIK, 1953, The Ruins of dates in essays Lake Zaculeu, Guatemala. Guatemala WREN, 1., and P. SCHMIDT, 1991, Elite interaction during the Terminal Classic period: New evidence from Chichen Itza. In Classic Maya political history: hieroglyphic and archaeological evidence, edited by essay on newspaper Glenlyon, T. Shawnigan. Patrick Culbert, pp. 199-225. A School of American Research Book. Argumentative. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
1 Other instances of the « ax-event » glyph are listed in Riese (1982:274). 2 Three radiocarbon dates have been reported in writing in essays association with the mural paintings: 755 ± 75 AD. years, wooden lintel, Structure A; 744 ±91 years AD., level xvui, substructure, Structure B; 649 ±93 AD. years, level x, substructure Structure B (L6pez de Molina 1981:173). Additional radiocarbon dates range between 194 and 792 AD. (Ruiz et al. 1986:Appendix 1). 3 Construction continued after the walls were built. At least one structure, Str. VII, conformed to critique City the preexisting inner wall (Webster 1979:12).
4 Lawrence and Shook originally interpreted these walls as sacbeob (Lawrence and Shook 1966:43-45). Additional reconnaissance by Kurjack and Andrews identified them as defensive walls (Kurjack and writing Brookes Shawnigan Lake Andrews 1976:320). Dirk Van Tuerenhout , « Maya warfare: sources and interpretations », Civilisations , 50 | 2002, 129-152. Dirk Van Tuerenhout , « Maya warfare: sources and interpretations », Civilisations [En ligne], 50 | 2002, mis en ligne le 01 decembre 2004, consulte le 01 octobre 2017. URL : http://civilisations.revues.org/3400 ; DOI : 10.4000/civilisations.3400. Curator of Anthropology, Houston Museum of of journal article City of London Freemen's School Natural Science, One Hermann Circle Drive, Houston Texas 77030-1799 USA. Email:firstname.lastname@example.org. © Tous droits reserves. Enqueter en terrains difficiles 63 | 2014.
Identite, culture et intimite 61-2 | 2013. Chamanismes en mouvement 61-1 | 2012. Au-dela du consensus patrimonial 60-2 | 2012. Etre ou ne pas etre balkanique 60-1 | 2011. Mobilisations et dynamiques identitaires en Amerique andine 59-2 | 2011.
Les apparences de l'homme 59-1 | 2010. Sexualites : apprentissage et performance 58-2 | 2009. Intimites et inimities du religieux et du politique en Afrique 58-1 | 2009. American Afrocentrism(e)s americains 57 | 2008. Tourisme, mobilites et alterites contemporaines 56 | 2007. Apres la catastrophe 55 | 2006. Confrontations et alliances dans les Ameriques autochtones 54 | 2006. Experiences de recherche en Republique democratique du Congo 53 | 2005. Musiques populaires 52-2 | 2005. Museums, collections, interpretations 52-1 | 2004. Transmission des savoirs et interactions culturelles 51 | 2004.
Religions transnationales 50 | 2002. Itineraires belges aux Ameriques 49 | 2002. Pain, fours et foyers des temps passes 48 | 2001. La question de l'islam et de l'Etat a l'aube du XXIe siecle 44 | 1997. Les peuples des forets tropicales 43-2 | 1996. Problemes africains contemporains 42-2 | 1993. enQuete d'identite 42-1 | 1993. Amerique latine-Europe 41 | 1993. Melanges Pierre Salmon II 40-1 | 1991. L'Asie et le Pacifique 39 | 1991.
Japon : les enjeux du futur 38-2 | 1990. Regards sur l'Iran 38-1 | 1989. ISSN electronique 2032-0442. Informations Titre : Civilisations Revue internationale d’anthropologie et de sciences humaines En bref : Revue encourageant la publication d'articles ou les approches de l'anthropologie s'articulent a celles d'autres sciences sociales.
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The Golden Age of Shawnigan Abstraction: Right Now. It’s tempting to see the years 1912–25 and 1947–70 as the Harrow School two golden ages of abstract art, and to feel that the present revival of abstraction is no more than a silver age. But the present is always deceptive: it was not evident to their contemporaries that Malevich, Mondrian, and Pollock were the towering giants they seem to us in retrospect. The fact is, there is a vast amount of writing Shawnigan good abstract art being made today, and the best of it is School, every bit as good as the best abstract art of the past. The golden age of abstraction is right now . Museums and art centers have lately been taking a remarkable interest in abstract art, past and present. Writing Brookes Shawnigan Lake? Last year, MoMA opened “Inventing Abstraction, 1910–1925”; the introduction St. Clair College Guggenheim offered “Art of Another Kind,” comparing American and European abstraction of the 1950s; “Destroy the Picture,” at Lake the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, explored the persuation School fascination with dirty, distressed materials among artists of the same era; the Musee d’art contemporain de Montreal traced the impressive history of Canadian abstraction since 1939; the Hunter College/Times Square Gallery presented “Conceptual Abstraction,” a survey (which I curated with Joachim Pissarro) of 20 abstract painters who came to prominence in New York in the 1980s; and MUDAM (the Musee d’Art Moderne) in Luxembourg gathered 23 contemporary European artists in “Les Detours de l’abstraction.” Already in 2013, the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis has opened “Painter Painter,” a survey of emerging abstract painters from Brookes Lake both the U.S. and Europe, and next month, the Museum of Contemporary Art in introduction of essay, Chicago opens “MCA DNA Chicago Conceptual Abstraction,1986–1995,” with works in various mediums. How do we make sense of Brookes Lake all this activity in a type of art that was declared dead 40 years ago? I believe the most useful way to understand abstraction is not in terms of its formal evolution (which does not, in any case, fit the linear models beloved of theoreticians) but in terms of thematic content. The formal qualities of an abstract painting or sculpture are significant not in how to a good feature article Northfield Mount, themselves but as part of the work’s expressive message. Artists work by reviving and transforming archetypes from the unconscious of modern culture. Therefore, the most useful questions to ask about contemporary abstract painting or sculpture are: What themes and forms does it retrieve from the tradition of modern art?
How have they been changed? And how has the artist used them to express the dates social, political, and spiritual experience of our own time? We might view abstract art as falling into six basic categories. How To Write A Good Article Hermon? Three respond to nature: cosmologies, landscapes, and anatomies. And three respond to culture: fabrics, architecture, and signs. These categories are not mutually exclusive. Writing Dates In Essays Shawnigan Lake? It often happens, for instance, that cosmological images include anatomical imagery or that images inspired by write an opinion essay Harrow fabric patterns include drawn or written signs. Chris Martin’s Seven Pointed Star for Isaac Hayes , 2009, touches on cosmology and technology. COURTESY MITCHELL-INNES NASH, NEW YORK. Cosmological imagery in modern art assumes three main forms: orbs, orbits, and constellations. The orbs and writing dates Brookes Shawnigan, orbits in the work of pioneering abstract artists like Alexander Rodchenko and Liubov’ Popova reflected the Russian avant-garde’s obsession with space travel as an allegory of revolution: the cosmonaut left behind the corrupt old world to build a rational utopia in outer space.
Another kind of introduction writing St. Clair College cosmological imagery emerged in the 1920s: the dates Brookes Lake constellation or star chart, consisting of an array of dots connected by lines. In the write Harrow School late 1940s, Pollock took the fixed constellations and set them into motion, in paintings like Reflection of the Big Dipper (1947). Both static and mobile versions of the motif play important roles in contemporary abstraction. For the Parisian Surrealists, the writing dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan dot-and-line motif of the star chart was significant as an example of the way that intelligible meaning (the figurative image of how to a good Northfield Mount Hermon Orion or the Great Bear) can emerge from chance events (the random distribution of stars in the night sky). For a contemporary audience, however, the same formal motif is likely to read not as a literal constellation but as the more abstract image of a network.
Chris Martin’s cagelike “constellations” evoke the Internet Age, with its promise of total connectedness and its threat of incessant surveillance. The funky, handmade facture of his painting, with papier-mache spheres emerging at each node, reasserts the value of writing in essays Lake flawed humanity over the seamless web of technology. Julie Mehretu’s paintings similarly transform the meaning of her sources. Where Pollock’s swirling constellations appeared to essay, their original audience as images of the Jungian unconscious, Mehretu’s grids and streaks, punctuated by shifting crowds and billowing smoke, express the dynamism and turmoil of the global economy. Among contemporary painters, David Row combines orbital imagery with crystalline forms, shifting its meaning from social and utopian to spiritual and transcendent. Other abstract artists using cosmological imagery include Olafur Eliasson, Iole de Freitas, Bill Komoski, Albert Oehlen, Matthew Ritchie, Peter Schuyff, and Christopher Wool. Anish Kapoor’s Cloud Gate , 2004, in Chicago’s Millennium Park, reflects and distorts the surrounding landscape. PETER J. SCHLUZ/COURTESY THE CITY OF CHICAGO AND GLADSTONE GALLERY, NEW YORK AND BRUSSELS. A half-century ago, in writing dates in essays Shawnigan Lake, the February 1961 issue of ARTnews , the iconoclastic art historian Robert Rosenblum coined the term “abstract sublime” to describe the way that the paintings of Clyfford Still, Mark Rothko, and Barnett Newman call to mind a sense of the immensity and power of nature comparable to that found in the landscapes of essay articles Leighton Park such Romantic painters as J.M.W. Turner and Caspar David Friedrich. While the sublime may be out of fashion, references to the natural landscape persist in contemporary abstraction.
The huge popularity of Anish Kapoor’s monumental Cloud Gate may be due to the hallucinatory impression it gives of having brought the heavens down to Earth. At the same time, the sculpture’s mirrorlike skin, recalling Brancusi’s polished bronzes, places it in the avant-garde tradition of writing dates in essays Lake art that actively interacts with its viewers and its environment. In the setting of downtown Chicago, Kapoor’s silvered sculpture seems to absorb, concentrate, and reemit the essence of a great American metropolis. Of course, abstract art does not need to be monumental to evoke the natural environment. David Reed shades his gestural brushwork with such precision that it suggests roiling clouds over a western landscape. Gerhard Richter’s abstract pictures glow with the same damp, shimmering light as his paintings of the German countryside. Feature Northfield Hermon? His translucent colors and modulated shading look like photographs even in his nonfigurative compositions. At the opposite extreme, Mary Heilmann uses opaque colors and rough brushwork to dates Brookes, avoid any hint of illusionism.
Nonetheless, the baroque swerves and critique City Freemen's, switchbacks of her stacked bands in a painting like Surfing on Acid (2005) suggest the parallel lines of waves approaching a beach, swelling and breaking as they near the shore. Using the new technology of digital animation, Jennifer Steinkamp transforms trees, vines, and branches into writing in essays Shawnigan writhing, abstract arabesques. Landscape-related imagery also appears in the abstract work of Tara Donovan, Stephen Ellis, Anoka Faruqee, Jacqueline Humphries, Shirley Kaneda, Wolfgang Laib, Fabian Marcaccio, Joseph Marioni, Odili Donald Odita, Cornelia Parker, Joanna Pousette-Dart, Pat Steir, William Wood, Sanford Wurmfeld, and John Zinsser. Jonathan Lasker’s The Quotidian and the Question , 2007, suggests anatomical structures. COURTESY CHEIM READ, NEW YORK. In Jonathan Lasker’s canvases, thinly painted stage sets and imaginary landscapes are occupied by brooding presences laid in of essay St. Clair College, with thick strokes of impasto. These “presences” have typically come to take the form of P-shaped configurations suggesting massive heads that confront one another, like the writing in essays Shawnigan haunted eyeballs and writing, truncated feet of late Philip Guston. However, the abstract anatomies of Shawnigan contemporary artists rarely correspond to the image of the introduction of essay College human body as a whole. Writing Dates In Essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake? Instead, their work tends to hint at write an opinion Harrow School individual body parts, internal organs, or the writing dates Brookes Shawnigan Lake “abject” substances excreted by the body. The masterwork of City School sculptor Tim Hawkinson is an enormous installation of floating bladders linked by long intestinal tubes, appropriately titled Uberorgan . Writing Brookes? Among painters, Sue Williams has created throbbing allover compositions of an opinion essay sexual organs, while Carrie Moyer uses biomorphic curves and blushing colors to intimate arousal in compositions that initially look like abstract landscapes.
Leaving the recognizable body further behind, Ingrid Calame depicts a universe of drips, stains, and smears, their pathetic associations offset by bright, incongruous colors. It seems at first glance that Calame’s skeins and dates Brookes Shawnigan, pools of color must have been dripped freely onto essay The Knox canvas, Pollock-style. Writing? However, the apparent fluidity of her work is the result of a meticulous process of tracing markings found on sidewalks, floors, and streets. These drawings on translucent paper are archived and then arranged in layers to create new compositions. The work of persuation The Knox School Valerie Jaudon, who emerged from the Pattern and Decoration movement, has remained highly abstract but alludes to the repeat patterns of fabric or wallpaper, as in Circa , 2012.
COURTESY THE ARTIST AND VON LINTEL GALLERY, NEW YORK. Turning from natural to man-made models for abstraction, fabric has figured prominently as a source of inspiration. Writing Brookes? Throughout much of the 20th century, male abstract artists rejected comparisons between their paintings and decorative fabrics. In the 1970s, however, women artists, such as Miriam Schapiro and Joyce Kozloff, set out to revindicate decoration and to use it as the point of departure for a new, feminist mode of abstraction. The artists (both male and female) of the The Knox Pattern and dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan, Decoration movement often incorporated representational and architectural elements into their brilliantly colored compositions. Of the artists emerging from how to a good feature Mount this movement, Valerie Jaudon has remained one of the most severely abstract. In her recent work, she almost eliminates color, using only dates Shawnigan Lake black and white, or white paint on bare brown linen. But she combines this austere palette with a sensual profusion of pattern, numbing and teasing the mind like a carved wooden panel from the Alhambra. Her designs suggest the repeat patterns of fabric or wallpaper, without ever quite resolving into regularity.
In the 1970s, some American artists, like Kim MacConnel, looked to African fabrics as models of essay School laid-back geometry. Today, it is in essays Lake, African artists themselves who are winning recognition as brilliant innovators. Take, for example, the abstract tapestries of El Anatsui, on view in how to feature article Hermon, a retrospective that runs through August 4 at the Brooklyn Museum. Anatsui’s tapestries are put together from hundreds or thousands of pieces of writing in essays Brookes Shawnigan metallic scrap—the caps, bands, wrappers, and labels that adorn the bottles and other items you would find in a market or trash heap in western Africa. The shimmering gold and silver of Anatsui’s work offer an Harrow image of celebratory splendor. Writing Dates Shawnigan Lake? Draped and folded, rather than hung flush against the wall, these tapestries challenge our assumptions about the obligatory flatness of essay articles abstraction. Other contemporary abstractionists working with the imagery of fabric and decorative patterning include Linda Besemer, Bernard Frize, Richard Kalina, Ryan McGinness, Beatriz Milhazes, Sean Scully, Frank Stella, Philip Taaffe, and Adriana Varejao. Architectural structures inform Peter Halley’s paintings, as in Accretive Cognition , 2010.
©PETER HALLEY/COURTESY MARY BOONE GALLERY, NEW YORK. Peter Halley’s paintings, which launched the Neo-Geo movement of the 1980s, focus obsessively on the motif of a rectangular cell, reminiscent of a house, a prison, a computer chip, or a piece of machinery. Resting on a narrow band of earth or flooring, the structure is plugged into its environment by conduits that run through the ground or take to the sky, connecting it into an invisible urban grid. Instead of a place of refuge, the cell becomes a symbol of the postmodern self: isolated, immobilized, and under surveillance. The pure optical quality of 1960s modernism gives way in Halley’s work to a purgatory of Day-Glo colors and motel-room textures: garish, menacing, and weirdly seductive. Another painter, Sarah Morris, uses tilted grids and pulsing colors to suggest the writing dates Brookes Shawnigan dazed confusion found in the mirrored facades of corporate modernism. Whereas Halley and Morris propose large allegorical statements about contemporary society, Rachel Harrison speaks to The Knox, a realm of personal experience.
Her sculptures often incorporate beams, lintels, and in essays Brookes Lake, moldings embedded in cement or pieces of sheetrock fastened into a loose grid, accompanied by toys, framed photographs, and other household furnishings. The works seem like fragments of houses that have been smashed apart by natural disasters or worn down by everyday life. Critique Article Of London Freemen's School? And yet there’s something oddly cheerful about Harrison’s eroded architectures, even when they’re not painted in the primary-school colors she often favors. They have a kind of pluck, as if they’re determined to carry on, no matter what. (In Harrison’s most recent work, architecture has mutated into anatomy, as her stacked forms begin to resemble living creatures.) In Untitled , 2010, Wade Guyton updates abstraction, eliminating the writing Brookes Lake artist’s hand by using digital printers instead of stencils. LAMAY PHOTO/COURTESY THE ARTIST AND PETZEL, NEW YORK. Signs have been an important element of modern art ever since 1911 and 1912, when Picasso and Braque put stenciled letters and scraps of newspaper into their Cubist pictures. But Jasper Johns’s flag, map, and Harrow, number pictures of the 1950s and early 1960s initiated a revolutionary transformation in the character of sign painting.
His stenciled letters and Lake, regular grids came to argumentative essay articles Leighton Park School, convey meaninglessness instead of meaning. Shawnigan? They didn’t express emotion; they repressed it. In one way or another, his work lies behind much of the of essay St. Clair College most important art of writing Lake 1960s, from the monochromes of how to write a good feature Northfield Hermon Frank Stella and Brice Marden to the Minimal boxes of Robert Morris and Donald Judd. Fifty years later, Johns continues to dates in essays Shawnigan, exercise a decisive influence on abstraction. Wade Guyton, shown last year at write an opinion Harrow the Whitney, updates Johns’s number paintings, eliminating the artist’s hand by using digital printers instead of stencils. Guyton’s insistent X’s seem less like marks than like cancellations, refusing to signify and then fading into blankness. Mark Bradford’s paintings resemble the giant computer screens that sophisticated police departments use for real-time surveillance of traffic, crime, and accidents, with data overlaid on urban grids. But in dates in essays Brookes, contrast to the flickering pixels of the how to write feature Mount computer screen, Bradford’s images have actual substance. Like Calame, he works with papers and materials gathered from the dates Shawnigan Lake streets of Los Angeles, shredding and of journal City of London, aging them, then layering them into his compositions. Writing Dates Shawnigan Lake? Bradford’s powerful combination of imagery and materials captures the of journal of London experience of living simultaneously in the parallel universes of information and sensation.
Ultimately, the evolution of in essays Lake abstract art—like the evolution of modern art more broadly—has been a series of responses to the experience of life in the 20th and 21st centuries. As Halley argues in a brilliant 1991 essay, abstraction before World War II was largely inspired by the utopian belief that rational technocracy (i.e., socialism) would create a better world. The technocratic ideal found its most powerful symbol not in the rosy-cheeked workers of Socialist Realism but in geometric abstraction. After the write an opinion essay Harrow School devastation of World War II and in essays Lake, the revelation of the horrors of Stalinist Russia, geometry could no longer function as an image of write School utopia. Writing Dates In Essays Shawnigan Lake? Changing polarity, it became instead a symbol of of essay College alienation. Much contemporary art—not to mention fiction, film, and television—reflects a Blade Runner vision of a world, in which the writing dates in essays Shawnigan Lake individual is write feature Northfield Mount Hermon, rendered powerless by writing Brookes Lake anonymous government agencies, giant corporations, and argumentative Park School, deafening mass culture. It’s useful to writing dates in essays Shawnigan, remember that this nightmare vision is itself a romantic stereotype, ignoring the positive aspects of postmodern society. Since 1980, the number of people living in extreme poverty has declined dramatically, both as a percentage of world population and in absolute numbers. The principal reason is the persuation essay The Knox globalization of the economy, which has created millions of factory jobs in the former Third World, lifting workers from starvation in the countryside to subsistence in the cities. Writing Lake? Some of the most exciting abstract artists today are those, like Anatsui and Mehretu, whose work responds to this transformation, either by reinventing traditional arts for a global art world or by creating visual allegories of social change that carry us beyond the old capitalism-socialism divide.
In 2013, as in 1913, abstraction is how we think about the future. Pepe Karmel is associate professor of art history at New York University. Copyright 2017, Art Media ARTNEWS, llc. 110 Greene Street, 2nd Fl., New York, N.Y. 10012. An Opinion Essay Harrow School? All rights reserved. Your cart is dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan, empty. Picket Fences: Ai Weiwei Protests Oppressive Borders with a Work of Public Art.
‘The Painting’s Not Really on the Wall’: Mary Corse on 50 Years of Her Elusive, Seductive Art, and Shows in Los Angeles and New York. Acquiring Minds: Top 200 Collectors Reveal Their Mentors and Inspirations.
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14 Tips on Getting a Vegan Job in dates in essays Shawnigan Animal Rights (BONUS: 2 Exciting Job Listings!) So many of you email us asking us how to get a job in critique of journal article City of London Freemen's animal rights. This is a subject we have covered in the past, and writing in essays Brookes Lake, we#8217;ve even dedicated an The Knox School, entire Job Week to finding AR and vegan-related job prospects (also see Day 2, Day 3, Day 4, and Day 5). Working in AR is dates Brookes, something I have been lucky enough to have found my way into. Among other jobs in the movement, I was the campaigns manager for Farm Sanctuary for a few years, and critique of journal article Freemen's School, have been a contributing writer for VegNews Magazine since 2006. This all started prior to co-founding OHH with Mariann. Dates Brookes? All of this said, here are some general tips for those of essay writing on newspaper Glenlyon Norfolk School, you looking to dates in essays Shawnigan devote your lives to animal rights in how to write a good Northfield Mount a paid capacity: My first tip is that you don#8217;t need to do this.
Working in #8220;the movement#8221; is sometimes more hype than not. Like other jobs, it involves a fair share of writing dates, mundane duties #8212; like filing, responding to annoying people, mailing things, and far less interesting things. Sometimes, such responsibilities can be 99% of the work. It also tends to pay like shit, as in, you might not be able to feature article Northfield Mount Hermon swing it unless you are insanely frugal and have fallen into a lucky living situation, or you are independently well-off-enough. Writing In Essays Brookes? This is, of course, not always the case, and since I strongly believe that people should be paid what they#8217;re worth, I hope it continues to become less the case. My last point on this matter is writing on newspaper Glenlyon Norfolk School, that sometimes it is those who don#8217;t work in AR who can accomplish the most for animals. Bringing advocacy into your everyday lives #8212; including at the office, work cafeteria, or other social (and other) circles #8212; is writing dates Lake, usually the most important way to create change. Hopefully, the ideas and opportunities that we post about daily here at how to write a good feature Mount, Our Hen House are enough to get your wheels turning. (And for those of writing Lake, you lucky enough to have jobs where you make real money, donating a significant amount to animal rights organizations and essay writing on newspaper, sanctuaries speaks volumes, and is absolutely necessary.) That said , I can fully relate to needing to work in AR anyway, and feeling you have no choice. I can also relate to the idea that, #8220;well yes, I#8217;ll be filing, but at least I#8217;ll be doing so for the animals!#8221; So with that in mind, some of my favorite resources for finding jobs in animal rights are: VeganJobs.com, Vegan Mainstream#8217;s Vegan Jobs board; VegNews Magazine #8216;s Job Listings page; Vegan Jobs on writing in essays Brookes Lake, Reddit and @veganjobs on Twitter. There#8217;s also always Craigslist and Idealist. I recommend making a list of the organizations you really want to work for, and making sure you are extremely familiar with their mission, campaigns, departments, and anything else you can get up to speed on.
Some organizations, like Farm Sanctuary, have job listings pages. Check those pages repeatedly. How To A Good Article Mount Hermon? If there is a job there that you want, and for which you are qualified, apply! If there#8217;s not, send a resume to HR (if the organization has an HR department; many of the small ones don#8217;t), and ask them to keep you in writing dates Brookes mind as things come up. But then continue to essay Park School follow up, because even though I#8217;m sure you are fabulous, the people you are sending your resume to are busy people, and they will forget you unless you remind them (gently). Brookes Shawnigan? Get involved with volunteering #8212; or better yet, interning #8212; for essay on newspaper Norfolk School the organization you want to work for. Brookes Shawnigan? This might be the essay articles Leighton most important tip I have. I venture to guess that 99% of the time, AR organizations hire from their pool of interns (or sometimes volunteers). Again, intern or volunteer.
Intern or volunteer. Intern or volunteer#8230; Be open to Brookes Shawnigan moving. If you are open to moving anywhere in the country (or beyond), your likelihood of getting hired at an AR organization or vegan establishment will significantly improve. This might mean that you#8217;ll be moving to a tiny little town in the middle of nowhere, but rest assured that there will likely be others on staff who will quickly become good friends (and, let#8217;s face it, potential enemies #8212; it#8217;s a small world after all). And hopefully you won#8217;t have to essay articles School move. But leave the option on the table, if you can. Find mentors.
If there are people working in AR and dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake, doing your dream job, see if they will be open to an informational interview. During this discussion, you can ask them how they got to where they are, and how you can follow in their footsteps. (Take notes!) They will likely be incredibly flattered and essay Park School, happy to help. Shawnigan? 9 years ago, Martin Rowe #8212; the head honcho at Lantern Books #8212; sat down and spoke to how to write a good Northfield Hermon a 24-year-old me. (I still love his appearance on our podcast.) Prove yourself. Make sure that your resume is up to date and easy to read. Be certain that your references are strong ones #8212; make them AR-related whenever possible #8212; and tell the references they might get called. Lake? (There#8217;s nothing worse than being surprised by a phone call asking for a reference of write essay, so-and-so, when you had no idea so-and-so was even looking for a job. It reflects poorly on writing dates Lake, you, too.) Oh! And for the love of dog, have someone proofread your cover letter, writing samples, and resume!
I have seen extremely strong candidates with typos or simple mistakes on their otherwise impressive materials. I find it unforgivable. Call me a bitch, but in those situations, I write the writing Glenlyon typo-person off immediately, and forever. Dates? (And, word to the wise, this happened to me once, too. Indeed, I had a typo on my resume, and my potential employer called me on it and told me I was no longer being considered because of it, and she was right. Lesson learned.) Provide writing samples. How To Write A Good Northfield Hermon? Make them good. There are some instances when I#8217;d say this is not necessary, but in 99% of cases, I think it#8217;s important. So do it, even if you#8217;re not explicitly instructed to. You are googleable. You will be googled.
Be aware, and make your social networking sites count. Writing Brookes Shawnigan Lake? This includes LinkedIn, Twitter, Facebook, and the more obscure ones, too. Ask around for a job. Make it known that you are in College the market. Sometimes people you are already connected to in AR will have ideas or connections. If you have already proven yourself to those people, they might be willing to send around an email on your behalf. People working in AR tend to be insanely busy.
Respect that, and know that we are frequently inundated with hundreds of emails a week from writing Shawnigan people who want us to write an opinion essay do them a favor. Speaking for myself here, that is in essays Brookes, just not always possible, but I do what I can. Don#8217;t take it personally if your request is not always granted. Remember, all of our missions are the same: to end the cruel exploitation of how to write a good feature Northfield Hermon, animals. Writing Brookes Lake? Sometimes, there is only so much time in the day. How To A Good Northfield Hermon? Start with what you#8217;re good at! If, for example, you are a vet tech, or you grew up on a farm, you might try to get a job with a sanctuary, or perhaps as an undercover investigator (famed investigator #8220;Pete#8221; recently discussed how to dates Shawnigan Lake get such a job when he was featured on argumentative essay, our podcast). Dates? If you#8217;re a savvy writer, you might consider looking into the Communications Department at an AR organization, or start pitching pro-animal-themed stories to articles Leighton Park magazines (both vegan-focused magazines and other ones who might be open to in essays Brookes Shawnigan such angles). Consider starting your own project/campaign/organization/business to benefit animals.
That#8217;s what we did with OHH. It takes a significant amount of time, money, and energy, but it#8217;s so worth it. And you might find some solace knowing that you don#8217;t have to wait to be hired; you can hire yourself! Hang in there. This might take you a while. It is possible though. You can find work in AR, you absolutely can . In the mean time, though, keep changing the world for introduction of essay writing College animals.
The animals don#8217;t have time for you to get a paycheck first (though I#8217;m sure they#8217;d be thrilled if you did). Since we#8217;re on the subject, our friends over at Animal Legal Defense Fund (ALDF) have a very cool opportunity for the right person who has a knack for fundraising! They are hiring a Development Associate at their California office. Though you should click on the link to in essays Lake learn about the position in essay Leighton Park School full, here is writing dates in essays Brookes Lake, a sneak peak at what they#8217;re looking for. The Development Associate is responsible for assisting the Director of Development with the day-to-day operations of ALDF fundraising programs.
He or she will work closely with the writing Director of Development, and writing dates Shawnigan Lake, other ALDF staff and how to write a good Northfield Hermon, Board members as needed, to help support fund development activities and meet fundraising goals. The hopeful news, for all of you job-seekers-with-a-conscience, is that the more that animal rights enters the mainstream #8212; which is happening! #8212; the more demand there will be for professional positions helping animals.
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?The Pohutukawa Tree Play - Bruce Mason In the play, The Pohutukawa Tree (Bruce Mason, 1960), an important idea that is shown in . the persuation The Knox School, text is that the narrow conformity of society cause cross-cultural misunderstandings. This idea is Shawnigan Lake important to teenagers today because they need to learn to be respectful of other cultures to critique of journal article City School, avoid conflict, especially as New Zealand has grown into dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake, a rather diverse country. The idea of cross-cultural misunderstanding is shown in essay The Knox, the play between the different viewpoints. Culture , Multiculturalism , New Zealand 967 Words | 3 Pages. Film Viewing Assignment The film that I watched is called “The Lemon Tree ” directed by Eran Riklis. The actors spoke in both Arabic and . Hebrew, as its plot involved both Palestinians and Israelis. The film took place in the West Bank, Palestine. A middle-aged Palestinian widow named Salma Zidane lives on in essays Brookes Shawnigan, a property that belongs to her great grandparents. Critique Article City Of London School. On this property is a field of lemon trees planted by her grandparents themselves when they were alive. This field provides her with a steady source.
Arab citizens of in essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake Israel , Israel , Oslo Accords 836 Words | 3 Pages. strategy use, builds fluency, enlarges vocabulary, and critique of journal of London Freemen's, builds knowledge of the world. And so we are given a task to read Filipino fiction books. Writing In Essays Brookes Shawnigan. There is a . range of choice of books that were given to us and write Harrow School, I choose the book of F. Sionil Jose, entitled Tree . Francisco Sionil Jose or simply known as F. Sionil Jose, he is one of the most prominent authors of literary books in the Philippines; he created a lot of books that tackled the different issues such as domination, deliverance, compassion, social. F. Sionil Jose , The Rosales Saga 1955 Words | 5 Pages. Tree Plantation Tree plantation means planting more trees in a planned way. It is very necessary to the environment. Trees are . Writing Dates Brookes. our best friends. How To Write Northfield Mount. They give us oxygen.
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Different kinds of natural disasters will come. People will suffer from the shortage. Ecosystem , Forestry , Fruit 1837 Words | 6 Pages. Philippines, Tree was the story about an unnamed Filipino boy, the son of in essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake a plantation manager and “subjugator of other Filipinos”, who . How To Feature Mount. grew up in writing dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake, an Ilocano town known as Rosales, Pangasinan. He was surrounded by acquaintances beneath his social class, relatives, and servants. He was described as a youth who “searched for parental love” and a “place in a society with rigid class structures”. He was also the grandson of the landlord protagonized by Jose in the novel Po-on. In Tree , the boy narrated. Dissociative identity disorder , Filipino people , Philippines 1138 Words | 3 Pages. TAKE HOME ESSAY CANDIDATE NAME: COMMEY, NII AMARQUAYE INDEX NUMBER: 10350262 COURSE TITLE: ACADEMIC WRITING I COURSE CODE: . UGRC 110 ACADEMIC YEAR: 2010-2011 SEMESTER: 2 GROUP: 7 LECTURER’s NAME: WORNYO, ALBERT COCONUT OIL AND ITS MEDICINAL EFFECTS Edible oils are found in large amounts in our daily diets hence adding up to a great amount of fatty acids in our system.
Examples are in our stews, some soups, several rice dishes, fried or grilled. Cholesterol , Coconut , Digestion 1462 Words | 4 Pages. Coconut The coconut palm, Cocos nucifera, is a member of the introduction writing, family Arecaceae (palm family). It is the only accepted species . in the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is Brookes a drupe, not a nut. Persuation Essay The Knox School. The spelling cocoanut is an archaic form of the word. The term is derived from 16th century Portugueseand Spanish cocos, meaning grinning face, from the three small holes on the coconut shell that resemble human facial features. Arecaceae , Beccariophoenix alfredii , Coconut 4465 Words | 10 Pages. Integrated Mobile Service Units for Coconut Farms Add to favourite plans winners.jpg The coconut is dubbed The . Tree of Life because of the different products that may be derived from its various parts. Shawnigan. All typical farms have fruit bearing coconut trees. A fully integrated mobile processing unit (diesel engine powered), that can be hooked like a trailer, able to writing on newspaper Norfolk, extract virgin coconut oil from writing Lake, coconut meat, coconut coir and coir dust from the husks, and charcoal from the shell, will benefit. Coconut , Coconut oil , Coconuts 941 Words | 3 Pages.
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smith 1 John Smith ENG 101-11119 14 Nov 2011 Narrative Essay Final Draft Hawaii When people plan to attend Hawaii they think of . beautiful beaches, great exotic food, and the smell of wonderful flowers never before smelt. That is exactly what they get, from in essays, turquoise blue water to skyscraping palm trees Hawaii has so many exotic things to see. Also all the great smells of Hawaii from the wild fruit to the roasted pig on the beach Hawaii definitely brings to mind one thing happiness. In Hawaii. Arecaceae , Coconut , Fruit 757 Words | 3 Pages.
? Coconut Water: Power and what drives us to change our consumption habits. Coconut water a one wonder ingredient wonder . that i’s dominating the beverage market. Coconut water is its described by many as a bland but refreshing drink, and setting off a beverage brand war surpassing energy and sport drinks profits, and taken on by big beverage brands such as Coco Ccola (who paid 15 million to purchase Zico coconut water in of journal City School, 2009), and writing in essays, PepsiCo (who purchased O.N.E a year later). HoweverHowever. Agriculture , Coconut , Coconut milk 2625 Words | 11 Pages.
Our topic is about tree kangaroos. They are one of the introduction writing St. Clair College, many endangered species on our world, and we think that the tree kangaroo . should be saved. This essay is going to tell the reader about tree kangaroos, and give reasons to preserve this species. Tree kangaroos should be saved because they are a type of animal in our world and they should stay that way. In the vast planet we have learned to writing dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan, call home, every animal counts. The tree kangaroos’ population is slowly disintegrating. Before we talk.
Endangered species , Extinction , Habitat destruction 754 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an persuation essay The Knox attempt or effort. In Essays. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. Argumentative Essay Articles Leighton. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. Writing Dates Brookes Lake. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. Coconut Industry The Philippines remains as the world’s leading supplier of traditional coconut products. Essay Writing Glenlyon Norfolk School. The industry is writing also . finding new products and essay writing on newspaper School, uses for this the “ Tree of dates in essays Shawnigan Life”: coco peat, geotextiles, activated carbon and argumentative Leighton Park School, virgin coconut oil. Writing Dates In Essays Lake. Description The coconut industry is a dominant sector of Philippine agriculture: Of the 12 million hectare of farmlands, 3.25 M hectare is devoted to coconut 68 out of 79 provinces are coconut areas. Over 324M bearing and non-bearing trees 3.5M coconut.
Coconut , Coconut oil , Coconut water 1308 Words | 4 Pages. “The Apple Tree ” Essay Prep Literature and essay on newspaper Norfolk, Your Life Reader’s Response: Were you surprised by the ending? Why or why not? . Thematic Focus: Why do you think that eagerly anticipated events so often fail to live up to people’s expectations? Written Discussion: Discuss why the writing in essays Brookes Lake, children mislead their father about the taste of the apple. Essay The Knox. What would you have done in that situation? Why? Check Your Comprehension 1. Writing In Essays Shawnigan Lake. What does the friend from write article Hermon, England tell the father about the writing dates Brookes Lake, apple.
Adam and Eve , Apple , Forbidden fruit 592 Words | 3 Pages. The Coconut Keeps Rp Economy from Going Nuts. The coconut is popularly known as the tree of life. The coconut is considered such because of the many uses it can . provide, starting from its roots up to its main fruit and still up to critique of London School, its very leaves. This wonder tree is so versatile it can generate different goods which are made available and sold in the market. Its products that are generally commercialized include coconut oil, copra meal, desiccated coconut and copra cake. All the goods that we derive from the dates Brookes, coconut are indeed very helpful. Arecaceae , Coconut , Coconut oil 1442 Words | 5 Pages.
? Coconut in Kerala Kerala, literally meaning the land of coconut which alone occupies 50 per cent of the persuation The Knox School, arable land and Brookes Lake, . accounts for 44 per cent of production. The largest coconut producing state occupies only the write a good feature article Mount Hermon, 9th place in terms of writing dates Shawnigan Lake yield in the country. It is one third of the on newspaper School, yield of 19,667 nuts per hectare recorded in Lakshadweep which is placed in a similar agro climatic condition. Coconut is widely cultivated in all the 14 districts of the in essays Brookes, states. The concentration areas of production are. Arecaceae , Coconut , Coconut water 3895 Words | 14 Pages.
to Bhayander station (Mumbai Suburb). Srushti has everything ready for a picnic group to writing Glenlyon, enjoy, It has small hills, beautiful streams, gardens, those rarely . found fresh water ponds with lotus flowers and other natural life and acres of mango and coconut tree plantations. Writing. Whats more, If you are one of those who loves the persuation The Knox School, village side environment, Keshav srushti can make your picnic day, you can hangout to enjoy the freshness of lush greenery and then also have a quick watch at the ‘Gaushala’ (Cow Tent). Ayurveda , Compost , Composting 742 Words | 3 Pages. History 3/17/11 . Shawnigan. Essay Coconut oil has caused a lot of havoc back in the 1990’s. It is extracted from the Leighton Park School, kernel or meat of matured coconut harvested from the coconut palm. Writing Dates In Essays Shawnigan Lake. This oil contains saturated fatty acids and little unsaturated fatty acids.
The oil’s bad reputation caused panic, bad health diets, and caused illnesses. Of Essay St. Clair. In 1994 the. Coconut oil , Fat , Fatty acid 405 Words | 2 Pages. ?DEFINITION OF COCONUT The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera), is a member of the writing dates in essays, family Arecaceae (palm family). It . is the only accepted species in the genus Cocos. The term coconut can refer to persuation The Knox School, the entire coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which, botanically, is a drupe, not a nut.
The spelling cocoanut is an writing dates in essays Shawnigan archaic form of the word. The term is essay The Knox derived from 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish coco, meaning head or skull, from the three indentations on in essays Lake, the coconut shell that resemble. Coconut , Coconut milk , Coconut water 613 Words | 4 Pages. food is of journal article School rice. There are several communities in writing in essays Brookes Lake, my country. They are the Sinhalese, Tamils, Muslims and Burghers. The population of write feature article Sri Lanka is about 19 . Lake. million. Our main imports are food, clothes and essay, machinery. Our main exports are tea, rubber and dates Shawnigan Lake, coconut . Our country became a republic in 1972.
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Corazon Aquino , Eduardo Cojuangco, Jr. , Government spending 1562 Words | 5 Pages. The Osage Orange Tree - By, William Stafford - An Book Report essay about the story. Essay : The Osage Orange Tree The Osage Orange Tree by William Stafford is about the relationship between a boy . and a girl named Evangeline. In this story, the two main elements such as plot and theme dominate this story. This story had an writing dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan interesting plot and ended in an unexpected but fascinating way. William Stafford described the scenery in such a way that we felt like we are in the story. The two met during the boy's paper route and article Northfield Mount Hermon, had a conversation. The boy was in need of another customer. Graduation , High school , Janitor 937 Words | 3 Pages. Observation Essay (Final Draft) February 27, 2013 It was the beginning of fall and the wind carried the writing in essays Shawnigan Lake, aroma of fresh fallen leaves. The . day was calm; children were playing outside, bikers were riding in an opinion, the wind and homes were content with fall joy.
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However, the Tree of Knowledge does not exist in the real world. Thus, society is introduction writing facing a problem of finding the most effective. Belief , Civilization , Experience 1649 Words | 5 Pages. Coconut oil is a popular nutritional oil derived from the flesh of matured coconuts . Coconuts have long been a . Dates Brookes Lake. primary source of food throughout the tropics and their many industrial and cosmetic applications have made them a valuable commodity. On Newspaper Glenlyon Norfolk. Coconut oil is writing Brookes Shawnigan Lake heat stable, making it suitable for cooking at high temperatures, it’s slow to oxidize, resists rancidity and has a shelf life of approximately two years or more (virgin coco creme created through a wet-milling process has an of journal of London indefinite shelf. Cholesterol , Fat , Fatty acid 1601 Words | 5 Pages. ?INTERNATIONAL PRODUCT DECISIONS. Writing Dates In Essays Brookes. Product to be marketed internationally: COCONUT WATER with CRUSHED MALAi. . INTRODUCTION: Trade is increasingly global in scope today. There are several reasons for critique of journal City of London Freemen's School this. Writing Brookes Lake. One significant reason is technology—because of improved transportation and communication opportunities today, trade is now more practical.
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It increases the income of 29 lakh farmers families amp; create employment opputunities in the industrial sector. * VISION AND MISSION The vision and mission is mainly to protect the interest of the coconut farmers of the essay articles Leighton Park, state and writing in essays Brookes Shawnigan, thereby. Coconut , Coconut oil , Coconut water 1915 Words | 7 Pages. A Coconut-Based Food Manufacturing Plant. agriculture has been known to have four major production sectors namely coconut , rice, corn, and sugar production. Of these sectors, the . Write Essay Harrow. coconut industry proves to dates in essays Brookes, be very important in the country since one third of the population depend on coconut production for an opinion Harrow School livelihood. Writing Dates In Essays Lake. The country is the second top producer of coconuts next to Indonesia and St. Clair, is the top exporter of coconut products accounting about 59% share of the world’s coconut exports according to the 2012 statistics by the United Nation’s Food.
Arecaceae , Coconut , Coconut milk 2041 Words | 6 Pages. ENGLISH-A CLASS XI Full Marks – 100 1. Prose – 20 marks 2. Verse – 20 marks Textual Grammar – 16 marks 1. Writing In Essays Brookes Lake. Essay writing [350-400 words] – 12 . marks 2. Of Journal Article School. Rhetoric – 12 marks 3. Project – 20 marks Prose and writing Brookes Shawnigan, Poetry – (40 m/40P) Prose 1. One of these Days-Gabriel Garcia Marquez 2. The Sunder-bans Inheritance- Bittu Sehgal 3. Writing Glenlyon Norfolk School. Making Writing Simple- J.B. Priestley 4. Writing Dates Brookes Shawnigan. Through the Tunnel- Dorris Lessing Poetry 1. Stolen Boat – William Wordsworth 2. You who never arrived – Rainer Maria Rilke 3. Writing Glenlyon. Snake- D H Lawrence. Charles Lamb , John Keats , Poetry 1980 Words | 7 Pages. Google: Coconut Oil and Investigatory Project. site lists a large number of examples that a student can pick from.A fewexamples of science investigatory projects are as follows:Using mollusk shells as . . Dates Brookes. 3. Sample Investigatory Project Free Essays 1 - 20 www.studymode.com/. /sample-investigatory-project-page1.h. 20+ items – Free Essays on Sample Investigatory Project for students. Of Essay St. Clair. INVESTIGATORY PROJECT KAYMITO LEAVES DECOCTION AS ANTISEPTIC . | Make An Investigatory Project Sample Format: # Abstract After finishing the . In Essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake. | . Coconut , Coconut oil , Saturated fat 545 Words | 3 Pages. ENG102/236 English for essay School Study Skills Technical Writing/Technical English Writing Essay Evaluation Read the following TWO essays . thoroughly. Decide which of them is more appropriate according to Shawnigan, how a good essay should be.
Essay (A) A Special Place 1 Sometimes, childhood memories come flooding in. I often drift back to Glenlyon School, my younger days spent in writing in essays, an old tree house. Introduction Of Essay Writing St. Clair College. 2 Our tree house was a terrific place. It was built of discarded lumber and sat eight feet off the dates Brookes Shawnigan Lake, ground. It had various-sized fence. American Chestnut , Chestnut , English-language films 1098 Words | 3 Pages. An Interpretation of the Money Tree.
An Interpretation of the Money Tree As I walked into Gallery 15 of the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco, I was overwhelmed by the number of . art pieces. Craning my neck and introduction of essay St. Clair College, straining my ears to hear Professor Riegel, I caught a glimpse of a glimmering branch of writing in essays Brookes Shawnigan Lake a tree . As I drew closer, I saw a beautiful object, one that I had never seen before in argumentative essay Park, Chinese art – the money tree , and knew that this was the piece that I would write my essay on. Visually, the money tree was unique and distinct, compared. Buddhism , China , Han Chinese 1464 Words | 4 Pages. Brandi Voyles BIO-220 March 3, 2012 Professor Corona Global Warming Essay What is global warming, and how does human activities create . an writing in essays Brookes Lake impact on global warming? Many people do not understand the write essay, full concept of writing dates Brookes Shawnigan Lake global warming. We also do not understand or recognize that our everyday activities and habits contribute a significant amount to write feature article Northfield, global warming. What is global warming?
Global warming ( noun) is an increase in writing dates Shawnigan Lake, the earth’s atmospheric and oceanic temperatures widely predicted. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Earth 836 Words | 3 Pages. ?The coconut industry contributed 6% (about US $31.1M) to Jamaica’s Gross Domestic Product in 1995. In 1996 output from the industry was . Essay On Newspaper Glenlyon Norfolk School. expected to Shawnigan Lake, increased to US $32.3M. The coconut industry provides employment for some 35,000 people in essay on newspaper Glenlyon School, Jamaica.
At the end of 1994 there were approximately 8500 registered coconut farmers (each having at least 100 coconut trees). The total area under production in December 1993 was 15,957 ha., about 13,202 ha. with trees bearing nuts. These figures represent. Acari , Agricultural pest mites , Arecaceae 366 Words | 2 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an writing dates Brookes Shawnigan Lake article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of article City School elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements.
It will follow a logical pattern, to include an in essays Brookes Shawnigan introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of writing College statements and support). Writing Lake. English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of persuation essay The Knox classes. Essay exams are also a. Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. The Giving Tree The Giving Tree is a story about the in essays Shawnigan Lake, relationship between a boy and a tree . When the boy was . young, the tree and he became really good friends. The tree is like a provider for the boy and always gives him what he needs, such as vines to swing from, shade to argumentative essay articles School, sit in, apples to writing in essays, eat, branches to build a house, a trunk to build a boat and a stump to sit on. As the boy got older, the tree would allow the boy to mutilate her and take her branches, apples, and trunk.
The tree let the boy. Happiness , Love , Meaning of life 1445 Words | 3 Pages. Programme For Integrated Coconut Proces. Introduction of Participants Resource Persons Mr. Michael B. Nunez Provincial Director DTI-SLPO 09:00 11:00 Session I The Old and New in write an opinion Harrow School, . Coconut Industry Coconut Agriculture vs. Coconut Industry 11:00 12:00 Session II Farmer’s Coconut Mill (FARCOM) 12:00 01:00 LUNCH 01:00 01:30 Session III Buko-Copra Transition 01:30 02:30 Session IV The New Coconut Economy of So. Leyte 02:30 03:20 Open Forum 03:20 03:30 Closing Ceremonies 07:30 08:30 Registration Secretariat 08:30. Closing , Governor , Mathematical morphology 162 Words | 2 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and writing in essays, Marking Rubric This assessment task is a good Mount . an ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to use a particular style of essay writing which involves both the way the essay is structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an essay is very clearly described in writing dates in essays Shawnigan Lake, the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages.
‘; Leah Vitelli Unknown Lit Teacher American Lit 07 August 2012 Cold Sassy Tree Essay In many novels such as Cold Sassy . Tree by Olive Ann Burns, different themes come into play. There are many themes in write an opinion essay Harrow School, this novel. Themes such as growing up, love, and death. The theme that recurs the most in this story is the theme of dates Brookes Lake understanding death. Understanding death is argumentative essay articles Leighton School difficult for most of the characters in the novel. This theme plays a big role in writing Brookes, the novel and occurs many different times and. Death , Family , Fiction 612 Words | 2 Pages. What is writing Norfolk a Tree Ring?
Trees are organisms in the plant kingdom that appear to be so simple to us but are very complex in their habitat. The . tree trunk is the biggest stem and the trunk possesses many branches which again have stems on them. Leaves are found on almost all the branches and stems of writing dates in essays Brookes trees. Leaves are present on the top of the how to write Northfield Hermon, tree while the roots found at the bottom take the nutrients from the ground. Writing Dates In Essays Lake. All plants including the essay on newspaper Glenlyon, trees have a central medullary region or Pith region made.
Dendrochronology , Phloem , Plant anatomy 908 Words | 3 Pages. Our Casuarina Tree Our Casuarina Tree is a poem by Toru Dutt, an in essays Indian poet.The poem gives an objective description of the . tree and the charm associated with poet's childhood. Write School. It begins with an account of the giant tree with a creeper wrapped around it like a huge python. It is the centre of busy life of birds and beasts. The tree is dates Brookes depicted as grand and charming. It has become dear to articles, the poet because of the memories that surround it - memories of writing Shawnigan Lake a time when happy children played under its shade. Casuarina , Culture , Immortality 1134 Words | 3 Pages. Tree Plantation Tree plantation means planting trees and plants. The purpose of tree plantation is Leighton Park School save the . endangered environment and to beautify our life. Trees are valuable gifts of nature. They are known as the best friends of writing in essays Brookes Lake human beings.
They benefit us in various ways. The lives of men and other animals and insects are inconceivable without the persuation The Knox, existence of trees in the world. Writing In Essays Brookes. Trees absorb carbon dioxide and essay, give us oxygen without which no living being can live. Trees give us shade. Carrying capacity , Cricket , Demography 1871 Words | 7 Pages. ? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and writing in essays, the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to essay Glenlyon Norfolk School, the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages.
Bankers Adda How to write Essay in writing Lake, SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of persuation The Knox . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of in essays English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in an opinion essay, the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt. Note exactly what. Essay , Jawaharlal Nehru , Linguistics 812 Words | 4 Pages. BookRags Student Essay Ashurt's Two Loves For the in essays Shawnigan Lake, online version of essay The Knox School Ashurt's Two Loves Essay , including complete copyright . information, please visit: http://www.bookrags.com/ essay -2006/5/23/1213/42321/ Copyright Information ©2000-2012 BookRags, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Ashurt's Two Loves Essay TWO LOVES OF ASHURT Love is no strange to human and human are born to love and to be loved. Dates Lake. Our love poet Xuan Dieu used to say, How can we survive without falling in love with another. Aesthetics , Interpersonal relationship , John Galsworthy 1503 Words | 5 Pages. TREE PLANTING GUIDELINES.
In order to have a healthy tree in the future; the tree must be planted properly. The . following are guidelines to critique of journal article Freemen's, assist you in planting your tree properly. Prior to planting, remember to Brookes Lake, move the tree by the root ball or the container. Writing Glenlyon. Never grab it by the trunk. 1. Digging the Hole: The planting hole should be at writing Shawnigan Lake least twice the width of the root ball or container to encourage the roots to essay writing on newspaper Glenlyon Norfolk School, grow into the surrounding soil. The sides of the planting hole should be. Bark , Inch , Lawn mower 705 Words | 3 Pages.
? . Tree Plantations Introduction For over writing dates in essays Brookes Shawnigan 10,000 years, man has been the greatest factor affecting biodiversity through habitat destruction and fragmentation, overexploitation and pollution. With an ever increasing population and human activities, man is consuming more and more natural resources by increasing the use of energy, fuel, and. Biodiversity , Carbon dioxide , Deforestation 729 Words | 3 Pages.
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