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brand manager resume Resume Body BRAND MARKETING EXECUTIVE, V.P. OR DIRECTOR. Proven success in analyzing data for businesses and industries, identifying insights and opportunities, and developing strategies or plans that drive results. Significant experience in how to essays, defining, redefining, enhancing and protecting the brand. Adept at uncovering new approaches or innovative offerings and connecting opportunities to current target, business or brand. Proactive, resourceful, creative problem solver; takes initiative and can start from scratch when necessary. Demonstrated ability to work with senior leadership to how to write an cause Westminster School develop, articulate and champion a clear, long-term direction.

Can energize and develop teams. Analytical. Organized. How To Good Essays In English? Adept at building support for ideas. Critical Wiki Epsom? Broad business acumen. LaSalle Bank, (part of the how to write good Bank of and effect essay School America banking network) July 2006 – Jan. 2008. How To Essays In English Strathallan? A mid-sized bank (19,000 employees) offering a broad set of financial solutions to commercial clients and consumers. Recruited to lead the B2B marketing efforts for jurnal Windermere School 15 commercial and specialty lines; wealth management group subsequently added to overall responsibilities; charged with creating growth, driving cross-sell, improving innovation, leading research, identifying target insights, disseminating best practices and write good in english Strathallan ultimately, building the brand. • Devised research insights. Developed target buying cycle and journals Bishop marketing team vision to create success roadmap. • Conceived integrated strategic marketing plans for commercial and wealth businesses to drive sales. • Implemented improved marketing planning and creative development process encompassing outside consultants. How To? • Repackaged business owner offerings to an evaluation Preparatory create more compelling choice for targets. Devised marketing plan. • Led team of 11 professionals.

Restructured team roles and responsibilities to increase efficiency. A Fortune 250 global financial services company providing innovative financial and consulting solutions to address client issues. Supported 600 offices in in english Strathallan School, 120 countries for company with 47,000 employees. Recruited to how to North lead the launch and how to write Strathallan School implementation of a worldwide brand campaign in support of the business; to partner with internal leaders and Epsom develop strategies that create synergies within and across multiple units in order to increase cross-sell and retention; to drive integration of global businesses offerings; to build consistency, innovation and best practices; to conceive team structures which deliver business goals; to develop a comprehensive marketing plan and how to in english Strathallan research strategy that effectively positions the brand, builds reputation and critical thinking College drives success. • Led global strategy; developed integrated marketing plans through collaboration with 8 worldwide business units. • Led cross-business team in updating revised global visual communications standards saving over $800,000. • Enhanced brand statement by developing a target message map that clarified the brand’s key points of difference. • Led implementation of $14 million worldwide brand launch encompassing TV, print, radio, direct mail, PR, events, collateral, sponsorships and internal communications. Exceeded goals for how to write good essays Strathallan School increasing brand awareness and image. • Devised scheme for overall brand architecture and created decision tree to rationalize numerous acquisitions. • Conceived strategies and coached sales teams for large prospect RFP’s. Drove $3,000,000+ incremental revenue. • Worked with sales and led value proposition research – advised 1,000-member sales team on use. • Recommended research approach and devised questionnaire for target communications study. • Initiated overhaul of global website homepage increasing traffic by 150% to articles Guertin High School key industry sections. • Led 12-person team developing national sales show strategy and presence for event with over how to essays, 5,000 attendees. • Managed public relations efforts including news releases and sponsorships. Created news releases guidelines. • Created partnership and alliance evaluation process to ensure effective expansion and promote efficiency. • Developed enhanced budget process that improved reporting and reduced time required by 25%. • Hired, and then led marketing and review journal internal creative teams (as many as 10). Collaborated with numerous company resources in a complex matrix setting. Oversaw and developed systems for high productivity (300+ items/ year).

• Managed three agency resources and numerous consultants. Drove projects, strategies, timelines and budgets. • Guided professional development of write in english staff leading to three promotions. Foote, Cone Belding, 1994 - 1999. Title: Account Director (clients included Quaker and Helene Curtis) • Led brand planning and for review articles Bishop overall marketing initiatives for essays in english School $100mm Quaker account and harvard review journal Lyceum Zuoz $15mm Suave account. • Guided many marketing elements such as product development, pricing, packaging, channels and merchandising. • Revitalized $100mm brand, achieving 2% growth in a declining category after a three year, 25% decline. #9674; Implemented new process for how to write advertising strategy development. Improved TV, print and how to write an cause and effect essay Westminster School team involvement. #9674; Assisted in development of new product formulation and essays Strathallan client branding strategy ultimately adopted on shelf.

#9674; Improved media mix efficiency by analyzing target distribution and reallocating advertising spending. • Stabilized $13mm brand, resulting in 1% growth in a declining category after a three year, 4% decline. #9674; Evaluated entire marketing mix and provided long-range vision for brand; created roadmap for review Windermere School achievement. How To Strathallan? #9674; Led competitive research and expanded reach of established brand through revised target definition. #9674; Translated new vision and segment insights into business drivers to thinking Justin-Siena grow sales. Reassessed retail channel mix. • Coordinated with public relations to tie marketing efforts with sponsorships, events, licensing and media relations. • Supervised and guided professional development of direct report for promotion to next level. Title: Senior Account Executive (numerous clients in healthcare arena) • Led the development of integrated marketing communications plans for six health care industry clients. • Launched women's center for local major medical provider with event attendance exceeding client expectations. • Opened retirement community project with initial unit closings exceeding plan. How To Good Essays In English School? Last title: Account Executive (clients included Tropicana and Keebler) • Led new products efforts and oversaw launch in $3 billion category meeting 100% of launch goals. • Coordinated international efforts.

Authored alternate target analysis leading to new retail channels and sales. Critical Thinking Wiki Epsom? • Led advertising production for TV, print, outdoor, radio and promotions. Write Essays In English Strathallan School? Led promotion strategy creation. Deloitte, Haskins Sells, 1984 - 1988. Last title: Senior Accountant (clients included, manufacturing, financial services, hospitals, not-for-profits) • In-charge accountant supervising up to six individuals. Review Windermere? • Completed 100% of financial audits on time. Audited numerous clients with assets well in excess of $50 million. • Attained Certified Public Accountant (CPA) and Certified Management Accountant (CMA) designations. In English Strathallan School? Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, M.B.A., marketing, 1990, president of MBAA, initiated ethics program.

The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, B.S.B.A., accounting, 1984, dean's list, fraternity treasurer. How To Write North School? Park District, elementary school soccer / basketball coach, girls and boys teams, 2003 – present. Air Lift Unlimited, Inc., Board of how to write good Directors member, vice president, 1999 – 2003. Optima Center Condominium, Board of Directors member, treasurer, 1998 – 1999.

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ngv business plan Click on a link below for a description of related key projects: Vehicle Maintenance Facility Modification Projects. Cummins, Inc. – Columbus, IN – Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Facility Evaluation Guidelines for how to Strathallan, Dealers and thinking about thinking Justin-Siena Distributors. As manufacturers like Cummins begin to sell and service natural gas vehicles through their dealers and distributors, all the good essays in english School, related maintenance and repair facilities must be evaluated for the ability to accommodate lighter-than-air fuel. NGVi developed a standardized guidance document for Cummins, Inc. to assist their dealers and distributors to understand the requirements for maintaining or repairing NGVs within their existing and about Justin-Siena High School future facilities. Glover International – Calgary, Alberta, Canada – Vehicle Maintenance and Repair Facility Evaluation. NGVi conducted a vehicle maintenance and repair facility evaluation for Glover International. Following a site visit and inspection, NGVi evaluated the lighting, heating, mechanical, building envelope, ventilation, and electrical systems for compatibility with lighter-than-air fuels.

We prepared a detailed report, outlining the most economical methods to ensure that the facility would be in compliance with applicable codes, standards and industry best practices. Penske Truck Leasing – Los Angeles, CA – Vehicle Maintenance Facility Evaluation. Two existing Penske vehicle maintenance facilities located in Los Angeles, CA were originally designed for gasoline and diesel powered vehicles. Penske determined it would begin leasing both CNG and LNG powered heavy-duty trucks. NGVi conducted a site visit, evaluating the good School, facilities for necessary modifications that would allow CNG and LNG powered vehicles to be maintained and repaired inside. All of NGVi’s recommendations provided the most economical methods to ensure that the facility was in compliance with all applicable codes, standards and industry best practices.

Navistar, Inc. – Garland, TX – Vehicle Maintenance Facility Consulting for Navistar Dealers. Navistar, Inc. began manufacturing and distributing CNG and LNG powered heavy-duty trucks through its 300+ dealer network beginning in 2012. NGVi consulted with senior management and Lyceum Alpinum key dealers to educate them on good essays in english Strathallan School, the modifications to individual dealer vehicle maintenance facilities that would allow the thinking High, CNG and LNG powered vehicles to be maintained and good essays in english Strathallan repaired inside. As follow up, NGVi is working with individual dealers to perform vehicle maintenance facility evaluations to prepare for engineering and construction for modifications to accommodate the lighter-than-air fuel. SuperValu – Eden Prairie, MN – Heavy-Duty Vehicle Maintenance Facility Evaluations. Two existing SuperValu vehicle maintenance facilities located in New Stanton, PA and Mechanicsville, VA were originally designed for gasoline and diesel powered vehicles. SuperValu planned to introduce CNG powered heavy-duty trucks into its mix and Bishop Guertin High School needed to how to write Strathallan modify the facilities to accommodate lighter-than-air fuel. NGVi conducted a site visit, evaluating the facilities for review Windermere, necessary modifications that would allow CNG powered vehicles to in english School be maintained and repaired inside. All of NGVi’s recommendations provided the most economical methods to ensure that the facility was in compliance with all applicable codes, standards and industry best practices. Cummins Rocky Mountain – Henderson, CO – Heavy-Duty Engine Repair Facility Evaluations.

Cummins Rocky Mountain planned to begin repairing CNG powered vehicles in about thinking High most of how to write good essays their facilities. About High. Beginning with the heavy-duty engine repair facility in write good in english Henderson, CO, NGVi conducted a site visit, evaluating the facilities for necessary modifications that would allow CNG powered vehicles to be maintained and repaired inside. All of NGVi’s recommendations provided the most economical methods to ensure that the facility was in compliance with all applicable codes, standards and industry best practices. University of jurnal School California Santa Cruz – Vehicle Maintenance Facility Evaluation. The existing vehicle maintenance facility owned and operated by the University of California at Santa Cruz was designed for gasoline and diesel fuel powered vehicles, but also was needed to maintain and repair CNG powered light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicles and transit buses. How To Good Essays School. NGVi conducted a site visit, evaluating the facility for necessary modifications that would allow all CNG powered vehicles to be maintained and repaired inside. All of NGVi’s recommendations provided the most economical methods to ensure that the review School, facility was in compliance with all applicable codes, standards and industry best practices. University of Vermont – Vehicle Maintenance Facility Evaluation.

The existing vehicle maintenance facility owned and operated by the University of Vermont was designed for gasoline and how to write good essays diesel fuel powered vehicles. After acquiring CNG powered transit buses, the University also needed to use the existing facility to maintain and repair those vehicles as well. Thinking Wiki College. NGVi conducted a site visit, evaluating the facility for necessary modifications that would allow all CNG powered vehicles to be maintained and repaired inside. All of NGVi’s recommendations provided the most economical methods to ensure that the facility was in compliance with all applicable codes, standards and industry best practices. City of College Park, Georgia – Fleet and Fuel Use Evaluation for CNG Station. The City of College Park, Georgia wanted to write good essays School acquire CNG fueling for jurnal Windermere, both its vehicles as well as fleets within close proximity, and write good essays Strathallan then to determine the approximate size and cost of the necessary CNG station. How To Write An Evaluation North Broward. The City contracted with NGVi to make this assessment, including identification and write good essays market research among fleets operating on behalf of local government and journals for review articles School businesses within a five mile radius of the proposed public access fueling station to determine market interest in the use of CNG as a transportation fuel. Upon completion, NGVi delivered a presentation to the City Council of the City of how to good essays Strathallan School College Park on the financial impacts of the proposed CNG fueling station on the operating budgets of both the City of College Park and College Park Power. City of Fremont – CNG Fueling Station Sizing and Construction Project.

NGVi conducted a fleet/fuel use evaluation to determine fueling needs for the City of articles Bishop High School Fremont, California. We developed bid specifications, bid evaluation criteria, and good essays in english identified prospective bidders for a 150 scfm compressed natural gas fueling station. Additional tasks included consulting during the pre-bid conference/site visit, bid evaluation, construction process consultation, assisting with station equipment start-up and debugging, reviewing as-built drawings and close out of the completed project. NGVi also provided CNG Fueling Station Operation and Maintenance Training for the city’s maintenance technicians. City of Santa Monica – CNG Fueling Station Sizing and Construction Project Consulting.

NGVi conducted a fleet/fuel use evaluation to determine fueling needs for the City of Santa Monica, California. We developed bid specifications, bid evaluation criteria, and identified prospective bidders for a compressed natural gas fueling station. Thinking Justin-Siena. Additional tasks included consulting during the pre-bid conference/site visit, bid evaluation, construction process consultation, assisting with station equipment start-up and debugging, reviewing as-built drawings and close out of the completed project. NGVi also provided CNG Fueling Station Operation and Maintenance Training for the City’s maintenance technicians. Contra Costa County – CNG Fueling Station Sizing and Construction Project Consulting. NGVi Conducted a fleet/fuel use evaluation to good essays Strathallan determine fueling needs, developed bid specification, bid evaluation criteria, and identify prospective bidders for a 115 scfm compressed natural gas fueling station for Contra Costa County, California. Jurnal Review. Additional tasks included participation in a pre-bid conference/site visit, bid evaluation, construction process consultation, assist with station equipment start-up and debugging, review as-built drawings and close out completed project. NGVi also provided CNG Fueling Station Operation and write essays in english Strathallan School Maintenance Training for the county’s maintenance technicians.

Ford Motor Company – Technical and Marketing Evaluation of National CNG Fueling Infrastructure. On behalf of Ford Motor Company, NGVi conducted a complete technical and marketing-related evaluation of the public access, fast-fill natural gas fueling infrastructure in six metropolitan areas, including: Atlanta, GA; Dallas, TX; Denver, CO; Los Angeles, CA; Salt Lake City, UT; and the San Francisco/Oakland/Sacramento, CA transportation corridor. Metropolitan Transit Authority of New York – CNG Feasibility Study. NGVi conducted a feasibility analysis of an evaluation North Preparatory compressed natural gas as a transit bus fuel for the Metropolitan Transit Authority of how to write good essays in english Strathallan New York City. This analysis included site visits and an in-depth technical evaluation of the about thinking Justin-Siena High, potential for providing fueling at these sites. Write Essays Strathallan. Recommended fueling station sizes and harvard review Alpinum an estimated construction costs for each transit bus site based upon the fueling characteristics of the buses located there were also provided. Phoenix Sky Harbor Airport – CNG Fueling Station Performance Specifications.

NGVi served as a technical consultant to Merit Engineering on the preliminary performance specifications for the natural gas fueling station constructed at Phoenix Sky Harbor Airport. This specification included preliminary sizing for all major station components, gas quality requirements, fuel delivery requirements and other technical items. Pierce Transit – CNG Fueling Station Optimization Study. NGVi partnered with T. How To Write Good Essays In English Strathallan School. Mitchell Engineers Associates of thinking about High San Leandro, CA to conduct an optimization study of the large-volume compressed natural gas (CNG) fueling station owned and operated by write in english, Pierce Transit located in Lakewood, WA. Write An Cause And Effect Westminster. The fueling station is made up of 2,900 scfm of compression capacity, nine ASME high-pressure storage vessels, a buffer control system, a master PLC control system, two transit style dispensers and one light-duty dispenser, and fuels 200 CNG powered transit buses. NGVi also was asked to evaluate a proposal received from write good in english, a vendor to harvard review Lyceum Alpinum add, among other things, increased compression capacity and increased fuel delivery pressure to the existing station and made recommendations on write Strathallan, the appropriateness of the proposal.

Additionally, NGVi developed an operations and maintenance plan to include performance optimization, preventive maintenance intervals and safety plans. Regional Transportation Commission of how to and effect essay Southern Nevada – CNG Infrastructure Valuation. NGVi conducted evaluation of the write good in english Strathallan School, fueling equipment installed at journals Bishop School five public access CNG fueling stations located in Las Vegas and good essays owned by the Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada. The five CNG fueling stations served numerous public and private automobile, light-, medium-, and heavy duty natural gas vehicles. Sonoma County Transit – CNG Fueling Station Expansion Project. NGVi conducted a review of the CNG fueling equipment owned and operated by journals articles Bishop High, Sonoma County Transit and recommended options for expanding the fueling capacity to meet a proposed 30 percent expansion of the how to write good in english Strathallan, transit fleet. We also analyzed the technical feasibility of recovering landfill gas from the thinking thinking High School, Sonoma County Central Disposal Site for use in how to write good essays fueling the Sonoma County Transit fleet.

U.S. Marine Corps Camp Pendleton – Maintenance and Upgrade Evaluation for write an evaluation Preparatory School, Existing CNG Stations. NGVi conducted an inspection and analysis of five CNG fueling stations located on the Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base to identify and recommend possible maintenance, repairs, upgrades, or replacements that would be necessary to essays Strathallan continue fueling the over 340 natural gas powered vehicles operating on critical thinking College, the Base. How To Write Essays In English Strathallan. Additionally, NGVi reviewed and analyzed two proposals received by thinking High, the Base to replace two of the five CNG fueling stations. Veolia Transportation – Garden City, NJ – CNG Fueling Station Evaluation and Upgrade Planning. Veolia Transportation operates a transit facility in Garden City, NJ where the how to write good essays in english Strathallan, number of CNG buses would be doubled from about thinking High, approximately 150 to 300 in essays the year 2012. NGVi conducted an analysis of the existing fueling station’s operation and equipment and Justin-Siena recommended actions/upgrades to improve performance and/or to meet code requirements.

This will include observation of components that can be accessed externally. North American NGV Industry Strategy – America’s Natural Gas Alliance (ANGA) NGVi served as a key contractor on the project to assess the NGV market in North America and develop an industry strategy. The prime contractor on this project was TIAX LLC. For this project, NGVi assessed the CNG fueling infrastructure in North America, gas cost trends, NGV economics for a variety of vehicle types, CNG infrastructure decision drivers, business models, opportunities and how to good Strathallan School actions. Shell Oil Products Company – Natural Gas Transportation Fuel Study. NGVi conducted secondary market research and market analysis for Shell Oil to assist the company in jurnal review School updating its alternative fuels strategy.

This project included the research of the status, forecasts and market impacts of the federal, state and local legislation and incentives which impacts the market for alternative fuels, proposed changes to Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards, public and essays in english Strathallan private alternative fuel incentives, and the development of national alternative fuel consumption forecasts. We also conducted an analysis of major Shell competitors and thinking High School examined the how to good essays in english Strathallan School, alternative fuel choices that Shell Oil might consider offering customers. San Diego Gas Electric Company – NGV Business Plan. SDGE was the harvard journal Lyceum, first California gas utility to file an NGV program application with the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC). NGVi developed the 10-year business plan which became the core of write that CPUC application. The business plan included marketing strategies, legislative strategies, regulatory strategies, budget and personnel requirements, and complete economic analysis based on market penetration estimates provided by SDGE. Competitive analysis, opportunities and barriers, and risks of how to an cause NGV marketing were also included. Consolidated Edison Company of New York – NGV Business Plan.

NGVi developed a 10-year NGV Business Plan for Consolidated Edison Company of New York. Write Strathallan School. This plan included market research and analysis, and the development of legislative, regulatory, marketing and technology development strategies along with projected income statements. Clark County, Nevada – NGV Market Assessment and NGV Marketing Plan. NGVi designed and critical wiki implemented an NGV market research project for Clark County, Nevada to assess the potential for NGVs in good essays in english the area. This project included developing and review School implementing telephone and mail. fleet operator surveys, executive interviews with the top 10 fleets in the County and complete report preparation. How To In English. The information was then utilized to critical wiki Epsom College develop an NGV Marketing Plan for good essays in english Strathallan School, the County.

Wysong Engineering – NGV Industry Briefing. NGVi provided one-on-one coaching for journals for review School, Wysong Engineering, a Dallas, TX based company interested in how to good essays in english School becoming involved in the NGV industry. NGVi briefed executives and the management team on the industry status, challenges, legislation, products, pricing and services. New England Gas Association – NGV Business Plan and review Windermere Organizational Structure. NGVi developed a 10-year NGV Business Plan for the New England Gas Association, which was composed of 24 natural gas distribution companies, four transmission companies and write good essays Strathallan more than 240 associate members.

This plan included legislative, regulatory, marketing and technology development strategy to be implemented by a regional NGV Coalition in addition to how to an cause School individual member companies. The report also included staffing and qualification recommendations, job descriptions, and a two-year operating budget for the Coalition. The Board of Directors of the New England Gas Association voted unanimously to fund and implement the plan developed by NGVi. Bay State Gas/Northern Utilities – NGV Business Plan. NGVi developed five-year NGV business plans for Northern Utilities, a subsidiary of Bay State Gas for the states of Maine and write in english Strathallan School New Hampshire. These plans included legislative, regulatory, marketing and technology development strategies along with projected revenues and staffing requirements. New England Gas Association – NGV Market Research Project. NGVi was one of two contractors that teamed to conduct an NGV market study performed for the New England Gas Association.

NGVi’s tasks included questionnaire design, alternative fuels legislation, regulations, NGV technology, competitive fuels, and project conclusions and an evaluation Broward recommendations. Consolidated Edison Company of New York – NGV Market Assessment. Utilizing fleet data for Consolidated Edison's service territory, NGVi analyzed the statistics and developed NGV market projections for the company's 10-year NGV business plan. These projections were in how to good Strathallan turn utilized to develop natural gas sales projections, along with fueling infrastructure requirements and internal staffing needs. Providence Gas – NGV Market Assessment and review Alpinum Zuoz Economic Analysis for Legislative Effort. NGVi completed an NGV market assessment study for Providence Gas Company in Providence, RI. This information was then used to how to Strathallan School develop an economic analysis to be utilized in support of NGV-favorable legislation in the state. Write Westminster School. The research was compiled, tabulated and how to essays Strathallan provided in a complete written report useful to write an evaluation both Providence Gas and the State of Rhode Island's budget group for determining the good essays in english School, economic impact of legislation. The legislation was successfully passed in wiki College 1997. and Safety Practices. October 4-5, 2017.

Operation and in english Strathallan School Maintenance. October 12-13, 2017. Level 1: NGV Essentials. and Safety Practices. October 24, 2017. October 25-26, 2017. Level 1: NGV Essentials. and Safety Practices. November 7, 2017. November 8-9, 2017.

Level 3: Heavy-Duty NGV. Maintenance and Diagnostics. December 4-5, 2017. Level 2: CNG Fuel System. December 6-7, 2017. Receive NGVi updates directly to your inbox. Natural Gas Vehicle Institute is North America’s leading provider of training and consulting on natural gas as a transportation fuel. Our services address the full range of natural gas vehicle and fueling issues, including: Technical consulting services – Sizing and designing compressed natural gas fueling stations, vehicle assessments and technical assistance for harvard Alpinum Zuoz, fleets, CNG fueling station troubleshooting, natural gas vehicle maintenance facilities upgrades, liquefied natural gas fleet and fueling management. Technical training – NGV Essentials and Safety Practices, CNG Fuel System Inspector Training, Heavy-Duty NGV Maintenance and Diagnostics Training, Light-Duty NGV Maintenance and Diagnostics Training, CNG Fueling Station Operation and write School Maintenance Training, CNG Fueling Station Design Training and CNG/LNG Codes and Standards Training for journal, Fire Marshals and how to write good Strathallan Code Officials.

NGVi and NGVi Natural Gas Vehicle Institute are Registered Trademarks of Thomason Associates, Inc. NGVi reserves the right to refuse registration to our training classes or purchase of High School NGVi products based on customer applicability or other standards determined by essays Strathallan School, NGVi.

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1-3-1 essay outline The issue of how to in english School, authorship (as well as date) of this epistle cannot be settled in isolation. It is quite bound up with the issue of authorship for the Fourth Gospel and for 2-3 John. If the same author wrote all four books, there is a strong presumption that they were written at about the same time since the style of articles High, writing, themes, and outlook are so similar. Further, there is the presumption that one author did write all four books for, as B. H. Streeter remarks, “The three epistles and how to write good in english School, the Gospel of review Windermere School, John are so closely allied in write School diction, style, and general outlook that the burden of proof lies with the person who would deny their common authorship.” 1 Still, there are some scholars who dispute that there was one author for School all four books, and their arguments need to be heard. We shall deal with them only in passing, however, since there is still something of a general consensus on the matter, even if not all are agreed that John the apostle was the author.

There are possible allusions to how to good in english Strathallan School 1 John in Clement of Rome, Ignatius, and pseudo-Clement (in his 2 Corinthians ), but these are all doubtful. 2 More probable are allusions in the Didache, Barnabas, Hermas, Justin Martyr, the Epistle to Diognetus , Polycarp, and Papias. Undeniable are allusions/references to 1 John by Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Dionysius, and the Muratorian canon. Guthrie well summarizes the data: This evidence is sufficient to show that from very early times the epistle was not only treated as Scripture but was assumed to review Windermere be Johannine, in spite of the fact that no specific claim to this effect is made by the writer himself. This strong tradition cannot easily be set aside, especially as no alternative theory of authorship was suggested in the early church… 3. There are three pieces of evidences which suggest that John the apostle wrote this epistle: (1) the writer claims to be an eyewitness of the earthly life of Christ (1.1-3); (2) he speaks with an air of in english Strathallan, authority—“he clearly expects not only to review journal Lyceum be heard, but to be obeyed”; 4 and (3) the similarities of thought and verbal expression to the Fourth Gospel are so striking as to suggest that the same author penned both. As Robert Law quipped, “On internal grounds, it would appear much more feasible to assign any two of write good essays, Shakespeare’s plays to different authors, than the Gospel and the First Epistle of ‘St. John.’” 5. Nevertheless, even if presumption is on the side of common authorship, there are two types of arguments against this: (1) some dispute that the same author wrote both the Gospel and 1 John; and (2) some dispute that the same author wrote 1 John and 2-3 John. 6 Rather than rehashing material found elsewhere in this essay, we wish to center our discussion on two items: (1) Did the same author write both the write School Gospel of John and 1 John? and (2) Did the same author write 2 John and how to write essays in english Strathallan School, 3 John? On the assumption that John the apostle wrote the Gospel bearing his name, 7 if we can answer in the affirmative to journals for review articles Bishop High School these two questions, then apostolic authorship can thereby be assumed for these three epistles as well. a. Did the Same Author Write the Fourth Gospel and the First Epistle?

Although, as Guthrie points out, common authorship is “disputed by only a minority of write good in english School, critics,” 8 it is a distinguished minority, including such notables as C. H. Dodd, Raymond Brown, R. Bultmann, M. Dibelius, and C. K. Barrett. In particular, the work of Holtzmann, Dodd, and Brown have promoted the view of disparate authorship. Our critique of it will come in two waves: first, the arguments of Robert Law (still a classical refutation, in my view), and secondly, our own arguments against Brown’s evidence. (1) Robert Law gives one large piece of positive evidence (viz., verbal and thought agreements between the two works), followed by several counter-arguments against the negative evidence. Critical Wiki Epsom College. First, positively, there are coincidences of verbal expression as well as coincidences of thought—both those which are peculiar to good in english School the Fourth Gospel and 1 John and those which are characteristic of these two documents. How To Write An Evaluation Essay North Broward Preparatory School. 9 Law’s conclusion about the remarkable coincidental agreements is a sober assessment: From the facts so far adduced, either of two conclusions is inevitable—that the Gospel and the Epistle are from the how to good essays School same pen, or that the one or the other of them is the work of harvard review journal Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, his predecessor that he unconsciously reproduces its thoughts and its phraseology, even to the minutest mannerisms. The former is the natural hypothesis. Strong evidence will be required to set it aside in favour of the latter. 10. Secondly, negatively, there are differences both of a verbal and conceptual nature. Some of these differences are quite striking.

For example, ??? occurs nearly 200 times in the Gospel, but not once in the epistle. Yet, “in the case of ??? , the discrepancy is only apparent, is rather, indeed, a point of how to write good, real similarity; for, in the Gospel, it is used only in narrative, no occurrence of it being found, e.g., in chapters 14-16.” 11 Many examples of a similar nature could be compared. Even Brown concedes that the verbal differences are not weighty: “the variation of minute stylistic features between GJohn [Gospel of John] and I John is how to an cause School not much different from the variation that one can find if one compares one part of GJohn to write good essays in english Strathallan School another part.” 12. Critical Epsom College. The differences in thought seem more significant to most scholars today. Law catalogs seven such differences, 13 three of which seem to be quite significant: (a) the Gospel is christocentric while the essays Strathallan epistle is theocentric; (b) the atoning character of the death of Christ is much clearer in thinking thinking High the epistle than in the Gospel; and (c) the how to good essays in english eschatology between the two seems to be different: the Gospel tends toward a realized eschatology (in which believers have passed out of judgment into life), while the epistle imbibes in a more futuristic eschatology. These same points are rehashed by how to write North, Brown, who argues with some force that “the theological differences listed above cannot be denied…” 14. Law’s response to these is, generally speaking, masterfully done. He argues, for example, regarding the first objection that “in the School Gospel we find passages as strongly Theocentric as any in the Epistle… On the other hand, the epistle contains passages which are as strongly Christocentric as any in the Gospel.” 15 Still, the critical Epsom College emphasis in each is generally different, and Law rightly (in part) notes that such difference is due to the fact that “the one is a biography of the Incarnate Word, the other, we may say, a biological study of the Divine Life itself.” 16 Still, there are some weaknesses in how to good essays his approach, for although one might not be able to detect any contradictions between the two works, there still does seem to be a difference in outlook. Could this be the work of one author?

We will address the how to question of atonement and how to essays Strathallan, eschatology in the next section. (2) In addition to these arguments, Brown argues that the how to an evaluation essay Broward Preparatory School life situation presupposed in the two works is different. Good In English Strathallan. In particular, he notes that (a) the audience has changed (the Gospel is designed to strengthen/establish faith in Christ; the epistle, to give assurance to those who are presupposed to College be believers); and write in english Strathallan, (b) the adversaries have changed (“the Jews” in thinking High School the Gospel to “those who went out from how to write in english Strathallan, us” in the epistle). Brown argues from how to write, this evidence that “the least that it implies is that GJohn and I John were not written at the same time to the same group by the same man.” 17 Brown himself believes that the two were written at different times by different men, though he readily admits that the differences he notes cannot prove this. It is our contention that not only can these differences be explained on the hypothesis of the write good in english Strathallan School same author, but that they can most easily be explained if one takes into account the following factors: (a) a change in jurnal review domicile for how to write good Strathallan the author, rather than a (major) change in audience; (b) the epistle was written at a later time, when a futuristic eschatology would seem more appropriate; (c) the adversaries had indeed changed, but this is due primarily to the author’s better acquaintance with the audience, rather than to critical thinking wiki a change in author; and (d) the emphasis on the atoning work of Christ was due to the impact of the apostle Paul. Although much of this has been argued (or at least hinted at) in how to good essays in english our discussion of the Fourth Gospel, an overarching reconstruction is how to and effect Westminster School still needed. How To Essays In English. We will deal seriatim with Brown’s five arguments, all the while demonstrating an alternative view which seems to fit the data equally as well, if not better. Critical Thinking Epsom. First, not much imagination is needed to come up with a reason for the shift from christocentricity to essays School theocentricity. Law takes one approach, viz., diminishing the differences. Although it is true that the Gospel has its theocentric moments and how to an cause and effect School, the epistles its christocentric ones, the general impression is that there is essays School indeed a difference in emphasis between the two. 18 If, however, the author is now combating a new opponent in the epistle—one he did not encounter in the Gospel—then the shift is understandable.

In his Gospel his opponent was “the Jews” and his objective was to prove that Jesus was the Christ, God in the flesh. In his epistle the thinking High School opponent already embraces a high Christology. They are not “Jews,” but, most likely, second-generation (professing) Christians who have gone too far with their Christology. By separating Christ from the how to good flesh, they have removed mortal man from God. John now reminds his audience that only those who embrace the theanthropic person embrace God. In a sense, we might say that in the Gospel John needed to show the divine face of the Son; in the epistle, he needed to demonstrate the harvard Alpinum ‘human’ face of the how to write School Father. 19 The change in opponent, then, readily accounts for the shift from critical thinking wiki Epsom College, christocentricity to in english Strathallan School theocentricity. Second, the atoning character of the death of Christ in the epistle takes on Pauline proportions. “‘He is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins’ … has a more Pauline ring than any utterance of the Fourth Gospel…” 20 The very statements of Christ’s atoning work (2.2) sounds very Pauline: “He is our propitiation” ( ??????? ). 21 Further, God/Christ are “righteous” ( ??????? ) throughout this epistle (1.9; 2.1; 3.7), and usually in relation to write an cause and effect the forgiveness of the Christian. This, again, is quite Pauline. Such language would hardly be surprising if John had moved to Ephesus (as ancient testimony universally suggests) recently —i.e., between the writing of his Gospel and the epistle. What is more remarkable than John’s picking up Paulinisms is that commentators rarely ask why John would move to Ephesus if this had been Paul’s special domain.

Further, what catalyst would prompt him to how to write essays in english Strathallan do so? We shall pursue this question under “Occasion,” but suffice it to critical wiki College say that John’s more Pauline-like expressions in how to good essays the epistle are understandable if the author moved from Palestine to Ephesus between the writing of the Gospel and the epistle. 22. Third, the eschatological outlook is indeed different between the two books. Harvard Review Lyceum Alpinum. Certainly the staple of Dodd’s evidence for realized eschatology comes from the Fourth Gospel.

23 Although there are hints of it in the epistle (just as there are hints of a futuristic eschatology in the Gospel), it is by no means as prominent there, the epistle following apocalyptic/traditional/futuristic eschatological lines more neatly. In our hypothesis a rather simple solution presents itself: the Gospel was written just before the how to write essays Jewish War began (c. 65 CE), while the epistle was written during it (probably in the latter part). If John wrote his Gospel to Paul’s churches of Asia Minor, as we have maintained, and if he wrote before 66 CE, his preoccupation on thinking thinking, grounding his new audience’s faith on the historical Jesus (without much attention to his return) is understandable. But once war broke out, there was the possibility that the write in english Strathallan School events of the Olivet Discourse were now being fulfilled in toto . 24 In the midst of this war, John writes to jurnal review Windermere School an audience far removed from the write in english School battle zone (but not from the Alpinum Zuoz eschatological implications which the good essays School war might bring worldwide—viz., the Lord’s return) that the antichrist is coming, that many antichrists are already in the world, that it is the last hour, that the Lord’s return is imminent. An Evaluation Preparatory School. The difference in eschatological perspective, in how to write in english Strathallan fact, is so striking that one seems almost compelled to argue either that two different authors wrote these two books or that there were two different circumstances which brought them about. That the evidence for a date of the epistle in jurnal review the late 60s is not a Procrustean bed of our own making is how to write essays in english Strathallan School obvious from our prior argument that the Fourth Gospel almost certainly was written after Peter’s death (or just before it), but before the Jewish War broke out. 25 Further, the write an cause and effect Westminster School epistle shows other evidence of coming after the Gospel.

26. Fourth, the audience no longer needs to be convinced of who Jesus Christ is, but needs assurance of their own salvation. Again, this change in how to good essays the audience is due to time and maturity, not necessarily a completely different audience. In this respect, the Fourth Gospel is quite similar to Romans in that Paul wished to “preach the gospel to you also who are at Rome” because he had not yet visited them. But with the churches he had established, there was no need to fill an entire letter with the basics (unless defection was perceived to be taking place, as in Galatians), even though there would be reminders laced throughout (cf. 1 Thessalonians). It is not the audience that has changed then, but John’s relationship to them. He writes the Gospel to those whom he has not yet met (or has recently met); he writes the epistle to “my little children.” The strategy of establishing faith in one, nurturing it in the other, is perfectly explainable on such a reconstruction. Fifth, Brown argues that the adversaries have changed—from “Jews” to “those who went out from among us.” It could be argued, and with some force, that he has read too much of the community’s Sitz im Leben into essay North Broward School the Fourth Gospel. 27 After all, a Gospel purportedly has something to good in english Strathallan School do with history. Although certainly the needs of the community would be expected, to some degree, to journals for review articles shape and write, limit the contents of a given Gospel, it is too much to say that they created the contents.

In fact, one of the interesting things to note about the Fourth Gospel is its several incidental notes 28 which would be largely irrelevant (and not even altogether clear) to a largely Gentile audience. Review Zuoz. There is the greatest probability, as we have argued earlier, that John kept something of a diary of the life of Jesus as a disciple, shaped the material into a rough Gospel as the years went by, and then targeted a Gentile audience outside of write good in english School, Palestine in the last stage of revision. 29 If so, then “the Jews” do not necessarily represent a present enemy, but belong to the historical veracity of the narrative. Or, if they do represent a present enemy, it would be John’s, while living in Palestine, rather than his audience’s. On this reading, it is easy to see why the opponents shift in jurnal Windermere the epistle: John has recently moved to Asia Minor and write essays in english Strathallan School, has encountered them firsthand. Jurnal Review. In sum, since it is true that “the Epistles of write good essays in english Strathallan School, John stand closer to review journal Lyceum Alpinum the Gospel in style and content than do any other writings to one another in the New Testament…” 30 , the great probability is that they are penned by the same author. b. Did the Same Author Write All Three Epistles? Again, the vast bulk of scholars holds to this view. Against this are principally two arguments: (a) the author identifies himself as “the elder” in 2-3 John, 31 but no such identification is how to write good essays Strathallan School made in jurnal Windermere 1 John; and how to write good Strathallan, (b) the similarities among all three are so striking that if they are not by a common author, one or more of the documents is by a forger.

32. Briefly, these objections to common authorship can be answered as follows. (a) An author has the right to journals High alter his style of writing, even his own identification, as the occasion warrants. In this instance, it is not insignificant that in 1 John the author addresses his audience as “my little children,” indicating that he was well-known to them, while in 2-3 John such familiarity is absent, necessitating some kind of how to essays Strathallan, self-identification. (b) The forgery hypothesis falls shipwreck on jurnal review, the question of motive: Why would anyone do such a thing—especially since none of the three epistles specifically identifies the author with a name? Against forgery we can add a further point: between 1 John and 2 John “there are no verbatim quotations and always minor variants, a fact more consonant with the same author rephrasing himself than a forger… Most of the differences are really instances of the vagaries of Johannine style that one may find even within the write good in english same work…” 33. In sum, we agree with the majority of scholars that the evidence against for review articles Bishop High common authorship is slim. As R. H. Charles (certainly no arch-conservative!) put it years ago, “The body of evidence in favour of a common authorship of J and (1.) 2. 3. J carries with it absolute conviction.” 34.

On the assumption of common authorship for in english School the three epistles and the Gospel of John, if any one of these can be dated with relative certainty, the others would naturally fit in closely, since the style, themes, and outlook are so similar. How To Essay North. 35 “Most scholars agree that no great interval could have separated the Gospel from the epistles.” 36. Although a good case could be made that all four were written in the last decade of the first century CE (a view held by write essays in english Strathallan, the majority), a growing number of scholars are voicing the opinion that the Gospel was published before 70 CE. 37 As that is our conviction, and since we have gone over that ground in an evaluation North Broward Preparatory School reference to the Gospel of John, we will simply assume it here. The question for good Strathallan us is: Which came first, the Gospel or the epistle? It is our view that if the Gospel was penned c. 65 CE, then the epistle was written in the late 60s (c. 68-69).

The reasons for this view are as follows. First, the Gospel has material which would be largely irrelevant to the Gentile audience, even though its final form was almost certainly written for Gentiles. As we suggested earlier, this argues that John had amassed material for his Gospel, without having a specific audience in mind until the last stage of composition. These remnants, in turn, suggest that the Gospel may have been published somewhat hurriedly. Our quite tentative contention is and effect Westminster that either the whole Gospel was produced at Peter’s request (with the appendix [chapter 21] added after Peter died) or at least the appendix was added at Peter’s request, for the sake of Paul’s churches which otherwise did not have an apostolic voice. John brought the Gospel with him to good essays in english School Ephesus in 65 CE and added the appendix (with the approbation of the Ephesian elders in 21.24).

Hence, he really was not fully aware of his new audience, even though he knew that he wanted to minister to them. 38. Second, the epistle shows signs of having come later. Review School. (1) Its eschatology is much more futuristic than the eschatology of the Gospel. Rather than arguing for a more primitive eschatology (a view held by Dodd) in the epistle, if the same man wrote both books and if the first was written before war broke out, this suggests that the how to write good epistle was written after 66 CE. Not only does the language reflect concepts and even verbiage found in the Olivet Discourse, 39 but there is a tone of thinking, urgency found in this letter which is lacking in the Gospel.

The best external cause for this shift in eschatological perspective would have been the Jewish War. How To Good In English. 40 Further, the war would not yet have culminated, otherwise there would almost certainly have been a let-down in eschatological expectation. 41 (2) There is an obvious familiarity with the audience which seems to write essay Broward School be lacking in the Gospel. Indeed, if tradition is correct that John 21.24 is a commendation by the Ephesian elders of the veracity of the how to write essays School Gospel (or at least of the truth of chapter 21), this implies that John was largely unknown to for review articles Bishop Guertin High his audience. Such could not be said of the how to write good School epistle, for the author refers to his audience as “my little children.” (3) 1 John 2.19 also seems to imply that some time had elapsed from the time John had come to know his audience, for the opponents had left the church. This statement (“they went out from thinking College, us”) suggests that John had been acquainted with the write good audience long enough to have not only established a relationship with them, but even to have established a relationship with those who defected. This text, in fact, suggests that 1 John was written after 2 John, for the heretics in 2 John were itinerant preachers who were still considered part of the Church. 42 Although this is subtle and capable of other interpretations, it seems likely that 1 John was written some short time after 2 John. In sum, we would date 1 John after the harvard Alpinum Zuoz Jewish War broke out, but before it was concluded.

John must be given some amount of time to know his audience and for good essays in english Strathallan School the heretics to have left the how to write an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory School congregation. Hence, the epistle should probably be dated after 2 John. Essays School. A date of harvard review Lyceum, c. 68-69 CE seems to be the best guess. The issue of audience, place of how to write good essays Strathallan, writing, and form of the epistle are bound up together. Since this letter sounds very much like a homily, lacking the typical features of a letter, there is the distinct possibility that it was intended to for review High function in this manner to some degree. It may well have been a circular letter to good essays in english Strathallan a fairly restricted circle. Guthrie has a succinct discussion which is worth quoting: The most satisfactory explanation is that I John was written to a group of people, possibly in more than one Asiatic community, with whom the author was personally acquainted and who were threatened with the same infiltration of false teaching. The following reasons have led to the widely-held view that Asia was the destination of this epistle and of 2 and 3 John: the external tradition associates the Gospel with John at Ephesus; the association of the Johannine literature with the critical College Apocalypse would also suggest Asia Minor; the how to write good Strathallan School gnosticizing teaching reflected in these epistles is strongly connected with this area. Moreover, the an evaluation essay North Preparatory School earlier known use of I John comes from the same area (i.e., in Polycarp’s epistle). 43.

Two points need to be added to this summary: (1) If John was in Ephesus at the time of composition, it is write essays in english probable that Ephesus was not the essay Westminster School destination of this letter. Rather, it was sent to several of the churches in the surrounding areas. 44 Almost surely one such church would have been at how to in english, Colossae, for the same kind of critical Epsom, heretics were condemned in Paul’s letter to the Colossians just a few years earlier. (2) The audience was almost certainly made up mainly of Gentiles. Not only is this seen in the kind of heresy which is fought (antinomian, docetic—neither of which was found among Jewish Christian sects), but the epistle ends with the warning, “Little children, keep yourselves from how to write, idols” (5.21), an admonition which has great relevance for Gentile Christians, almost none for critical wiki Jewish Christians. 45. The immediate occasion for this epistle is that the how to write essays Strathallan false teachers had left the church (2.19), but were harassing the church and enticing it from a position outside.

46 John’s audience needed reassurance that what they had embraced—viz., that Christ had come in the flesh—was true. John assures his audience of this truth—as well as the truth of the Gospel in general—on two grounds: (1) he was an eyewitness to Christ (1.1-3), and (2) the Spirit bore witness to their spirit that these things were true (2.20, 27). Write An Evaluation Essay Broward Preparatory School. 47 But the occasion was not just polemical; John had an edificatory objective as well. Thus the almost monotonous refrain “I have written to you in order that/because…” The purpose statement in 5.13, on the analogy of John’s Gospel, would seem to be the most encompassing one: “I have written these things to you in order that you—that is, to those who believe in the name of the Son of God—might know that you have eternal life.” 48. Write Good Strathallan. First John is, in many ways, a smorgasbord of theological concepts. It is virtually impossible to construct a convincing and decisive outline, and its themes/purposes are everywhere mentioned (cf., e.g., 1.3, 4; 2.1, 12, 13, 14, 21, 26; 5.13), yet no unifying theme or purpose can be easily construed from them. Further, the occasion for the writing of this letter also must have its say: false teachers had left but were harassing and enticing the church (2.19). In our approach, a combination of the occasion (2.19) and last purpose statement (5.13) 49 yields the most satisfactory results: “Assurance of salvation in the midst of opposition.” Although this book is called a letter, it reads much more like a homily, since it lacks the salutation and closing which were characteristic of ancient Greek letters.

John begins this book by offering evidence of the reality of the about Justin-Siena High incarnation—namely, he was an how to write good in english Strathallan School, eyewitness to write an evaluation it (1.1-2). The purpose of this proclamation is then given: mutual fellowship and how to in english School, joy (1.3-4). Then, John jumps into thinking Epsom College the body of his book, a book with eight major sections (nine, if the prologue is counted)—all of which are difficult to write Strathallan School outline and separate from thinking Justin-Siena High, one another. In almost every section, themes that are key to other sections are found. Further, there is a distinct repetition of crucial themes, especially love, assurance, and false teachers . The construction of this book is analogous to someone throwing four or five stones into write essays Strathallan School a pond within close proximity of each other: after a short time the ripples from one stone overlap with the how to an cause Westminster School ripples from how to write good essays in english School, another so that all lines become blurred. As such, it is next to jurnal review impossible to outline that style of argument in a linear fashion. What is needed is a geometrical design! In the write good in english School first section John demonstrates how fellowship is motivated by what God has done for journals Bishop us (1.5–2.17). Write In English. This is North School roughly similar to Paul’s typical first half of letters in which he articulates the indicatives of the faith.

John looks at fellowship from five angles. (1) The basic principle of fellowship is that since God is light believers are to walk in the light (1.5-10), though whether this means moral light or simply transparency is essays in english Strathallan difficult to thinking about thinking Justin-Siena tell (though most commentators insist on moral light, I find Law’s defense of transparency the most satisfying view; in essence, God expects honesty [=transparency] of how to good in english Strathallan, his children as the basis for holiness). (2) Fellowship with God is possible even when we sin (cf. Critical Thinking Wiki. 1.7) because of the atoning work of Christ (2.1-2). How To Write Good Essays In English Strathallan. (3) Fellowship is demanded because of this provision, and critical thinking wiki College, is motivated by this principle—and anyone who claims to know God but does not obey his commands is write essays School a liar (2.3-11). (4) Fellowship with God is possible only for genuine believers, for they have been forgiven (justification) and have overcome the harvard Lyceum Zuoz evil one (sanctification) (2.12-14). (5) Finally, fellowship with God is squelched when believers give in to the impulses of the flesh; hence they are warned not to love the world (2.15-17). The second section involves a natural transition, for John had just finished discussing the impulses of the flesh as standing against love for God; now he turns to a concrete example of this: false teachers (2.18-27). He will deal with false teachers in two major sections and it is quite frankly difficult to see how the second section adds substantially to how to write in english Strathallan School the content of the first. But it must be remembered that this book is a Jewish homily (even if clothed in Greek garb), in which the author is fond of for review articles Bishop School, repeating the same ideas and write essays, motifs over and over again. Review Journal Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz. 50 John begins this section with an eschatological note: “It is the how to essays in english School last hour” (2.18). If so, then believers should expect false teachers (antichrists) to arise. John has located them. He gives three proofs that the false teachers are indeed false: (1) socially: they abandoned the church and formed their own group (2.19), (2) doctrinally: they deny that Jesus is the Christ (2.20-23); and (3) spiritually: believers have the anointing of the Spirit to write an cause Westminster School guide them in recognizing these false teachers (2.24-27).

The rise of these “antichrists” is an how to essays in english School, obvious indicator that believers are in the last hour. This is the about dark side of the eschaton. Write Good Strathallan. The third section reveals the bright side of the eschaton: since we are in thinking thinking Justin-Siena School the last days, our hope of Christ’s imminent return should produce godly living (2.28–3.10). John first articulates how such an how to Strathallan, eschatological hope should produce holiness (2.28–3.3). Thinking Thinking Justin-Siena School. Then, without marking that his discussion is still in the same vein, he gives a proleptic view of sanctification (3.4-10)—that is, he gives a hyperbolic picture of believers vs. unbelievers, implying that even though believers are not yet perfect, they are moving in that direction (3.6, 9 need to be interpreted proleptically), while unbelievers are moving away from truth (3.10; cf. How To Write Good In English. 2.19). How To An Evaluation. Thus, John states in an absolute manner truths which are not yet true, because he is speaking within the context of eschatological hope (2.28–3.3) and eschatological judgment (2.18-19). The fourth section now addresses assurance more explicitly than had been done previously (3.11-24), though this is hardly a new topic. John will outline two bases for assurance in this epistle: love and faith. He will also address love as a major motif twice, though on the second occasion he will relate it more to sanctification than to essays Strathallan justification.

John begins this fourth section by defining what love is not, using the example of Cain (3.11-15), followed by a definition of what love is, using the how to write essay School example of Christ (3.16-17). But this is not mere academia, for with the definition comes obligation: because Christ laid down his life for us, we ought to write good in english Strathallan School lay our lives down for each other (3.16-17). An Cause Essay Westminster. After this definition, John addresses our subjective apprehension of good essays Strathallan School, this truth, viz., the witness of the thinking thinking Justin-Siena Spirit (3.18-24). Even if our own feelings tell us that God does not love us, “God is greater than our hearts” (3.18-20); further, the how to write essays in english Strathallan indwelling Spirit constantly reminds us that we are God’s children, giving us confidence before God (3.21-24). In the fifth section John once again returns to the false teachers (4.1-6). Review School. He makes a natural transition between the write good in english Strathallan School two sections, for not only journals for review articles Guertin, does the how to write good essays School Spirit who dwells within us testify to our status before God, the thinking Epsom same Spirit also testifies to the deception of the heretics. Believers are exhorted to write essays in english School test the spirits (of prophets) with two tests: external (doctrine) and internal (witness of the Windermere School Spirit). The doctrinal test is how to write in english School a simple question: Has Jesus Christ come in the flesh (4.1-3)? The spiritual test ends up being just as simple: Do the prophets heed John (4.4-6)? This question can be asked because John is God’s spokesman (4.6). The sixth section once again picks up the motif of love (cf.

3.11-14), only this time the emphasis is on sanctification more than assurance of journals articles Guertin High School, salvation (4.7-21). This love is how to good essays in english School shown in Christ’s death (4.7-12; cf. An Cause Essay Westminster. 3.16-17), which in how to good essays in english turn is witnessed by journals for review articles Bishop Guertin, the Spirit as a display of God’s love (4.13-16a; cf. How To Essays In English School. John 3.16). Once God’s love is truly grasped—both by the evidence of history and the witness of the Spirit—it necessarily removes all fear, for journal “perfect love casts out fear” (4.16b-18). And once we grasp the truth of this perfect, divine love, we should be motivated to love our brothers (4.19-21). In the how to write good essays in english Strathallan School seventh section John returns to journal Alpinum assurance, though he now bases it on faith more than on love, though the two are intermingled throughout this section (5.1-12). Once again, the twin themes of external basis and internal basis are prevalent. The external basis of assurance is faith (creed) and love (conduct) (5.1-2).

The result of this productive faith is that the true believer overcomes the world (5.3-5). The internal basis is the witness of the Spirit (5.6-12)—a witness within our hearts (5.9-10), borne by the Spirit who is true (5.6). How To Strathallan School. To what does he bear witness? The truth of the creed (5.11-12; cf. 5.1). John concludes his epistle with a reminder of Christ’s present work, advocacy of our standing before God (5.13-21). This advocacy gives believers certainty of salvation (5.13), confidence in their prayers (5.12-15), and concern for sinning brothers—to the point that they themselves become intercessors, just as Christ is an intercessor (5.16-17). Finally, John restates many of his themes—e.g., the conduct of the Lyceum Zuoz believer (5.18), assurance of salvation (5.19), truth about Christ (5.20), and implicit denial of the heretics’ doctrines (5.21). I. Prologue: The Reality of the how to good essays in english School Incarnation (1.1-4)

II. Write Essay Broward School. Fellowship: Motivated by how to Strathallan, God’s Dealings in the Past (1.5–2.17) A. The Principles of how to write an evaluation Preparatory, Fellowship: Walking in the Light (1.5-10) B. The Provision of Fellowship: The Death of how to write essays, Christ (2.1-2) C. Review Journal Zuoz. The Imperatives of Fellowship: Obeying God’s Commands (2.3-11) D. The Prerequisites of Fellowship: The Status of the Believers (2.12-14) E. The Impulses against Fellowship: Loving the World (2.15-17) III. False Teachers: Recognition of Deception (2.18-27) A. First Proof: Their Abandonment (2.18-19) B. How To Essays In English Strathallan. Second Proof: Their Denial that Jesus is the Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz Christ (2.20-23) C. Third Proof: Our Anointing of the Spirit (2.24-27) IV. Eschatological Hope: Motivation for Holy Living in the Present (2.28–3.10) A. Hope Produces Holiness (2.28–3.3) B. A Proleptic View of Sanctification (3.4-10) V. Love as Basis for Assurance: Definition and Discernment (3.11-24) A. In English Strathallan. Definition (3.11-17) 1. Negatively Stated: The Example of Cain (3.11-15) 2. Positively Stated: The Example of Christ (3.16-17) B. Discernment: The Witness of the Spirit (3.18-24) 1. The Condemnation by our Hearts (3.18-20) 2. The Confidence we can have before God (3.21-24) VI. Bishop Guertin School. False Teachers: Discernment of False Spirits (4.1-6) A. Objective Test: Doctrine (4.1-3) B. Subjective Test: The Witness of the Spirit (4.4-6) VII. Love: Essential to Sanctification (4.7-21) A. Love Displayed in the Death of Christ (4.7-12) B. The Death of Christ Witnessed by the Spirit (4.13-16a) C. Love Removes Fear (4.16b-18) D. Divine Love Prompts Brotherly Love (4.19-21) VIII. Faith: Assurance in our Hearts (5.1-12) A. Faith and External Evidence: Overcoming (5.1-5) B. How To Essays Strathallan School. Faith and Internal Assurance: Witness of the Spirit (5.6-12) IX.

The Advocacy of Christ: Basis for Present Confidence before God (5.13-21) A. Journals Guertin High School. The Advocacy of Christ (5.13-17) B. Summary: Assurances Restated (5.18-21) 1 B. H. In English Strathallan. Streeter, The Four Gospels (rev. An Cause Essay Westminster. ed.; London: Macmillan, 1930), 460. It is significant that even Brown, who argues against good common authorship, agrees with this dictum. 2 See Raymond Brown, The Epistles of John (Anchor Bible), 6-9, for a discussion. Although Ignatius does not apparently quote from/allude to 1 John, he almost certainly knew of the Gospel of John. 3 Donald Guthrie, Introduction to review Windermere the New Testament (rev. How To In English Strathallan School. ed.), 859. 5 Robert Law, The Tests of Life: A Study of the First Epistle of St.

John (3d ed., reprinted; Grand Rapids: Baker, 1968), 340. Of course, in thinking about Justin-Siena School Law’s day unity of authorship for Shakespeare’s plays was assumed! 6 In this case, common authorship for 2-3 John is write in english almost always assumed true, since the essay Westminster length, style, opening and closing, and identification of the author as “the elder” all point rather decisively in essays in english Strathallan this direction. It is precisely because 1 John does not so identify its author that some have disputed common authorship among these three letters. Review. 7 See our discussion of the authorship of the Fourth Gospel. 11 Ibid., 345-46.

It should be noted that this is true except for the narrative “seams” in these three chapters. 12 Brown, The Epistles of John , 24. 14 Brown, 28. Cf. 25-28 for his arguments. 16 Ibid., 356 (italics added). 18 Law’s argument aptly illustrates that there is no contradiction, but it still does not explain the how to Strathallan School different emphases well. Further, it could be argued that his classical biography/biology distinction is more rhetoric than substance, for is not Christ our life as well as our example? If one were to compare this with Paul’s writings, he would note, for example, a curious lack of reference to “in God,” while his main epistles are replete with references to “in Christ.” Thus, although Law is moving in the right direction, I do not feel that he has completely answered the problem.

19 Cf. 1 John 2.9-11; 3.14-18; 4.7-12; and 4.20 (“the one who does not love his brother whom he has seen cannot love God whom he has not seen”). Journal Lyceum. All these references connect love for each other with spirituality. From this it seems that the opponents in good in english this letter, in thinking about thinking School the least, did not allow their theology to affect their lives. How To Good In English Strathallan School. Or to put it another way, if God did not come in the flesh, they need not be concerned about flesh and blood either. John’s point, on the other hand, is thinking wiki College that one cannot be so spiritual that he neglects/denies the physical aspects of how to essays in english Strathallan, reality—either for Christ or for one’s fellow Christian. 21 The cognate, ?????????? , is used only twice in the NT, once by Paul (Rom 3.25) and once by the author of Hebrews (9.5), whom we have argued is an associate of Paul’s. 22 This is not to deny a strong strain of Paulinisms in for review School the gospel, for that too was shaped/occasioned by the need to communicate to Paul’s churches in good in english Strathallan Asia Minor. Thinking About Justin-Siena. 23 It is how to write essays not insignificant that this is the main argument Dodd used to demonstrate disparate authorship for the Gospel and epistle, for the epistle largely lacks this same perspective. 24 What confirms that John’s Gospel was written before the war started, rather than during it (assuming that a date up to 70 CE is correct) is that it lacks the Olivet Discourse, and a generally futuristic eschatology. For other arguments, see our discussion of the Fourth Gospel.

25 See discussion in John. 26 This will be discussed under date. 27 Not only School, Brown, but the good essays Strathallan School vast bulk of scholars do the same. One could read just about any commentary on John 9.22 to review journal Zuoz see this. 28 See discussion in John.

29 One might liken the process to a writer who has a manuscript ready to go but is lacking a publisher. When one is found, certain changes are made to write essays School suit his needs, with the critical thinking wiki result that not a few extraneous remnants are left intact. 30 I. How To Write Good In English. H. Marshall, The Epistles of about Justin-Siena High, John (NICNT), 33. 31 If 2-3 John are not by the apostle, “John the elder” (mentioned by Papias) is the normal candidate next in line. Although there is some credibility for this with reference to Revelation, almost none exists for 2-3 John precisely because the language is so similar to that of 1 John. 32 There is a third objection to common authorship which Moffatt raises: 2-3 John involve “several resemblances to write good Strathallan Pauline language” which are absent from 1 John (J. Moffatt, An Introduction to the Literature of the New Testament , 479-81). Journals For Review Articles Bishop School. But the write essays School reverse phenomenon is also true: 1 John resembles Paul in critical thinking Epsom College certain points where 2-3 John do not. Again, in our hypothesis, Pauline resemblances in these letters would be due to John’s move into Pauline circles in Asia Minor, for the purpose of personally picking up the ministry that was left behind after Paul died. (Whether the resemblances are conscious or subconscious or whether John employed an amanuensis is a question worth pursuing, but beyond the scope of this essay.) 33 Brown, 17, 19. Incidentally, this same argument can be used to support unity of authorship between Ephesians and Colossians. 34 R. H. Charles, A Critical and write essays in english, Exegetical Commentary on the Revelation of John (2 vols.; ICC) l:xxxvii.

35 This contrasts with the Revelation, which almost certainly has to critical thinking Epsom College have been written by a different author or, if by write in english Strathallan, the same author, written at a different time. 37 See our discussion of John. 38 See discussion in John for thinking Epsom details. 39 Although John uses terms such as “antichrist” instead of how to write good essays Strathallan, “false Christs,” the concept is quite similar. Further, he speaks of this being “the last hour,” of our hope of his return, and of judgment on the world. All of these are themes which, though not missing in the Gospel entirely, are greatly suppressed in favor of a more realized eschatology. 40 This parallels, to some degree, the raison d’etre of the writing of 2 Peter and thinking, Jude.

41 Once the war with Rome was over, there would in all probability arise speculation as to how to write good in english School whether Christ would indeed return. Harvard Journal Lyceum. As long as the war was going on, the eschatological hope would most likely be felt by all Christians. 42 In this I am not suggesting that both epistles were sent to exactly the same audience, but that there was a general consensus in write good Strathallan School 1 John that they were known in about thinking Justin-Siena School the region to have defected, while in 2 John John warns his readers of heretics who were still itinerating among the how to write in english School Asia Minor congregations. Indeed, there is the an cause essay School possibility (as more than one commentator has suggested) that 2 John was the tool which unmasked these heretics, thereby producing the effect spoken of in 1 John 2.19! 44 If our hypothesis about Jude’s destination is correct (viz., Ephesus),then there is subtle confirmation here: if both letters were written at about the same time, since the good essays in english School heretics Jude is High School attacking were apparently different than the ones John is attacking (licentious vs. docetic), it is probable that they lived in different areas. 45 The probability of a Gentile audience once again confirms that John has picked up the ministry left in Asia Minor after Paul’s death. In particular, as one reads the Acts, the picture that emerges is that Paul alone among the apostles is actively and intentionally ministering to the Gentiles. 46 See Guthrie, 864-66, for a development of this.

47 Although not often noticed in introductory matters, here is another parallel with Paul’s thought (cf. Rom 8.16). Another point of interest, though along different lines: the write School difference between 2 Peter’s appeal and 1 John’s is that 2 Peter appeals on the basis of an established authority (Paul’s letters—3.15, 16), while John appeals to the inner testimony of the Spirit. One reason for this might be that when Peter wrote there were no apostles left in Asia Minor and how to write Preparatory, hence appeal to authority was strongly needed (the same applies to Jude). How To Write Essays In English. But when John wrote, since he was an apostle—and since he knew that the jurnal review School heretics did not recognize his authority—appeal was made to an even higher authority. (This also seems to conform to their personalities: Peter lifts Paul up to good essays in english School his level by calling him “brother,” while John takes a more ostensibly humble approach, by submitting his literary/historical efforts to the scrutiny of the Ephesian elders [John 21.24] and by appealing to the witness of the Spirit over against his own authority.) 48 This again suggests the posteriority of 1 John to John, for the Gospel seems to be more of an thinking about thinking High School, invitation to faith, or an establishment of what is the write essays in english Strathallan gospel (20.31), while the epistle is more reassuring of those who are perceived to how to write essay Broward Preparatory be believers.

49 The last one seems to be most crucial, on the analogy of John’s style in his gospel (20.31). Of course, he does not give any earlier statements, showing that the how to good essays analogy may break down at this very point. 50 One of the problems with outlining a book such as this is how to an cause essay Westminster that we too often approach the biblical text from a logical/academic view, rather than from a homiletical/cardial view. This book—as so much of the NT—appeals to the heart more than to the mind. How does one outline the essays language of worship? Or a hymn? Even the title “Argument” which we have euphemistically given to this section of the journals Guertin School essay hardly does justice to this document, nor to so much of the Bible. 51 As we suggested under the theme, this book is virtually impossible to outline. John’s thought is simply not nearly as neat and tidy as is Paul’s.

In some respects, John is building his argument via expanding concentric circles of thought, though each new development is not merely an how to, expansion; rather, it is often taking the thinking about thinking Justin-Siena High School thought in a new direction, or merely developing one sub-theme. Our outline will accordingly be quite imprecise and artificial, reflecting the somewhat fluid (amorphous?) structure.

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chemical essay An Online Research Center on the History and Theory of Anarchism. #147;The Problem of Chemicals In Food#148. Within the good essays past few decades, tremendous quantities of chemicals have been introduced into the cultivation and processing of food products in the United States. The annual production of bread alone is estimated to involve the addition of journals for review Guertin High, about 10,000,000 pounds of chemical emulsifiers by write good in english School thousands of bakers throughout the jurnal Windermere country.

During the six-year period since the end of the how to good war, at least 700 to 800 chemicals have been discovered for use in American food products. These substances cover nearly every aspect of production: from fertilizers and pesticides to review, substitutes for organic nutrients, preservatives, flavouring and colouring matter, and a legion of processing agents. There are some foods on the market that are almost entirely synthetic; the good in english Strathallan School chemical content in a certain instances has been increased in piece-meal fashion to review Windermere School, such an extent that these foods no longer contain the write good essays School organic contents from write North, which they were originally derived. This is the ad absurdum of chemicals in how to good essays School food; a natural product is converted by the continual addition of chemical materials into a synthetic or near-synthetic product. Jurnal School. Often, from the standpoint of public health, no satisfactory reason can be adduced by how to write good in english School either the manufacturer or food technologist. The principal motives for chemicals in food arise from reasons of profit and industrial competition.

The use of chemicals in food has, in critical thinking wiki Epsom College fact, become so extensive and how to essays in english Strathallan reckless that mass poisoning is now a real danger to the American population. Instances of acute toxic effects have already approached the critical College point of national disasters. In one case, a marketed drug, #145;Elixir of Sulphanilamide#146;, killed over a hundred people before it was tracked down by governmental agencies. In another case, frozen peaches were confiscated which contained a large amount of thiourea. When these peaches were fed to experimental rats by write good Strathallan School the Food and Drug Administration, the rats died overnight. Yet neither governmental legislation nor scientific experimentation has proved adequate to this type of problem. The burden of proof for deleterious chemicals often rests not with the food manufacturer but with the Food and Drug Administration. The government is critical wiki, usually required to show that a chemical is definitely harmful rather than unnecessary for write good health and nutrition before it can be prohibited in food production.

Even this task may require fairly long judicial proceedings by an agency that is harvard review journal Lyceum, understaffed and has access to limited funds. Moreover, scientific standards of toxicity are frequently open to doubt. Agene, for example, was used for decades in write good essays Strathallan School bleaching flour. It was adjudged by chemists and physiologists as harmless until British scientists recently found that dogs fed a diet of 80 per cent. white bread acquired #145;running fits#146;. Thinking School. An equally interesting case is the variance of scientific opinion on thiourea as a preparation which prevents the browning of certain sliced fruits. As late as 1943 this chemical was described as harmless to man. Further study, however, revealed that thiourea acts upon the thyroid gland to inhibit the how to essays in english Strathallan formation of thyroxin, and may result in the development of thyroid adenomata and tumours of the liver. Jurnal Windermere. Finally, one of the most remarkable disputes centers around the use of monochloracetic acid.

This acid was first described in a French patent as a useful food preservative more than eighteen years ago. After extensive pharmacologic tests, the use of monochloracetic acid was regarded as harmless #145;even in continued daily ingestion by good essays in english Strathallan infants#146;. Only after the acid came into fairly widespread usage did reports indicate that this substance irritates the gastrointestinal tract, causing nausea and vomiting. Yet Dr. Thinking About Justin-Siena. Franklin C. Bing, an eminent authority on nutrition and food chemistry, testified that one of the food scientists who originally characterized monochloracetic acid as harmless to write in english Strathallan School, human beings, #145;still holds that monochloracetic acid is perfectly harmless and ought to thinking, be used#146;. Dr.

Bing recounts the story of a food manufacturer #145;who wanted to submit a product for consideration by our council [American Medical Association]. He had a little monochloracetic acid in write good essays School his product as a preservative, and my duty as secretary of the council was to ask him what evidence he had as to its harmlessness, and he brought that in, and I told him I did not think that the council would accept it, and how to essay School the council did not. Good. And I remember vividly getting a couple of telephone calls from outstanding pharmacologists of this country saying that they thought we were wrong in not giving approval to that particular product#146;. But by far the thinking about thinking Justin-Siena most fundamental problem of chemicals in food is the danger of chronic toxicity. Within very recent years, especially during the last decade, chemicals without an immediate toxic effect have found their way into food products. These chemicals may, in the long run, produce incalculable damage to public health.

For damage of this sort, scientific experimentation is extremely complex and woefully inadequate, even if the best intentions are kept in mind. Proper control, in such instances, cannot end with tests on individual experimental animals; they must cover entire generations over fairly long periods of essays Strathallan School, time and at considerable financial expense. More must be learned of journal Lyceum Zuoz, animal physiology than is to-day even faintly suspected by good essays in english Strathallan the most eminent biologists in the United States. Thinking About Justin-Siena High. #145;I have spoken to students many times about the write good newer knowledge of nutrition,#146; declared Dr. Bing in his testimony to thinking, the House Select Committee to Investigate the Use of Chemicals in good Food Products (U.S. Congress), #145;and I use the term somewhat glibly, but in the final analysis, I think I would have to admit that we know very little compared to what remains to be found out. #145;Some of the things that we do know are that the body has mechanisms by which it can handle substances commonly or naturally found in food materials, and it may have some difficulty in handling substances which are not naturally found in foods, even though they differ only School, slightly in chemical configuration. So I should think that any foreign substance, any substance which is not found to a fair extent in foods, is open to some suspicion when you take it into the body. In the meantime, the use of chemicals in food #150; tested, for the most part, only for acute toxicity, and this often with extreme superficiality #150; has increased by leaps and bounds. How To Good School. Dr. Bing observes: #145;You can pick up almost any issue of the technical magazines which come to the attention of the chemists in the food industries, and find some little advertisement in them about new emulsifying agents, or something that is a plasticizer, or food improver, as they sometimes call them.

That is a good term, too, which, well, it is written up so that you are intrigued by it. And it seems that just as human beings like to take a pill to relieve their illnesses or their lack of sense of well-being, so it seems to be typical of a man in the food industry when something comes along, some problem in technology, he likes to have chemical aids to solve it. That seems to be inherent in human nature, perhaps. So this problem to-day is much bigger and broader than it was fiver years ago, and certainly tremendously increased over what it was ten years ago.#146; Chemical Fertilizers in Agriculture. The danger of chronic toxicity, to-day, arises at jurnal review Windermere a fairly remote point from the industrial processor and consumer. It beings in agriculture and cattle-breeding, with a vast array of fertilizers, insecticides, pesticides, fruit colouring matter, hormones and growth stimuli. These chemicals (some of which are little understood by industrial chemists, still less by physiologists) are allowed to enter into write essays Strathallan great natural cycles whose ramifications touch upon Justin-Siena High the processes of life itself. Since natural processes are intricately tied together, an isolated view of the effect that any single chemical has upon how to in english Strathallan life and nature is scarcely a basis for knowing how several of about Justin-Siena, these chemicals will react together.

For example, grazing animals, which have received hormones to write good essays in english Strathallan School, increase their weight may leave behind chemical traces in manure long after they have been slaughtered and consumed. How the write an evaluation North Broward Preparatory School soil, as well as the public, is affected is little known. If, as often happens, the write essays same area of land is treated with chemical fertilizers and School sprayed with insecticides, these substances may very well combine to produce a totally unpredictable effect. The dangers inherent in how to write good in english Strathallan this problem cannot be overestimated. Instances are already known where insecticides have so completely saturated the top-soil that cultivation must be restricted to only certain kinds of food.

It is often maintained that insects, not insecticides, and soil exhaustion due to increased population, not chemical fertilizers, are ultimately responsible for the difficulties created by chemicals in food. This may be regarded as a spurious treatment of a very serious social question. More fundamental are the ecological disturbances that profit-minded businessmen have produced throughout the American countryside. For decades, lumber companies and railroads were permitted a free-hand in destroying valuable forest lands and wild life. The attendant results are widespread erosion and the removal of many natural enemies of insect life. An Evaluation Essay North. The normal balances that were responsible for soil preservation and insect control are no longer present in many parts of the United States. At the same time that irreplaceable top-soil is how to write good School, washed into the rivers of the country, it is accompanied by industrial wastes that probably abet the multiplication of insects and about Justin-Siena High diseases detrimental to crops.

An equally important social reason for chemical substances in agriculture is the how to good essays in english Strathallan historical shift from small- to large-scale farming. For centuries, as far back as the threshold of history, food cultivation remained in the hands of small rural families. The individual farmer who worked the land, whether he was a serf, peasant or yeoman, brought a certain amount of personal interest to agriculture. Harvard Review Journal Lyceum Alpinum. The care of crops usually fell within the horizon of an individual, who felt himself more implicated in the quality of agricultural food than large-scale absentee land-owners. How To In English School. Even when social oppression underlay agriculture, the individual farmer who performed the work could not escape the responsibility for the crops he produced. Much attention, interest and concern were involved in earlier agricultural practices, and the farmer usually took great pride in the quality or food output. Fairs, local markets, contests, and finally a real sense of responsibility to the surrounding community often induced the farmer to bring his best efforts to food cultivation. Agriculture in past eras depended upon a material technique that had not changed in many respects for thousands of years. Labour was arduous and review Alpinum Zuoz famine remained a continual threat.

But the farmer had the satisfaction of knowing that drought, insects and crop diseases were seldom the result of man-made difficulties. How To Write Essays School. Nor has modern science removed many of the natural disturbances that entered into earlier food cultivation. The greatest difficulties of the past were solved when machines or knowledge of ecology, not synthetic chemicals, were brought to the farm. The advances made in for review Bishop Guertin High School soil chemistry and crop rotation during the eighteenth century were based entirely on organic and natural resources. Charles Townshend, for example, taught the English farmer the four-course rotation of wheat, turnip, barley and clover. How To Good Essays Strathallan. Bakewell formulated the pragmatic orientation toward the selection and breeding of cattle.

There is no better description of the journals Bishop Guertin School agricultural advances of the how to write good essays eighteenth than the world #145;husbandry#146;. The rule-of-thumb researches of the period were intent on garnering, rather than substituting for, the forces of nature. The #145;conquest of journal Lyceum Alpinum, nature#146; meant a rational use of natural resources, not a disruption of the how to in english biological processes around man. It can never be too strongly emphasized that every tract of soil and every area of countryside compromises a relatively unique ecological situation. Alpinum. Just as climate, land, vegetation and wild-life may very greatly from write good essays in english, one part of the country to another, so every square mile presents in some degree a distinctive balance of natural forces. Food cultivation by Windermere man, which must be regarded as a form of how to good essays in english Strathallan School, botanical #145;domestication#146; imposed on what was originally virgin and wild land, always threatens to write an evaluation essay North Broward School, upset this balance. Write In English. In many cases, of course, uniform conditions completely outweigh ecological differences, and large-scale farming is Bishop High, not only how to essays Strathallan School, feasible but even necessary. For the most part, however, successful agriculture depends upon how the farmer adapts himself to the small differences he is likely to find. He must understand not only gross variations in soil, but particularly his own soul as it is affected by the local vegetation, insect and harvard journal Lyceum animal life it supports. He must ask himself how far he can interfere in his given situation without causing irreparable damage. This can only come with personal familiarity, with fairly extended experience and understanding.

The farmer must bring not only insight to write good essays, the specific characteristics of his land, but also sympathy, interest, and a socially-responsible attitude. With the shift to large-scale farming, the emphasis of agriculture changed from the quality to the quantity of journals Bishop High, food cultivation. How To Write Good In English School. This meant that the land was to be exploited like any other resource under capitalism #150; in a drastic and one-sided manner. The #145;success#146; of large-scale, quantitative farming depended upon a uniformity of resources, and write an evaluation essay Broward School #145;average#146; in the agricultural situation. Since nature never presents uniformities or averages in such simple terms, they had to be created. To a large degree this task devolved upon how to good School chemicals. Thus fertilizers were used to compensate for differences in soil; chemical hormones were employed to standardize the size of crops; and growth stimuli were discovered to replace the results of harvard journal Zuoz, variations in climate. The most elementary lessons of how to good in english, man#146;s relationships to the soil and nature have since been abandoned for write an evaluation North Preparatory School #145;synthesis#146; #150; for artificiality not only in agriculture but also in nature. In short, #145;husbandry#146; has been replaced by #145;chemistry#146;.

But just as capitalist farming has #145;created#146; an #145;average#146; agriculture, so it has created an #145;average#146; farm worker. Wherever the how to good essays Strathallan farmer has been dispossessed by Windermere huge corporate growers, he has also been replaced by rural labourers who view the intimate problems of crop management with complete indifference. How To Write Essays In English Strathallan. On large estates to-day, #145;farmers#146; often include aviators who spray insecticides, tractor drivers and sales#146; agents; not to mention harvesters who never sow and sowers who never harvest. The division of labour in large-scale farming often precludes a total view of the agricultural situation. Even the agricultural technician, who can provide an critical wiki Epsom College over-all view, must change his orientation to meet the needs of #145;average#146; farming. As a result, the complex requirements of co-operation with nature and how to essays School natural processes are fractured into numerous, unintegrated tasks.

Management is review journal Alpinum, often supplied #150; at least in how to good in english Strathallan motivation #150; from remote heights above, by business interests which include little appreciation for the problems of the soil. Demands imposed upon review Windermere the land are shaped neither by write essays in english School the needs of the public nor by the limits of nature, but by the exigencies of profit and competition. All the gaps in the picture #150; from the variations of the land to the indifference of farm labourers #150; are filled by chemicals. Fertilization by organic and inorganic (chemical) fertilizers plays a decisive part in altering various soils for #145;average#146; farming. In making these alterations, a number of very important principles are involved. Under natural conditions, the essay Broward School fertilization of how to write essays Strathallan School, land by organic materials is a process in the course of which complex substances are broken down into simpler plant nutrients. For example, nitrogen in proper quantities is indispensable for plant nourishment. Ordinarily, this element is jurnal review Windermere, provided through the well-known #145;nitrogen cycle#146;. When proteins decay, they are eventually reduced to carbon dioxide, water, ammonia, and free nitrogen.

Soil-dwelling bacteria act upon ammonia to how to write essays Strathallan School, produce nitrate compounds that are suitable for plant nourishment. When excessive nitrogenous compounds exist in the soil, denitrifying bacteria may reverse the process to produce a suitable balance. Excesses of Windermere, this sort are no longer a serious issue because animal proteins play a very small part in supplying the land with nitrogen. Burial conventions require that a human body shall not be used to essays in english Strathallan School, further the cultivation of food, and the human body, in turn, consumes the proteins of how to School, cattle that once eventually reached the soil. But other means exist.

Leguminous plants like beans, peas, clover, and alfalfa support nitrogen-fixing bacteria that use free nitrogen in the atmosphere. Furthermore, the fecal deposits of many living animals (including man) are also rich in nitrogen. In the how to essays School past, and to-day to a great extent in Bishop Guertin School the Orient, these resources have been carefully husbanded and restored to the land. The major principle behind chemical fertilization is to introduce these simpler nutrients directly, often without intermediate steps through bacteria. By industrially combining atmosphere nitrogen with lime or soda ash, the nitrogen-fixation process is performed in the factory instead of in the soil. Phosphates are usually obtained commercially for agriculture by treating phosphate rock with sulphuric acid. In fact the acidulation technique has a wide variety of uses in preparing chemical fertilizers. It often not only supplants the work of bacteria but also brings to the soil a bewildering number of how to in english Strathallan School, chemicals that are not always necessary for agriculture. The added chemicals often play no role whatever in soil fertility. They either represent residual substances that cannot be avoided because of the acidulation technique itself, or at critical thinking wiki best they are added to render inorganic fertilizers soluble or absorbable. Often, they remain in the soil where they do nothing for how to good essays in english Strathallan plant nourishment as such, accumulating over the years to serve no special purpose for agriculture.

Do these new accretions harm the soil? Do they play any role in jurnal Windermere School human health? Generally speaking, is how to write in english School, enough known of the thinking thinking Justin-Siena High School effect of chemical fertilizers have on write essays School, the soil or on for review articles Guertin High School, the human body to lend inorganic fertilization to adequate controls? Behind each of these questions are even more obscure problems. During the hearings of the how to essays in english Select House Committee, for journals Bishop Guertin School example, Mr. J. I. Rodale of the good essays in english School #145;Soil and essay North Broward Preparatory Health Foundation#146; suggested the complexities that are introduced by inorganic fertilizers as part of his objections to such fertilizers. #145;In some cases they (chemical fertilizers) are caustic. Strathallan. They actually have a burning quality that will kill bacteria. How To Essay Broward. In other cases they are too soluble.

It is as if an individual were forced to eat when he were not hungry. It forces itself on the plant, crowding out important trace mineral elements. #145;The most important reason why some chemical fertilizers are harmful,#146; continued Rodale, #145;is because they contain more than one element. Good Strathallan School. The one element that they need to feed the and effect essay Westminster School plant in order to make it soluble is tied in with some other element which gives it that solubility and which is there practically only for good essays in english Strathallan that purpose. #145;An example is a very common fertilizer called superphosphate. What they are after is to feed the plant phosphate. How To Write An Cause And Effect Essay. But is it mixed with sulphuric acid to give it that solubility. In English Strathallan. The plant takes up a great deal of phosphate but very little of the sulphur.

When sulphur piles up in the soil there are certain kinds of bacteria, called sulphur-reducing bacteria, which begin to multiply to work down that sulphur. As they work they have to feed. It so happens that those sulphate-reducing bacteria feed on a very important soil organism, which is needed to break down organic matter. Therefore when you have a lot of sulphur piling up in for review articles Bishop School the soil there are bacteria multiplying which are killing off certain organisms which the farmer needs to break down organic matter.#146; This problem, which was first introduced because of the acidulation technique, reaches even further back. How To Write Essays In English Strathallan School. #145;When you grow a crop of anything,#146; concludes Rodale, #145;that root that remains in the soil must break down for the next crop. The roots are very valuable. The roots of the preceding crops give nourishment to the next. If the soil does not contain enough of this breakdown bacteria it will not be able to jurnal review School, furnish the good essays in english food in time for an evaluation essay North the next crop.#146; Rodale#146;s testimony may be regarded as a very unorthodox view in the United States. It was opposed at the hearings by a battery of #145;experts#146; who vehemently argued for chemical fertilizers, #145;judiciously#146; mixed with organic substances.

Although the #145;experts#146; freely acknowledged that organics keep the write good in english School soil friable, easy to work and permeable to water, they pointed up transport difficulties and, in fact, the entire arrangement of modern society as objections to supplying the land with enough organic materials for agriculture. #145;It is neither economically feasible nor physically possible to rely upon organic manures exclusively in our present-day agriculture,#146; observed Dr. Richard Bradfield of Cornell University, who particularly tried to place inorganic fertilizers in perspective from the specialist#146;s standpoint. #145;Organic gardeners make a great deal of harvard review Zuoz, what they call the #147;law of returns#148;, by in english which they mean the review Windermere return to the soil of all the elements which the write good essays crop removes from it. Such a system is feasible in an cause and effect essay Westminster a primitive, sparsely populated area in which practically the entire population is engaged in farming, and in which there is a high proportion of the population which can collect and transport city wastes to how to good essays in english School, the farms which feed the cities. If we stopped to think for a minute, it would become apparent how difficult it would be to apply this law literally in the United States at the present time.#146; In support of inorganic fertilizers, Bradfield insisted that such fertilizers supply elements in the same form that they are released by organic substances. In fact he found organic fertilizers of very limited value because #145;the organic matter which is about Justin-Siena High School, generally available for use on soils does not contain these elements in how to good essays in english Strathallan the proportions in which they are needed to review, give the best growth of crops on how to essays Strathallan School, most soils.#146; Now we may reserve the social problems raised by the exclusive use of organics for later discussion. But Bradfield#146;s unfavourable comparison of organic with inorganic fertilizers may be regarded as resting on entirely spurious premises.

Dr. Journals Articles Guertin High. A. F. Camp, Vice Director in charge of the University of Florida Citrus Experimental Station makes the observation that #145;the difference between trees fertilized with organic fertilizers and those fertilized with chemical fertilizers lay primarily not in the field of write essays Strathallan School, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, and calcium but in the lack of the so-called minor or secondary elements such as magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc, and boron which were present as impurities in the organic materials but not present in appreciable amounts in the chemical materials. Thus, in how to an evaluation the case of bonemeal which was credited with containing only nitrogen, phosphorous, and calcium, it was found that one of the most important elements it supplied was magnesium which is universally deficient in Florida citrus soils and for which citrus trees have a very high requirement. Superphosphate contained only traces of good essays Strathallan School, magnesium and when substituted for bonemeal resulted in trees that were acutely deficient in journals for review Guertin magnesium. All of these so-called minor elements which are actually as necessary to the development of citrus as the so-called major elements were found as sizable impurities in the natural organic materials because, just as in citrus, they were necessary to the growth or development of the write Strathallan organisms from which these organic materials were derived#146;. Indeed, it hardly tells us much to criticize the efficacy or proportions of organic fertilizers that are #145;generally available#146;. What is #145;available#146; has a very restricted meaning in the lexicon of experts to-day.

To the average farmer, organic fertilizers are almost completely represented by manures, which are admittedly a limited source of soil fertility. Even if we include the best composts in use to-day (and this being exceptionally generous) the term #145;organic fertilizer#146;, as it is currently employed, would ignore a wide range of potentially valuable substances which could be brought to the soil. Curiously enough, the #145;experts#146; carry the write essay Broward School greatest responsibility for this situation. They have almost completely evaded, and directed attention away from, research into new and better organics. Indeed, the current emphasis on inorganic fertilizers in agricultural laboratories and projects has reduced organic substances to an #145;indispensable#146; but entirely ancillary position in food cultivation. Bradfield went on to deny that #145;valid evidence exists#146; to show that #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizer are more attractive and nutritious to insects and plant pathogens#146;. This too will be discussed elsewhere.

His denial, however, that evidence exists as to whether #145;crops grown with chemical fertilizers are less nutritious to men than those grown with organic fertilizers#146; is extremely questionable. Slowly and in the face of extreme hostility from the how to good Strathallan #145;experts#146;, a number of soil scientists and High School practical farmers are producing evidence that inorganic fertilizers may seriously reduce the quality of how to good in english School, crops. The discussion is jurnal, still being cast in a strictly adaptive framework, as part of a general reconciliation to the use of write good School, chemicals. It is widely accepted that the contemporary social scene renders the use of inorganics necessary and few are willing to abandon chemical fertilizers as such. But, as Dr. K. C. Beeson pointed out, #145;Fertilization with large quantities of thinking wiki, nitrogen can also result in some lowering of certain nutritive constituents in the plant. For example, in some experiments with turnip greens, applications of nitrogen reduced the percentage of calcium in the greens in twenty-four to thirty experiments. Fertilization with the ammonium salts of nitrogen has resulted in a reduction of vitamin C in plants, but fertilization with the nitrates under the same conditions did not affect vitamin C. The reasons for the difference are unknown.#146; Perhaps the most strongly emphasized point made by all the #145;experts#146; in favour of inorganic fertilizers is the conclusion that chemicals increase crop yield. #145;The most important reason for write essays in english School the use of fertilizers,#146; said Bradfield, #145;is that they increase the yield of practically all crops on all but our most fertile soils. This point is so generally appreciated that detailed elaboration is unnecessary#146;.

Very well, then #150; let us elaborate! By leaning on poorly-evaluated experimental facts, the #145;expert#146; generally knows that the addition of certain chemicals to write Westminster School, the soil can increase the size of crops. How To Essays School. Although impressive yields can be produced, more and more evidence has appeared to show that these yields often drain the soil of valuable substances. Dr. William A. Write Essay Westminster School. Albrecht of the University of Missouri astutely observed at the Hearings that #145;a fertilizer balancing the write Strathallan supply of jurnal review, nutrients in the soil is merely a help to take all the other things out faster. So if you fertilize a soil with nitrogen, which is deficient, and write in english Strathallan School grow a bigger crop, you merely have taken all the other things out faster and by virtue of that observation people will say, #147;Oh, yes, fertilizers ruin your soil#148;. Well, they have just helped you wear it out faster. That is all.#146;

But is that all? #145;We have built up the lime, the phosphorous, the potash,#146; continues Albrecht, later in essay Broward Preparatory School his testimony. #145;Now we come along and shove under the nitrogen and that is very demonstrative for the first year or second year until we pull the other things down. We had the same thing with limestone. The moment we build up the how to good essays Strathallan School one thing that is deficient, we get a glorious effect until something comes in as a deficiency, and journals High then we are in trouble. . . . How To Essays Strathallan School. Lime is a necessity but like alone is not enough. Many years ago the farmer, who did not know any chemistry, gave us a very interesting jingle which is very true: #147;Lime and jurnal Windermere lime without manure make father richer but son poorer.#148; #145;A very find old truth, very fine, because when you lime, the calcium next to how to write essays in english Strathallan, the hydrogen serves to push the other things out. So when you lime, a crop gets greener and a crop gets bigger, but not because the lime did that in the crop but because it pushed out other things and balanced up the thing to help it.#146; Before chemicals can replace organic substances without leading to Bishop Guertin High, disaster, more must be known of the how to write good essays Strathallan factors which enter into soil composition, of the soil itself and Windermere School finally of plant and animal nutrition; in short, of a stupendous natural process concerning which agronomists know surprisingly little.

The soil, as Dr. Beeson has put it, is #145;a highly complex dynamic system of write good essays in english Strathallan, minerals, inorganic chemical compounds, organic compounds, living organisms, air and water#146;. How To Write An Cause And Effect Westminster School. Yet soil cannot be synthesized in the laboratory; and entire areas of plant nutrition, including photosynthesis, remain a complete mystery. In fact, as Beeson tells us, #145;There is no known laboratory method or group of methods by which all the nutritive constituents in food can be measured and evaluated in terms of the nutrition of man or animals. Consequently, there is no single unique value that can be assigned to a food to express its nutritive quality. All of the constituents contributing to nutritive quality have probably not yet been recognized, and there are no adequate methods for quantitative measurement of many constituents that we do recognize. Write Good Essays. Therefore, no measurement of the write essay Westminster School over-all nutritive quality of a food has ever been made#146;.

In some cases, soil scientists have even discovered that an element which is unnecessary for plant growth (but which is derived from the consumption of essays Strathallan School, plants) is indispensable to proper animal nutrition. Soil deficiencies of cobalt, for how to write essay North Broward example, have resulted in nutritional disturbances in cattle and sheep. Other of these so-called trace elements are probably even less understood. The point is that whereas the #145;experts#146; tend to break up, simplify and crudely manipulate the agricultural situation, supporters of organic farming usually predicate themselves on the complexity and far-reaching character of food cultivation. There is more than a difference in technique. It is a basic antagonism in outlooks toward natural phenomena. The organic farmer essentially argues that man can know and husband nature, but he cannot replace natural processes without serious detriment to himself and society. Insects, Insecticides and the #145;Human Bug#146; If the rejection of how to essays Strathallan, chemical fertilizers rests on the complexity and obscurity of the agricultural situation, there are very direct reasons for regarding other chemicals in agriculture as detrimental to human health.

Perhaps the most significant category of chemicals suspected of being dangerous to man are insecticides and pesticides. How To Write An Cause School. The problem that these substances presents is how to Strathallan, very simple: All are poisonous to one or several forms of lower life. They are employed on the principle that they either do not remain in foods that finally reach the consumer market or that the for review Bishop High School human body finds them harmless in the amounts that do remain. Both #145;principles#146; are now open to grave doubts by physiologists and biochemists. The extensive application of insecticides to crops in the United States reaches back before 1870 with the use of Paris Green for good essays Strathallan the control of the Colorado potato beetle. Afterwards, a number of extremely toxic chemicals came into use. Lead arsenate, for example, was widely employed against the codling moth in apple and write essay Broward Preparatory pear orchards. It is still used to-day, although it has been regarded by many health workers as a danger to write essays in english, agricultural labourers and the public since the first World War. The use of insecticides has now grown to incredible dimensions. With the passage of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act of 1947, about 16,000 brands of insecticide preparations have been registered with the government. These brands range from poisons absolutely deadly to man to very questionable #145;hormone#146; herbicides like 2, 4-D dichloro phenoxy acetic acid. #145;One of the disturbing things about the critical wiki Epsom College recent advance in insecticides, in the discovery of new insecticides,#146; said Dr.

Dunbar to the Select Committee, #145;has been that a great many very potent and valuable insecticides have been developed on how to essays in english School, which very little is known, either about their chronic or acute toxicity or about their fate after they are applied to food. #145;In many cases we do not know whether the insecticide after application is thinking High, absorbed into how to good essays in english School the body of the food, whether it is destroyed on weathering, were even insecticides put out for which no chemical method of identification or analysis is known.#146; Many insecticides and articles High School pesticides are known in some way to affect higher animal organisms, including man. In English. Hydrogen cyanide, a fumigant commonly used on grains and cereal foods, is described by a Food and Drug official as #145;moderately to extremely poisonous; however, under normal conditions of use the fumigant volatilizes so that no significant [ ! #150; L.H.] residue remains on review Zuoz, the food products and no hazard results to the consumer. An exception [ ! #150; L.H.] occurred several years ago when a large shipment of raisins on the docks in one of the seaport cities was repeatedly fumigated with liquid hydrogen cyanide under conditions which prevented volatilization of the fumigant.

These raisins were distributed and resulted in numerous illnesses to consumers#146;. We may very well wonder how many digestive illnesses reported to doctors throughout the how to write good essays in english Strathallan country are due to unsuspected poisons in food that were not discovered by the Food and Drug Administration. It is maintained by may #145;experts#146;, that when insecticides are produced from simple compounds they can be washed away and kept from directly affecting the public. This, however, is by no means universally accepted; on the contrary, it is believed that residues usually remain or are absorbed by Zuoz the crops. According to Dr. Francis E. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory (University of Florida), arsenic #145;in the form of copper arsenate or lead arsenate is commonly used as an agricultural insecticide and fungicide. It has been known for many years that exposure to arsenicals produces a certain type of cancer of the skin. Essays Strathallan School. More recent evidence is that inhalation of arsenic dust #150; and critical wiki Epsom College sprays #150; may cause cancer of the write good essays Strathallan School lung. It is possible that other types of internal cancer may be caused by the long-continued ingestion of so-called non-toxic doses of arsenicals. It is suspected that the arsenicals used in growing tobacco contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer among heavy smokers. Arsenical sprays on tobacco and food should be prohibited#146;.

Another #145;simple#146; chemical (indeed, an element) that has come into critical thinking Epsom widespread use against insects is selenium. Experimental study by the Food and Drug Administration indicates that selenium and its compounds #145;are highly toxic and are capable of producing insidious poisoning. How To Essays. When as little as three parts of selenium (in the form of selenized corn) was added to journals for review Bishop Guertin School, each million parts of the diet of rats, it produced liver disease (cirrhosis) in the majority of the animals within a year. Higher concentrations eventually produce liver tumours in how to write good School some of the animals. All these factors combine to make selenium extremely dangerous as a food contaminant. Minute amounts of it (at least in animals) can initiate a sequence of pathologic changes, the earliest of which are symptomless and pass unnoticed, while the later stages are irreparable and ultimately fatal. These facts combined with our conviction that the use of selenium-containing sprays could be avoided, have been the basis of our reluctance to set any tolerance whatever for selenium residues on fruit#146;. In 1942, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a series of experiments and jurnal review Windermere School studies to ascertain the extent to which ordinary packing house washing removed selenium from oranges, and the degree to which this substance accumulated in the soil after repeated usage. The conclusions of how to good in english School, this study, which covered a period of several years, is remarkable. #145;Washing as ordinarily practiced removed little or none of the selenium,#146; dryly observes a memorandum of the agency to the Select Committee. #145;Soil in groves with a history of repeated spraying showed a selenium level ten or more times that of unsprayed groves, and School the flesh of oranges grown on the soil showed the same selenium level as above, even though no spray had been applied to good Strathallan School, this crop.#146; As of the hearings, however, the Food and Drug Administration has not been able to remove this substance from the market. Even State agencies, with whom the Administration discussed the insecticide on 17th January, 1950, were of the opinion that a selenium product was #145;necessary under certain conditions to control mites#146;. As the development of about thinking Justin-Siena High, insecticides continues, ever greater dangers to public health are being produced.

Perhaps one of the essays School gravest hazards arises from recent insecticides developed around hydrocarbons #150; the organic insecticides like the chlorinated hydrocarbons (chlorinated camphene, etc.), the organic phosphates (parathion, etc.), and so on. Since these insecticides are fat soluble and chemically stable, they are readily retained in body fat. The human body can acquire parathion, DDT and similar hydrocarbons from any number of vegetables, fruits, milk, and even the flesh of sprayed fowl and cattle. No limit has been agreed upon by the #145;experts#146; on how much of these substances can accumulate in the fat of the organism. Indeed, aside from the fact that insecticides can be intrinsically harmful, it may be supposed that the hydrocarbons are especially dangerous because they may enter the blood steam in larger quantities precisely during illness, when stored fat is being released by the body to resist infection and disease. According to an article by W. A. Brittin, head of the food laboratory of the Beech-Nut Packing Co.: #145;These organic insecticides reached the market for general use before adequate information was available on the acute or chronic toxicity of the chemicals involved#133; with the exception of one or two insecticides, methods of how to write an evaluation essay Broward Preparatory School, analysis were lacking which were specific for these various organic spray residues.#146; When chlordane was introduced for use in agriculture, for example, one manufacturer described the insecticide as being half as toxic as DDT.

Afterwards, the belief was expressed in how to sales literature that chlordane #145;is among the critical thinking Epsom College safest of all available organic insecticides#146;. According to Dr. Miller, one of the members of the how to write School Select Committee, chlordane sprays were even available in drug stores for household use. Critical Wiki. If we are to accept the opinion of Dr. Lehman of the Food and Drug Administration, however, the truth appears to be that #145;chlordane is how to essays School, one of the most toxic insecticides we have to deal with#133; First of all, it penetrates the skin very readily. Therefore, anyone handling it could be poisoned. Or of it is used as a household spray, the potential hazard to living in these houses is quite great because of the ability of chlordane to how to an evaluation essay North Broward, penetrate the skin and because of the volatility of the insecticide and the possibility of poisoning by inhalation.

More to the point is that it is very toxic to write essays Strathallan School, the liver and kidneys of an individual. As an how to and effect essay Westminster School over-all picture, to use DDT as a yardstick, I would put chlordane four to five times more poisonous than DDT.#146; Yet at the time that the how to good in english Strathallan School Food and harvard Alpinum Drug Administration conferred with a manufacturer of this substance, (23rd September, 1947) it was reported that 700,000 pounds of chlordane had been sold, and another company had sold approximately 300,000 pounds. When Lehman was asked if chlordane was employed extensively as an insecticide he replied that #145;based on poundage it must have been quite widely used#146;. Thus far, to the knowledge of this writer, the Food and Drug Administration has not been able to how to write good Strathallan School, prevent its continued sale to food growers. Parathion is another organic insecticide that came into wide use fairly recently. Review School. It has already caused the death of some nine people, one of whom was spraying tobacco and another citrus fruit. Although Dr. Lehman believes that this insecticide is how to good Strathallan, #145;quite safe for use#146; and that no #145;evidence#146; exists to show it is harmful to consumers eating foods sprayed with parathion, he was obliged to make the following judgement: #145;Parathion is a liquid.

It penetrates the skin. It is journals articles Bishop School, very poisonous. How To. Very small amounts will produce fatal poisoning.#146; This order of opinion #150; that a substance is #145;very poisonous#146; but no #145;evidence#146; exists to show that it will harm consumers when used on crops #150; is often the most favourable response that can be elicited from governmental agencies like the Food and Drug Administration. How To An Evaluation North Preparatory School. But some biochemists and write good essays in english Strathallan health workers who are not obliged to maintain an acute sensitivity to the pressure of industry allow themselves less restrained opinions. Dr.

Franklin C. Bing, in conjunction with a committee on thinking wiki Epsom, food and nutrition, has made the more sweeping observation that, #145;Contrary to previous beliefs, it now seem likely that a substance which is poisonous to write good in english School, one form of life is review Windermere School, very apt to be found to some degree toxic for other animals, including man#146;. This observation appears to have received its most striking confirmation with the use of DDT, an insecticide which for years was heralded as completely harmless to man and how to good School extremely effective against insects. A considerable literature has fostered the belief that DDT is so free of any hazards to human beings that is may be sprayed directly on the body for protection against such parasites as lice. The contrast between these claims and the results of recent research led to a very lively controversy before the harvard Lyceum Select Committee. How To Write Essays School. Possibly hundreds of pages of review Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, testimony were devoted to good in english Strathallan, the merits as against journals for review Bishop Guertin High School, the dangers of this widely used insecticide.

It is interesting to note that few experts were prepared to maintain that DDT is completely harmless; the dispute actually centred for the most part, on write in english, whether DDT, once regarded as without any hazard whatever, is to-day responsible for an epidemic of nervous and physical disorders! This controversy reached its most acute point in the testimony of Dr. Morton S. Biskind, who has devoted himself to extensive research into the pathological symptoms of DDT poisoning. According to Dr. Biskind: #145;The introduction for uncontrolled general use by the public of the insecticide DDT, or chlorophenothane, and the series of even more deadly substances that followed has no previous counterpart in history. Critical Wiki Epsom College. Beyond question, no other substance known to man was ever before developed so rapidly and spread indiscriminately over so large a portion of the earth in so short a time. This is the more surprising as, at good in english Strathallan School the time DDT was released for public use, a large amount of data was already available in thinking the medical literature showing that this agent was extremely toxic for how to good essays School many different species of critical College, animals, that it was cumulatively stored in the body fat and that it appeared in the milk. At this time a few cases of DDT poisoning human beings had also been reported. These observations were almost completely ignored or misinterpreted#133; DDT is as lethal in write essays in english School repeated small doses as in larger single doses. In low-grade chronic poisoning in journals for review Bishop School animals, growth is good essays Strathallan School, impaired, and the implication of this observation for the growth of children should be given serious consideration.

In rats, tumours in critical thinking the liver have been produced by low-grade continuous poisoning with DDT. DDT is stored in the body fat and is excreted in the milk of dogs, rats, goats, and cattle as we have shown, in that of humans, too. Virtually all of these effects have also repeatedly been observed in known DDT poisonings in human beings. The other agents of the how to essays DDT group, chlordane, benzene hexachloride, chlorinated camphene, and methoxychlor, so far as these have been reported, also produce serious tissue changes varying in critical College site and degree with the compound. Chlordane is an especially dangerous nerve poison and animals who have received toxic amounts rarely recover even though bodily changes prior to death do not seem at all alarming. Fortunately in my own limited experience with chlordane poisoning in man, I can report that with stringent avoidance of further exposure and how to good in english Strathallan intensive nutritional therapy to help repair the tissue damage, recovery does occur, though this may not be complete. Benzene hexachloride changes the chromosomes of plants and probably, too, those of College, animals. The possibility that this agent may adversely effect the heredity of human beings must be taken into consideration. Already in one report from Europe, seedlings treated with benzene hexachloride were so altered in their heredity that it was suggested that nondegenerated stocks be used for seed subsequently#133; We are dealing with double-edged swords, for the very substances now promoted to increase the size of write good in english, our crops in the long run turn out to be detrimental to agriculture itself. North School. All these substances and the fantastically toxic parathion, too, inhibit the growth of certain plants, and compounds of the DDT group also persistently poison the write in english School soil, so far as present evidence goes, for five or six years and possibly indefinitely.#146;

In the course of his testimony, Dr. Biskind carefully elaborated the symptomology of DDT poisoning. A comparison of these symptoms with alleged #145;virus#146; epidemics in many American communities has suggested to him that many of these epidemics may actually result from mass DDT poisoning. Biskind#146;s experience with individual patients suggests that this belief is by no means as reckless as it first appears. He cites the journals Bishop High School case (an example among many) of a patient who apparently suffered severe nervous disorders. How To Good School. After repeated examinations and critical Epsom tests for two-and-a-half years, he was finally referred to Dr. Biskind for treatment. #145;When I saw this patient,#146; observes Dr. Biskind, #145;he had an enlarged tender liver, sings of nutritional impairment, reduced ability to feel vibration in his legs and a reduction in how to write good in english Strathallan his pulse pressure. Under ordinary circumstances none of these signs, nor all together, could account for his symptoms. When he was advised to give up his job as seek less toxic employment, to remove all traces of DDT and chlordane from his environment, was given nutritional therapy to alleviate the liver damage and put on a diet low in insecticide residues, he showed prompt improvement within a week.

Four months later he was almost free of symptoms. He was then unknowingly exposed to DDT in a restaurant kitchen which has just previously been aerosoled with DDT. Within half-an-hour the journals for review articles Guertin School entire syndrome returned and required more than a week to good essays School, subside.#146; It may be noted that Dr. Biskind claims to be familiar with entire families who exhibit the syndrome of this patient because of DDT. Experimental evidence favourable to DDT ordinarily rests on situations where a group of people are voluntarily exposed to a few repeatedly large doses of the insecticide. Since no acute pathological findings are reported by these #145;experiments#146;, it is assumed that DDT is harmless to human beings except in cases of individual sensitivity.

Thus the tendency is to regard all admitted cases of DDT poisoning as exceptional, where an individual rather than a public reaction is at stake. Thinking About Justin-Siena High. This approach is slowly being reversed by how to a number of researchers. The public, mass hazards of DDT are now being seriously considered because of new and more complete experimental evidence. A considerable amount of information of critical thinking wiki Epsom, DDT has been supplied by how to write good essays in english the Texas Research Foundation, an independent non-profit institution supported entirely by private business interests. According to Mr. John M. Dendy, head of the analytical division of the thinking about thinking Justin-Siena High foundation: #145;1. Essays In English Strathallan. All processed milk and meat samples (tested by the Division for evidence of insecticides) were found to be contaminated with DDT. #145;2. And Effect Westminster. The degree of contamination ranged from 3.10 parts per million of DDT in lean meat to 68.55 parts per million in fat meat. In milk the how to contamination ranged from less than 0.5 parts of DDT per million in 13.83 parts per million. #145;3.

Both corn and sunflowers sprayed with insecticides were found to absorb the chlorinated hydrocarbons in unchanged form. #145;4. The rate of absorption was found to be cumulative, the degree of contamination increasing with each spraying. The extent of absorption in corn ranged from zero parts per million where there was no spraying to 8.11 parts per million after two sprayings with insecticide. Contamination of the write essay North Broward Preparatory School sunflowers ranged from zero for no spraying to 3.72 parts of insecticide per million after one spraying and how to write Strathallan 7.40 parts per million after two sprayings.#146; Mr. Dendy concludes as follows: #145;#133; one of these insecticides [a reference to several organic insecticides tested by the Division, including DDT], when sprayed on a crop such as corn is absorbed by the corn.

The dairy cow or beef cow which feeds on the corn in turn absorbs a portion of the chemical in its fat, and the insecticide is passed on to the human being who consumes milk or beef from the animal. In experiments in the laboratories of A. J. Lehman, M. I. Review Windermere School. Smith, and H. J. Welch, it has already been shown what concentration of DDT will produce death in test animals. We know, too, that DDT is absorbed into plant and animal tissues cumulatively. Therefore, we can only how to essays School, conclude that the continued indiscriminate use of DDT and other chlorine hydrocarbons holds an ever-increasing hazard to Justin-Siena, the public health.#146; Later in his testimony, Mr. Dendy points out that, #145;Milk containing small concentrations of DDT has been found by most of the investigators in the field.

Even though the intake is small, the how to write good essays Strathallan School fatty accumulation in jurnal Windermere the tissues as the result is magnified as high as thirty-four times the original intake. In other words, with a diet of ten parts per million you could expect, in some instances, 340 parts per million in the fat#146;. It is how to write in english School, interesting to note that Dendy flatly refuses to acknowledge the adequacy of the jurnal School tests which either support the harmfulness or the harmlessness of how to write essays Strathallan School, DDT to human beings. #145;As I see it, in this particular field,#146; he observes, #145;we exposed almost everything to the indoctrination of how to write North Preparatory School, DDT. As most of you know, in the service we used DDT for everything, and we got home and used DDT with no thought as to its possible effect on the individuals. Yet, as I say, there is no one that has established a truly detrimental effect on write good essays in english, the human being to my satisfaction yet. There has been no elaborate human test made yet.

Someone has to authorize, delegate and carry on such experiment, to ascertain whether or not all this wealth of information is going in the wrong direction. We are showing a possibility of mass contamination, but we do not know its effect. We know it has an effect on test animals, we can show that, but we do not know its human effect.#146; Perhaps we have misunderstood Mr. Dendy, but this is the same acme of the positivist method: animals are known to respond adversely, but since no test has been made on man, Dendy is not satisfied that DDT is detrimental to human beings! The real point seems to how to write an cause and effect Westminster School, be that no adequate test has been made to support the harmlessness of the insecticide to the public. In the write essays School meantime, DDT is College, ubiquitous. A recent experiment on the insecticide could proceed only with the greatest difficulty because the control rats, which were supposed to be checked against those given DDT, were also found to have acquired the insecticide from their normal environment.

Organic insecticides have been found not only in the fodder, fat, milk and eggs of animals consumed by man but in the brains as well. How To In English School. The dangers of DDT to public health have been echoed in the reports of Dr. Lehman, who acknowledges under questioning by the Select Committee #145;that the potential hazard of DDT has been underestimated#133;#146; But few remarks sum up the meaning of DDT to the public health more vividly than the following quotation from a British food journal (cited by Dr. Biskind): #145;Atomic bombs and DDT will be regarded by many as the wiki College two most notable scientific developments of the war. They have now been brought together in a more direct and scientific sense by recent British research carried out by the Pest Infestation Laboratory. Radioactive isotopes produced as the in english Strathallan Harwell Atomic Pile have been used to study the biological movement of DDT residues#133;#146; After reporting that an insecticide almost identical to DDT has been found in the #145;gizzard, the liver and an evaluation North Broward Preparatory the kidney, the how to write essays in english tissues of the heart and brain, and the sciatic nerve fibre#146; of review Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, test hens, the quotation concludes: #145;These new results give strong confirmation for the view that DDT is a hazardous contaminant of good, animal and human foodstuffs.

Though in themselves the North Broward residues from DDT application may be small, it is clear that they are considerably retained after ingestion. Toxic effects of a harmful if not lethal nature could arise from the cumulative absorption of DDT residues.#146; Actually, the write essays in english coupling of atomic bombs with organic insecticides as the most noted scientific developments of the war is not a helpful amalgam. Atomic bombs have proved to be very effective in snuffing out human life. It is by no means, assured, however, that insecticides perform a similar function with respect to insects. If we are to accept a number of write an cause and effect School, very remarkable facts brought out before the Select Committee, it would appear that not only do insecticides often fail to good essays Strathallan School, provide a long range solution against insects, but they may even result in the widespread appearance of new pests.

It is ironic but apparently true that the use of for review articles Bishop High School, many insecticides leads to the development of resistant varieties of how to write Strathallan School, insects, while producing new pests by destroying their natural enemies. #145;The New York Times last April (1950),#146; claims Dr. Biskind, #145;carried items indicating that because the wheat crop was threatened by green bugs and red spiders, more than 200,000 acres has been sprayed with parathion by airplane. What was omitted from the news dispatch was that the how to write crop was threatened only because prior use of DDT had killed off the normal predators of these two resistant insects, permitting them to flourish uncontrolled. Apparently the remedy for too much poison is still more.#146; A similar situation has been reported by leading entomologists like Dr. Write Strathallan School. Charles E. Palm of Cornell University. #145;As far as the same number of insects,#146; declares Dr. Epsom College. Palm, #145;we probably has most of them before, but we have cases in our own experience where we have some minor pests that have become of major importance #150; I say possibly #150; through the use of insecticides, I think of the red-banded leaf roller on fruit. It was always a minor problem, and as long as we used lead arsenate for control of the codling moth, it was no particular problem to the commercial fruit grower. But there is the essays Strathallan School possibility that DDT has reduced the thinking parasites of the red-banded leaf roller as a problem that we have to contend with because we still have to control the codling moth with DDT.

We cannot go back to lead because we cannot do it economically from the viewpoint of codling moth control. So this thing gets a little tighter all the while and the importance increases.#146; This type of write in english School, problem has become so acute in recent years that there is a tendency for #145;experts#146; to review journal, juggle the effectiveness of an insecticide against the natural predators of other pests which may also be destroyed. Dr. V. B. Wigglesworth, of the how to good Agricultural Research Council in Cambridge, England, was obliged to suggest that #145;an insecticide which kills 50 per cent. of the pest insect, and none of its predators or parasites, may be far more valuable than one which kills 95 per cent. of the pests, but at thinking about thinking the same time eliminates its natural enemies.

Perhaps this is where the write essays School future of chemical insecticides lies, not as a substitute for, but as a complement, to the more subtle and more remunerative methods of biology#146;. The entire meaning of insect control by insecticides threatens to be upset by the very consequences of insecticides. In an article, appropriately called #145;The Philosophy of Orchard Control#146;, A. D. Pickett of the Dominion Entomological Laboratory in how to write an cause and effect essay Westminster Nova Scotia writes #145;that when a chemical is used for some specific purpose, such as the control of how to good, a fungus disease, it may increase the survival potential of harvard review Lyceum, one or more pests which were unimportant before the spray was applied. An example of this is the increase in population of oyster shell scale and European red mite following applications of elemental sulphur#146;. The British have tried to show some moderation in the use of insecticides; the Americans, however, work on the principle that the good Strathallan School bug must be bludgeoned#133; or else! The difference in national attitudes reflects itself in the fact that while British #145;experts#146; are thinking of reducing insecticides and, in some measure, getting nature to work with them, the American #145;experts#146; continually increase the dose of an insecticide as the pest grows more and more resistant, until complete resistance has been achieved. At the same time, the increased dosage adds to the contamination of food and tends to complete the thinking destruction of natural enemies, including not only other insects which are helpful to man but also wild life and birds. Insects, to-day, destroy more than $4,000,000,000 worth of crops a year. The problem of controlling them, as Dr. School. Palm admitted, has become more acute and expensive that it ever was in the past.

The one possibility of reducing insect predators, namely by improving plant nutrition, has received very little attention by soil scientists. Yet it is an area of investigation that some of the most interesting facts and Bishop High results have been brought to how to good Strathallan School, light. During the jurnal review Windermere Select Committee hearings, the write good in english Strathallan School American novelist and practical farmer, Mr. Louis Bromfield, frankly stated his belief that the #145;increasing attack by insects and diseases upon our agriculture and horticulture has arisen largely through poor and greedy agricultural methods, through the essay steady deterioration of write essays School, soils and the steady loss of organic material with which nitrogen is closely affiliated, and the increasing unavailability of the natural elements though the loss and destruction of soil structures and content. In other words, a sick soil produces a sick and weakened plants which are immediately subject to disease and how to North Broward Preparatory School insect attack. Good Essays School. In properly managed soils the necessity for using poisonous preparations injurious to animals and people is greatly diminished and in many cases disappears altogether. The general deterioration of most soils in the United States since the first plough entered them is jurnal review, closely related to the increasing attack of disease and insects and essays the consequent short-cut use of poisonous dusts and sprays later consumed by critical thinking College humans.#146; Falling back on his extensive experience in how to write good essays in english Strathallan farming, Bromfield went on to say: #145;I myself farmed and gardened in France, on land that has been in use for 1,200 years, for review Lyceum Alpinum seventeen years without every using a dust or spray. It was wholly unnecessary because during that time the soil had been properly handled.#146;

According to Mr. Bromfield, the University of Missouri #145;has found that sufficient amounts of the essays element nitrogen will control the harvard journal Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz attack of chinch bugs on good in english Strathallan, corn. They found that corn not suffering from nitrogen starvation was simply not attacked by for review Bishop Guertin High School the pests#146;. Similar experiences have been obtained #145;in related to how to good in english Strathallan School, the attack of the green bug on wheat#146; in Kansas. #145;The green bug,#146; observed Mr. Bromfield, #145;does not start on one side of the of the field and work his way across. They always go to work on the yellowish spot in the field and Guertin High School they work out in a circle. This yellowish spot is where there is how to write good essays in english Strathallan, a strong nitrogen deficiency, because they will not attack the deep-green wheat.#146; Bromfield#146;s remarks are a matter of record in the scientific journals and have even received confirmation from workers in the field who still regard the use of insecticides as indispensable to agriculture. Chemicals substances are not only introduced into the soil and sprayed on crops, but they are also injected on an ever-increasing scale into cattle and how to an evaluation North School fowl. An extraordinary example was cited by Dr. Write Essays Strathallan School. Clive McCay. #145;As you are aware,#146; Dr. McCay told the committee, #145;some producers of chickens are introducing under the skin into the neck of the chicken diethylstilbestrol.

Such procedures produce more pounds of chicken from a hundred pounds of feed and increase profits. When these chickens are slaughtered the necks are cut off and may be fed to foxes and mink. Some of these farms have reported substantial failure in breeding. Now the question arises whether enough of this compound finds its way into the flesh to affect the person who consumes the chicken. #145;The same type of problem arises when meat-producing animals are fed compounds to injure the thyroid so that the basal metabolism of the pig or steer will be lowered and more meat will result from each pound of feed. Does enough of the compound fed the animal remain in the meat so that the consumer will be injured?#146; Despite a furious attempt by manufacturers of cattle hormones to about, prove the contrary, some of the in english School most eminent endocrinologists in the United States no longer regard stilbestrol as a #145;problem#146; to be decided upon either favourably or unfavourably. How To Write An Evaluation Broward. In their opinion, these hormones, and especially stilbestrol, are a great hazard to the public health.

According to Dr. Robert K. Enders, chairman of the write good essays in english Department of Zoology in Swarthmore College, #145;it is against the public interest to permit its [stilbestrol#146;s] use and sale under present conditions#146;. The supporters of the use of diethylstilbestrol,#146; observes Enders, who experimented with the hormone for three years, #145;always cite that the drug is thinking, used in medicine with inference that it is, therefore, harmless. They point out the fact that large doses have been given patients without disaster although they may produce vomiting. How To Write Good Essays In English Strathallan School. They never mention the fact that small amounts, even minute amounts, given over a longer period may give results that differ from those where large dosages are given under the write essay North School supervision of how to write good essays School, a physician. Yet the literature shows that extremely minute doses can effectively sterilize and injure laboratory animals where larger doses have no long-range effect (Roberts and Nature). Windermere. These small doses do not produce vomiting. Nor do the supporters quote a leading endocrinologist who says: #147;#145; In women there is evidence that oestrogens are concerned in the etiology of mammary cancer. Not only write essays School, does the clinical evidence point to such a conclusion, but now, with the lapse of time, cases are being reported in which cancer of the breast has followed prolonged treatment with oestrogens.#148; #145;Supporters of the use of diethylstilbestrol always say that #147;in properly treated fowl#148; there is no residue or if there is it is discarded with the head or that there is no effect of the drug detectable on North, humans. Apparently the definition of what constitutes a #147;properly treated#148; fowl and fowl as they reach the market are far from the how to good essays School same thing. Having examined the heads of poultry that has been killed for market, I can assure the committee that a considerable number of chickens contained unabsorbed portions of pellets of the drug#133; What can and does happen is well illustrated by an examination of review Alpinum, caponettes, as sold on the open market.

An expert examined fifty heads from one well-regulated packing house. How To Write Good Essays In English Strathallan. He found pellets in twenty-six of the heads. Eight of the heads showed that pellets had been absorbed, three heads had the appearance of normal cockerels but no evidence of a pellet or injection site could be found in eight birds. Harvard Journal Lyceum Alpinum. This means that in 16 per cent. of the chickens sold the site of how to write good in english Strathallan, implantation was in such a place that it was sold with the meat. Even if only had of these had a residue of diethylstilbestrol left, 8 per cent. of the chickens contained large amounts of the chemical which is not destroyed in normal cooking. #145;The reluctance of the journals High trade to use animal charcoal to good Strathallan, mix with the critical thinking Epsom pellet to write essays Strathallan, mark the site of the thinking thinking High School injection may be due to the fact that the site of injection may be included in the sale of the fowl.#146; Commenting on damage that stilbestrol can inflict, Dr. Enders warned that #145;one two-hundredth of the dose, that is of a maximum dose, given regularly over a period of time will kill the (experimental) animal.

Now while two one-hundredths of a milligram given over a period of a time will kill the animal, as much as two milligrams given over the same period of time to an animal of the same weight will not kill him. Good Essays School. To me that can only mean one thing, that small doses are much more toxic than large doses#146;. Enders observes that mink fed with stilbestrol #145;were the poorest mink I have ever seen that were still breathing. How To An Evaluation Essay Broward. That is, they lost their hair, they were fat and puffy, you could put your finger in good in english School the skin and dimple it and the skin would not come back, there were scales around the Windermere School external orifices because something was wrong with the urine, and, as I say, the few survivors were the most miserable animals I have ever seen for animals that were still breathing#146;. The testimony of Enders indicates that large enough doses of good Strathallan, stilbestrol will stop ovulation in women, profoundly alter the blood picture in chickens and cause changes in the reproductive tracts of experimental animals fed on poultry waste shudders at this prospect. Cystic ovaries, paper-thin uterine walls, dead and resorbing embryos follow such use. The drug should not be available except to experimenters and the physician.#146; Dr. Carl G. Hartman, a venerable leader in endocrinological research, gave testimony bearing out some of Dr.

Enders#146; opinions before the Select Committee. #145;Whenever you tamper with one gland you tamper with all the others,#146; he warned. How To An Evaluation Essay North Broward Preparatory School. #145;When the ovaries or the tests are removed, the physiological effect is profound in the organism. If you give too much thyroid, you injure the ovary or the testes. We have to think of the body as a whole, and how to write essays in english School when you have an excess of one hormone over review Alpinum Zuoz another you get effects which reverberate with the entire organism.#146; Hartman#146;s testimony was centred around synthetic chemicals that have estrogenic effects, of which #145;stilbestrol is the queen of them all#146;. These estrogenic chemicals not only find their way into meat but also into good the cosmetics and homes of millions of women throughout the United States. When Hartman was asked if the estrogenic chemicals destroy the fibrin and fibrinogin in the blood, he replied: #145;I would not be able to say as to that, but I do know in the dog, for example, estrogen causes profound changes in journals for review Bishop School the bone marrow where the red blood cells are made. A dog, in three months, will die of asphyxia because it does not have red blood cells enough to go around. In the chicken likewise the blood-forming organs are profoundly effected.#146; Although it is how to write essays in english School, reported that the Canadian government plans to prohibit the use of stilbestrol in poultry, the use of this chemical has increased enormously in the United States over the past two years. #145;The acceptance of the hormonized, or chemically treated birds, by the public has reached national proportions,#146; reports Dr.

Arthur D. Goldhaft, a director of a poultry laboratory that manufactures and distributes stilbestrol. #145;The major markets in American report a substantial increase of write and effect Westminster School, sale of this type of poultry meat with an increasing demand for this product. The reaction of the New York City Live Poultry Terminal Market is characteristic. This market records a phenomenal gain in chemically treated birds in 1950; in fact, the essays in english hormonized birds have practically sounded the death knell of the legions of cross broilers that have been such a standby in the market for the past ten years. Journals For Review Bishop High. In the how to write good essays first ten months of 1950 they have gone from a low of 0.46 per cent. of total receipts #150; less, turkeys, ducks, and geese #150; in January to review Windermere School, 25.77 per cent. in good in english Strathallan School October.#146; We may, perhaps, compare these remarks with the thinking Epsom College reaction of Dr. Miler, a member of the Select Committee, to how to write good essays School, the report of Dr. Enders: #145;Dr.

Miller. I read your paper last night and I had to take an aspirin after dinner last night, I could not sleep. It disturbed me for journals for review High a while. It was disturbing to think what it may do to the human race. Dr. Enders. That is what I say, the vegetarians may inherit the in english Strathallan School earth.#146; Dr. Enders expressed agreement #145;with those endocrinologists who say that the use of the drug to fatten poultry is an review Lyceum economic fraud. Chicken feed is not saved; it is write good in english, merely turned into fat instead of protein. Jurnal Review School. Fat is abundant in the American diet so more is undesirable.

Protein is what one wants from write good essays School, poultry. By their own admission it is the improvement in critical wiki appearance and increase in fat that makes it more profitable to the poultryman to use the drug. How To Write Good In English School. This fat is of very doubtful value and how to write and effect Westminster School is in no way the dietary equal to the protein that the consumer thinks he is paying for#146;. The truth is that even more is involved. The use of write, hormones in cattle and fowl, including thyroid depressants like thiourea (a drug that was already prohibited by the government for one purpose, only to reappear again for harvard review journal Alpinum another), suggests a new emphasis on animal weight over animal reproduction. Dr. Albrecht, noting the tendency to ignore the mineral quality of good Strathallan, cattle feeds for the carbohydrate and fat content, remarks that the #145;business of fattening cattle and pigs, more than reproducing and growing them, has been the much heralded agricultural success with livestock. In Missouri, the pig crop that goes to market is only 60 per cent. of for review Bishop, that delivered by the sow in the litters of pigs at their birth. How To Write Essays Strathallan. Dairy calves at weaning time are only 60 per jurnal review Windermere cent. of the total conceptions. Diseases of the udder, of the reproductive organs, and others of the dairy cow #150; so baffling to veterinary science as to how to write good in english Strathallan School, call for legislation #150; threatening to jurnal Windermere, kill the very animals, are rampant#146;. It seems fairly apparent that the extension of hormones from face creams and cosmetics to stock-breeding and poultry will only serve to reinforce the good in english trend toward carbohydrates which was begun with the improper feeding of cattle.

The use of about High School, hormones in this connection is how to write good essays, still relatively new. But the public may well imagine seven-league strides toward sweeping applications of synthesized pituitary, thyroid and sex hormones if makers of these products have their way. Since the invention of the atomic bomb (and, we may add, DDT), the wits of journals for review articles Guertin, our time are continually conjecturing on how man will destroy himself. We feel justified in believing that if modern social relations continue, this will occur in stages rather than by a single blow. The meat eaters will probably perish first, assuming anyone survives the application of insecticides to agriculture. After the write Strathallan vegetarians take over, most of them will probably die from #145;improvements#146; in new and better insecticides. Those who survive will undoubtedly kill themselves with the atomic bomb and, finally, to complete irony by irony#133;the insects will inherit the earth. Thus far we have examined the function and #145;possibilities#146; of chemicals in about thinking High agriculture and stock-breeding. Now, we shall attempt to accompany our product #150; sprayed by poisons and injected with hormones #150; to the next great stage: the processing of food products for the market. Before, we were occupied with agriculture; now, we are concerned with industry.

But since agriculture simply reflects industry to-day, since both are thus oriented toward quantity instead of quality, the reader will not be surprised to learn that the prevalence of commercial over nutritive ends originates in the processing of foods. In this connection, Dr. McCay assures us, we are guided by a great tradition. #145;Since very early times, in the interests of making more profits, men have attempted to introduce chemicals into foods in order to make a cheaper product appear like a better one.#146; In accord with great traditions, let us take the fate of write good, bread. Harvard Lyceum. Ecclesiastical literature describes bread as the #145;staff of life#146;.

So profoundly has the importance of bread been etched on human civilization that our great divines often contrast the body with the spirit by good saying: #145;Man does not live by bread alone.#146; At the very least, this implies that man also cannot live without bread. The implication was true until fairly recently. It is now an open question whether the product which currently passes for bread in the United States is any longer the same food that inspired many earlier sermons, aspirations, dreams #150; indeed, vast historical movements. #145;Bread traditionally was made from flour, yeast and how to essay North Broward Preparatory School salt,#146; profoundly avers Dr. William B. Bradley of the American Institute of Baking, #145;and that is what it is made from in write good Strathallan School most countries other than this one.#146; These are memorable words. They may well comprise the last, faint descriptions of the few scholars who still see bread. For Review Guertin. Indeed, bread seems to be traveling on the road toward extinction, for in this country, at least, it is how to good essays, being made with the addition of many synthetic substances and chemicals. Do these chemicals mark any improvement? Do they serve any beneficial function? Perhaps we may answer these questions by contrasting trends in the improvement of bread with the substances out of which many #145;breads#146; are now made in the United States.

We know what enters into #145;traditional#146; bread. Now a better, more nutritive bread is review journal Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz, one to which has been added milk, eggs and or/butter. In the write good essays Strathallan School mental and journals for review Guertin old-age institutions of New York State, for good essays in english Strathallan School example, a minimum of six per cent. fluid milk and two per cent. wheat germ is required for an acceptable bread. This bread, according to Dr. McCay, #145;costs only a half-cent more than the write Broward worst#146;. Yet despite the small difference in price, a growing tendency among bakers has favoured the replacement of valuable natural and dairy nutrients by chemical substances that may either be harmful to the public health or may at the very least contain less or none of the nutritive values in the foods they have supplanted. A bad, although commonly used bread, for example, is likely to include bleached flour, softeners or emulsifiers, increased quantities of water, yeast and salt. Dairy products will have been #145;successfully#146; removed.

They way in which wheat is essays in english, refined and bleached to-day has radically altered the nutritive weight of bread in jurnal review School the modern diet. Research shows that a greater proportion of write good essays Strathallan, mineral richness in wheat is to thinking wiki College, be found in the outer layers of the berry. Yet it is usually this part that is removed for how to essays in english School the baking of bread and cake, while the less valuable endosperm is retained. It is perhaps even more interesting to note that natural wheat is not as fattening as is review Windermere School, ordinarily supposed. A pound of red winter wheat has about 1,471 calories.

As a result of milling, however, a pound of essays in english Strathallan, extraction flour yields 1,618 calories, an increase of more than 200 calories per pound. For every eight pounds of white bread consumed, the caloric equivalent of a pound of natural wheat is unnecessarily added to the diet. The outer layer goes as offal to farm animals; the inner layer is jurnal review, sent off for man. The first contains a higher ratio of minerals to carbohydrates than the second. In short, farm animals receive the best portion of the grain while man is stuffed with substances that make for write essays in english Strathallan increased carbohydrates and the concomitant physical disorders of a burdened, over-weighted body.

The bread industry in jurnal the United States has tended to become a modern Circe: turning men into swine #150; in how to write in english Strathallan School appearance if not in habits. But the problem does not end at this point. The remaining berry is often bleached until it is rendered suitable for the production of white bread. How To Write And Effect Essay School. To-day this may mean that the berry is in english Strathallan, subjected to oxides of nitrogen, chlorine, potassium bromate, bitrosyle chloride, benzoyl peroxide or any #145;permitted#146; combination of these chemicals. Are these chemicals harmful?

Will we have to how to an cause School, wait for close on half a century (as with agene) to learn that they create disorders of some sort in experimental animals? A number of countries have already answered these questions by simply prohibiting the bleaching of flour. Indeed, it is unnecessary in any case to bleach flour in write good order to make white bread. When flour is stored and permitted to age, it will turn white naturally. Write North Broward Preparatory. The use of chemical #145;maturing#146; agents arises principally because storage facilities are too expensive, insects have increased as a problem for stored foods generally and contemporary methods of distribution favour quick processing as against write good in english, traditional techniques. Journals For Review Articles Bishop. Naturally-white flour is how to good in english Strathallan, simply unprofitable and difficult to how to write and effect Westminster School, handle in the present social set-up. Another #145;development#146; in bread is the introduction of emulsifying or softening agents. The typical method for determining whether bread is fresh or not is by feeling it, by #145;playing the piano#146; (as the industry puts it) on essays School, the bread rack in retail stores. Until recently, the softness of bread and cake products was a good index of thinking wiki College, how long a product had been away from the oven. For the most part, the degree of how to essays in english School, softness depends upon the rapidity with which a cereal loses its moisture.

Surface-active materials like natural fats, lecithin in egg yolk, and some plant substances which are in themselves valuable to the body will retain air and moisture in grain foods and thus keep these products soft without necessarily keeping them #145;fresh#146;. In this case, the consumer gains in food value what he may have lost in freshness. While this method of keeping bread and cake soft benefits the public, it is review School, expensive and unprofitable to the bread industry. Essays In English Strathallan School. #145;Naturally#146;, a #145;way out#146; of the #145;horrible#146; dilemma had to be found. Naturally. During the how to write an evaluation School #145;thirties, enterprising researches discovered that chemical surface-active agents like the mono- and diglycerides and polyoxyethylene monostearates could achieve the desired end. At first, this discovery did not quite revolutionize the baking industry. At the time that emulsifiers were first put forward, observes Mr. George T. Carlin of how to good in english Strathallan School, Swift and Company, #145;the bread-softness vogue had not become as pronounced as to-day and critical thinking Epsom College we never thought in terms of softness in 1937. In fact, we tried to patent their (emulsifiers) use as staling retarders but found our usage patent application had been anticipated by at least ten years#146;.

During the how to write good School war, however, the emulsifier industry prepared an extensive sales campaign for harvard review Alpinum the baking industry until the idea finally began to bear #145;fruit#146;. At this writing, the public how has little choice between breads which contain emulsifiers and those which do not. According to G.F. Gauger of the Purity Baking Company, an estimated 75 per how to write cent. of the bakers in the United States use emulsifiers in how to an cause bread. The possibilities which emulsifiers have are nothing less than extraordinary. Write Good Essays In English Strathallan. Carlin advises the Committee, for critical Epsom College example, that it is how to in english Strathallan, possible to reduce the fat in a cake mix from a high of 14 per an evaluation North School cent. to zero.

The Swift Laboratories #145;have made suitable mixes with 0 per cent. shortening content with the synthetic emulsifier#146;. Good In English Strathallan School. Not only could the fat content be manipulated at will but #145;the reduction would make a cake that would be perhaps more appealing#146;. Mr. Carlin adds #145;that the egg content of jurnal review Windermere, a cake mix parallels the fat content. How To In English Strathallan. Fat makes a cake tender, eggs make it tough.

In other words, the eggs, the coagulation of the eggs will offset the tendering influence of fat, so when you reduce fat, you may also simultaneously reduce the eggs#146;. #145;Mr. Jurnal School. Keefe (Representative from Wisconsin): You would almost have to, would you not?#146; #145;Mr. Carlin: Unless you wished a tough, rubbery cake, you would.#146; If we are to accept the opinion of a number of food specialists, however, the principal danger of certain emulsifiers comes from the how to write in english physical damage they have produced in experimental animals. Recently, the Swift laboratories subjected some emulsifiers and allied substances to toxicological and nutritional evaluation. The experiments centred on the effect which #145;Myrj 45#146; and how to an evaluation essay North Broward Preparatory #145;Sta-Soft#146; (polyoxyethylene monostearate) have on rats, hamsters and rabbits. The results obtained were summarized by Dr. Edward Eagle as follows: #145;. How To Write Good Essays In English Strathallan School. . .Single doses (20 milliliter) of Bishop High, Sta-Soft of essays in english, Myrj 45 in rabbits changed the normally cloudy, alkaline urine containing varying amounts of white crystalline precipitate to a clear, acid, precipitate-free urine containing 5.9 to 6.5 milligrams polyoxyethylene glycol per milliliter.

#145;The rats fed Sta-Soft showed occult blood in the feces#133; the Sta-Soft rats showed no unusual gross pathology; microscopically, however, they manifested unusual gastric, lymphoid, renal, and testicular involvement.#146; The level used in these experiments were five, ten, fifteen and twenty-five times the amount recommended for use in break and cake. According to how to write and effect essay Westminster School, Dr. Eagle, this represents a fraction of the test levels which the Food and Drug Administration advises for chemical substances used in food. How To Good Essays In English Strathallan. #145;Furthermore,#146; observes Dr. Eagle, #145;the Food and Drug Administration states in writing, in scientific journals, that in order to jurnal review Windermere, prove the non-toxicity of any substance, it has to how to good essays Strathallan, be fed to thinking wiki Epsom, animals at a level of 5 per cent. with no harmful effects. These materials cannot be fed to animals at 5 per cent. with no harmful effects#133; There are some people who feed a small dose to a rat, for example, and say that since man, a 70-kilo man weighs 350 times as much as a 200-gram rat, then man can take 350 times as much as a rat can take.

That is very poor reasoning. #145;The best example I think you can give for write good essays that is aspirin. The LD-50 (lethal dose which will kill half the number of animals to which the dose is administered) for aspirin is 1,300 milligrams per kilogram. That means about five 5-gram aspirin tablets represents the LD-50 dose for the rat and kills half the animals. Articles Bishop Guertin. If a man weighs 350 times the weight of Strathallan School, that rat, then 350 times 5 aspirin tablets is 1,750 aspirin tablets, and journals Bishop School no one would ever say that a man can take 1,750 aspirin tablets and survive#133;. If you can cause harm to any animal with anything, that material is good, not good for man, and that is the reasoning behind a good many of the discussions with Food and Drug people. Man is the most sensitive of animals #150; at least, they regard him so #150; so that any material which is toxic to a rat or a hamster or a rabbit is unsafe for man.#146; Independent experiments by Dr. B. S. Schweigert of the University of Chicago essentially confirm the results obtained by Dr. Eagle.

Schweigert submits the following summary: #145;The effects of feeding 5 or 15 per cent. of journals for review articles High School, two polyoxyethylene monostearates (trade names Myrj and write good essays in english School Sta-Soft) in the diet of weanling hamsters was investigated. Thirty-three animals were used in each group and articles Bishop Guertin School the growth rate, food utilization, general appearance, gross pathology and histological abnormalities were noted and compared to those observed for comparable groups fed 5 or 15 per cent. prime stead lard. The basal diet was designed to be adequate in all known nutrients. The animals were kept on experiment for ten weeks, at essays in english which time all remaining animals in each group were sacrificed. #145;A significant reduction in the rate of gain was observed for the groups fed either 5 or 15 per cent. Myrj or Sta-Soft as compared to the groups fed lard. A decrease in food utilization was also noted when Myrj or Sta-Soft was fed. Marked changes in the intestinal tract occurred and severe diarrhea also were observed for the animals fed Myrj or Sta-Soft. Mortality data, data on organ weights and gross pathology, also indicated that the ingestion of these compounds in these amounts was deleterious to the hamster as compared to the data obtained for animals fed lard. #145;Animals fed 5 or 15 per cent.

Myrj, Sta-Soft, or lard were sacrificed after two, four, six, eight, and ten weeks on experiment for histological study. Sections of the ileum, duodenum, rectum, liver, and kidney were examined for any histological abnormalities by Dr. Essay North Broward Preparatory. Wang, chief of the division of histology of the American Meat Institute Foundation. In addition, sections of the bone marrow and of testes were taken from some of the animals. Marked changes were observed in how to good essays in english Strathallan School the duodenum, ileum, liver, kidney, and testis of Bishop Guertin, hamsters fed 5 to 15 per cent. How To Good School. Myrj or Sta-Soft after two to ten weeks on review School, experiment. Write Good Essays In English Strathallan School. The changes in harvard journal Lyceum Alpinum Zuoz the duodenum and ileum consisted of a severe erosion of the mucosa. Necrosis of the liver, decreased spermatogenetic activity of the testis, and tubular degeneration of the School kidney were also observed.#146; The fate of bread is only part of an entire industrial and profit-mad pattern. Even the dairy products that are recommended for bread have become suspect because of the chemicals employed.

Butter, for example, was relatively pure food until recently. To-day it is common to dye this food a sickly-yellow colour. The problem grows in dimensions when we recognize that the testing standards among pathologists are improving while those of industrial chemists often lag far behind. A large portion of chemicals employed in food products has been insufficiently investigated for thinking College carcinogenic (cancer-causing) properties. They have been tested primarily for acute toxicity. Another portion either has been or is being used which is allied to know carcinogens. Still others are poisonous under some conditions and #145;less toxic#146; under other circumstances. #145;Butter yellow,#146; notes a memorandum from the Food and Drug Administration, is a colouring matter that was #145;used for essays in english Strathallan a long time before it was discovered to be carcinogenic, at for review articles least in animals.#146; It belongs to an entire class of chemicals known as the AZO compounds which have been found to write School, produce cancer in mice. Oil orange E, another dye #145;in general use#146;, according to Dr. Francis E. Write Broward School. Ray, Director of the Cancer Research Laboratory with the University of Florida, #145;caused tumours in seven out of seventeen mice, fourteen months after the start of the good essays in english Strathallan School experiment #150; fourteen months is about half the life of a healthy mouse. An eighth mouse showed extensive liver damage#146;.

According to a list prepared by the Food and Drug Administration, over 800 chemicals #145;have been used or are proposed for School use in or on foods, or in such a manner as to constitute potential food contaminants#146;. Many of these chemicals have crept into foods for extremely obscure purposes. The public, for example, does not have the write School faintest idea that phenyl alpha naphthylamine is an anti-oxidant that is known to have been used in chewing gum. Yet this chemical is regarded by the Food and Drug Administration as toxic and #145;not suitable for food use generally#146;. Some substances, like potassium iodide, are used as nutritive supplements in #145;iodized salt#146;. #145;However, potassium iodide per se is a poisonous substance. Morever, its use in thinking about Justin-Siena School even relatively small quantities may lead to adverse effects in the case of persons suffering from tuberculosis and possibly other disease.#146; Sometimes, a chemical like saccharic acid, which is considered to be #145;harmless#146; in pure form, is rendered toxic in commercial form because of how to write good Strathallan School, impurities.

Chemicals, which are apparently harmless, may break down into substances that have toxic effects. Dulcin (alias Sucrol and Valzin), for example, is a synthetic sweetening agent that is chemically known as paraphenetyl urea. It is about 200 times as sweet as cane sugar and does not produce the after-taste found in saccharine. According to how to an cause and effect essay Westminster, Dr. A. J. Lehman, Director of the Division of Pharmacology of the Food and Drug Administration: #145;Although it has been available for over fifty years no investigation of its possible adverse affects when consumed daily in small amounts over a long period of time was made until a few years ago when the how to good in english School Food and Drug Administration studied the problem. Previous toxicity studies had been content to show that no immediate ill effects were noted in either man or animals from quantities such as would be used for critical thinking Epsom College sweetening foods. The fact that several workers had reported that Dulcin could break down to para amino phenol in the body us suspicious of it. Para amino phenol is also formed from acetanilid and is responsible for that drug#146;s poisonous effect on the blood. Our study of the chronic toxicity of how to write essays in english, Dulcin was begun in the fall of 1947 and Guertin extended over a two-year period.

It consisted of how to good Strathallan, incorporating Dulcin or one of three other synthetic sweetening agents into the diet of rats and thinking about thinking School observing the effects on growth and survival throughout their lifetime. After death the various organs were examined throughout their lifetime. After death the various organs were examined microscopically to see what pathological changes had taken place. As the experiment progressed it became increasingly evident that the write good essays in english toxic properties of Dulcin make it unsuitable for use in food. As soon as the scientific evidence permitted such a conclusion a statement of policy was published in the Federal Register (19th January, 1950) announcing that we regarded Dulcin and P-4000 (another synthetic sweetener) as poisonous substances which have no place in food.#146; Dulcin, it may be noted, was used in food products for critical thinking Epsom College sufferers of diabetes mellitus.

Anyone who is familiar with the characteristics of this disease may well know the extraordinary danger that toxins #150; especially blood toxins #150; present to how to write good essays in english Strathallan, diabetics. On 9th February, 1949, the Food and Drug Administration undertook to advise a large manufacturer of diabetic food products that incomplete studies indicated the toxic properties of Dulcin. After an how to an evaluation Broward exchange of letters and oral views that continued into September of the same year a representative of the Food and Drug Administration observed that #145;we were somewhat surprised to learn that your company had continued to use Dulcin although fully aware of the how to good essays Strathallan School fact that studies that were under way were indicative of the probably toxicity of thinking High, Dulcin#146;. How To Good Essays School. The Company finally discontinued the use of Windermere, this substance. The Food and Drug Administration, it may further be noted, also learned that Dulcin not only inhibits growth and affects the blood adversely, but that it also produces#133; liver tumours! While few companies, to-day, are prepated to make the protracted tests that finally revealed the toxic effects of Dulcin, the use of toxic, #145;near#146; toxic, #145;probably#146; toxic, and in english Strathallan toxic but #145;harmless#146; chemicals (all of these categories are frequently established in food chemistry) can be multiplied almost indefinitely. They have grown with entirely new classes of synthetic substances for entirely new types of meaningless or obscure uses. Alkyl aryl sulfanates are #145;wetting agents#146;, the toxicity and side effects of which #145;require careful study#146; according to the Food and Drug Administration.

But what, if you please, is a #145;wetting agent#146;? Is the public familiar with its function or its need? A Food and Drug Administration list faintly hints that this type of substance is employed for thinking about thinking School washing fruits and vegetables. Or else one discovers that there are wax coatings, resins, plasticizers and other ingredients of packaging materials. Phenol-formaldehyde resins, for example, are a number of such substances that have been used for coating tin cans. Some of these resins are explicitly regarded by the Food and Drug Administration as deleterious; others are believed to be #145;relatively#146; safe. The hazards to the consumer depend upon #145;whether the material would be transferred to the foods with which it might come in contact either by direct solution or leaching, volatilization, abrasion, or other methods#146;. The problems, in short, are legion and the possibilities for endangering the public health depend not only upon primary or secondary effects, but reach back into tertiary stages of nutrition. They grow with a one-sided over-complication of write good essays in english School, society, with a distortion of man#146;s relationship to natural forces and his bodily needs. Within recent years, the rise of little known and even unknown infectious diseases, the increase of degenerative illnesses and, finally, the high incidence of cancer suggests come connection between the growing use of chemicals in food and human diseases. There are, of course, many diseases that have been with man for immemorial ages.

Little is known of why these diseases are acquired by some individuals while other individuals are immune. Investigation is slowly (and all too slowly) moving toward the study of immunity, of resistance factors which depend partly upon heredity but also upon the level of review Alpinum Zuoz, nutrition. Now, chemicals in food products may well play a very important role in write good essays Strathallan these problems. Much has to be learned of the critical thinking Epsom College primary, secondary and tertiary effects individual chemical substances, their derivatives and how to Strathallan combinations play in reducing immunity. Review Windermere. Something is already known of the lower nutritive level that has already been produced by how to good in english many chemical substitutes in food. The toxins produced by bacteria, however, remain the direct agents of death from infectious disease. In this connection, an entirely new field of research is being opened. It is known, for example, that species of bacteria are no longer as stable as was once assumed. Apparently harmless bacteria may undergo mutation or enter into an environment that suddenly renders them dangerous to human health. The question is: are chemicals in essay North School food products responsible for how to essays any of these changes and essay School new environmental conditions?

In testimony before the Select Committee, Dr. Bing raised some considerations along this line. How To Write Essays In English Strathallan. #145;The incidence of many diseases is changing,#146; he said. #145;There is an increase in the morbidity and mortality from a number of diseases. And then we have this phenomenon of new diseases appearing, conditions which were unknown heretofore or which were seen so little that they went unrecognized. #145;The increase in incidence #150; and, well, man is heir not only to review Windermere, old diseases, but he acquires some new ones from time to time. Whenever that occurs we naturally suspect a change in the environment. #145;Now, foods are part of the environment of the human being, and some alterations in how to good in english School foods are suspect or some alterations in drugs that may be given are always suspect.#146; Dr. Justin-Siena School. Bing specifically pointed to one disease that is suspected to have arisen or, at least, to have increased in incidence because of an emulsifying agent in vitamins. #145;There is this condition of retrolental fibroplasias of babies born prematurely.

That condition is how to Strathallan, characterized by a change in High the retina of the eye, and it results in total blindness of the baby in both eyes. #145;That condition was either now known or was observed so occasionally that it was not recognized, by and large, up until about 1941, and then the incidence of how to essays Strathallan, it increased so that from 30 to 40 per review School cent. of the prematurely born babies in some nurseries, some hospitals, had this condition and become blind. #145;Now, the how to write good Strathallan School medical investigators looking into that have cast suspicion on the use of synthetic emulsifying agents present in a vitamin preparation which was administered to the new-born babies. Review Windermere School. They are not sure that I was the how to write School emulsifying agent or not, but they have called attention to the fact that when they changed from the vitamin preparation containing this synthetic emulsifying agent to the same vitamins without that particular material, the incidence went from 30 to 40 per cent. blindness down to less than 1 per cent.#146; It is widely agreed that the tempo and insecurity of American social life is a vital factor in the increase of degenerative diseases like heart and circulatory illnesses. But very little attention has been given to the role of jurnal, chemicals in food. This problem is especially complex because much has to be learned about the way the body absorbs and uses calcium and magnesium salts #150; in addition to many other substances that make for over-all health.

When synthetic toxins and chemical combinations are introduced into the body, however, it is clear that all the balances that normally exist in a healthy human being are altered. Write Essays Strathallan. While nature provides for jurnal Windermere School many tolerances in the body, a sustained attack upon these tolerances is certain to have disastrous effects. Write Essays. In the oxidation of sugars, for example, quantities varying up to a teaspoonful of insulin (about 1 cc) are responsible for the difference between a mild and for review articles Bishop School severe case of diabetes. Good Essays. Consider then, what it means when chemicals are introduced that violate these #150; and even more slender #150; tolerances day after day and year after year. Write An Cause And Effect Essay Westminster School. A further problem is the heavy burden which toxins and chemicals place on the eliminatory organs of the body. Under the best conditions (which seldom prevail) these toxins are excreted.

Before they are removed, however, they not only remain a burden to the entire organism but especially to good in english Strathallan School, the heart, liver and kidneys which are most frequently involved in diseases of old age. In short, it is still to be determined how a chemical in food #145;behaves in the body, how it is handled in the alimentary tract; whether it is digested and absorbed; and, if absorbed, where it goes. Is it handled by the liver, the great chemical organ of the body, and converted to review Windermere, something else, and the eliminated or does it pile up in the tissues or go to the kidneys, where many soluble substances are channeled in order to be excreted? Does it have any effect on any of the organs of the how to essays Strathallan body?#146; Dr. Bing, who posed these questions for the Select Committee, expanded upon the problems they raise for research. #145;We now know that there are some poisons which will kill an animal without causing any demonstrable pathology or change in the structure of the cells. Essay Westminster. Cyanides can combine with the how to write good in english School blood pigment and prevent taking in oxygen from the air. And then there are certain organic synthetic compounds which react with substances in the body called enzymes, and can cause sudden death in journals for review Guertin High School experimental animals without giving any clue to any pathologist who may make sections of all the tissues of the body and look for changes in the cell structure.#146; They very multitude of in english Strathallan, questions that can be raised around chemicals in food provides the essential setting for how to write Broward Preparatory an answer.

In so delicate an arrangement as the how to good essays in english human body, it can be asserted that many synthetic chemicals probably play a sweeping role in diseases that are due to changes in human physiology #150; in the #145;degenerative#146; illnesses. Perhaps the most remarkable data thus far on the role of School, chemicals in disease has been accumulated on cancer. This data has been supplied from write essays in english Strathallan, two aspects of research: the known properties of many chemicals in causing cancer (carcinogens) and the characteristics of malignant growth. That certain chemical substances could produce cancer was proven in 1915 when two Japanese investigators, Yamagiwa and Ichikawa, managed to produce cancer in rabbits with coal tar. Since then tests of some 1,000 chemicals have led to the discovery of about 100 carcinogens. Some of these chemicals like 9,10-dumethul-1, 2-benezathracine require only for review articles School, three applications to how to write good essays in english Strathallan, the skin to lead to cancer in a few months. But it is necessary to emphasize that the vast majority of carcinogens require long-continued applications of small doses before cancer can be produced. Carcinogens can be used for a long time before they are known to cause malignant tumours. As a result of investigations by Goldblatt, for example, the #145;interval between the first exposure of workmen to cancer-producing compounds and the appearance of symptoms of the disease was eleven to review, sixteen years in 54 per cent. of the cases. It was twenty to forty-eight years in how to write good Strathallan School 19 per cent. The shortest period exposure sufficient to cause cancer was 3.5 years and the longest thirty-three years.#146; A carcinogen may thus be used as a chemical in food without lending itself to any assured means of discovery #150; perhaps not only for many years but even at all.

Even when carcinogens are used on short-lived experimental animals, unknown conditions for thinking about Justin-Siena High School cancer may remain long after use has been discontinued. In recent studies on the incidence of lung cancer among smokers, the investigators proffered the suspicion that cancer appeared later in life as a result of smoking although smoking was discontinued decades earlier. In English Strathallan. A new term (carcinogens) has been established for Justin-Siena High chemicals that #145;will not produce cancer when administered alone, but will enhance the cancer-producing power of how to good School, other chemicals. For example, if very small doses of 20-methylcholanthrene are applied to the skin, no cancer may develop but if the skin is then rubbed with croton oil, tumours soon appear at its site of application. #145;These small doses of the carcinogens will not produce cancer, but when the small doses of carcinogen is followed by the croton oil, then a tumour appears. #145;The croton oil can be applied several months after the jurnal review School cancer-producing chemical has been administered. Simultaneous application is not necessary.#146; The effects of carcinogens and cocarcinogens, therefore, prove to have an extremely complex background. How To Write Essays In English Strathallan. Two substances may not appear to be carcinogenic when individual tests are made; but in combination, or in any given sequence of application, they may produce cancer sooner or later. Since any numbers of combinations or sequences are theoretically possible, the how to School entire concept of carcinogens wants revision. As long as synthetic chemicals are used in food, the human body comes to resemble ac chemical factory in how to write good essays in english which incalculable combinations of toxins and thinking about thinking High School carcinogens are possible at any stage of life.

The problems of chemicals in food products no longer centre so much on individual chemicals as they do on a completely altered level of physiology, nutrition and irritability. The fact that cancer can derive from the mistreatment of the body as a whole is how to write good essays in english Strathallan, suggested from the standpoint of pathological as well as chemical research especially in the work of Harry S. N. Greene at the Yale University Medical School. Review Windermere School. In the course of transplanting tissues that was microscopically diagnosed as cancerous, Greene found that sometimes tissue could be transferred successfully to how to in english School, the eye of an and effect essay alien species and at other times it could not. After further research, Green came to the conclusion that many tumours which receive a diagnosis of write good essays, cancer as a result of microscopic analysis were actually benign. Only the malignant tumours could be transferred. These facts led to several lines of speculation. Critical College. Cancer may be suspected of deriving as a rule from pre-cancerous lesions. In the pre-cancerous stage, a tumour may microscopically resemble in every detail a malignant growth and still be benign. Although it will be diagnosed as cancer and often successfully removed, in this stage there is no danger of metastasis (spreading to other sites). After a while, the write in english School supposed cancer may become truly cancerous and only then will metastasis occur.

What causes the change in behaviour? Greene expresses the thinking wiki Epsom College belief that constitutional rather than local abnormalities are responsible. Abnormalities in how to good essays in english Strathallan the organism as a whole seem to disturb the Windermere organization of the cellular structure. Write Good Essays. This leads first to a development through a pre-cancerous stage and eventually into malignant tumours and metastasis. Greene#146;s view, of course, does not necessarily challenge the essay Westminster local view of cancer; as, for example, when tissue is rendered cancerous by continual irritation.

Rather, Greene also seems to open a more general source of disturbance. His view implicitly challenges the entire environment of man. Among the most direct factors of man#146;s environment to-day that make for how to write in english constitutional abnormalities are the tempo and insecurity of existence and the wholesale alteration of harvard Lyceum Zuoz, diet by the use of chemicals in food products. Write In English School. The former has given rise to how to write an cause essay Westminster, nervous disorders on a vast scale. The latter tends to upset and distort human physiological processes, render nutrition inadequate and introduce repeated irritants and write good essays Strathallan an over-loading of jurnal review School, substances or toxins into the body. The problem that chemicals in good Strathallan food presents can no longer be confined to the danger of acute toxicity. Sensational cases of review Windermere School, food-poisoning (bad as they are) have been overshadowed by the slow distortion of organic processes as a whole. Broad issues in ecology, chemistry and physiology are being raised #150; not simply local instances of acute toxicity which supplied most of the attacks and legislation against the food industry in the past. How To Good Strathallan. When chemical fertilizers include the risk of altering soils, a general ecological problem is presented. How To Write North Broward Preparatory School. When insecticides are developed from relatively simple compounds to complex and stable hydrocarbons that remain in animal tissue, the very constituents of the human body are involved.

Finally, when innumerable types of chemical substances are introduced into the absorptive, physiological and metabolic processes of the body, the whole cycle of nutrition, growth, organic development and the normal tempo of physical degeneration in the course of life is changed adversely. We have said that the motive for introducing chemicals in food is profit. We shall soon have the occasion to how to write good essays Strathallan, point out that even more fundamental reasons have arisen in recent times for jurnal review Windermere chemicals in food products. Write Essays In English Strathallan. But for the present this motive continues to operate and extend itself, and it has led to an increasing and reckless marketing of the public health. How To Write An Evaluation Essay Preparatory. Just as the write Strathallan profit-system introduces more and more irrational uses of man#146;s productive forces, so the problems raised by chemicals in food are met with totally irrational #145;solutions#146;. Perhaps the most absurd illustration is the story of #145;enriched#146; bread.

To-day, the housewife is critical thinking wiki Epsom, likely to encounter explosive advertising notices on bread that is #145;enriched#146; with vitamins and other substances. The facts, however, are that many breads which are described as enriched have first been deprived of valuable nutrients. The wheat is bleached and chemicals are introduced to replace the effect of essays in english, natural substances that are useful to the human body. Thinking Thinking Justin-Siena High. This approach to nutrition #150; if such it can be called #150; is in itself so perfectly irrational and School wasteful that it would defy any rational mind if it was any worse than many irrationalities to-day. Many individuals who do not pretend to an expert knowledge of food or agriculture see in chemicals an assertion of man#146;s power over nature, a substitute for vital natural products and human labour.

This concept is only partly true, as it stands, and so far as food is concerned is dangerously wrong. The human body probably functions with the journals for review High School greatest difficulty when it is nourished in write in english Strathallan piece-meal fashion, on the basis of what we think we know it requires. Write Essay School. There are many important things we do not know for how to write Strathallan School which there are certainly no synthetic substitutes. Write Essay Broward School. Modern science, at present, tends to segment the unity of the body into departments of knowledge that are, thus far, only how to essays in english Strathallan School, approximations of its actual activities. These departments #150; physiology, morphology and so on #150; do not completely open to us the complex, organic facts and relations that actually exist in the organism. The body, for example, requires certain indispensable traces of metals and compounds. In greater quantities these substances prove to be poisonous and, perhaps, carcinogenic.

When foods are bleached, dyed, sprayed or synthesized, these traces can be lost or excessively increased. Sometimes, the chemist and physiologist has only a faint idea #150; if at all #150; of what is required. Chemistry continually suggests cheap substitutes, but it is seldom possible to arrive at what is actually necessary to write essay North School, meet the complexities that enter into the total process. In pure foods, however, traces are not only in english Strathallan School, acquired in a manner by which the organism, over the course of animal evolution, has long been adapted to receive them, but they can also be eliminated without damage when these trace materials become excessive. The chemist, on the other hand, may synthesize compounds which the body is thinking about School, compelled to how to write essays School, receive because these compounds obey the general laws of chemistry more closely than the College chemical processes of life. He may render compounds soluble which in how to good essays Strathallan School pure foods are first acted upon by digestive agents. Indispensable steps in digestion, which may be both stages of nutrition and also obstacles to the assimilation of undesirable compounds both in quality and quantity, are thus replaced by laboratory techniques. Even enzymes have now been synthesized to replace natural agents of thinking thinking Justin-Siena High, digestion, often with a very imperfect picture of human digestive activity as a whole.

The human body, therefore, becomes a receptacle for write chemicals it is compelled to absorb, not what it definitely needs. The principle behind this fact can be extended to nearly every aspect of nutrition to-day. The modern concept of #145;power over nature#146; is a similar distortion. For centuries, great thinkers had seen in man#146;s control of natural agencies the key to man#146;s access to leisure, intellectual and review School spiritual development, and freedom. They did not see in this control an end in itself, but an end to suit man. Moreover, #145;control#146; did not signify violation. It referred to a conscious turning of nature to meet human needs, as these needs arose from a rational body of how to essays, social relationships rather than irrational society. Windermere. #145;Control of nature#146; was founded upon the belief that nature had its own complex laws and that man could produce a society founded upon reason.

At present, the #145;conquest#146; of nature is predicated partly upon a control of forces to write good essays, conquer the human organism. It is critical thinking wiki Epsom College, as though our insight into the facts of nature has been employed to how to write in english Strathallan, manipulate the human body as something outside of nature. Soil experts, nutritionists and above all food industrialists toy with the human body very much as though it no longer was as much a part of nature as the very natural forces that are commanded by chemistry. But the principal issue is that the #145;conquest#146; of thinking wiki Epsom College, nature currently rests upon problems arising from social blindness and idiocy. By the misuse of write good Strathallan School, chemistry, man is #145;solving#146; social problems; problems that are related to social insight and intelligence rather than the physical and organic science.

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Now, there is critical wiki Epsom, scarcely any basis for choice between pure food and chemically treated products. The door has been closed to individual selection, and the process of adding synthetic substances proceeds unabated. It is doubtful if legislation will do anything to good essays School, arrest this trend, even if legislation against jurnal review Windermere School, chemicals in food is Strathallan School, enacted. The problem has become a social problem #150; an issue concerning the misuse of industry as a whole. Thinking Thinking Justin-Siena School. It is on this basis alone that it can be solved.

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