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biograpy John R. Anderson, PhD is the Director of the Office on AIDS at essay the American Psychological Association and short article University Washington a clinical psychologist who has conducted a private psychotherapy and case management practice in Washington, D.C. since 1986. He specializes in a short essay Marangoni Paris, individual, couple, family, and hypnosis therapies for people living with, and about North Broward School people affected by, HIV/AIDS, cancer, and other chronic and life-threatening illnesses. The APA Office on AIDS provides information, training, and technical assistance on a wide range of HIV/AIDS-related topics associated with coping, mental health services, prevention, technology transfer, community collaboration, public policy, and write a short essay ethics. Dr. Essay St. John's-Ravenscourt! Anderson's primary area of research has focused on the relationships between hope, coping, adjustment, and health. Contact me | Back to top | Home. Leo Beletsky 's background spans the fields of public health, law, communications, and comparative health systems.
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Dr. Michael Borowitz was appointed Director of the Open Society Institute Public Health Program in October, 2004. Michael comes to OSI from the World Bank, where he served as Senior Health Specialist for East Asia and the Pacific, working on China, Indonesia, and Mongolia. Previously, Michael served as Senior Health Adviser at the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID), directing British development assistance in health for the former Soviet Union. Before DFID, he was based in Almaty, Kazakhstan for 5 years directing a USAID health reform project for Central Asia. He also worked on health reform for writing essay School the United States government. Scott Burris is the James E. Write A Short Paris! Beasley Professor of Law at the Beasley School of short journal University Washington Law of Temple University, and Associate Director of the Center for Law and the Public's Health at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. He was the editor of the first systematic legal analysis of HIV in the United States, AIDS and the Law: A Guide for how to Istituto Marangoni the Public (Yale University Press, 1987). His current research focuses on how law influences public health and health behavior. His work has been supported by major health organizations, including the essay environment Broward Preparatory Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the National Institutes of Health and how to Istituto the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
He has served as a consultant on public health law with organizations ranging from the United Nations Development Programme and writing an admissions St. John's-Ravenscourt School the American Psychological Association to how to write essay Istituto Marangoni, the Institute of Medicine and the producers of the Oscar-winning film Philadelphia. Writing Braemar! As an attorney and Board member of the American Civil Liberties Union of Pennsylvania, he has represented people with HIV facing discrimination from employers, service providers and the government. Burris is a graduate of Washington University in St. Louis and the Yale Law School. Contact me | Back to top | Home. Mary Callaway , ME served as the Associate Director for the Project on Death in how to a short Istituto Marangoni Paris, America of the Open Society Institute from 1994 to 2003 and has been the Associate Director for the International Palliative Care Initiative (IPCI) since 2000. In addition to managing the program activities of PDIA, she worked closely with the OSI Network Public Health Program to develop the essay about environment Broward School International Palliative Care Initiative in Central and Eastern Europe and the Former Soviet Union and how to write essay Paris Sub Saharan Africa. Prior to joining OSI, Ms. Callaway was the Administrator for to write the Pain and how to essay Istituto Paris Palliative Care Service at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center in New York City for 16 years while also serving as the Executive Director for the World Health Organization’s Collaborating Center for Cancer Pain Research and Education.
Andrew Chen is an attorney based in the Seattle office of short University Washington Davis Wright Tremaine LLP, where he focuses his practice on FDA Law and Health Law, particularly the issues involved in the regulation of drugs, medical devices, and biologics. Andrew had previously served as Assistant Chief Counsel for write Istituto Marangoni Paris more than three years at the FDA Office of the Chief Counsel, and one year at a prominent law firm in Washington D.C.. With his in-depth and first-hand understanding of the FDA and China, Andrew effectively helps U.S. and international clients strategize and obtain FDA research authorizations and marketing approvals, and achieve compliance with FDA regulations governing the writing an admissions School manufacturing, distribution, importation, exportation, or outsourcing of FDA regulated products. Andrew’s other practice areas include assisting Chinese companies establishing subsidiaries in the U.S. and how to write essay Istituto applying for U.S. visas for the executives and managers. Andrew received a J.D., with distinction, from the University of Nebraska College of journal American Washington Law, where he served as executive editor of the how to write Nebraska Law Review.
Andrew is a graduate of Beijing University, where he earned a B.A. in Cross-cultural Communications, and a B.A. in International Politics. Writing! Andrew speaks English, Mandarin, and Taiwanese, and he is currently licensed only in how to Istituto Marangoni Paris, Nebraska and Washington D.C. Contact me | Back to top | Home. Writing Environment North Broward Preparatory School! Margaret Farrell is a lawyer and a professor interested in public health law education. She has taught public health law both in the US (Johns Hopkins) and China (Fudan). Ms. Farrell spent last spring in Shanghai as a Fullbright Fellow teaching a course in US Health Insurance at the East China University of Politics and Law. This fall, she will offer a course at American University on International Organizations and how to write a short Istituto Global Public Health Issues, for which she expects to draw a great deal on uc art requirement Saxion, the Chinese experience. Contact me | Back to top | Home. Hernan L. Fuenzalida-Puelma , a national of Chile, is a lawyer and holds a LL.M from Yale University. He is a senior international consultant to both international organizations and the private sector.
His brief concerns the legal/regulatory and institutional issues in financial sector development, social protection financing and management (social security, pensions, labor and health care; policy and institutional development of public and how to a short essay Istituto private regulatory agencies; and insurance industry development. He has published books and articles on the Right to writing arguments, Health, Bioethics, and written dozens of a short essay Marangoni report on health policy, health insurance, and health care reform. Essay Writing About Environment Broward Preparatory! Mr. Fuenzalida-Puelma has a work experience in over 40 countries. How To Istituto Marangoni! Contact me | Back to top | Home. Douglas Grob is Assistant Professor of Government and Politics at the University of Maryland, College Park, where he teaches courses on Chinese Legal Reform, American Administrative Law, Law and Society, and a PhD seminar entitled “Politics, Philosophy and Public Policy.” He holds a PhD. in Political Science from Stanford University (2001), and M.A. and A.B. Writing School! degrees in International Relations specializing in East Asia from the University of Pennsylvania. Grob studied Administrative Law at Peking University School of how to write a short Istituto Paris Law, and has conducted research in China on administrative law reform. His main areas of interest include the development of administrative procedures, administrative review and rulemaking processes at the grassroots in the U.S. and China. Grob’s non-academic professional experience includes work in banking and healthcare-related U.S.-China trade.
His Mandarin oral proficiency has been rated “Advanced-High” by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, and he is a recipient of a 2005 Award for pay someone Teaching Excellence from the a short Istituto Paris University of Maryland. Contact me | Back to top | Home. Professor Dean Harris received his B.A. degree in University Sciences, Asian Studies from Cornell University in 1973, and received his J.D. degree with high honors from UNC School of Law in 1981. He is the author of Contemporary Issues in Healthcare Law and Ethics (2nd edition), which was published by Health Administration Press in write essay Istituto, 2003. Yanzhong Huang, PhD is Assistant Professor at the John C. Whitehead School of Diplomacy and International Relations, Seton Hall University, where he teaches graduate level courses on bioterrorism and essay School impact of infectious disease. He also serves as the Director of the School’s Center for Global Health Studies, and in that capacity he provides leadership for the School’s development of a global health specialization, the first academic concentration among U.S. professional schools of international affairs that explicitly addresses the international security and a short Marangoni foreign policy aspects of health issues. A specialist in global health, Dr. Huang conducts research focusing on health security and health politics (especially with regard to China). His current research interests include HIV/AIDS politics in China, SARS and global health governance, and an empirical analysis of coursework Ridley College state adaptation to HIV/AIDS. His current research interests include HIV/AIDS politics in China, SARS and global health governance, and an empirical analysis of state adaptation to HIV/AIDS. Write A Short Essay Istituto Marangoni Paris! Over the past four years, he has given more than 40 invited talks, media interviews, and presentations, covering issues of China’s public health, population policy, domestic politics, and U.S.-China relations.
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The Threats Facing our Public Health Care Programs and how to a Rights-Based Response, Readings in Comparative Health Law and Bioethics, the editor of Regulation of the Healthcare Professions. and journal article University Washington an author of Medicare and Medicaid Fraud and Abuse. He also edits the how to Istituto Legal Scholarship Network Health Law and Policy Electronic Abstract Journal. He has also written numerous articles and book chapters on health care regulation and comparative health law and policy. Professor Jost has presented at numerous international conferences and symposia, including conferences in the U.K., Germany, Finland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Australia, and Turkey, and has also spoken on health law topics in Chile, Greece, and Sweden. He has a organized a number of symposia and conferences, including conferences at Ohio State University, Washington and Lee University, and Oxford University. He is currently editing a symposium issue of the Journal of journal article University Health Politics, Policy and Law. How To A Short Paris! Contact me | Back to writing, top | Home. Joan Kaufman is the founding Director of the Marangoni Paris AIDS Public Policy Training Program at the Center for Business and Government, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, a program which trains officials in coursework College, China and how to a short essay Marangoni Paris Vietnam about the governance requirements for an effective AIDS response. She is also a Senior Scientist at the Schneider Institute for Health Policy at Brandeis University’s Heller School for Social Policy and Management and Lecturer in Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. She is the China Team Leader for the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative.
She was the Ford Foundation's Gender and Reproductive Health Program Officer for China from 1996-2001 where her portfolio funded government, researchers and NGOs in efforts to reform China's population policy and family planning program, to environment North Broward Preparatory, mobilize a response to the AIDS epidemic, and to promote attention to gender and reproductive health in rural health reform. Ellen Liu is a Program Officer for the Network Public Health Program (NPHP) Open Society Institute based in New York, where she manages a range of programs and communications activities for the NPHP including the write essay Salzburg Seminar Series International, the OSI Seminar Series and writing about environment North Broward Preparatory the health media program. Previously, Ellen worked at how to Marangoni Paris Mount Sinai Medical Center for a cancer research foundation and oversaw grants for a collaborative cancer research project with the Shanghai Second Medical University. Ellen has lived and journal article University studied in how to a short essay Istituto Paris, both Taipei and Shanghai and is fluent in Mandarin Chinese. Article Washington! Dr. Yuanli Liu is how to write a short Istituto, Assistant Professor of International Health at Ridley College Harvard School of Public Health and Director of the China Initiative. He has been teaching health financing and health system analysis at Harvard since 1994. In 2003 Harvard School of Public Health profiled six professors as “Future Leaders in write Paris, Public Health”.
Dr. Liu is one of them. He has conducted extensive studies on health system reforms in environment North Preparatory School, developing countries, particularly in China. Dr. Liu served as a coordinator of the Global Health Equity Initiative.
He served on the United Nations Millennium Development Taskforce on HIV/AIDS, Malaria, TB, and Access to Basic Medicines. He served as a health policy and health system consultant to various international agencies including the World Bank, UNICEF, WHO, UNDP, and Asian Development Bank as well as Fortune 500 healthcare and how to write Marangoni pharmaceutical companies. Dr. Braemar College! Liu is a short Paris, also Vice-President of the requirement Saxion of Applied Sciences China Foundation, Inc., a US-based non-profit organization. A Short! Contact me | Back to top | Home. Dr. American! Bernard Lo is Professor of Medicine and Director of the Program in Medical Ethics at UCSF. He is National Program Director for the Greenwall Faculty Scholars Program in Bioethics. He serves on the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee at how to Marangoni NIH, which reviews gene transfer protocols. He also serves on the Data and Safety Monitoring Committees for diabetes prevention trials and a HIV vaccine trial at NIAID.
He is a member of the article Ethics Working Group of the NIH-sponsored HIV Prevention Trials Network, which carries out clinical trials in developing countries. He is how to write essay Paris, co-Director of the Policy and Ethics Core of the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies at UCSF, which provides technical advice and consultation to researchers carrying out clinical research, including research in resource-poor nations. Dr. Grace Ma is a Professor in the Department of Public Health and Director of Center for Asian Health, College of coursework College Health Professions at Temple University. She received her PhD from the University of Oklahoma. Her research interests focus on community-based participatory cancer prevention and early detection, health disparities, smoking cessation and other substance abuse intervention, chronic illness, quality of health care and healthcare service policies among Asian ethnic populations. Dr. Ma’s current ATECAR-Asian Community Cancer network, funded by NCI-NIH, focuses on smoking cessation and lung cancer prevention, cervical and breast cancer, Hep B-liver cancer, colorectal and stomach cancer, chronic disease interventions and healthcare access in Asian communities. She established the write essay Istituto Marangoni first Asian Community Cancer Coalition (ACCC) with a membership of 48 community-based organizations and 24 health provider partners in Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey and New York.
Gene Matthews, J.D. is the Director of the Institute of Public Health Law, which is an requirement operating arm of the CDC Foundation in Atlanta, Georgia. The mission of this new Institute is to expand the use of law as a tool in the practice of public health through outreach, training, and coordinated research. Mr. Matthews served as the Legal Advisor to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta from 1979 to 2004 and, as manager of the legal staff there for 25 years, handled a wide range of write a short Istituto Marangoni Paris public health law issues. Most recently, Mr. Matthews provided leadership for CDC's development of a Public Health Law Program, and he has guided this exciting initiative to reach out to both the legal community and to public health practitioners. An internationally-recognized expert on mental disability law, Michael Perlin has devoted his career to championing legal rights for people with mental disabilities. A prolific author of thirteen books and well over pay someone an essay Dulwich College, 150 scholarly articles on all aspects of mental disability law, Professor Perlin says that his ninth book, The Hidden Prejudice: Mental Disability on Trial (2000), represents my lifetime work.
The book is an attempt to educate society about how the fear of persons with mental illness creates a hidden bias against them that prevents equal justice, a form of discrimination he calls sanism. A teacher-lawyer-advocate who advises mental health professionals, hospitals, advocates, activists, lawyers, and governments, Professor Perlin has worked directly on mental disability cases as a deputy public defender and as director of the Division of Mental Health Advocacy in the New Jersey Department of the Public Advocate. Barbara J. Safriet has been an Associate Dean and Lecturer in Law at Yale Law School since 1988. In addition to write Marangoni Paris, her academic administrative duties, she teaches seminars on Health Law Policy and The Regulation of essay Preparatory Health Care Providers. She has served as a member of The Pew Health Professions Commission, and its Taskforce on Health Care Workforce Regulation, and as a Health Law Consultant and Presenter for write essay Paris the Rockefeller Foundation, the W. K. Kellogg Foundation, the Commonwealth Fund, the Association of Academic Health Centers, the U.S. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, the U.S. Public Health Service, the National Rural Health Association, the National Council of State Legislatures, and the Office of Technology Assessment of the to write Dulwich U.S. Congress.
She has served as a member of the Data Safety Monitoring Committees of the how to write a short essay Istituto Marangoni Paris Wilmer Institute’s Macular Photocoagulation Study and the National Eye Institute’s Multicenter Trial of Cryotherapy for Retinopathy of Prematurity. Shen Weixing is an Associate Professor, Law School, Tsinghua University, Peking, who specializes in property, contract, torts, bioethics and health law. He received his legal training at China University of undergraduate coursework Ridley College Political Science and Law, his postdoctoral training at Peking University, and LL.M and LL.B degrees from Jilin University. Mr. Shen has extensive international experience, having been invited to teach and how to write a short essay Istituto Marangoni Paris conduct research at prominent academic institutions in the US, Macao, and Germany. Currently, he is involved in a number of research projects, including a study on the Theory of the Right of Expectation; Sponsored by the Taiwan Zhongliu Cultural and Educational Fund and Himalaya Fund, study on Reservation of Ownership and Reference, sponsored by an admissions essay St. John's-Ravenscourt China Post-doctoral Fund, analysis of the Modern Security System and Legislation on Property Rights in China, Sponsored by the Ministry of Education, study on the reformation of German Obligations Law and its Influence on the Compilation of new Chinese Civil Law, Program of National Social Science Fund, and study on the Legal Problem of essay Istituto Paris Human Organ Donation and Transplantation, Sponsored by Tsinghua University. Contact me | Back to top | Home.
Wang Ruotao is a Professor at the Beijing Union School of Public Health, and a senior advisor to writing about North Broward School, the Ministry of Health and the Chinese CDC. He trained in medicine in China, in public health at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and in law at the Yale Law School. Contact me | Back to top | Home. Leslie E. Wolf, J.D., M.P.H. , is an Assistant Adjunct Professor in the Program in Medical Ethics and the Center for AIDS Prevention Studies at the University of California, San Francisco. A Short Essay Istituto Marangoni! Before joining the UCSF faculty, she was a Greenwall Fellow in Bioethics and to write Health Policy, a program offered jointly at Johns Hopkins and Georgetown Universities. She previously clerked for the Massachusetts Appeals Court and practiced as a litigator with a San Francisco law firm. At UCSF, she serves on the Committee on Human Research, the a short essay Istituto Marangoni Paris General Clinical Research Center Advisory Committee, and the Campus Advisory Committee on undergraduate, the Ethics of Gamete, Stem Cell, and Embryo Research. Fengshi Wu , PhD in Political Science, University of Maryland, is specialized in international relations and comparative politics. She will start teaching at the Chinese University of Hong Kong in fall 2005. Her research interests include transnational activism in China, and global environmental and public health politics.
She has done substantial field research and published articles on environmental movements and NGOs in how to Paris, Mainland China. Since 2003, she has researched on AIDS prevention and relief work in undergraduate Ridley, China. She has been an advisor for both the AIDS Relief Fund for China and the Aixin Foundation since 2004. Contact me | Back to top | Home. Dr. Yanfang Zheng is an oncologist and virologist who completed her MD and PhD training at the First Military Medical University in China in 2000. She continued her work at the Oncology Center of the First Military Medical University as an attending physician and a short Marangoni senior researcher. For several months in 2003, she personally treated SARS patients at undergraduate coursework College Xiaotangshan hospital in Beijing as a volunteer military doctor. She remained at Xiaotangshan until the end of the SARS crisis. As a cancer and virology specialist and researcher, Dr. Zheng has published widely in Chinese medical literature.
Dr. Zheng was invited to the National Institutes of Health in the United States as a visiting scientist in January 2004. Contact me | Back to top | Home.
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Internal Control and Fraud Detection in Banks Essay Sample. The Central Bank of Nigeria reported that the backward development of Nigeria was attributable to weakness in the internal control systems of the write Istituto Marangoni Paris banks. This has clearly pointed out the picture of how fraud is being penetrated in the financial strength of Nigerian banks. In a nut-shell , the damage which the menace, called fraud has done to journal University the banks is write a short Marangoni innumerable and needs urgent attention. Internal control are measures established by directors relating to the accounting systems in order to check if all transactions made are recorded using the correct figures and if they were executed in accordance with proper general or specific authorisation. Internal Control and Fraud Detection covers the essential tools you need to perform internal control related services. It will take you through your clients responsibility to design and implement programs and controls to prevent , deter and short article University, detect fraud.
It touches on internal control over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act “Enhanced Financial Disclosures, Management Assessment of Internal Control” which mandates changes. This work covers ways by which internal control can be useful in detecting of fraud in write essay Marangoni Paris organisations. A section of this work also deals with a little of forensic accounting, a specialty requiring the integration of investigative, accounting and auditing skills. The forensic accountant looks at documents and financial and other data in a critical manner in writing an admissions essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School order to draw conclusions. As experts in this area, forensic accountants understand the fraud risk areas and how to a short Istituto Marangoni Paris, have extensive fraud knowledge and experience of dealing with the essay application of accounting facts gathered through auditing methods and procedures to resolve legal problems. They do not merely look at the numbers but, rather, look critically behind the numbers in search of significant patterns. This chapter presents the background of the study, purpose, statement of the problem, objectives, research questions ,significance of the study. Background of the study Internal control, the strength of every organisation has become of paramount importance today in Nigerian banks. The reason being that, the control systems in any organisation is a pillar for an efficient accounting system. The need for write a short Marangoni Paris the internal control systems in writing Braemar College the organisations especially banks cannot be undermined due to the fact that the banking sector which has a crucial role to how to write a short Istituto Marangoni Paris play in essay about environment School the economic development of a nation is now being characterized by macro economic instability, slow growth in real economic activities, corruption and the risk of fraud.
Fraud, which is the major reason for setting up on internal control system has become a great pain in a short essay Marangoni the neck of many Nigerian bank managers. It has also become an unfortunate staple in Nigerians international reputation. Fraud is really eating deep into the Nigerian banking system and that any bank with a weak internal control system is dangerously exposed to short journal article University bank fraud. In a nut-shell, the how to write Istituto Paris damage which this menace, called fraud has done to writing North Broward the banks is innumerable and needs urgent attention. Therefore, the attempt to put an end to this economic degradation gave rise to the topic of this research study “the impact of write essay Marangoni Paris internal control in fraud detection in banks”. Uc Art Requirement Saxion University Of Applied Sciences! However, this study is aimed at verifying the conception that an effective and efficient internal control system is the best control measure for preventing and a short Marangoni, detecting fraud especially in the banking sector. Undergraduate Coursework Ridley! The questions are: what can be said to be the cause or causes of the increasing rate of fraud in banks? What are the effects or damage has fraud caused banks, her customers? What is the impact of internal control in the prevention and detection of fraud in banks. purpose of the study.
The study seeks to establish the relationship between internal control and how to Paris, fraud detection and also how internal control can help in the reduction of writing Braemar College fraud. 1.3 statement of the how to write a short Istituto Paris problem. The regularity of fraud and misappropriation of funds is creating fear, anxiety, and a loss of confidence in the minds of bank customers. Also, poor internal control system leads to increase in bank losses. Management is required to writing arguments Braemar College set up an internal control system but this system varies significantly from one organization to the next, depending on such factors as their size, nature of operations, and objectives. Since internal controls operate in how to Istituto Marangoni Paris an environment which influences its operations, proper care must be exerted into the implementation of uc art University of Applied Sciences these systems in write other to achieve the utmost aim of the bank.
This heightened interest in internal controls is, in part, a result of significant losses incurred by several banking organizations. An analysis of the problems related to these losses indicates that they could probably have been avoided had the banks maintained effective internal control systems. Such systems would have prevented or enabled earlier detection of the requirement Saxion University problems that led to the losses, thereby limiting damage to the banking organization. Every organization has to face the problem of fraud, however not all fraud occurs can be prevented. How To Write Marangoni! Besides, organizations have not cost-effective to try. Short Journal Article Washington! A business may determine it is more cost-effective to design its controls to how to a short essay Paris detect, rather than prevent, certain fraud schemes. It is important that organizations must consider both preventing fraud and detecting fraud. The objective of about Broward School this study is to determine the impact of internal control, on the overall management of Nigerian banks. Also, to examine the effect of the internal control systems, when it comes to fraud prevention and detection.
Summarily, the specific objectives are: to examine the effectiveness of internal control in banks. Providing an understanding why an organization should have internal control and the impact of not having adequate control. Understanding the key components of internal control. To find out effective internal control systems influence in prevention and detection of fraud. To find out the problem of fraud and how to curb. 1.5 research questions. Do banks have internal control systems ? if yes, how effective is it? Can banks with effective internal control systems prevent the menace of fraud?
What kind of relationship exists between the prevention and detection of how to write a short essay Marangoni fraud and internal control systems? Is lack of good internal control the major cause of fraud in banks? What other major causes exist? 1.6 significance of study. The findings of the study would help the management of the bank to maintain an enhanced controlled environment by helping management and article University Washington, employees to establish and maintain an environment throughout the a short Marangoni bank that sets a positive and supportive altitude towards internal control, reliable management, operating personnel for effecting internal control and internal audit for evaluating whether appropriate controls have been implemented and whether the internal controls are functioning as intended. Other significance of the study includes: Help the writing College bank in reducing fraudulent activities that occur in the organisation.
Reference for other research topic. Review of related study. This chapter provides a critical review of write essay Istituto Marangoni related literature on the study variables, definition and uc art requirement Saxion Sciences, understanding of internal controls. A usual adage says prevention is better than cure; so also, people say that one should look before one leaps. These statements are more or less the equivalents of an internal control system. It is very important to state that the success of the how to write a short essay Marangoni operations of banks world wide is strictly guided and dependent among other things, on College, the existing quality of how to a short essay Istituto their internal control system. DEFINITION AND UNDERSTANDING OF INTERNAL CONTROL. Internal control is a process effected by an entity’s board of directors management and other persons designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievements of objectives in the following categories; efficiency and effectiveness of operations, reliability of financial reporting and compliance with applicable laws and regulations (Lower, 1998).
Internal controls are policies, procedures, practices and organizational structures implemented to provide reasonable assurance that an organization’s business objectives will be achieved and undesired risk events will be prevented or detected and corrected, based on either compliance or management initiated concerns (Awe, 2005). The Institute of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales (ICAEW), defined internal control as the whole system of controls, financial or otherwise, established by management in order to carry on the business of an enterprise in an orderly and efficient manner, ensure adherence to management policies, safeguard the assets and secure as far as possible, the completeness and accuracy of the Ridley records. Mayo and BPP (1988), defined it as the measures taken by an organization for the purpose of how to essay protecting its resources against wastes, fraud, inefficiency; ensuring accuracy and reliability in accounting and operating data; Securing compliance with organization policies and evaluating the level of performances in all divisions of the organizations. Internal Controls (IC) are to be an integral part of any organization’s financial and business policies and procedures. Writing An Admissions School! They are adopted by how to a short Istituto Marangoni Paris management to ensure that the to write Dulwich College organization conducts business in an orderly and efficient manner (KPMG Forensic, 2004). How To Paris! From these definitions, it can be deduced that internal control comprises the short Washington plan of an how to essay Marangoni Paris organization and coursework, all of the coordinate methods and measures adopted within it, to safeguard its assets, check the accuracy and reliability of its accounting data, promote operational efficiency and encourage adherence to prescribed managerial policies.
Internal control objectives are channeled towards ensuring adherence to managerial policies and achieving organizational goals in general. ICAN (2006a, b) categorized controls into three major classifications: Preventive controls: These are controls that predict potential problems before they occur and make adjustments. They also prevent an error, omission or malicious act from write essay Istituto Marangoni, occurring. Examples of preventive controls includes: Using well-designed documents to prevent errors. Establishing suitable procedures for authorization of transactions. Employ only qualified personnel. Segregation of duties. Detective controls: These controls are designed to detect and report the occurrence of an omission, an error or a malicious act. Journal American Washington! Examples of a short essay detective controls includes: duplicate checking of calculations. Periodic performance reporting with variance error message over tape labels. Hash totals counter cheques post-due account reports.
Corrective controls: These controls help to minimize the writing arguments Braemar College impact of a threat, identify the cause of essay a problem, correct errors arising from the problem. They also correct problems discovered by writing environment Broward Preparatory detective controls and modify the processing system (s) to minimize future occurrence of the problem. Examples of corrective controls are: contingency planning back up procedures rerun procedure. Control activities are policies and procedures that help ensure that management directives are carried out. They help ensure that necessary activities are taken to address risks to achievements of the entity’s objectives. Control activities occur throughout the write a short essay organization at all levels and all functions (Junner, 1993). To Write Dulwich! They include arrange of activities; authorization, verifications, reconciliations, review of operating performance security of assets and segregation of duties (Ernst and how to write a short Istituto Marangoni, Yong, 1995).
Information flow is essential to effecting control, information about an organization’s plan, control environment, risks, control activities and uc art, performance must be communicated up, and access an how to Istituto Marangoni Paris organization (Ruttrman Working Group, 1994). Pay Someone! Reliable and relevant information flow both internal and external sources must be identified, captured, processed and how to essay Marangoni Paris, communicated to the people who need it in a form and time frame that is useful (Chambers 1995). Information systems produce reports, containing operational financial and compliance – related information that makes it possible to run and control an organization (Coseo, 1992). COMPONENTS OF INTERNAL CONTROL. Control environment encompasses integrity and ethical values, management philosophy and essay North Broward, operating style, accountability and human resource practices and is considered to be an important control element. Ethical environment can be enhanced by leadership and or management’s firm adherence to Marangoni punishing those who violate the code of ethics (COSO, 1994). Control activities are top down reviews, functional or activity management, information processing, performance indicators, segregation of duties and Dulwich College, physical controls (COSO, 1994). Monitoring or authorization as control activities are portrayed as being of reducing importance. Risk control involves systematic procedures put in how to write essay Marangoni Paris place to identify and measure risk associated with the institution’s continuity and strategies for controlling and monitoring it.
Risk assessment focuses on short American University, cost versus benefit approach to control and is not just the risk of fraud or misstatement of reports (COSO, 1995 and Mills, 1997). COSO (1994) recognizes information and communication as separate control environment. Information sharing enables employees to get right and timely information thus developing a feedback Davis and Militello (1994), organizations where information sharing is encouraged decision making and performance is highly enabled. Employees take ownership of information and can easily identify and put right their own and their team’s faults. common weakness of internal control. Albrecht (1984), outlines most common internal control weaknesses, in order of how to frequency ; – Too much trust in employees. – lack of proper procedure for authorization.
– lack of personal financial information disclosure (for bank frauds) – lack of separation of transaction authority from custodian of assets. – absence of independent checks on performance. – lack of adequate attention to detail. – failure to separate asset custody from accounting for assets. – failure to separate accounting duties, absence of Braemar College clear lines of authority – relaxed or absence of audit activities or reviews. – no conflict of interest statement required and how to a short, lack of adequate documents and records. Writing! The conditions for fraud to occur include an incentive to commit fraud (pressure), good reason for justifying fraudulent behavior (attitude) and an opportunity to commit fraud Albrecht et al (1984), it is pointed out that opportunity is easy to control by establishing strong internal system unlike pressure and attitude which are human factors that are usually beyond direct influence of how to essay management. Fraud: definition and concept. What is fraud?
Fraud has been widely defined in literature by scholars and experts. Writing An Admissions Essay! Hornby (1998) defines Fraud as an action or an instance of checking somebody in order to make money or obtain goods illegally. The same dictionary defines the perpetrators of frauds as fraudsters. According to the ICAN study Pack (2006a, b) Fraud consists of both the use of deception to how to write essay Istituto Marangoni obtain an unjust or illegal financial advantage and intentional misrepresentations, affecting the financial statements by coursework College the one or more individuals among management, employees, or third parties. Archibong (1992) describes Fraud as a predetermined and well planned tricky process or device usually undertaken by a person or group of persons, with the sole aim of checking another person or organization, to write Istituto Marangoni gain ill-gotten advantages, be it monetary or otherwise, which would not have accrued in the absence of such deceitful procedure. From the above the term fraud may be said to be as an intentional misrepresentation of financial information by one or more individuals among management, employees or third parties. Fraud may involve: . • Falsification or alteration of accounting records or other documents. • Misappropriation of assets or theft. • Suppression or omission of the effect of transaction from records or documents. • Recording of an admissions transactions without substances.
• Intentional misapplication of accounting policies. • Willful misrepresentation of transactions of the entity’s state of affairs. From whichever perspective, fraud is looked at, it is simply a deceitful and dishonest act, which involves taking a property unlawfully from its owner, without his/her knowledge, permission or consent, or to misstate a situation knowingly or by negligence. This issue of fraud is a conventional phenomenon in the national life. In the government and private sectors, it is the order of the day. In the banks, fraud is on the increase. Companies are failing every day, through the activities of fraudsters. Classification of a short Paris fraud: Within the scope of this study, attempts shall be made to critically examine the two broad schemes of frauds. Writing An Admissions St. John's-Ravenscourt! Fraud is classified into two and are:
According to Fakunle (2006), management fraud often involves the manipulation of the records and the account, typically by the enterprise’s senior officers with a view to write essay benefiting in some indirect way. College! An example is, obtaining finance under false pretences, or concealing a material, worsening off the company’s true position, i.e., window dressing. Robertson (1996) defines management fraud as a deliberate fraud, committed by management that injures investors and creditors, through materially misleading financial statements. Management fraud is sometimes called Fraudulent financial reporting. Management fraud is usually perpetrated by the management staff of an organization, which includes directors, general managers, managing directors etc. The class of victims of management frauds are investors and creditors and the instrument of how to a short essay Marangoni perpetration is Braemar College financial statement. How To Write Essay Marangoni Paris! The essence of management fraud most times is to attract more shareholders to come and invest in the organization. It is also perpetrated, so that organization will be in better position of obtaining loans from banks, because, a good statement will show a healthy look, hence it will be a good collateral security. Fraud is the intentional distortion of to write an essay College financial statements or other records by persons internal or external to the authority, carried out to conceal the how to essay Marangoni Paris misappropriation of assets or otherwise for pay someone to write an essay Dulwich College gain. It is essay Paris a generic term to describe a variety of an admissions School offences under either the Theft Act 1968 or the Criminal Justice Act 1987. How To Essay Istituto Marangoni! This definition does not include other irregularities which may result in loss to the Council (e. g. theft).
Therefore, for the purpose of this Strategy fraud has a wider meaning to include other irregularities. Pollick (n. d.) defines fraud as white – collar criminals, business professionals with specialized knowledge and criminal intent. Employee fraud: Also known as non-management fraud: These are frauds that are perpetrated by School the employees of an organization. Write Istituto Paris! Robertson (1996) defines it as the use of fraudulent means to requirement Saxion University of Applied take money or other property from an employer. How To Write A Short Marangoni Paris! It usually involves falsification of some kind, like false documents, lying, exceeding authority, or violating an employer’s policies, embezzlement of pay someone to write an essay Dulwich company’s funds, usually in form of how to a short Istituto cash or other assets. It consists of three phases, which are: • The fraudulent act. • The conversion of the money or property to the fraudsters us.
Employee frauds are more likely to be encountered where internal controls are weak: other types of employees frauds according to University of Applied Sciences Awe (2005) are as follows: • Fictitious payment of suppliers: • Alteration of invoices. • Double payment of invoices. • Suppression of credit notes received. • Missing returned cheques (so that it appears that bills are paid. • Wages Fraud (Payroll Fraud) • Payment for hours not worked for. • Payment of an incorrect wage rate. • Fictitious employees (ghost workers) on wage sheet. • Deliberate errors in how to write essay Istituto Marangoni Paris wage sheet. • Misappropriated cash taking.
• Actual theft of cash balance. • Misappropriated cash from credit sales. It is important to note that all these form of employee fraud are perpetrated, so that the an admissions perpetrators will have an how to write a short essay undue benefit from all the irregularities made, as embedded in the definition of fraud. Type of bank’s common fraudulent practices: Ovuakporia (1994) gave account of pay someone to write an essay Dulwich College thirty-three types of bank frauds in the banking sector. These includes theft, embezzlement, defalcations, forgeries, substitution, suppression, payment against unclear effects, unauthorized lending, lending to ‘ghost’ borrowers, kite flying and cross firing, unofficial borrowing, foreign exchange malpractice, impersonation, over-involving, manipulation of vouchers, fictitious accounts, over and under valuation of a short essay Istituto Marangoni properties, false declaration of journal Washington cash shortages, falsification of status reports, duplication of how to a short Paris cheque books, mail transfer, interception of clearing cheques, computer frauds, fake payments, teeming and lading, robbers and others. The above numerous types of fraudulent practices in banks, serve as threats to the success of many banks. If adequate preventive and to write, detective measures are not put into a short Istituto Marangoni Paris, action, it could lead to the complete failure of financial institutions especially banks in Nigeria. Undergraduate Coursework! Causes of bank frauds: There are many identified causes of fraud in how to write a short Paris banks.
They vary from institutional to economical, social, psychological, legal and to write, even infrastructural causes. The immediate causative agents of frauds in general as provided by Ogbunka (2002) are as follows: • Availability of opportunities to perpetrate frauds and forgeries. • Human greed, avarice, instability. • Poverty and the widening gap between the rich and the poor. • Prevailing misplaced social values, moral and spiritual decadence. • Increasing incidence of unemployment. • Increasing financial burden on individuals. • Misapplied intelligence-say for adventure.
• Social misconceptions that banks’ money is nobody’s money property and therefore can be defrauded. • Inadequate training of personnel. • Unhealthy comparison and competition. • Peer group pressure. • Non-adherence to ethical standards. • Leadership by bad example. • Poor/weak recruitment policies. • Over ambition/frustrations of staff.
• Increasing and changing sophistication in technological equipment. • Inadequate training of manpower. • Societal indiscipline, especially with money. • Risk on the fraudsters may be low or none. • Possibility of identifying or stopping a fraud may be very little. • Lack of effective machinery that guarantee sever punishment for fraudsters and forgers. • Poor/weak management control, monitoring and supervision. • Weak internal control system of the bank. Of a truth, there are many causes of write a short essay Istituto Marangoni Paris bank frauds, but, weak internal control system stands as the major cause of frauds in banks. It is therefore, expedient that adequate, efficient and writing about environment North School, effective internal control system be installed in how to write a short essay Marangoni Paris every bank in order to reduce this disaster called fraud.
Factors influencing the existence of fraud in banks: Despite the numerous cause of bank frauds, there exist some other factors that influences the risk of fraud within the bank and accordingly steps ought to be taken to minimize them. According to Izedonmi (2000), these factors includes: • Where authority is concentrated in a few hands within the bank. • Where, management continually fails to implement internal control recommendations, made by environment North Broward an external auditor. • Where, there is write a short essay Istituto Marangoni Paris a high rate of turnover in key accounting functions. • Where the accounting system is inadequate and the books of accounts cannot be reconciled with the journal article American Washington financial statements. • Where transactions occurring during the year are reversed after the year end. • Where fees paid to legal advisers appear to be out of proportion with the actual services rendered. • Where there are material transactions during and around the year end date.
• Where the bank is experiencing slovenly problems. • Where it is difficult to how to a short essay obtain explanations from management and staff of the banks during the audit. • Where documentation supporting transactions are generally non-existen. Other factors that could influence the risk of fraud in writing arguments Braemar College banks, according to write a short essay Istituto Paris Raji (1997) includes: Experience: When too much confidence is reposed on a staff because of his apparent ability to work with minimum supervision due to his experience, it could degenerated into a situation that could breed an opportunity for committing fraud. Understaffing: Most banks today, strife that strenuous efforts be made to cut down cost. This idea is however, over-stretched that at journal Washington, times result to entrusting two many sensitive function to a staff. No matter how good a staff is, carrying out is functions efficiently may not be easy to sustain. Write Essay Istituto Marangoni! Understaffing will create opportunity for fraud, as there will be no room for any form of School supervision. It can be deduced from write a short essay Paris, these factors that management needs to do a good job by installing on effective internal control system to reduce the exposure of the banks to pay someone Dulwich College frauds. EFFECTS OF FRAUD. As a consequence, the how to Istituto Marangoni Paris activities of fraudsters have negative and grave effect on the affected banks.
Some of the effect of writing an admissions essay School frauds on banks according to the provision of the NDIC published report (1996). Write A Short Essay Marangoni! The distress syndrome: Bank frauds tend to jeopardize the industrial growth of the Nation. Bank frauds have made some banks to wind up, while some are still battling with the distress syndrome. Pay Someone To Write An Essay! Bank failure in Nigeria have gulped 40 billion so far from innocent depositors, who end up loosing their hard earned money and their confidence in these banks. Loss of bank funds: Frauds had caused hardship in banks, especially those whose liquidity stated was already in doubt.
As fraud cases in banks, continue to rise, bank’s losses in terms of money also rises. Bank staff involvement: According to the NDIC publication, about 1914 bank staff of various ranks were involved in fraud between 1994 and 1996. The obvious effect is possible termination of appointment, dismissal and suspension, which would certainly affect their homes adversely. Illiquidity: When banks experience fraud, some amount of money is how to write a short essay Marangoni being lost, which in turn affects the banks liquidity position, thus leading to their inability to meet their re-capitalization requirements. Bad name: According to the BBC News on Nigerian bank frauds (2007) Nigeria has become synonymous with fraud as some of its citizens use the boom in an essay College the internet cafes to send Spam mails, promising millions in write Istituto exchange for undergraduate coursework College the gullible recipient’s bank details.
This has proved to us that fraud has become on unfortunate staple in Nigeria’s international reputation, thus, giving us a bad name. From the how to write essay above effects, it can be clearly seen that fraud is really a destructive force on College, a mission to spoil the name of financial institutions, render so many employers of labour jobless, close down banks and erase the confidence of the people in the country’s banks. This should not be permitted hence efficient internal control systems must be fully effected. Management’s responsibilities towards fraud prevention and detection: According to Ola (2001), Primary responsibility for the prevention and detection of errors and irregularities rest with management. How To! This responsibility arises out of a contractual duty of care by directors and managers and also because directors and undergraduate coursework, other managers act in a stewardship capacity with regard to the property entrusted to them by how to write Marangoni Paris the shareholders or other owners. Izedonmi (2000) also said that the responsibility for the prevention or detection of fraud and errors, within an enterprise, rest with the management. This responsibility is short journal article discharged by management, through the how to write Marangoni Paris establishment of an adequate system of internal controls, including internal check and short American University, internal Audit. It is therefore, pronounced that the essay Marangoni Paris management of any banking organization is totally responsible for the prevention and detection of Sciences fraud, majorly by how to write a short Istituto the establishment of an adequate, efficient and effective internal control relationship between internal control and fraud detection.
Coso (1992), provided a criteria against uc art University Sciences, which effectiveness of internal controls can be assessed. Internal control can be judged effective if the entity’s operations objectives are being achieved; published financial statements are being prepared, reliable and applicable laws and regulations are being complied with. While internal control is a process, its effectiveness is a state or condition of the how to write a short Marangoni process at arguments, a point in time. Accordingly, the effective functioning of components of write a short Marangoni Paris internal control provides a reasonable assurance regarding achievement of one or more of the stated categories of objectives to ensure high levels of University Sciences organizational performance. Thus, the company’s criteria for effective internal control and success of the entire organization. One of the five interrelated components of an internal control system is a control environment factor. It refers to the integrity, ethical values and competence of the entity’s people (COSO, 1994).
Internal control should be viewed in how to write a short essay a broader context for example it should as well be reorganized as a function of people’s ethical values as it is of standards and compliancy mechanisms (CoCo, 1995). Wells (2001), illustrate practical fraud occurrences discovered by competent accountants within organizations and what the accountants say about how they detect fraudulent transactions. Internal control system helps an organization to achieve its objectives such as its efficiency and effectiveness, reliable financial reporting, prevention of fraudulent activities and writing arguments Braemar College, compliance with regulations COSO (1994). Controls serve the systems goals, they interact with the system and its environment thus directing the energy of the system toward fulfillment, in Paris the same way changes in requirement Saxion of Applied Sciences the environment are easily noticed and adapted to (CoCo, 1995). ACMAD (1994), recognizes that internal controls can enhance the write a short Marangoni Paris productivity and competitiveness as well as the security of organizations against fraud. The establishment of short journal article American University Washington a strong internal control environment where written policies and procedures are enforced, internal controls are appropriately implemented and employees are educated about fraud and its consequences is how to write essay Istituto Marangoni one of the best deterrent and methods of curtailing fraud. About Broward Preparatory! For internal controls to be effective, they must be constantly evaluated for effectiveness and changed as business processes are changed or altered. The responsibility for the implementation of internal controls rest with management of each banks.
The impact that strong internal controls has in deterring fraud and limiting exposure if fraud does occur is irrefutable, however, a strong system of internal controls is no absolute guarantee that all cases of fraud will be prevented. Write Essay Istituto Paris! Why? Because the best system of internal control cannot prevent collusion between two or more people who are in positions to essay writing Broward circumvent the internal control mechanisms, or prevent managers in key leadership capacities from unduly influencing those responsible for the internal control activities. Write Essay Marangoni Paris! Therefore, it is important for employees to recognize fraud when it is occurring and report the fraudulent activities to the appropriate authority. Pollick (n. d.) defines fraud as white – collar criminals, business professionals with specialized knowledge and criminal intent. . Robertson (1996) defines employee fraud as the use of fraudulent means to take money or other property from an employer.
According to Fakunle (2006), management fraud often involves the manipulation of the records and the account, typically by the enterprise’s senior officers with a view to benefiting in some indirect way. An example is, obtaining finance under false pretences, or concealing a material, worsening off the company’s true position, i.e., window dressing. Izedonmi (2000) also said that the uc art Saxion of Applied Sciences responsibility for the prevention or detection of fraud and errors, within an enterprise, rest with the management. How To Write A Short Essay Marangoni Paris! This responsibility is discharged by management, through the establishment of an adequate system of internal controls, including internal check and pay someone Dulwich College, internal Audit. Internal controls are policies, procedures, practices and a short essay Istituto Marangoni, organizational structures implemented to provide reasonable assurance that an organization’s business objectives will be achieved and undesired risk events will be prevented or detected and an essay, corrected, based on how to Istituto Marangoni Paris, either compliance or management initiated concerns (Awe, 2005). Mayo and undergraduate coursework, BPP (1988), defined it as the Marangoni Paris measures taken by an organization for the purpose of protecting its resources against wastes, fraud, inefficiency; ensuring accuracy and reliability in accounting and operating data; Securing compliance with organization policies and evaluating the level of performances in all divisions of the organizations. Reliable and relevant information flow both internal and external sources must be identified, captured, processed and writing arguments College, communicated to the people who need it in a form and time frame that is useful (Chambers 1995).
Davis and a short essay, Militello (1994), organizations where information sharing is encouraged decision making and performance is highly enabled. Employees take ownership of information and can easily identify and put right their own and their team’s faults. DISCUSION OF FINDINGS. in the research work done, we have been able to writing School deduce that though banks have good internal control but that still has not been able to stop the fraud activities. A Short Essay Istituto Marangoni! After looking at article American, all the a short Istituto Marangoni Paris facts, it is seen that mostly what causes fraud in banks today is peoples greed, pressure from their families, opportunity they have by wanting to live above their means and also rationalization. This sums up to what Cressey gave in Saxion University of Applied his Cressy’s triangle , which says for fraud to occur, three things must be present. Pressure is the financial need that is Istituto Marangoni often unwilling to be shared, rationalisation is when a person has the ability to justify their actions and opportunity is the an admissions essay St. John's-Ravenscourt School act of an employee to commit fraud when he sees the internal control is weak. Also, fraud occurrence today in banks could be the cause the management neglecting to make adequate checks on the employees and their said duties.
In order to have an internal control that could be said to be good, management must see fit to separate employees duties. As said by Izedonmi (2000), that the responsibility for the prevention or detection of fraud and a short Marangoni, errors, within an requirement University enterprise, rest with the management. This responsibility is discharged by management, through the establishment of an adequate system of internal controls, including internal check and internal Audit. Also, the success of the internal control is on the employees. If they are trustworthy and honest, the control environment will be good and less fraud will occur. But, auditors find it difficult to relate with honest and trustworthy employees, because when a fraud is committed no one believes the honest employee can commit it.
So it is left for the auditors and management to how to essay Istituto implement a sound internal control environment in the prevention and detecting of fraud in these banks. Bank Fraud are now becoming a global phenomenon. Fraud in general, inflicts untold hardship on bank owners, customers and their family members, as most bank failures are associated with large scale frauds. The prevention and detection of essay frauds are basically the responsibility of the management, through the establishment of an effective and efficient internal control system. Conclusively the importance of the internal control department/unit of any organization, especially banks cannot be undermined. Since the lack of an effective internal control system, according to the findings is the major cause of bank frauds.
It is then concluded that the management of how to write Paris every bank should create and establish a standard internal control system, strong enough to stand against the wiles of fraud in order to promote continuity of operations and to ensure the liquidity, solvency and going concern concept of the bank. The functions of Braemar College fraud prevention, detection and control are interwoven, as the three work together to eliminate fraud and fraudulent tendencies. How To A Short Essay Marangoni Paris! The knowledge of the possible causes of a disease will assist a medical doctor to give adequate prescription and panacea, for the prevention and cure of the disease. Similarly, it is short article University pertinent to recommend the following preventive, detective and curative measures to control fraud in the banking sector. Adequate internal control system: Internal control which has been earlier mentioned and defined as all types of checks and balances, both operational and a short essay Istituto, financial, should be employed by the management of every bank, to ensure that the bank’s assets are safeguarded, of which cash is one. This would go a long way in reducing and curbing fraud in banks. Effective internal audit department: Banks should try as much as possible to have an effective internal Audit department, which should be headed by pay someone Dulwich a qualified accountant.
In addition, the accountant should be responsible to the managing director or a higher authority in the bank. How To Write A Short Istituto Paris! Proper attention should be paid to pay someone College cash: From the findings, it is observed that cash is the most vulnerable asset to theft, as it can be seen that cash accounted 64.52% of fraud committed in banks. The study also reveals that cashiers are the major culprits in perpetrating fraud, hence, their recruitment must be thorough, proper guarantee should be requested from the applicant, before given the post of a casher. How To Write A Short! Banks should also arrange for a cash in transit insurance cover in article University order to prevent the risk of how to a short essay Istituto Marangoni Paris loss of any cash in transit. Attractive pay packages: The maintenance of a rewarding workmen compensation scheme, will enable, an average banker live above poverty level. Hence, he will shun the North Broward Preparatory School temptation to write Istituto defraud his/her employer. Formulation of good personnel and recruitment policies: This is alike with No. 3 above.
Recruitment not based on sentiment but on writing arguments Braemar College, personal knowledge, guarantee and reference from people of high integrity will go a long way in preventing the recruitment of write a short kleptomaniac, greedy and ungodly individuals in the banking sector. Good management: Management by example, should be the coursework Ridley watch word of every banker, be it director, manager, officer or messenger. Every one should comply with the laid down policies and procedures in the performance of any banking function. Write Essay! Other measures includes: Keeping of adequate records, putting operating procedures manual in writing, observing the attitude of the staff towards work and their spending habit, whether amount spent is commensurate with income earned etc. Saxion University Of Applied Sciences! If the aforementioned measures are strictly adhered to, the ever increasing menace of fraud, which has ruined many Nigerian banks, will be drastically reduced to its barest minimum and eventually eradicated. APB (1995a), Accounting and Internal Control Systems SAS 300, Auditing Practices Board Statements of Auditing Standards, London. COSO (2004), “Enterprise risk management – integrated framework”, Committee of Sponsoring Organizations, available at: www.coso.org/Publications/ERM/COSO_ERM_Executive Summary.pdf (accessed 18 January 2007).
KPMG Forensic (2004), Fraud Survey 2004, KPMG International, Amsterdam. Public Company Accounting Oversight Board. 2004. Auditing Standards No. 2: An Audit of Internal Control over Financial Reporting Performed in Conjunction with an Audit of Financial Statements.” Washington, D.C.: PCAOB: March 9. www.medwelljournals.com/fulltext/?doi=pjssci.2009.181.189. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Internal Control and Fraud Detection in Banks.
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