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? Leadership Essay 2 Leadership 06/03/2012 Academic Year 2013/2014 Semester: Fall I hereby . certify that I am the author this paper and all sources I used have been reported. Essay Cologne Business School? ------- ---------------- Signature © Kozminski University 2013 Between the three styles of write for essay CATS College Canterbury, leadership , it’s the essay Cologne democratic style that comes easier for me. Because I’m a very open minded person and I like to listen to everyone ideas in a working project, in order to pick in each ideas the best. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 753 Words | 3 Pages. made” When referring to leadership , the most influential figures come immediately in minds, like for examples Martin Luther King, Hitler . or Mother Theresa. In business, leadership is often associated with the concept of management. The question here is, are people born with the makings that make them leaders, or do people acquire these makings once they have been placed into a leadership position?

Are leaders born, not made? In this essay , a definition of persuation Leighton School, leadership and management would be appropriate. Big Five personality traits , Fiedler contingency model , Leadership 817 Words | 3 Pages. Mr. Call Eng 111 D42 September 20, 2013 Leadership in History Throughout history there have been countless inspiring leaders due to acts . of essay Cologne, courage, and pure bravery. In this essay I will discuss the argumentatif Westminster School traits and qualities and of some of my favorite documents written by some of essay Cologne Business, these regarded leaders in history. Such as, Dr. Martin Luther King Junior’s Letter from what about a Birmingham Jail, Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, and Chief Seattle’s 1854 Speech. Martin Luther King Jr. was born on January. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Civil disobedience 931 Words | 3 Pages.

? “We Were Soldiers” Leadership Essay Throughout the novel “We were soldiers”, it shows exactly what combat . leadership is all about. I believe that there are many NCO’s and argument essay Cologne School Officers but fewer True combat leaders. The effectiveness of argumentatif essay School, leadership throughout the Battle of Business School, IA Drang is remarkable and inspirational. Its shows how a strong leader is important when dealing with hard choices, adversity, diversity and being in a position where people’s lives are in stakes of your decisions. My favorite quote. Army , Battalion , Battle of what a essay Cologne School, Ia Drang 1858 Words | 7 Pages. we have overcome tremendous and various obstacles that have led to defining moments as well as benchmarking what true leadership is and what . unity can achieve. In defining unity in the Army history we generally tend to argument essay, think of cohesion as a mutual alliances among several of to a International, Americans serving for a common purpose and as so, all due credit is due.

Yet when defining leadership in history we tend to essay Cologne Business School, take a more individualized point of reference, focusing on key leaders and achievers of essay Westminster, great feats. Continental Army , Fidel Castro , LDRSHIP 1318 Words | 4 Pages. Leadership is the ability to get people to willingly follow you. Argument Essay Cologne School? The measure of leadership is how to write essay CATS Canterbury, not in the quality of the head but . the argument essay Cologne tone of the body. Persuation School? The signs of outstanding leadership appear primarily among their followers. (Publishers amp; Perry, 2009) This depends of course on Cologne School, whom they are leading and what their goals are. A business leader may need to do different things and have different goals then in the military or on a sports team, where you have someone who is leading men into “battle”. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 1132 Words | 3 Pages. Grand Canyon University: LDR-800 October 23, 2013 Dr.

Casey Reason Comparison Matrix Article 1 Article 2 Title/Author(s) Managing Diversity and . Enhancing Team Outcomes: The promise of Transformational Leadership Kearney Gebert Title/Author(s) Embracing Transformational Leadership : Team Values and the Impact of what Business School, Leader Behavior on Team Performance Persistent GCU Library Permalink: http://library.gcu.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=pdhAN=2009-00697-020site=eds-livescope=site . Leadership , Psychology , Sociology 1123 Words | 4 Pages. The term ‘ leadership ’ has no definition, for it is defined different ways in Business the minds of people. How To Write Conclusion For Essay Canterbury? A leader will ingrain a sense of positivity . and necessity towards the set goal using the power of written and spoken word. The qualities of a leader differentiate between between each society. At the argument essay Business School height of its power (16th-17th century), the Ottoman Empire spanned three continents long. The Ottoman Empire controlled Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa. It contained twenty-nine provinces. African National Congress , Istanbul , Leadership 932 Words | 3 Pages. ? LEADERSHIP Bill Gates once said, “As we looked into the next century, leaders will be those who empower others”. This quite sufficiently . describes what is, in my opinion, the conclusion for essay College new leadership . The way to Cologne Business, describe how the exam essay of South Australia (Navitas) old leadership differs from the new leadership can be summed up in one word: sustainable.

Compared to argument Cologne Business, the old leadership with a very rigid, tip down approach, the new leadership style is more sustainable and holistic, with power flow in all directions and flexible way of carrying. Externality , Fiedler contingency model , Leadership 1050 Words | 4 Pages. Leadership Research Essay Leadership Research Essay Introduction . Leadership is a process of influencing activities of essay Park School, a particular group of people with the argument essay Business aim of attaining certain stipulated goals. In defining leadership there is need to consider a particular group, the common goals and how to write reflection Canterbury the duties that are allocated to argument Cologne Business, specific members of the group depending on their abilities (Fiedler 1976). Exam Essay Tips Of South? Leadership therefore cannot successfully occur unless members of the group are given. Fiedler contingency model , Fred Fiedler , Kurt Lewin 1797 Words | 5 Pages. Leadership and Systematic Change Essay. Leadership and Business Systematic Change Essay Stephanie Boxler Grand Canyon University EDA-575 April 24, 2013 . Leadership and essay writing The University Systematic Change An article about leadership by Forbes magazine sums it up best by saying that leadership is simply “someone who has followers” (Frobes.com, 2013). The school subject is Innovations International Charter School of argument essay School, Nevada (IICSN), and in persuation essay this facility there is only one administrator.

This administrator will be referred to as Dr.M throughout this. Education , Grammar school , High school 1553 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on Leadership and Management. The terms leadership and management are often used interchangeably. While some writers argue that there is argument Business, a clear distinction between . leadership and management, others argue that leadership is simply a function of management.

Which view do you feel is the most relevant in the context of your industry and why? According to Ricketts (2009) in today’s world effective leadership and management is to a persuasive International College of Management, essential in order to archive success. Terms of leadership and management are being seen as synonyms. Fiedler contingency model , Leader , Leadership 1356 Words | 4 Pages. ?Reflective Essay on Toy Box Leadership (Book by argument Cologne School Ron Hunter Jr. Michael Waddell) This essay will present my . views about the reflection Canterbury leadership lessons discussed in the book I recently read entitled Toy Box Leadership written by Ron Hunter Jr. and Michael Waddell (2008) as part of my learning reflection on argument School, the essential socio-cultural and personal competencies discussed in the unit CPD1102. The authors used the toys that we as kids love way back to explain leadership principles that are reflected. Creativity , Leadership , Lego 1217 Words | 4 Pages. Business Essentials LEADERSHIP PAPER 1. Reflect from argumentatif essay School your own personal experiences concerning leadership . 2. Use . Microsoft Word and argument Business type a one-page essay about essay The University your experiences regarding leadership . 3. Use the following formatting for your essay : a. Font size - 12 b. Font size – Calibri c. Essay Cologne Business School? Normal 1” margins. d. Double-spaced 4. For the essay first part of this essay , discuss someone that you have worked with/under (a teacher, a manager on a.

Coaching , Fiedler contingency model , Leadership 276 Words | 2 Pages. LEADERSHIP ESSAY By Redemptor Benedict What Does Leadership Mean? What does it mean to essay Cologne Business School, be a leader? Is it the . title….President, Chairman, General etc? To me, it’s more than that. Titles are important…no doubt about that, but they don’t have much value when it comes to leading. How To For Essay CATS? True leadership cannot be awarded, appointed or assigned. Leadership is not primarily a formal position. Argument Business? There have been great leaders who did not hold high positions—for example, Martin Luther King, Jr.

It comes only. Fiedler contingency model , Leadership , Management 1031 Words | 2 Pages. writng assignmnt? goin to wbu? i wrote intro du hav tat intro in yur pc? yea send me i maild u chck okk Today u finished english? . Writing Australia (Navitas)? nop u? no btw we need 15 pages of d content i strted writing shal v ri8 both d essays ? 15:37 wot if tere is repetation so wt to argument Business School, do? btttr lest srch onceagain n f v get a big one lets write o wen wil we complete?? o ls v shale elongate our handwritting tat v can complete hey i cnt do dat ohooo. Indian actors , Indian film actors , International Friendship Day 465 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on the meaning of leadership and good leadership qualties. Leadership Essay . The meaning of leadership varies amongst people. Leadership can be defined by . many different but similar meanings. Based on reading Chapter One of ' Leadership in Leisure Services: Making a Difference (2nd Ed)', by Debra Jordan, Leadership to me is a constant changing process of interactions and situations between members of a group consisting of how to write CATS, two or more people. Essay? Leadership also consists of a common recognition and what about School understanding of leader-follower roles between all its. Kurt Lewin , Leadership , Leo Tolstoy 520 Words | 4 Pages.

? Effective Leadership Essay Capella University BUS 3050-04 Fundamentals of Organizational Communication . Essay Cologne Business? My person of choice of an individual whom I consider to be an effective leader is of South Australia, Mr. X. I was hired by argument Cologne Business Mr. X to persuation essay Park School, work as a sales retail clerk at XXX when I was fifteen years old. He was the store manager at that time, and I learned how to School, be a leader with his guidance. Growing up without a father, Mr. X filled the place of my father and taught me what it. Communication , Competence , Ethical leadership 900 Words | 5 Pages. Statement: Leadership is an action and not a position Are you an CATS College aspiring leader?

Do you want to be a part of argument School, it? Are you willing to argumentatif Westminster, be a . role model? Good communicator? And be a servant leader? This essay is argument, all about CATS College Canterbury Leadership . According to Wikipedia and dictionary, Leadership is argument essay School, defined as a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of what to write a essay School, others in the accomplishment of a common task. The purpose of argument Business, this essay is to explain further that, Leadership is an action. Fiedler contingency model , Hero , Leadership 1227 Words | 3 Pages. Leadership has been an integral virtue of an individual to be successful and effective in business, politics, sports or the military. It is . stated by Howard (2005) that leadership can be regarded as an ability of an individual to influence a group of to write a essay about Business School, people to respond to argument essay Cologne Business School, organisational goals and as a means to how to write conclusion College, enhance others’ performance by essay Cologne Business School forming operative groups, motivating and giving a right direction to argumentatif essay Westminster School, them. Cologne Business? It means that, as far as a business is concerned, achieving an organisational objective.

Abolitionism , Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War 1081 Words | 3 Pages. Hindi Nationalism This piece on Hindu nationalism, written by Alok Rai, deals with the coming of modern Hindi in the late 90s . and the early 20s. Alok Rai who is also known as a critical thinker, theorist and also the grandson of Premchand makes his readers aware of the process of modernization in the case of language. In this essay we get to witness a connection between Hindi (old Hindi ) and “ Hindi ” (new Hindi ). Making of Hindi as a modern language connects to the programme of the imagining the. Braj Bhasha , Hindi , Hindi languages 1413 Words | 4 Pages. Leading Others (MM1051) Semester 2, 2014-2015 Individual Assignment – “ Leadership Development Essay ” Name: Shirley Chau Student . Argumentatif Westminster School? ID: 14125221D Tutorial class:TUT007 Introduction It’s generally accepted that effective leadership skill is argument, seen as a more and more indispensable qualification at essay Westminster workplace.

Leadership development is essay, vital because organizations take on the personality of their leaders. Under an effective leadership , the to a essay International of Management (ICMS) company can maximize productivity, shape a positive culture and promote. Emotion , Emotional intelligence , Empathy 978 Words | 4 Pages. ELECTIVE COURSE FOR PGDM-WM Leadership and Managerial Effectiveness Dr Asha Bhandarker email abhandarker@imi.edu About the course: . High performing and Competitive organizations need leaders with a whole host of essay, competencies. A Essay School? At the argument essay Cologne self level there is a need for capabilities like Managing Self , Emotional Intelligence, Drive and execution ability, and Creative and Strategic Thinking; at exam essay tips Australia (Navitas) the group level managing high performing Teams and Capacity to Influence and Mobilize people. Leader , Leadership , Management 1137 Words | 7 Pages. Leadership This essay will analyze the topic of transformational leadership . The development of the . transformational leadership theory will be illustrated in argument Cologne the beginning. Then, it will put emphasis on write for essay CATS, what kinds of behaviors good transformational leaders should have, and how they motivate their followers. At last, it is worth talking about the argument Cologne issue that why might someone resist following a transformational leader. What To Write A Essay Business School? This essay will demonstrate and clarify the discussion of transformational leadership. Fiedler contingency model , Leader , Leadership 1721 Words | 6 Pages.

26/6/2013 Essay on “Advantage and Disadvantage of Telephone” in Hindi Essay on “Advantage and Disadvantage of . Argument Essay School? Telephone” in Hindi by Nilakshi Read this Essay on “Benefit and Loss of Telephone” in what a essay Business Hindi language. www.shareyouressays.com/113818/ essay -on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 1/6 6/27/13 Essay on “Advantage and Disadvantage of argument essay Cologne Business, Telephone” in Hindi www.shareyouressays.com/113818/ essay -on-advantage-and-disadvantage-of-telephone-in- hindi 2/6 6/27/13 . 6th Marine Regiment , All rights reserved , Bihar 342 Words | 3 Pages. piece of a puzzle on its own is meaningless. But when all the pieces come together, a picture takes shape, and how to write reflection essay CATS Canterbury the puzzle makes sense. The same is true in . studying leadership . If you try to learn leadership by only looking at a single theory or approach, you only get one piece of the overall picture. That's why Practicing Leadership , Third Edition features contributions from a variety of disciplines, including psychology, management, communications, military science, the argument Cologne Business School quality movement, political. Bankruptcy in the United States , Intelligence , Leadership 632 Words | 4 Pages. Running head: LEADERSHIP THEORIES AND STYLES Leadership Theories and Styles Shameka L. Evans Indiana . Essay Writing The University Australia (Navitas)? Wesleyan University Abstract Since the servant leadership concept was introduced by Robert K. Greenleaf in 1970, this style has been adopted by many successful leaders in argument essay Cologne Business a variety of contexts. Is servant leadership style right for you? This paper helps to answer that question for many leaders who may be interested in serving others first or in serving rather than being served. Fred Fiedler , Leadership , Management 907 Words | 3 Pages. a counter argument.

What are the essay writing tips The University of South (Navitas) criticisms and arguments against Transformational Leadership ? Identify the sources and clearly articulate the . reasoning behind the criticisms. Essay Cologne Business School? Adopt a position for or against Transformational Leadership and defend your position with argument Introduction This essay is based on the Transformational leadership theory and Leighton Park School will be referred to as TL throughout this essay . This essay will look into criticisms and arguments against the theory and analyse the reasoning. Charismatic authority , Fiedler contingency model , Leader 2050 Words | 6 Pages. What is the Difference Between Leadership and Management? The discussion between the differences of leadership and . management has fuelled an ongoing heated debate. In acknowledging the vast differences between leadership and argument Cologne Business School management, the aim of this essay is thus to illustrate these differences whilst displaying that they overlap. I will also explore the effects of their functions on Park School, organizations and explain that a combination of elements from both leadership and management is the most productive. Control , Difference , Henri Fayol 1204 Words | 5 Pages. “ Leadership cannot be taught or learned” (Drucker, 1955). Cologne Business? Critically evaluate this statement. . Peter Drucker as one of the best known writers and management consultants wrote that “ Leadership is of utmost importance.

Indeed there is no substitute for it. Essay Leighton School? But leadership cannot be created or promoted. It cannot be taught or learned.” (Drucker, 1955) He held the view that leadership is a talent. The purpose of Cologne Business School, this essay is to. Fiedler contingency model , Fred Fiedler , Leadership 1561 Words | 5 Pages.

Leadership in Nursing. Definitions, Theories, and Styles of Cologne Business, Leadership Developing future nurse leaders is one of the greatest . challenges faced by the nursing profession (Mahoney, 2001). Cologne Business School? Powerful leadership skills are needed by all nurses—those providing direct care to argumentatif essay Westminster, those in top management positions. Anyone who is looked to as an authority (e.g., a nurse taking care of argument Business, a patient) or who is essay Leighton, responsible for giving assistance to argument Business, others is considered a leader (Mahoney, 2001). A clinical nursing. Decision making , Health care , Leadership 1123 Words | 4 Pages. Leadership and Management: a Comparative Essay. debate on the similarities and differences between management and leadership . Weathersby (1999) argued that management is the allocation of what to write about Cologne, . scarce resources against an organization's objective, the setting of priorities, the design of essay Cologne, work and the achievement of results whereas leadership focuses on the creation of a common vision.

Schruijer and Vansina (1999) proposed that management is about doing things right and leadership is doing the right things. Both studies appear to argumentatif essay Westminster School, view the management. Leadership , Management , Morality 711 Words | 3 Pages. ?Transformational Leadership : can achieve the essay School goal and develop the organization. Introduction Transformational leadership . theory is one of the most important and widely accepted theories though it has some criticisms and how to for essay arguments against it. Cologne School? James MacGregor Burns (1978) gave this new example of leadership ; he stated leadership is either transactional or transformational (Bass and Riggio, 2006, p.3). Introduction? The leaders who stimulate and motivate followers to achieve the goal and develop their leadership quality. Charisma , Charismatic authority , Leadership 2230 Words | 7 Pages.

What is Leadership ? It means influencing, motivating and essay School enabling other employees to contribute their best towards the effectiveness and . Exam Writing Tips Of South Australia? success of the organization. It’s not only motivating and influencing individual but the argument Cologne Business goals can only be attained by essay Westminster School mutual cooperation and cohesive behavior. This essay will throw some light on Mr. Sunil Bharti Mittal. He is the Chairman and essay Business School CEO of Bharti enterprises. A Bharti Enterprises is one of the India’s leading business groups like telecom, financial. Bharti Airtel , Leadership , Ludhiana 1796 Words | 4 Pages. focuses on essay Park School, the Art of Leadership . In particular, this essay begins by summarizing various approaches to leadership . and other key features and characteristics of effective leaders. The remainder of the essay Cologne Business paper considers which characteristics or approaches to leadership I should adopt in the future and persuation essay Park why. Essay School? Additionally, I discuss my career plans and the steps that I must take in order to Cologne School, achieve my goals.

The Current Environment of the Art of Leadership A leadership approach is a “coherent. Leader , Leadership , Management 897 Words | 3 Pages. An Essay on the paper titled:Transformational Leadership in essay Cologne Business School the Saudi Arabian Cultural Context: Prospects and Challenges by Dr. . Sami A. Khan and Dr. Deepanjana Varshney the writers started their research by stating thatLeadership became the key issue in every organization and in order to write College Canterbury, meet the changing demands of the businesses,organizations have to essay Cologne Business School, adopt transformational leader who can in?uence others to achieve greater goals. Exam Writing Tips (Navitas)? After that they mentioned the literature point of view on leadership.

Arabian Peninsula , Leadership , Management 938 Words | 3 Pages. What is leadership ? Leadership can be defined, in argument essay Cologne School various ways, depending on what Area of leadership is been . focused on. From a social and psychological point of View, Leadership is said to be a social influence, where leaders use their behaviour to how to write College, motivate those who follow and contribute to group goals. What is an effective Leader? An effective leader is one who thinks and acts quickly, understands and demonstrates the elements of teams and team works.

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resume numbers spell You’ve reached one of the best sources for resume information anywhere. The discussion below, about the surprisingly intricate question of argument Business School how to spell “resumé,” is just one example of how deeply I’ve gotten into every aspect of resumes. There’s a lot of information on this site that you won’t find put together in one place anywhere else. (Be sure to add it to your favorites.) Some of that information will change the to a persuasive essay of Management (ICMS) way you think about resumes—and make your job search a lot more successful and a lot less worrisome. I don’t settle for the myths that the majority of argument essay Cologne Business School resumé writers and advisersincluding some so-called “experts”have repeated endlessly for years without ever thinking to check them. Some of those mythslike the “functional resumé” or the one-page resumé for experienced peoplecan wreck your job search all by themselves. Read more about these “Killer Myths” on the Tips F.A.Q. page.

You’ll find the #1 Resume Tip on that page especially helpful, too. The FAQ section of the Tips FAQ page takes you right to answers to some commonly asked questions. Persuasive International College (ICMS). Look through the Resumé Glossary, with definitions and in-depth information about resume terminology and technology. There’s also a unique guide to Shopping For Resume Services. Check the Testimonials page for comments from my clients about the difference my expertise makes. Cologne Business School. And then take a look at the home page to start finding out how I work. This expertise means that I can give exceptional value for your money, even compared to other resume services in the same price range. And the payback to you for argumentatif essay, that extra quality can be immense. All factors considered, I think “resumé” (one accent), though it has no historical basis, is the best spelling for this word when used as an English word to refer to a summary of argument Cologne someone’s qualifications for employment. Essay Westminster. This spelling has, in fact, become increasingly accepted over essay Business, the last twenty or thirty years. To Write Cologne School. “Resumé” in this sense is an English word, not a French one. Essay. It’s not pronounced like the French word.

And it doesn’t even have this meaning in FrenchFrench, like British and International English, uses the Latin term “curriculum vitae,” or “CV” for short. (Both terms have a narrower sense in the U.S.) With both its pronunciation and its meaning changed, “resumé” can well be said to have become completely assimilated to English. To A Persuasive Essay International College Of Management (ICMS). Many other French words went the argument Cologne same route centuries ago, with the essay of Management accents usually dropped. Since it’s not a French word (in this sense), the accents can be dispensed with unless they are necessary to show pronunciation. But in this particular word, the accent over the final -e is still necessary, to indicate pronunciation and to distinguish “resumé” from the verb “resume.” (In addition, the spelling with two accents is awkward in English because, in the English pronunciation, the first “é” stands for a different sound than does the second.) This is not a question the average job-seeker needs to sweat over. “Resumé” and “résumé” are always acceptable. “Resume” is very widely accepted too, though it should be avoided in fields where language skills are highly valued. Whichever spelling you prefer, make sure you use it consistently (except in the case of e-mailssee below).

But make sure you read the argument following important technical note: IN PLAIN TEXT IT’S SPELLED DIFFERENTLY . . . At least in the U.S., accented characterslike the “é” in resuméshould never be used in plain-text documents, such as e-mails and Web forms. Since accented characters are not part of the ASCII character set that is still a standard for much software in the U.S., they sometimes get converted to other characters or combinations of characters, and show up as nonsense characters on write conclusion for essay CATS, the recipient’s end. Argument Essay Cologne. In these documents, “resume,” without accents, is safest. It’s also best to avoid using accented characters in filenamesespecially if you’re sending the files to someone else. HOW TO TYPE THE ACCENT. In Windows: In Word, you can type Ctl-' (that is, hold down the Control and apostrophe keys at the same time) and how to College then press the ‘e’ key. In other Windows applications, use Alt-130 (that is, hold down the Alt key while typing 130 in the numeric keypad the all-numbers section on the right of most full-sized keyboards).

On a Mac: Press Option-e and essay Cologne Business then press the ‘e’ key. Exam Essay The University Of South Australia (Navitas). Unix systems are less standardized in this respect. Try Compose-e-'. If your keyboard doesn’t have a Compose key, you can probably map that function to an existing key, such as right-Alt. By the way, it’s an accent, not an apostrophe these are two completely different things. There’s one way to Business, spell it that’s always totally wrong: with an apostrophe instead of an essay School, accent, like this: resume’.

If you spell it with no accents (resume), well, that’s the only way to spell it in plain text, and in other cases, the reader will assume that you can’t be bothered to type the accent. They may or may not downgrade you on that score. But if you spell it with an apostrophe instead of an accent, they’ll see that you don’t even know what the accent is. You don’t have to sweat over School, the spelling of to a persuasive College of Management “resumé.” But as a professional writer I have to make a considered decision about which spelling to use, and want to argument essay School, choose the how to write CATS College best if one is even a little better than the others. Argument Cologne School. When you start looking closely at the question of how to spell the name of that vital piece of paper, it gets rather more complicated than most spelling questions are, because there are an unusual number of essay College Canterbury factors involved. In this case, sorting out those factors, weighing them, and working out the best balance between them is argument Business School a matter for painstaking thought by persuation essay Leighton experienced professional language mechanics with some specialized linguistic knowledge.

I’ve had my shot at it, and the conclusions above are based on that effort. In case you’re interested, I’ve written down the essay Business School details below. THE WHOLE THING. The spelling with two accents follows the French spelling, but in argumentatif Westminster School the case of “résumé,” that spelling is problematic when used by English-speakers, for reasons given below. Omitting both the accents follows the normal English practice with assimilated foreign words, but this, too, is argument essay Cologne Business problematic in argumentatif Westminster School the case of Cologne this particular word.

The spelling with one accent, which offers a solution to both problems, seems to be a recent development that is increasingly accepted in English usage. Good English dictionaries in International College of Management the past generally gave “résumé” as the reference spelling, and argument essay Cologne School recognized “resume” (no accents) as well. For instance, “resumé” isn’t found in the first edition of the Random House Dictionary (unabridged, 1966) or the essay full Oxford English Dictionary (2nd ed., 1989). More recent editions of authoritative dictionaries ( Random House Dictionary , 2nd ed., 1987; American Heritage Dictionary , 3rd ed., 1992; and the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary , 5th ed., 2002) also recognize “resumé.” The fourth edition of the American Heritage Dictionary (2000) gives “resumé” as the reference spelling. The Shorter Oxford notes that the spelling “resumé” (one accent) is particularly associated with the sense of a summary of employment qualifications, which sense is “chiefly North American.” The pronunciation “REH-zoo-may” is standard in Business English regardless of spelling or sense. (French also places the primary stress on the first syllable, though the stress is not as noticeable as it is in English.) Good writers don’t depart from historical spelling without some strong reason that is widely recognized, and to a persuasive College (ICMS) then only in those rare cases where there is no stronger reason for retaining the Cologne Business historical spelling. What To Write A Essay Business. The development of a consensus about such changes takes time, even when the School questions are simple enough to be decided by the accumulation of decisions made on the fly by knowledgeable writers. In the essay College case of the word “resumé,” however, there are an unusual number of argument School conflicting factors bearing on the question.

This complicates and slows down the evolutionary process. Conscious, detached thought, and a bit of research, are required to sort out the issues decisively. At the same time, it’s not an essay Leighton School, urgent matter even for most language specialists. So it’s likely that few qualified people have ever sat down and tried to weigh all the factors and find the Cologne Business School best resolution to the conflicts. And in any case, it would take time for word to get around. This, perhaps, is why “resumé” is only shown in recent dictionaries. (The article on “résumé” at http://en.wiktionary.org/ is introduction International College of Management a good one.

The postings I’ve seen on Web discussion forums only demonstrate the argument Cologne Business School inadequacy of persuasive essay International of Management (ICMS) casual opinions on this particular questionwhether they come from laymen or, worse, from the second-rate professionals who are the source of most of the writings on language and grammar seen by Cologne School the public. This includes some books that pass for style guides in some offices.) In the case of “resumé,” there is a strong reason for making a change from the what a essay Cologne Business historical spelling. As an English word, the Cologne Business spelling “résumé” seems inescapably awkward, given the actual English pronunciation of the word. That’s because writing two accents here gives conflicting cues to an English-speaker. With the English pronunciation, if the word is spelled with two accents, the same sign represents two different sounds in the same wordin the first syllable, ‘é’ is pronounced like the short ‘e’ in write essay CATS Canterbury bet, in the third syllable it is pronounced like the long ‘a’ in “may.” (That sort of ambiguity, of course, is argument Cologne Business School notoriously common with English spellingbut not within the same word, and persuation essay Leighton School not with written accents. “Résumé,” as far as I know, is the argument Cologne only word used in English that presents an ambiguous case with written accents, so there is writing tips The University (Navitas) no group of similar cases that can constitute a generally accepted rule for pronunciation. A native familiarity with English spelling doesn’t help us in the case of relatively recent foreign borrowings like this.) Furthermore, there is no strong reason for retaining the first accent in essay Business School the English word. Except in foreign words and essay School phrases (which are normally italicized in print), English never writes accents unless they are absolutely necessary to indicate pronunciation.

The first accent in “résumé” is Cologne School not reflected in the English pronunciation. Reflection CATS College Canterbury. If it were, I’d say “ray-zoo-may,” not “reh-zoo-may.” (If I were speaking French, I’d say “hray-zoo-may.”) Someone reading “résumé” knows, of course, how the word is argument essay Cologne pronounced. But there’s still a hitch in the reading while the signs are interpreted. If there are too many little hitches like this, they add up to write CATS College Canterbury, a document that is essay Cologne Business School difficult to read, which distracts the reader from the how to write conclusion CATS College Canterbury content and creates a bad impression. Good writing eliminates such hitches wherever possiblebecause if they aren’t eliminated wherever possible, they quickly add up to bad writing. Therefore, when “resumé” is used as a fully assimilated English word, with a meaning it doesn’t have in French, we should feel free to dispense with the essay Business first accent. Exam Of South. The second accent, however, is still highly desirable for the purpose of distinguishing “resumé” from the verb “resume,” and more generally for argument Business School, the purpose of indicating that, unlike most words in exam essay Australia (Navitas) English with a final -e, the final syllable is pronounced. (That’s why proper English spelling requires that we keep the French accent on in words like “café.”) Used in English for essay, this purpose, “resumé” is not a partial (and therefore incorrect) preservation of the Westminster French spelling. Argument Essay Cologne School. It is an ad hoc, unhistorical improvisation of the sort that has long been used in essay Westminster School a few exceptional cases where historical spellings and normal spelling conventions yield results that are consistently felt as awkward even by practiced English-speakers. Another instance of such unhistorical improvisation that is Cologne sometimes seen is the spelling “uncoordinated” (with a diaeresis over the second ‘o’). Regular English spelling conventions call for “uncoordinated,” which, as with “coordinated,” suggests a wrong pronunciation (and makes an American think of light beer).

The usual device of a hyphen (as in argumentatif “co-ordinated”) yields “unco-ordinated.” This looks even worse than “uncoordinated” since, especially if one is being historically conscious, only prefixes allow the option of hyphenation, because they are grammatically distinct. But unlike “co-,” “unco” is not a prefix. (As readers of argument Cologne School Robert Burns know, it can stand alone as an adjective or adverbbut that’s Scots, not standard English.) “Unco-” in “uncoordinated” is, to be sure, a joining of two prefixes. But since combinations of two prefixes are somewhat unusual, and write reflection their separation from the main word by hyphens quite rare, “unco-,” when first seen, prompts the mind to try to interpret it as a single prefix, which leads to Business, a dead end. To avoid this hitch, the spelling “un-co-ordinated” would be required, which is carrying things much too far. So the what to write about Cologne Business diaeresis is brought in instead, to signify that both the first and second ‘o’ are pronounced. Lest I carry this treatise unco far, I will stop, and argument Cologne place further discussions in the following appendix, if anyone wants to go farther. It could be argued that, because English does put the primary stress on the first syllablein contradistinction to the verb “resume”the first accent therefore has some use for essay Leighton Park School, indicating this pronunciation. I believe, however, that there is no real necessity for essay, this. Subject to correction by exam essay writing tips The University (Navitas) specialists in essay Cologne English phonology, it seems to me that it’s natural for someone starting to read the word “resumé” to put the primary stress on the first syllable. Introduction Persuasive Essay College Of Management. That’s because in English, a three-syllable word with a secondary accent on the last syllable, normally (again, as it seems to me) gets the primary stress on the first syllable.

Stressed syllables within a word are normally separated by School one or more unstressed syllables, making for a sort of underlying rhythm. (It’s on the basis of this rhythm that everyday speech improvises more subtle nuances of reflection essay CATS College intonationjust as formal poetry does with its more rigorous rhythmic schemes.) In “resumé,” it would be contrary to habit to argument Cologne Business, have the primary stress on the second syllable, immediately followed by conclusion CATS Canterbury the secondary stressand the accent on the final syllable definitely indicates some stress there. Essay Cologne. So there’s no need to write an accent to indicate the primary stress on the first syllable. English-speakers (or at least, American-speakers) only rarely use the borrowed French word in its original, general sense, to mean “a brief summary” of whatever is being spoken of. Exam Tips The University Australia. If you do use it in this sense, I think it’s best to avoid ambiguity by treating the word as a foreign borrowing: spell it résumé , and perhaps italicize it as a foreign term. The anglicized pronunciation (“REH-zoo-may”), however, is essay Cologne School still correct for this sense when used in English speech. Using the Frenchified English “RAY-zoo-may” is also an option, especially if it’s being thought of as a borrowed French word. Like most English “French,” it’s really a half measure. Reflection CATS Canterbury. However, pronouncing the ‘r’ à la française would be going too far, if you’re speaking English.

English-speaking listeners who don’t know French well will think you have something wrong with your throat. Those who do know French well will think, quite correctly, that the hypercorrect pronunciation is an affectation. Office hours: MondayFriday, noon6 Central Time. Evening and weekend telephone availability by appointment or chance. Outside office hours, leave message: I’ll respond ASAP. Toll-free number available on request, for customers in U.S. states outside Minnesota. Fax number available to customers on request.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. Cologne! When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two?

Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the argumentatif Westminster, resume advice you need into one place. Essay Cologne Business! Read on how to write for essay CATS College for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on argument essay Cologne it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of how to write conclusion CATS College Canterbury, your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for Cologne School, the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to conclusion the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Essay Business School! Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only how to write conclusion College, sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and School pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the how to reflection essay CATS, fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. Essay Cologne! In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and writing tips The University Australia (Navitas) accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on essay reading.

So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out how to conclusion CATS College Canterbury, these five other marketing tricks to argument get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the exam essay The University Australia (Navitas), only occasion when an objective section makes sense is argument essay School when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the Cologne, get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for argument essay Cologne Business, you —or just nix it altogether to persuation save space and argument essay School focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Essay! Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the argument essay Cologne Business, bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is what a essay about Cologne Business a good way to force yourself to argument Business do this.

If you truly have enough relevant and exam essay writing tips Australia (Navitas) important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Essay Cologne! Can’t figure out how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on introduction to a persuasive essay International that document, and argument then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about introduction to a persuasive essay International College of Management (ICMS) getting creative in order to stand out in argument Business, a minute.

But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and Leighton design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on Business hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and Leighton School whistles so the computer can read it effectively.

If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on argument essay your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on how to write CATS College the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. Cologne! (Implicit in this is to write a essay Cologne that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of Cologne Business School, time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in Park School, getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer.

This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to essay which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on argumentatif essay School your resume according to importance. Argument Business! If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about how to College Canterbury your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14.

No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and argument essay Cologne Business School transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in Leighton Park, a given section. Essay Business! No matter how good your bullets are, the essay Leighton, recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to argument Cologne Business be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is how to write CATS College readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Argument Cologne! Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points.

How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to persuation essay Leighton Park achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to argument Cologne Business your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the essay College, employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out argument essay, these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Westminster! Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to argument Business School get across. How To Write Reflection Essay CATS Canterbury! Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the argument School, result you’re going for!

20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of argumentatif essay, better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the Cologne Business, job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into exam essay (Navitas) a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and argument essay Cologne School spit out the most used keywords.

What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . How To Write CATS College Canterbury! We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of Cologne Business School, jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to a essay Business School college. Business School! 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. School! Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order.

But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to essay Business School grab the persuation Park School, reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28.

Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to argument Cologne School include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Write Reflection CATS College! Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to argument essay School add a section that lists out write conclusion for essay College Canterbury, all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to argument essay Cologne Business have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to how to write College a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Cologne School! Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there.

Again—we’re going for exam The University Australia (Navitas), skimmability here, folks! Feel free to argument Cologne School include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for how to conclusion College Canterbury, a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. Cologne School! 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial.

Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards.

Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in essay School, a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the essay School, proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. Write Essay CATS! If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from Cologne Business your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in introduction to a International of Management, an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in Business School, your work history, don’t list the essay, usual start and argument Cologne Business end dates for each position. Use years only conclusion for essay College Canterbury, (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions.

If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the argument essay Business, perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and what a essay accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to argument Cologne include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in how to write essay CATS, gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out essay School, of the how to Canterbury, workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to Cologne Business take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Exam Essay Writing The University! Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for argument Cologne, references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to how to reflection CATS address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!).

It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to argument Cologne Business School perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To Write Cologne! To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and Cologne Business School then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and essay make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in.

When your resume is updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to School pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of for essay College Canterbury, good reasons to School keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and Cologne School led the company’s branded content team. If you’re an individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to essay Cologne Business School tea—get in to write a essay Cologne Business School, touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for essay Business School, this class.

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Archives pour la categorie Case Study Houses. MC COY Esther Case Study Program 1945-1962 Henessey Ingalls 1977 Los Angeles SMITH Elisabeth A.T. Blueprints for Modern Living: History and Legacy of the Case Study Houses MIT Press 1998 STEELE James, JENKINS David, KOENIG Pierre Pierre Koenig Phaidon Press 1998 MC COY Esther, BLAKE Peter Craig Ellwood Architecture Hennessey Ingalls 1997 ALBRECHT D. Argument Essay Business School? The Work of Charles Ray Eames COLOMINA Beatrice The Work of Charles and essay writing of South (Navitas) Ray Eames, A Legacy of invention 1997 STEELE James Eames House, Charles and Ray Eames Architecture in Detail Phaidon 1995 HINES Thomas S. Richard Neutra and Search for Modern Architecture University California Press 1994 MC LAMPRECHT Barbara Richard Neutra Complete Works Taashen 2000 SACK M. Richard Neutra Gustavo Gili 1994 Barcelone. List of articles: Baboulet, Luc; Le Case Study Program et la tradition americaine ; AMC (France); n°98; 05/1999; ; On the Mies Edge ; Domus (); n°614; 02/1986; Goldstein B.; The Entenza Years ; Art and argument Architecture (Etats-Unis); n°; 1990; ; ; Architecture d’Aujourd’hui (France); n°; 02-03/1966; Case Study House n°16′, by C. Reflection CATS? Ellwood.

Craig Ellwood was still a very young architect when he was selected to design a Entenza Case Study House. Argument? This is the first in the series of three villas he designed for the Case Study House Program. It offers a house here where he developed while working on multiple outdoor spaces qualities that come to argumentatif essay School, extend and enrich the home of various and unexpected ways…. For his house just Elllwood used metal columns that had appeared on the market. Indeed, due to the decline of the railway, many found themselves unused rails produced. They were recast which raised metal companies to develop new product lines … The use of square columns instead of columns H can save a lot of money, they are lighter and can simplify a number of details such as those bindings woodwork. Argument? The beams used are I to exam writing tips The University Australia, 6 inches and 36 feet long. Translucent panels 10 feet in height are treated as extended walls of the house.

The interior walls of the house are also treated as screens. They are of the same material as the exterior walls to express continuity between interior and exterior spaces spaces. These panels are by exposing the structure which is painted black. They are off the ground, and are separated from the ceiling by a transom window. The villa consists of argument essay School, a grid of 8 feet. The house is divided into two areas occupied by the circulations, one inner and one outer longitudinally extending in the direction of the project.

The boundary with the street is freely drawn by a solid line turn opaque or translucent tower. This watershed limits any tower covered and for essay CATS not confined areas (like the porch); other spaces, enclosed and argument essay Cologne discovered (as the court of children); or some interior spaces and with others outside. This boundary separates Similarly, the prices of the rooms from the street by a series of panels of introduction International College, translucent glass … The indoor and essay Cologne Business School outdoor spaces are organized around the two perpendicular axes carry the persuasive essay International, project. The partition between social spaces and individual spaces is along a North-South axis passing at argument essay Business the entrance. It amazing how close the villa whose area is in a simple rectangle, which is built with a completely systematic metal structure does not prevent to achieve a wide variety of spaces and what to write about Cologne Business School uses. Each space is fully qualified. This remark is argument essay Cologne Business particularly sensitive to how to write conclusion for essay, the game of indoor and argument School outdoor spaces. This is illustrated for example in the input sequence: the porch is essay Westminster divided into argument essay Cologne Business School two parts, creating a covered walkway for pedestrian access. Introduction International College Of Management? Basically, the villa allows a double entry: service entrance that allows access to the court and the kitchen but also main entrance angles.

The patio at the entrance allows movement of the light at the output while creating a view. Each room is Cologne School extended by outdoor spaces in direct continuity with the interior space. The master bedroom has a double orientation opening on essay The University (Navitas), two distinct areas, each with a different status: an enclosed space and privacy to the east; a terrace that opens fully to the outside overlooking the far south … Similarly, the living areas have a triple orientation with three types of argument essay, large spaces. Open to essay School, the outside distant and providing a wide view to the south: the argument essay School, view terrace as baptized Craig Ellwood. Reflection College? Open to foreign direct space and close to the garden: the living-terrace is argument Cologne Business protected under large pergolas. Persuation Essay Leighton Park? It comes in argument School direct extension of the dining room.

Much more protected, the child-play may have lived both as a space service and much more closed and essay Leighton School intimate space. The position and essay Cologne Business School status of the write reflection CATS, service areas is argument essay Cologne School much less clear. Ellwood seems to make the The University Australia, difference in service areas such as bathrooms that are treated as opaque and argument Cologne irremovable cores while the space kitchens are treated as completely at Koenig transferable manner … These spaces are scattered and fragmented in the plan of a house. The diagram shows the spatial sequence extending along one of the two structural axes of the project … From west to exam writing The University, east, succeeding are: the argument essay Cologne, living terrace / child court / the entrance patio / porch for cars. Case Study House n°9, by C. Eames et E. Saarinen. This house was designed in collaboration with Charles Eames and Eero Saarinen. Argumentatif Westminster? This villa was built on the same site and with the same construction system that the villa # 8. It is nevertheless the antithesis and School develops a radically different reflection. This villa was built for J. Entenza himself. She adapted to reflection CATS Canterbury, its requirements. Entenza wanted to focus on Cologne Business School, the reception areas. The house structure is based on a metallic structure, with columns of H to 4 inches (10 cm) to 7.5 feet tall.

The aim was to enclose the maximum possible space in what Business shape and structure as simple as possible. This villa has been designed to be built to essay, industrial methods but it was not really thinking as a prototype. The living room was designed according to argumentatif essay Westminster School, the principle of elastic space. Essay Cologne? Architects have developed the essay, idea that space can expand or contract depending on Cologne Business, the life of its occupant and the number of guests. The engineer Edgardo Contini project expresses the general advantage of the persuasive essay International College, villa: “ The intention of the Entenza House is to eliminate structure to be anti-structural, to be anonymous as possible.

In the Entenza house no beams are expressed, no columns visible.” “ The total concept was architectural : it was resolved in terms of architecture, in contrast to the Eames house, which was structurally assertive.” This villa is in addition and in contrast to the Case Study House No. 8 also called Eames House, located just next door. They both use the argument Cologne, same structural system. This system is based on the metal profiles of high lightness. Yet in each case the argumentatif School, architects make a radically different use. It is essay Cologne Business interesting how two radically different about essay can be developed on the same site with two identical structural systems and a similar programming. In the Eames House structure is completely highlighted. It is structuring, not only literally but figuratively: it articulates, rhythm and cadence of the project. It is everywhere the argument, first expression. Argumentatif Essay School? – In the essay Cologne Business, Entenza House , the argumentatif, search is at an entirely different level.

The structural system is used in essay Cologne School a much more minimal and paradoxically much more efficient than in how to write reflection College the Eames House. Argument Cologne School? Moreover, the structure is not used here to articulate and rhythm space. Exam Essay Tips The University? Rather, the argument Business, goal seems rather in Entenza House to break free completely to how to conclusion for essay CATS College, access full spatial and essay School programmatic flexibility. The Entenza programmatic requirements for the house allows us to better understand the how to write conclusion CATS, basics of thinking developed by Eames and Saarinen. It is in the treatment of the relationship of the Cologne, common areas and individual, intimate and shared the villa shows all its richness. The house is in a square of 54 feet (about 16.50 meters) square it occupies almost entirely. The program is distributed as follows: the North-East quarter is occupied by individual rooms and private (rooms, bathroom); the Park, northwest quarter, for service parts (laundry, garage, cellar …) Finally, the southern half of the common areas (living room, dining room, kitchen …) – Each part is separated by full or partial opacities games but also translucency. They have with each other but also with the essay Cologne, outside space of the subtle relationships. Thus, the input is separated by what to write Cologne, a simple translucent filter garage which is essay School lit from Westminster School overhead way.

The light is thus transmitted and argument essay Cologne Business School scattered by persuation essay, the filter in Cologne Business School the manner of lateral entry. The kitchen is separated by a wall furniture fair amount has so obscure the view. This makes it possible to maintain a unit of space while introducing discontinuities. The separation between the persuasive International (ICMS), master bedroom and argument essay dressing room is treated in the same way … The connection between the introduction persuasive College of Management, room is treated with a sliding panel will allow to separate or unite spaces in Cologne Business the main bedroom and write for essay Canterbury living room. Business? Another type of discontinuity is essay The University of South introduced by the fireplace, treated fairly minimal, floating and movable. A final type of discontinuity is argument Cologne introduced by treating the how to conclusion for essay College, soil levels of differences in the villa. Argument Business? This difference between the essay writing tips The University of South Australia (Navitas), northern half and argument School south of the what to write a essay Business School, house is equivalent to about 90 cm. It allows the creation of large footboards in the middle of the argument Business, stay. These steps by what a essay School, creating casual seating allows the opportunity to essay Business, strengthen the space of the persuation School, living room around the fireplace. Argument? On the essay tips Australia (Navitas), other side, between the bedroom and the living room, the height difference allows the creation of a sofa next stay with the top of the School, file arrives at the chamber floor. Write Reflection Essay? These dispositions allow to obtain spaces of argument Business School, great functional flexibility.

They have a high spatial malleability and high versatility while remaining perfectly qualified. To A Essay International Of Management? A number of essay Business School, scenarios illustrating this elasticity are studied in a series of diagram (see next page): Scenario 1 : We start here with the basic element around which is built the common area in the villa Entenza. Argumentatif Essay School? This is the part of the living room occupying the south-eastern part of the villa. This element is limited by the fireplace and the sofa that closes the space of essay Business, very intimate way. On the introduction to a persuasive essay International of Management, other side, the kitchen that can be associated indifferently to argument Business, 3 different types of argumentatif Westminster School, areas: living room with part of which is bounded on essay Cologne Business School, the east by emmarchement transforming this part of living a formal dining room ; or with the introduction to a persuasive International (ICMS), internal extension of the kitchen open to the living room: creating an argument Business School informal dining room. Persuasive International Of Management (ICMS)? Finally, it may be associated with the outdoor terrace in the kitchen extension.

Thus creating a place for outdoor dining. Scenario 2 : In this scenario, the basic unit is essay Business School associated with the chamber and part of the Park, terrace creating a very intimate spatial sequence type: bedroom + living room + terrace, privatizing some way the living room and terrace. This scenario shown in photos 3 and 4. We clearly see the Cologne School, alcove effect in which the chamber is taken. Essay Writing Tips Of South? Scenario 3 : Here, the master doubled the portion of the space on the other side of the argument essay Business, fireplace. The home is no longer a limiting factor but a central stay home … And this part is in complete continuity with the outdoor terrace, which still has larger space. Scenario 4 : This scenario explores the possibility or common areas are assembled and essay dilated to the extreme. Argument Business? Here they form a very large reception area. How To Write Essay? This space is both fragmented and argument united. A Essay Cologne Business School? It includes an argument essay input sequence and various conducive to discussion forums.

“It is a period to which many of to a College (ICMS), us have been anxiously looking forward for long years ”. These words written by essay Business, Neutra early in the program shows how the tips Australia, Case Study Program was an expected event. Essay Cologne Business School? Indeed, Neutra wore a constant interest in innovation in of Management (ICMS) the field of design and construction of individual houses. During these long years, Neutra thought to bring out of the essay, home craft to industrialization. What A Essay About School? The two-bedroom house is a problem that has already solved many times. Plans in 1948 are in line with all the reflection that he developed during his career. Assembling a prefabricated core services and argument essay containing wet and heating installations was a limiting factor of the exam essay writing The University Australia, plan. This core was placed so as not to prevent future extensions of the villa.

In a second step, an extension was added to the south in 1958. The house has an L-shaped plan with the dining room and argument essay Cologne Business living room facing south open on a social patio bordered by giant Eucalyptus. Both bedrooms have their own open to tips, the west garden. The composition of the essay, house based on a frame alternating category successively 10 feet and write reflection Canterbury 4 feet. The combination of these two measurements: a structural dimension and the dimensions of prefabricated wet core which houses all services (kitchen and bathroom) for the 10 feet. The dimensions of 4 feet of the frame are treated rather as margins in the project. All circulations are collected. It allows to arrange a set of continuities and transparency through the project.

It also allows the posting of items.. Elle autorise egalement le detachement des elements. The structural system is not emphasized in the project. The structure has no presence or strong or rhythm in the project. Opacities treated on module 4 feet are worked in a completely fragmented.. Argument? They support many advanced and Returns indoor and outdoor play areas.

These effects the villa allows multiple orientations allowing each space to benefit from its own private outdoor space. The roof is to write about Cologne Business School covered in this same principle. Essay Cologne Business? It is widely comes in how to write front of the facade is Business School thus withdrawn leaving the elements exceed in height as chimneys .. All these treatments contribute to writing Australia (Navitas), the effect of dissolution of the house into the surrounding nature, with which she seems to merge. This diagram shows the north side of the School, house, it helps to understand the relationship maintained by the spaces of the introduction to a persuasive International College, house with the environment. School? It illustrates a typical indoor-outdoor device with Neutra Both interiors are visible both chambers. Same size, the argumentatif essay School, relationship of their interior spaces with the argument Business School, exterior space is treated with the same repeating pattern that creates an essay writing tips of South Australia (Navitas) effect of argument, outside in space. Case Study House Program: synoptic. Elements de Sapin / Platre.

Panneaux ondules en ciment. Elements de Sapin / Platre. Platre, Lattes de bois. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Elements de Sapin / Platre. Brique Panneaux de contre-plaque.

Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Elements de Sequoia / Platre. Panneaux Acier / Platre. Platre et Panneaux de Verre Ondule. Briques, Elements de Sapin. Panneau en bois. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneau de Sequoia.

Panneaux de Pin. Panneaux de Pin. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Beton Poli. The Case Study Houses program: presentation #038; history. The Study Houses program was launched in January 1945. So he started in the very particular and for essay CATS College Canterbury very conducive context of the United States in essay Cologne School the immediate post -war period. A man , John Entenza was able to see that it was a key moment . He was able to take the lead in maximizing its benefits . This context and the personality of the latter are the elements that made ??the success of the program. This post-war period is a period of scarcity where all types of building materials are missing. Paradoxically , it also corresponds to how to write College, a period where the construction industry works very intense.

This intensity is Business explained by the long period of inactivity that preceded it . On the one hand due to the economic crisis of 1929, the for essay CATS College Canterbury, building activity is essay Business very slow throughout the thirties. On the other hand , the war of what Cologne, 39-45 marks a complete and total output any breakpoint. All economic activity is essay Business School oriented to the war effort moment. There was then very little opportunitees construction except for Cologne purely utilitarian building structures … During all these years, and especially during the war , there has been a great technological development and many progress. These new technologies will finally be tested and applied to the building , so for example : – New plastics make possible the construction of homes using panels and translucent screens . – The invention and use of arc welding allows for welding of such quality that they can finally be exposed indoors . – Improvement of synthetic resins, which make them more resistant than natural resins, serves to seal and develop jointings adapted to Cologne Business School, new light building panels . – The emergence of new adhesives coming from the aviation industry allows the development of a wide variety of introduction essay International, new composite materials . Finally, the argument essay Business School, construction period was not slowed mean a total shutdown of exam essay writing tips of South, architectural production . On the contrary, the argument essay, period between the how to conclusion College, wars saw a multitude of Business School, flower theoretical projects . All its potientalites will finally be able to know a realization . They will crystallize in the experiments of the Case Study House Program. John Entenza is the man who has by his editorial work and writing tips The University of South Australia (Navitas) critical to all these reflections to emerge . It opened a whole experimental area . Entenza began the publication of the Arts and Architecture magazine in essay School 1938. Context Californian has certainly always been in favor of Modern Architecture . But it is necessary at the time to communicate through a media suppport to Leighton, the general public.

It is thus promote an understanding of new approaches to Business, construction of essay Leighton, individual houses emerged during the postwar period . The magazine has become the indisputable leader to win public acceptance of a good design and work on architectural quality . Entenza is essay Cologne School who was the initiator. Essentially teacher, he is convinced that all living with architecture , work on the quality of the built environment affects us all. It keeps a democratic faith in the ability of the public to understand qualitative work on our built environment when making an effort to submit it . In 1944, he has a good idea of the course will take the modern architecture after the war. The weather is favorable for experimentation. Potential customers have never been so many … Indeed, the introduction essay International College of Management, low housing production during the argument essay School, years of depression has led to essay The University (Navitas), a shortage of essay Cologne School, housing that is deeply felt at write conclusion the end of the war. In addition, there is a real work to be done because some potential customers are already thinking about the time in terms of house key in hand . Moreover, the term Architecture seems a big word for families who want , in an emergency, fit comfortably and argument School economically . While the persuation essay Park, West Coast has always been a great place for experimentation and innovation in contemporary architecture ; Entenza sees the risk that the architectural quality of the Cologne Business, houses built regresses due to the strong post-war production. It is indeed to be feared and that the quality is up to the quantity … It certainly there has customers who can wait patiently for the architect completes the plans , which are in a demanding approach to exam essay writing tips of South, architectural quality . It is also at this time that sponsorship organizations can fund experimental work. But Entenza to realize that despite all many existing innovative ideas on argument Cologne, the drawing board or in the minds of designers may not be able to materialize and be permanently lost. In 1945, Entenza abandons its liabilities editor role to what to write a essay School, play a dynamic role in the architecture of the postwar period. He committed eight agencies including the magazine Arts and Architecture becomes the argument Cologne, client.

Each of these agencies is responsible for introduction persuasive (ICMS) the design of a house. Thus begins the program will continue after the departure of Entenza magazine in argument essay School 1962. The Case Study House Program ends in 1967 to stop the publication of reflection essay CATS, Art and Architecture . The success and longevity of the program is due to its simplicity. The only argument Cologne, stated goal is the development of an environment of well-being without any ideological bias. Persuation Essay Leighton School? Architects are encouraged to experiment with new forms and new materials. But the argument essay Cologne Business, materials should not be used or only selected according to their objective qualities . Persuasive? There is no question of using a material only because it is new . The approach includes a landscape design close to home as well as designing furniture by argument essay Cologne School, renowned designers environment. Persuation Park? During the first three years of the program , six houses are fully completed , furnished and landscaped and open to the public . Approximately 500,000 people visit the first dozen houses . The critical success houses promotes more than any public acceptance of an experimental design . Financing institutions to Business School, become progressively more open and cooperating . Banks are gradually fund contemporary homes . It should be noted that up to this time they refused fairly systematically fund houses with glass walls, open without dining room , kitchen facing the street, a flat roof and concrete slab floor plans; convinced that it was a risky investment without resale value … However, all the writing The University of South (Navitas), houses of Case Study House Program were excellent investments and essay Cologne they prove their resale prices … In the 50s , after 13 houses either completed the program continues at essay writing of South the rate of argument School, one house per year. Selected architects are usually young and little known outside of Southern California . Koenig and Ellwood authors of five projects in two of them have both barely thirty when they are asked to argumentatif essay Westminster School, design a Case Study House . Many architects of the end of the program were inspired by Cologne Business, the first publications of the Westminster, magazine. Koenig and argument essay Cologne Business School decided to study architecture after the interest inspired him reading the newspaper . By throwing a look at the achievements of the program over exam essay The University Australia (Navitas) the last eleven years Entenza takes stock of the essay Cologne Business, Case Study Houses program : “ We like to think that these houses have been responsible for reflection CATS College some remarkably lucid thinking in terms of essay Cologne Business School, domestic architecture.

While it is introduction to a essay International College of Management true that not all have been every man’s dream cottage, they have, nevertheless had a demonstrably wide influence in the sound use of new materials and in re-use of the essay School, old, and had attempted, with considerable success, to write essay College, suggest contemporary living patterns. The analysis of these documents allow us to identify three distinct periods in the program of the argument School, Case Study Houses : 1945-1950 , the Westminster School, program proved its worth. In those first years , priority is given to argument essay Cologne, the economics of the projects . In these early years of the essay writing tips, program of Case Studies, 13 houses were built and 7 projects presented. The period begins in 1945 with the announcement of the program and ends with the completion of the argument Cologne Business, house of Eames and a essay about Cologne Business Saarinen for argument Cologne Entenza . All the architects of what to write about, this period are already confirmed and recognized professionals. Essay Cologne Business? They each have a personal style already widely proven … Any houses built during this period, that of Eames and Saarinen was the first to argumentatif, play with the essay School, layout and structure. It is also the write reflection CATS, first in the program to Business, focus on essay Leighton Park, the use of industrial materials and argument essay Cologne techniques in the field of architecture. Homes # 8 and # 9 are halfway house between the more traditional villas of the first period and purely experimental houses the following years . 1950-60 The experimental period. In a second time, during the decade of 50, the focus is on innovative dimension villas, the true economic dimension from the what Cologne Business, background without , however, be lost sight of. This period extends from the summer of argument Business, 1950 when Soriano started working on essay Park, his house in the summer of essay Cologne Business School, 1960 , with the completion of the second house Koenig.

Most homes built during this period are experimental metal frame houses , the others being experiments on elements against plywood precast factory. For a century and a half the industry has been used for building materials but the house construction has resisted industrialization. Architects believe at the time that we must change that. Steel promises to bring domestic architecture to industrialization after the end of World War II . But the fundamental difference between houses wood frame and persuasive essay International of Management steel frame houses is that in the case of a steel frame all the details should be set at design unlike the wooden frame where you can leave a number of details to the discretion of the manufacturer … The priority of Cologne School, this period is the introduction persuasive (ICMS), development of projects that can serve as prototypes for argument Cologne School manufactured homes . Finally, one last time , the program has a broader focus. The Case Studies developed during this period no longer interested only in writing experiments on essay Business School, one house. Reflections extend over a larger scale. You work on what to write Cologne School, groups of houses and Cologne Business their integration to the environment and the city. Les Villas experimentales du Case Study House Program. Le Case Study Houses Program est lance en 1945, par un jeune editeur californien John Entenza par l’intermediaire de son journal Arts Architecture . Dans le cadre du programme, le magazine fait appel a differents architectes pour etudier un projet de maison individuelle. Les projets est construits, puis meubles.

Il est ensuite porte a la connaissance de tous: d’abord publies dans les pages de Arts and Architecture , les villas sont ensuite ouvertes au grand public pendant une certaine periode et finalement vendues. Cette initiative a plusieurs objectifs designes par Entenza. Il s’agit tout d’abord de promouvoir aupres du grand public une nouvelle maniere de concevoir l’architecture domestique. Il cherche egalement a provoquer cez le public une nouvelle exigence de qualite architecturale pour leurs propres maisons. Le programme des Case Study Houses: presentation #038; historique.

Le programme des Study Houses a ete lance en Janvier 1945. Il a donc debute dans le contexte tres particulier et tres propice des Etats-Unis de l’immediat apres-guerre. Un homme, John Entenza a su voir qu’il s’agissait d’un moment clef. Il a su prendre les devants pour en tirer les avantages. School? Ce contexte ainsi que la personnalite de ce dernier sont les elements qui ont fait le succes du programme. Cette periode d’apres-guerre est une periode de penurie ou tout les types de materiaux de construction sont manquants.

Paradoxalement, elle correspond egalement a une periode ou l’industrie de la construction fonctionne de maniere tres intense. Cette intensite s’explique par la longue periode d’inactivite qui l’a precede. D’une part suite a la crise economique de 1929, l’activite constructive est fort ralentie pendant toutes les annees trente. D’autre part, la guerre de 39-45 marque un point d’arret complet et total a toute production . Toute l’activite economique est a ce moment orientee vers “ l’effort de guerre ”. Il y a alors tres peu d’opportunitees de construction excepte pour construire des structures purement utilitaires… Pendant toutes ces annees et notamment pendant la guerre, on assiste a un tres grand developpement technologique et a de nombreux progres. Ces nouvelles technologies vont enfin pouvoir etre experimentees et appliquees au batiment, ainsi par exemple : – Les nouveaux plastiques rendent possible la construction de maisons utilisant des panneaux et des ecrans translucides. – L’invention et l’utilisation de la soudure a l’arc permet d’obtenir des soudures d’une qualite telle qu’elles peuvent etre enfin exposees a l’interieur des maisons. – L’amelioration des resines synthetiques, qui les rendent plus resistantes que les resines naturelles, permet d’etancher et de developper des jointements adaptes au nouveaux panneaux de construction legers.

– L’apparition de nouvelles colles provenants l’industrie aeronautique permet le developpement d’une tres grande variete de nouveaux materiaux composites. Enfin, cette periode de construction ralentie n’a pas ete synonyme d’un arret total de la production architecturale. Bien au contraire, la periode d’entre-deux guerre a vu fleurir une multitude de projets theoriques. L’ensemble de ses potientalites vont enfin pouvoir connaitre une concretisation. Essay Cologne Business? Elles vont se cristalliser dans les experimentations du Case Study House Program.

John Entenza est l’homme qui a permis par son travail d’editeur et de critique a toutes ces reflexions de voir le jour. Il a ouvert tout une aire d’experimentation. Entenza debute la publication du magazine «Arts and how to write essay CATS Canterbury Architectures» en 1938. Argument Cologne School? Le contexte Californien a certes toujours ete favorable a l’Architecture Moderne. Mais il est necessaire a l’epoque de communiquer au travers un suppport mediatique aupres du grand public.

Il s’agit de favoriser ainsi une bonne comprehension des nouvelles demarches de construction de maisons individuelles apparues pendant cette periode d’apres-guerre. Le magazine est devenu l’indiscutable leader permettant de gagner le public a l’acceptation d’une bonne conception et d’un travail sur la qualite architecturale. C’est Entenza qui en a ete l’initiateur. Essentiellement pedagogue, il est convaincu que vivant tous avec l’architecture, un travail sur la qualite de l’environnement construit nous concerne tous. Il garde une foi democratique en la possibilite du public de comprendre un travail qualitatif sur notre environnement bati quand il est fait un effort pour le lui presenter. En 1944, il a une bonne idee du cours que va prendre l’architecture moderne apres la guerre. Le temps est favorable a l’experimentation. Les clients potentiels n’ont jamais ete aussi nombreux… En effet, la faible production de logements pendant les annees de depression a entraine une penurie d’habitations qui se fait durement ressentir au sortir de la guerre. De plus, il y a un veritable travail a effectuer car une partie des clients potentiels pensent deja a l’epoque en terme de maisons clef-en-main. Essay Westminster? Qui plus est, le terme d’«Architecture» semble un bien grand mot pour des familles qui veulent, dans l’urgence, se loger confortablement et economiquement.

Meme si la cote Ouest a toujours ete un grand lieu d’experimentation et d’innovation en matiere d’architecture contemporaine; Entenza entrevoit le risque que la qualite architecturale des maisons construites regresse du fait de la forte production d’apres-guerre. Il est, en effet a craindre que la qualite laisse ainsi place a la quantite… Il y a certes des clients qui peuvent attendre patiemment que l’architecte acheve les plans, et qui sont dans une demarche exigente de la qualite architecturale. Il existe egalement a cette epoque des organismes de mecenat qui peuvent financer des travaux experimentaux. Mais, Entenza se rends compte que malgre tout beaucoup d’idees innovantes existants sur les tables a dessin ou dans l’esprit des concepteurs risquent de ne pouvoir se concretiser et d’etre definitivement perdues. En 1945, Entenza abandonne donc son role passif d’editeur pour jouer un role dynamique dans l’architecture de l’apres-guerre. Il engage huit agences dont le magazine «Arts and Architecture» devient le client. Chacune de ces agences est chargee de la conception d’une maison. Business? C’est ainsi que commence le programme qui se prolongera apres le depart de Entenza du magazine en 1962. Essay Of Management (ICMS)? Le Case Study House Program s’acheve en 1967 a l’arret de la publication de “ Art and Architecture ”. Le succes et la longevite du programme sont dues a sa simplicite.

Le seul but annonce est le developpement d’un environnement de bien-etre sans aucun prejuge ideologique. Essay School? Les architectes sont encourages a experimenter de nouvelle formes et de nouveaux materiaux. Mais les materiaux ne doivent etre selectionnes ou utilises seulement en fonction de leur qualites objectives. Il n’est pas question d’utiliser un materiaux seulement parce qu’il est nouveau. La demarche inclut une conception paysagere de l’environnement proche de la maison ainsi que la creation de mobiliers par des concepteurs reconnus. Durant les trois premieres annees du programme, 6 maisons sont totalement achevees, meublees et paysagees puis ouvertes au public.

Environ 500 000 personnes visitent la premiere douzaine de maisons. Le succes critique des maisons favorise plus que tout l’acceptation du public d’une conception experimentale. Les institutions de financement deviennent au fur et a mesure de plus en plus ouvertes et cooperantes. Les banques commencent peu a peu a financer les maisons contemporaines. Ils faut preciser que jusqu’a cette epoque elles refusaient assez systematiquement de financer des maisons avec des murs en verre, plans ouverts, sans salle a manger, une cuisine faisant face a la rue, une toit plat et des dalles de beton au sol; convaincues qu’il s’agissait d’un investissement hasardeux sans valeur de revente… Or, toutes les maisons du “ Case Study House Program ” furent d’excellents investissements et elles le prouvent par leurs prix a la revente… Dans les annees 50, apres que 13 Maisons soit completees le programme continue au rythme d’une maison par an. Les architectes selectionnes sont habituellement jeunes et peu connus hors du Sud de la Californie. Introduction To A Essay International? Koenig et Ellwood auteurs de cinq projets a eux deux ont tout deux a peine trente ans quand ils sont sollicites pour concevoir une Case Study House. Business School? Beaucoup d’architectes de la fin du programme ont ete inspire par les premieres publications du magazine. Persuation Essay Leighton? Ainsi Koenig decida d’etudier l’architecture suite a l’interet que lui inspire la lecture du journal.

En jettant un regard sur les realisations du programme au cours des onze dernieres annees Entenza tire un bilan du programme des Case Study Houses: “ We like to think that these houses have been responsible for Cologne some remarkably lucid thinking in to a essay College of Management (ICMS) terms of domestic architecture. While it is School true that not all have been every man’s dream cottage, they have, nevertheless had a demonstrably wide influence in to write about the sound use of new materials and in re-use of the old, and essay Business School had attempted, with considerable success, to suggest contemporary living patterns. (Nous aimons a penser que ces maisons ont ete responsables de quelques reflexions remarquables dans le domaine de l’architecture domestique. Meme s’il est vrai que toutes ne representaient pas la maison revees de tout homme, elles ont en revanche eu une tres large influence dans l’utilisation de nouveaux materiaux et dans la reutilisation de l’ancien et ont tente avec un succes respectable de suggerer les voies d’un mode vie contemporain.) L’analyse de ces documents nous permettent de degager trois periodes distinctes dans le programme des Case Study Houses: 1945-50, Le programme fait ses preuves. Dans ces premiere annees, la priorite est donne a la dimension economique des projets.

Dans ces premieres annees du programme des Case Studies, 13 maisons furent construites et 7 projets presentes. La periode debute en 1945 avec l’annonce du programme et se termine avec l’achevement de la maison de Eames et Saarinen pour Entenza. Tout les architectes de cette periode sont deja des professionnels confirmes et reconnus. Ils ont chacun un style personnel deja largement eprouves… De toute les maisons construites au cours de cette periode, celle de Eames et Saarinen est la premiere a jouer avec le plan et la structure.

Elle est egalement la premiere dans le programme a se concentrer sur l’utilisation de materiaux et de techniques industrielles dans le domaine de l’architecture. Writing The University Australia? Les maisons #8 et #9 sont des maisons de transition entre les villas plus traditionnelles de la premiere periode et les maisons purement experimentales des annees qui suivent. 1950-60, La periode experimentale. Dans un deuxieme temps, au cours de la decennie 50, l’accent est mis sur la dimension innovatrice des villas, la dimension veritablement economique passant au second plan sans cependant etre perdue de vue. Cette periode s’etend de l’ete 1950, quand Soriano commence a travailler sur sa maison a l’ete 1960, avec l’achevement de la deuxieme maison de Koenig. La plupart des maisons construites au cours de cette periode sont des maisons experimentales a ossature metalliques, les autres etant des experimentations sur des elements en contre-plaques prefabriques en usine. Cologne School? Depuis un siecle et demi l’industrie a ete utilisee pour les materiaux de construction mais la construction de maison a resiste a la l’industrialisation. Les architectes pensent a l’epoque que l’on doit changer cela. L’acier promet d’amener l’architecture domestique a l’industrialisation apres la fin de la seconde guerre mondiale.

Mais la difference fondamentale entre maisons a ossature de bois et les maisons a ossature acier est que dans le cas d’une ossature d’acier tout les details doivent etre regles au moment de la conception contrairement a l’ossature bois ou l’on peut laisser un certain nombre de details a la discretion du constructeur… La priorite de cette periode est le developpement de projets qui peuvent servir de prototypes pour des maisons industrialisees. 1960-65, Changement d’echelle. Enfin, dans un dernier temps, le programme a pris une orientation plus large. Les Case Studies developpees pendant cette periode ne s’interessent plus seulement a des experimentations sur une seule maison. Canterbury? Les reflexions s’etendent sur une plus large echelle. Argument Essay? On travaille alors sur des groupements de maisons et sur leur integrations a l’environnement et a la ville. Elements de Sapin / Platre. Panneaux ondules en ciment. Elements de Sapin / Platre. Platre, Lattes de bois.

Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Elements de Sapin / Platre. Brique Panneaux de contre-plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Elements de Sequoia / Platre. Panneaux Acier / Platre. Platre et Panneaux de Verre Ondule. Briques, Elements de Sapin.

Panneau en bois. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneau de Sequoia. Panneaux de Pin. Panneaux de Pin. Panneaux de Contre-Plaque. Panneaux de Beton Poli.

Visite virtuelle de la villa Savoye de Le Corbusier.