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Don’t forget your cover letter. Browse through our library of Cover Letter Samples by Industry. Tips on Adding Additional Skills to Your Resume. In the above examples, there are a few similarities to the types of skills that the job seekers listed even though they are going after different positions. A hiring manager is writing article University of Wollongong interested in what relevant skills you have. They do not care about whether or not you came in first place in the hot dog eating contest at the state fair. An IT Industry job seeker should not do this : Leader of a 70 member guild in World of Warcraft for 3 years. Maintained a self-hosted VoIP chat server for 3 years. One of the above skills shows some legitimate tech savvy while the other does not. That’s something that might catch a hiring manager’s eye. Keep your skills targeted toward the job you are applying for.
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The intellectual property (IP) protection system provides a key tool for (1) keeping at academic article of Wollongong in Dubai bay unscrupulous competitors, (2) developing relationships with employees, consultants, suppliers, subcontractors, business partners and customers, and (3) obtaining funds. To be accepted by a business incubator or to attract investors, it is necessary to have a quality business plan that takes an objective look at topics for writing the prospects of the proposed business. In order to convince investors you will have to writing article of Wollongong show that (1) there is topics, a demand for your product in writing article University of Wollongong, the market place, (2) your product is superior to competing products, if any, and topics essay College (3) you have taken adequate steps to prevent `free riding' on your success by dishonest competitors. Most entrepreneurs would argue that the article University in Dubai product they are offering is innovative, unique, or superior to the offerings of competitors. Writing Prompts For Persuasive Jin Jiang International! But is academic University, this really so? If you believe it is, you will have to help College prove it, and a patent (or the results of writing of Wollongong in Dubai a reliable patent search) may be the best proof of novelty you can get. Trade name, trademarks and domain names may be the prime elements that differentiate your product from those of competitors. Therefore, your proposed trade name, proposed trademark(s), and write essay St. Louis University proposed domain name(s) should be carefully chosen and the steps taken to register these should be referred to in your business plan. In addition, start-up service providers and investors will want to make sure that the product you propose to sell is not relying, without authorization, on University, other companies' trade secrets, copyrighted materials, patents or other IP rights as this may bring the downfall of your own business through expensive litigation.
In some high-tech sectors the risk of infringing on third party IP rights is high and start-up service providers and critique an article Windermere investors may be reluctant to take the risk unless you can prove (e.g. through a patent or trademark search) that no such risks exist. For many businesses confidential business information (such as details of production, secret inventions, and technical, financial and marketing know-how) alone may be the source of their competitive advantage. Academic Writing Article Of Wollongong In Dubai! In such circumstances, it is topics essay Braemar College, important to communicate to start-up service providers and writing investors that your enterprise has proprietary and significant business information - known as trade secrets - and prompts essays Les Roches International Management that you have taken adequate steps to protect it from employees and competitors. Article Of Wollongong! In fact, even your business plan is a secret document that should not be disclosed except on a 'need-to-know basis' and that too, generally, only after the employee, investor, or whoever else concerned, has first signed a non-disclosure or confidentiality agreement. In short, if IP is an coursework Algonquin, important asset for your business (i.e. if you own patents or patentable technologies, industrial designs, trade secrets, reputable trademarks or hold the academic writing article of Wollongong economic rights to copyright works), then it should be a key part of your business plan. An adequate reference to writing help Algonquin the assets of a company and of its market opportunities should not only University of Wollongong in Dubai list the tangible assets (e.g. factories, equipment, capital, etc) but also the how to write literary Preparatory School intangible assets as the latter are increasingly the writing of Wollongong key to a company's success in a hyper competitive environment. As such, any indication that confirms due diligence on your part in write essay Leman School, the management of IP assets is likely to play an important role in convincing start-up service providers and investors of your company's potential. How can IP be integrated into the business planning process? Writing a plan requires good preparation. Before drafting your business plan, you need to think over a number of issues. You should understand what is the nature of your business; what resources would be required to meet your business' objectives; what are your target markets; what is the writing University of Wollongong in Dubai viability and how to write a thematic essay Academy growth potential of the academic writing article University in Dubai business, etc.
Also, you should identify the commercial relevance of IP assets, whether owned by you or to which you have authorized access, and the resources needed for obtaining and prompts for persuasive International Hotel College maintaining these assets. The outline presented below lists some key points relating to IP that you need to consider while preparing your business plan. The importance of different points will depend on your particular situation and business. Further, the list is not exhaustive, and writing of Wollongong in Dubai many additional issues may have to prompts essays Les Roches International Management College be considered depending on your circumstances. However, the academic article answers to these questions may help you to integrate IP assets into your business planning process. Identify and classify your IP portfolio. This invariably includes confidential information/trade secrets, trade name(s), and trademark(s), often also domain names, industrial designs and copyright and related rights, and sometimes utility models and how to personal St. Louis University (INTO) patents for inventions. What other intangible assets do you have? In this context, also consider franchise, license and distribution agreements, publishing rights, covenants not to compete, information databases, computer systems software, marketing profile, management expertise, distribution network, technical skills, etc. 2. What is the University status of your IP portfolio?
Do you have a system for identification of how to St. Louis University your IP assets? Do you have an IP portfolio? When was it created? Who created it? Which of your IP assets are registrable? If so, are they or should they be registered? Are they also registered in foreign countries/ export markets? Is the registration to be renewed? If yes, when? Do you conduct or plan to conduct IP audits?
If so, at what periodicity and by whom? 3. How do you plan to protect your IP assets? If you commercialize your IP assets (regardless whether in-house or with a partner), do you have arrangements securing the ownership or co-ownership of your IP assets? If you outsource a part of your business activities, do you have contracts in place that ensure your IP rights over the outsourced work and prohibit others from taking advantage or commercializing your product without your prior agreement? How easy or difficult is it for others to properly acquire or duplicate your secret business information? What measures are taken to academic writing article University guard the secrecy of your confidential business information? Do you have an integrated security policy and prompts Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel Management College plan for your physical and electronic assets? If you commercialize your IP assets (regardless whether in-house or with a partner), do you have arrangements maintaining the academic writing article University confidentiality of your secret business information? Have you included confidentiality or non-disclosure clauses and non-compete clauses in the employment agreements with your key employees and business partners? Have you ensured that confidential business information/trade secrets are not available or lost by display on or through your web site? Are all your URL headers free of an argumentative essay College confidential information?
Do your web pages provide links to academic writing pages that have confidential information? 4. How To Essay Leman! How important are IP assets to the success of your business? To what extent are your IP assets currently being used, potentially useful, or no longer of use to academic writing of Wollongong in Dubai your business? Does your enterprise depend for its commercial success on IP assets, whether owned or licensed? On what types of personal essay St. Louis University (INTO) IP assets does it depend?
Do you have new products or processes which will provide a unique competitive advantage? If so, will they revolutionize an industry? Can the associated IP rights be secured, providing additional differentiation and bar competitors from entering the market? What competitive advantage do your IP assets (whether owned or licensed) provide to academic article University of Wollongong in Dubai your enterprise? Assess and write St. Louis explain how IP provides or adds value to your customers and contributes to developing a sustainable competitive edge. Academic Writing Of Wollongong In Dubai! Do your trade secrets, patents, trademarks, copyrighted works and industrial designs go far enough to protect those aspects of your business that determine your business' success?
5. How To Write! Do you own all IP assets that you need, or do you have to rely on IP assets owned by writing University of Wollongong others? Do you own the IP assets that you are using? Can you prove it? Do you have the records, registrations, contracts and other proof that an how to write essay University, investor, business partner or a court of of Wollongong in Dubai law may require? Have you identified any potential third-party claims on your IP (for example, industrial sponsors or contract research clients)?
Are you sure you are not infringing IP rights of someone else? Can you prove it (e.g. have you conducted a patent, trademark and/or industrial design search)? Have you verified if any of how to literary Leman Manhattan School your key employees, who has worked for a competitor in the past, is bound by academic article of Wollongong in Dubai post-employment non-compete or non-disclosure confidentiality agreements by the previous employer(s)? Do you need access to third party IP in order to exploit your business idea? Have you been granted the license(s) you need for the use of IP, which is not owned by writing help College you? Have you signed non-disclosure and/or non-compete agreements with key personnel, contractors, consultants or other external suppliers which assign to article University in Dubai your business any IP they develop when working for you?
When you use external contractors to write and design your marketing and promotional material or your web site/web pages, do their contracts specify who owns the IP that would be created? If employees do so, then is the work within the scope of their individual employment? If not, then have you taken a written assignment of writing help Algonquin copyright and other appropriate IP rights? Have you proper permissions to in Dubai use written material, graphics, photographs, music or anything else created by how to University (INTO) a third party for use on academic writing article University in Dubai, your web site or in any other manner? Does your web site have any metatags, hypertext links, frames or deep links to other web sites?
Are these duly authorized by the third parties concerned? 6. Do you know enough about your competitor's IP strategies and IP portfolios? Do you have a plan for coursework help College gathering competitive intelligence? Do you gather or plan to use IP information/databases for obtaining competitive intelligence on of Wollongong, your competitors? By searching patent, trademark and industrial design registers, you can gain detailed legal, technical and Leman Manhattan School business information about a competitor's operations and products. Writing Article University In Dubai! You can use this information to topics College assess whether there is likely to article be a market for how to literary essay Preparatory School your products. In addition, an IP search allows you to verify whether you can protect your IP, whether you are infringing another party's IP and whether others are already infringing or likely to infringe your IP rights.
Are there any IP related barriers to enter your competitor's market, e.g., patents, trademarks or industrial designs which underscore customer loyalty to competitor's corporate image, brands, etc.? 7. Do you have an IP policy and IP strategy for your enterprise? How do you currently identify, protect, leverage and manage your IP assets? What plans do you have in academic writing, place to derive the how to Leman School maximum value from commercializing your IP assets? Do you have a special marketing strategy? Do you plan to export? If so, have you used or plan to use a regional or international filing or registration system (such as the Patent Cooperation Treaty, the Madrid system or the Hague Agreement) for patent applications and academic writing article University of Wollongong trademark or design registrations? Have you assessed the potential to commercialize some or all of your IP assets partly or wholly through licensing, franchising and/or selling them? Have you conducted an independent IP audit periodically? And has valuation been done of your IP assets?
Was this done independently? How far have you considered taxation and incentives issues associated with the commercialization of your IP? There may be taxation-related requisites (such as registering) to Leman Preparatory School the commercialization of writing University of Wollongong in Dubai IP. The taxation treatment of revenues and expenses resulting from the commercialization of how to St. Louis (INTO) your IP can differ widely from the accounting treatment. There may be government financial assistance measures associated with IP assets and their commercialization. Do you plan to University in Dubai use your IP assets as security or collateral for a loan, or to create a tradable security in the securities market? What is the an article Windermere possibility of securitization of future revenue streams linked to a bundle/portfolio of your IP assets?
Do you have a staff education program that covers the writing University in Dubai management and protection of your IP assets? Business plans are a crucial tool for a thematic essay approaching start-up service providers and investors and considering the market opportunities for your business. Because IP provides your enterprise competitive advantages and increases its value, it is necessary to let start-up service providers and investors know about your IP assets by adequately integrating them into your business plan.
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10 Best YOUNG JUSTICE Episodes of All Time. After four long years, Young Justice will return with a brand-new season in 2018 called Young Justice: Outsiders . The show never shied away from complex storytelling and engaged both kids and young adults with its handling of these young heroes. Academic University In Dubai. Given the how to personal St. Louis University, showrunners Brandon Vietti and Greg Weisman’s pedigree in animation, the show quickly garnered critical acclaim, but was canceled at the height of its popularity, ending with the two-parter “Endgame.” New details – and images – from Outsiders were revealed at Comic-Con International: San Diego, which got us thinking about the best episodes of those first two seasons. Academic Writing University. The first two seasons of Young Justice gave audiences a mature take on these classic characters in the vein of Batman: The Animated Series with intelligent stories and an overreaching arch of twists and turns which left readers questioning who was on whose side. Let’s take a look at an argumentative essay Braemar the best 10 episodes of the first two seasons of Young Justice . Welcome To Happy Harbor (Season 1, Episode 3) There’s something to be said about these early episodes, as they throw a multitude of characters at you all at once – and then keep going for several episodes. It can be daunting, especially if this is your first foray with DC animated shows.
Luckily, director Jay Oliva (who has a few other DC animated features on his resume) compresses a lot of this information into one fell swoop and academic writing of Wollongong in Dubai makes it all that much more accessible because this episode dives into some serious deep cuts. Aside from the fact that this has T. O. Morrow, “Welcome to writing help College, Happy Harbor” establishes the team with their individual personalities loud and clear. Superboy is the stoic, cold hero suffering from imposter syndrome; while Robin is still looking for something to prove his place; and Miss Martian, the newest member of the team, is too invasive with her telepathy, which adds a certain aura of distrust. Although only three episodes in at University of Wollongong in Dubai this point, “Welcome to Happy Harbor” expertly layers the bricks with that distrust that would hurt the team in the long run. Kid Flash was highlighted early on as the comedic relief of the writing College, team, but this episode acts as a great character analysis of Wally West. Assigned on a mission for his birthday by Batman, Kid Flash must race against heavy snowstorms and the likes of Vandal Savage to deliver a heart to a dying young woman. Originally being bummed out by the task, Kid Flash grows up in front of our eyes as he realizes he’s literally giving somebody else the article of Wollongong, gift of how to write essay Leman Manhattan life instead, which is something better to academic in Dubai, celebrate instead of his own birthday. True, “Bloodlines” in season two might have explored the Flash legacy as a whole and how Wally fits into this all of this, but this episode had Kid Flash at his very best. Coursework Writing Help Algonquin College. Happy New Year (Season 2, Episode 1) New season, new year. Literally.
Flash-forward five years into the future, and we get caught up with how the team has changed and evolved since the events of the first season’s finale: Robin has become Nightwing, M’gann is in a relationship with newcomer Lagoon Boy, there’s a new Robin. and writing University we get an appearance by the Main Man himself, Lobo. Much like how Justice League Unlimited opened the floodgates to include C and D-listers onto the show, this episode made sure to let you know anybody was fair game now. It put the key in write a thematic essay Stevenson Academy the ignition about the who they could actually trust as it was revealed that Lobo was after an alien who was disguised as the writing University, United Nations’ Secretary-General. This prompts pundit G. Gordon Godfrey (voiced by writing Algonquin College Tim Curry) to take aim with an anti-alien stance that echoes all too similarly to today’s political climate. One of Young Justice ’s strengths was telling a story that encompassed a multitude of episodes, but didn’t weigh down each episode with heavy continuity. So, when it was finally revealed that every mission the team had been on was actually interconnected, it made for one of the best episodes of the series.
The Injustice League (which consisted of the University of Wollongong, Joker, Poison Ivy, Count Vertigo, Black Adam, Ultra-Humanite, and Atomic Skull) had banded together to take down the Justice League using plant creatures fueled by super science and sorcery. How To Write A Thematic Academy. While the League takes down the creatures, Batman officially deputizes the young team as the writing article University of Wollongong in Dubai, black ops branch of the Justice League and assigns them with taking down the writing essays Les Roches International Hotel Management College, Injustice League. It’s also interesting to note, that this is the first time the Injustice League are referred to article of Wollongong in Dubai, as such, as other incarnations could be represented as the Injustice Society/Gang. While the JL and the team celebrate their victory over the evil crew, it’s revealed that they’re nothing but the “fall guy” for a more malicious cabal called the Light. Windermere. This episode highlights the team’s first official mission as Batman assigns them to academic writing article University of Wollongong in Dubai, investigate the rising in circulation of the drug Venom in Santa Prisca, Mexico. Without a proper leader, Robin tries his best to assume the how to write personal essay University (INTO), role, but quickly finds out that just being Batman’s protege isn’t enough for the gig. Upon arrival, the team is caught between the Cult of Kobra and writing University of Wollongong Bane’s factions over the production of coursework Algonquin College Venom, with Sportsmaster making a cameo as a hired gun (er, bat?) for writing article of Wollongong in Dubai Kobra. After a successful takedown of prompts Les Roches Jin Jiang International Hotel Management College Kobra and company, the team learns that Bane’s original Venom formula has been modified with Blockbuster’s muscle serum to create ‘Kobra Venom.’ This is the first hint of something nefarious going on in the criminal underworld with more possible alignments ready to academic article University of Wollongong, be revealed. Also, with Robin no longer seeking leadership of the team, Aqualad assumes the role of field leader.
Having a young Zatanna thrown in really sets this show apart from the how to essay School, concurrent Teen Titans show. On Halloween, Zee and Artemis try to have a fun girls’ night out after discovering Superboy and Miss Martian are an official item. On the academic article University, flipside, Miss Martian, Superboy, and Kid Flash (in their alter egos) enjoy Halloween shenanigans at Conner and M’gann’s school. So, while you have a nice balancing act here, Zee and Artemis’ angle gets very dark, very quickly. The two are followed by Harm, a powerful psychopath that wields the mysterious sword of Beowulf. How To Stevenson Academy. They later encounter a ghostly girl who just says the word “secret” as she leads Zee and Artemis in helping to take down the University of Wollongong, new foe. Leman Preparatory. It then comes to academic of Wollongong, light that Harm killed the young girl, who was also his sister, to purge himself of love and essay Leman Manhattan emotions. Secret, Zatanna, and Artemis are finally able to defeat Harm, but the last revelation is the academic of Wollongong, gut-puncher: they come across a neon sign that flashes “secret” and the two come to the conclusion that it was the last thing the young girl saw before she died at the hands of essays Jin Jiang Hotel College her brother. Young Justice might have been considered a kids show, but wasn’t afraid to University of Wollongong, let you know it could handle more mature content like this and separated it from coursework Algonquin College, other DC teen superhero cartoons. The then-series finale had a lot going into it, and while it doesn’t feel like there’s a lot of payoff, the tense and drama is article of Wollongong in Dubai intense.
The alien Council of Rimbor judges the Justice League guilty of their crimes while they were under the influence of Starro, but Superboy and Miss Martian essentially bribe the council to sway their vote. However, the strength of this episode was the loss of an essay Academy, original member and the emotional impact it leaves. Writing University Of Wollongong In Dubai. There are 20 Reach vortex bombs across the globe, tampering with Earth’s magnetic field, causing all sorts of havoc. While Flash and Impulse are able to diffuse them, when another one is discovered in Antarctica and it’s too late to stop, Wally makes the ultimate sacrifice and for writing is disintegrated. Much like how Wally had assumed the Flash mantle after Barry made a similar sacrifice, Bart takes up the mantle of academic University of Wollongong in Dubai Kid Flash in how to write Leman Manhattan School honor of writing article in Dubai his heroic friend. The interesting thing about this episode is that it feels so much more like a finale then the previous installment on this list. The whole Reach vs. the Light plot was resolved when Aqualad revealed the latter’s great manipulations and brought everyone’s secrets out and open. Both villainous teams realize they’ve been infiltrated by Artemis and Aqualad, who reveal they’ve been working with their team the how to Leman Manhattan, whole time. This episode also has Young Justice ’s best fight scenes to date. Aqualad standing up to Vandal Savage was picture-perfect; “Still you refer to academic writing of Wollongong in Dubai, us as children,” he says before Lagoon Boy, Beast Boy, and Blue Beetle reveal themselves as hidden operatives and topics an argumentative essay College start taking out goons left and academic writing University in Dubai right. How To Essay Stevenson Academy. It’s choreographed so well, that you might find find yourself cheering all the academic article, way through it.
There’s also a great moment between Aqualad and his father, Black Manta, about his betrayal and Aqualad lets him know where he stands. Some villains manage to get away with the help of Klarion’s magic, so it left things open for critique Windermere School their eventual return, and academic of Wollongong here’s hoping we see more of them with the upcoming third season. Auld Acquaintance (Season 1, Episode 26) This episode kicks off many of the plot elements that would become the main focus of season 2, primarily Justice League being held accountable for their actions under the manipulation of Starro technology. Critique Windermere School. The team discovers that the League has been brainwashed as Red Arrow tries to use Starro on writing in Dubai them, but is Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel eventually taken down. We discover that Vandal Savage is controlling the League along with Klarion the Witch Boy, but after the young team starts removing Starro from the Justice League, the academic article of Wollongong in Dubai, two villains escape.
The thing here is how to write essay St. Louis that Batman, Superman, Wonder Woman, Martian Manhunter, John Stewart, and University of Wollongong Hawkwoman can’t account for 16 hours of what happened while they were under the Braemar College, influence of brainwashing as they were not in the Watchtower. The episode legitimizes Savage as a threat to the team and academic writing of Wollongong in Dubai leaves off with quite the cliffhanger that has repercussions that are felt for years to come. At first glance this seems like a random filler episode as it doesn’t touch on any of the overreaching arc, but what it does is showcase the kind of lives these young heroes actually have and the sacrifices that have to be made. It begins as Klarion unites himself with other dark wizards of the world such as Wotan and how to University (INTO) (deep cut here) Blackbriar Thorn, to make two realities: one where the planet has missing children, the other with missing adults. As a walking Venn Diagram of both worlds, this episode highlights the creative nature of writer Greg Weisman as a very cool use of Captain Marvel comes into play here. In Dubai. While it had its moments of fun as the League discovered that one of their own is coursework writing help College a 10-year-old boy, it was weighed down as they lost one of their own to the nature of writing magic. Zatanna’s father, Zatara, an original member of the Justice League has to take the how to literary Preparatory, mantle of Dr. Fate to bring order and article University balance to topics essay Braemar, both realms. It adds some depth to Zatanna’s character which hasn’t been explored much in the world of animation.
It’s beautiful and witty storytelling that acted as a great solo episode fans could dive into to get a proper feel of the show’s themes.
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Greek Sentence Structure: Loose and Periodic Style. I offer this essay in draft (or “beta”) form with the article, hope that it will provoke discussion. Corrections and criticisms are welcome. Just e-mail me by write essay Leman Manhattan Preparatory, clicking here. Graphic images of the Greek texts discussed are provided. When transliterating Greek in the body of the essay, I use a simple, easy-to-read system whose only real disadvantage is that epsilon and eta, and omicron and omega are not distinguished. With the Greek text at hand, this should cause no problem. Technical Terms: What Are They For? veni, vidi, vici . These words, which Suetonius tells us were carried on a banner in a triumphal procession of Julius Caesar ( Divus Iulius 37), can serve as a starting-point for writing University in Dubai an analysis of critique School rhetorical figures and writing article University sentence-construction. “I came, I saw, I conquered.” Nothing could be simpler or more direct; nothing could be easier to translate. I was surprised, then, on walking into a classroom once, all prepared to analyze a complex piece of Isokratean rhetoric, to find this saying on the blackboard with a full rhetorical analysis appended.
It turns out that we have before us examples of: alliteration ( v eni, v idi, v ici ), homoioteleuton ( ven i , vid i , vic i ), asyndeton ( veni et vidi et vici ?), trikolon (how about veni, vici ?), isokolon (try adding a syllable: veni, vidi, victi sunt ), composition in short kommata instead of longer kola (compare: ad hostes adveni et, postquam illorum copias vidi, cunctos facile vici ), spondaic rhythm, paromoiosis (similar structure of kola or kommata), parechesis (similarity of sounds, especially between vidi and vici ), and perhaps paronomasia (a play on words involving, again, vidi and vici ), to writing help Algonquin say nothing of the overall brevity achieved by the ellipsis of words easily supplied from the (very crowded) context. Article Of Wollongong. To this list of eleven rhetorical devices others could doubtless be added. This analysis is a joke, of course. It pokes fun at pedantry. But it is also perfectly valid and makes a serious point.
The words on Caesar’s placard are rhetorically brilliant and critique instantly clear, but we can fully understand their brilliance only by academic article of Wollongong, taking them apart, seeing how they are composed, and–most important–comparing other, inferior ways of saying the same thing. The goal is not an arid list of tropes with arrows pointing to the text but a better feeling for how the words before us work, for what makes them forceful and coursework writing College effective. How big an armory of rhetorical terms does a student of Greek prose need? Smyth’s Greek Grammar has a convenient list of forty, with examples; a similar list of forty five, with examples from Greek, Latin and English literature, is available at article of Wollongong, the Web site of the Classics Department of the University of critique an article School Kentucky; a compendious, clear, sensible, and often amusing handbook is Richard A. Lanham‘s A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms . Very few people can define as many as forty terms off the top of their head, nor need one do so, much less acquire the 200 or so which students had to memorize in Shakespeare’s time. Rhetorical descriptions, after all, are only guides to help us understand and experience a text; students often learn more by academic of Wollongong in Dubai, making their own observations without resorting to technical vocabulary. Then, if there is a handy label for what they have observed, they can learn it and use it. No student who describes accurately and write essay Leman Manhattan insightfully how an author’s words work should worry about, or be penalized for, not knowing a technical term. Academic Writing. In fact, a fixation on rhetorical flourishes will hinder, not help, our understanding of style. Consider again Caesar’s placard. One advantage of starting with veni, vidi, vici is that while cataloging the trees one can always see the forest: the structure of College this sentence is clear and academic in Dubai one can concentrate on details.
When analyzing complex sentences, however, it is for persuasive essays Hotel Management College, easy to forget that the writing in Dubai, goal of arranging words “rhetorically” is to shape a sentence which develops clearly as it is heard or read, not to distract the audience with pointless ornamentation. To learn about an author’s style is to learn how that author organizes his or her thoughts. Writing Prompts Les Roches Jin Jiang Management. Analysis and labeling and note-taking is useless if it merely dissects an writing University of Wollongong in Dubai, author’s words. The goal is to how to St. Louis University go back and read those words, in academic in Dubai order, as they were intended to be read, letting the many “signposts” along the way guide us by shaping our expectations of what is to come. This point cannot be emphasized enough. Students struggling to write essay Stevenson make sense of an author’s words may think of stylistic analysis as something more advanced than mere translation, more arcane and mysterious, with its own recondite vocabulary. Ironically, they get this impression from the emphasis which most of us place on the most obvious marks of style–rhetorical figures such as chiasmus, alliteration, homoioteleuton–as the key to everything: these strike our ears and eyes as we read, so naturally we begin our analysis by scanning the writing article University in Dubai, text, collecting as many tropes as we can, and labeling them like specimens found on a nature hike. We pay great attention to classification, which can become quite complex: is that an example of School synecdoche or of writing article in Dubai metonymy?
Are we dealing with paronomasia or only parechesis? I plead guilty to how to essay Leman Preparatory School having encouraged on occasion such “surface scans” of classical texts. The problem with them is that they don’t necessarily lead students to understand how Gorgias or Demosthenes or Isokrates has structured and expressed his thoughts, the “character” or “cast of thought” each presents to academic University of Wollongong us. To grasp this we must understand how an how to, author has organized each sentence, how he has set up signposts to guide us as his thought unfolds. This means, first, seeing how each new phrase or clause relates to what has gone before and article of Wollongong understanding how “rhetorical devices”, in writing prompts for persuasive essays Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel College a well-turned sentence, mark the article University in Dubai, progression and writing essays Les Roches International structure of the academic in Dubai, thought. The real rhetoric is in the unfolding of the ideas in the order in which the author wants us to hear or read them; rhetorical tropes are markers along the way. To learn about an author’s style is to learn to read that author’s words, in order, as they were written–not to coursework help disarrange the words but to hear what the ancient audience heard. In his admirable essay on the style of academic article University of Wollongong Cicero W. Ralph Johnson puts it succinctly: ” . . Topics College. . Good style, whether exuberant or restrained, is good thinking (and good feeling). It is for article University in Dubai this reason that what we want to pay most attention to in style is the structuring of sentences, how they succeed, and how to Stevenson Academy how they fail.” [ Luxuriance and Economy: Cicero and academic in Dubai the Alien Style , p. 7] He quotes Virginia Woolf’s description of “the rhythm of a book that, by running in the head, winds one into a ball”, and he rescues from obscurity a book by Edith Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , which asserts the importance for style of the length of essay University (INTO) whole sentences and of their parts. Academic Writing Article University In Dubai. [Chapter IV, “Thought Patterns”, has much that is interesting on for persuasive essays Jin Jiang Hotel Management College, the structure and academic writing article University relationship of sentences as a guide to style. As Rickert remarks (p.
111), “The study of the sentence is one of the how to write essay Stevenson, most fundamental and certain means of academic writing of Wollongong in Dubai eventually getting at the secret of style.” She offers a system for analyzing sentences which is thought-provoking, even if one chooses not to adopt it.] [General note: In this essay I use the word “sentence” as a matter of convenience. There is no exactly corresponding Greek term or concept. Dianoia , “thought,” is closest, but a dianoia need not correspond to what a modern editor marks off with a period, colon, or question-mark. Indeed, editors sometimes disagree on whether to punctuate with a full stop rather than a comma. Writing Algonquin. See now Dover, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2.] What is it, after all, which stays with you when you’ve been reading Isokrates or Demosthenes for hours? Not a collection of tropes but something more fundamental and harder to express in writing University a phrase. Why did reading Isokrates for prompts essays Les Roches hours on end once make me physically ill?
Why, after the excitement of the academic writing article University of Wollongong, speech On the Crown , does an early speech of Demosthenes seem flat? Because a real stylist “gets in among” you. The “rhythm” of the essay College, writer’s thought is what does this. The Architecture of Greek Sentences: Loose and article University in Dubai Periodic Style. This essay, then, with profuse thanks to Ralph Johnson, will focus on the structure or “architecture” of a Greek sentence. A formidable phrase, perhaps, but less so if one bears in mind two fundamental points: 1. Greek sentences can on occasion be very long, but the units of which they are composed are almost always short. “The edifice, lofty though it may be, is built of bricks, not of an article Windermere huge blocks of Cyclopean masonry.” [J. D. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 61] 2. Greek is unusually rich in particles and academic article in Dubai conjunctions which serve as signposts.
These helpful qualities of the language, however, carry a danger for students. One can often get sense out of the various separate parts of how to write essay Leman School a complex sentence–enough sense to have a fair idea of what the entire thing means–without really understanding the development of the whole. Academic Writing Article In Dubai. And the how to write personal University (INTO), reason for this is often the very profusion of “marker-words” or “signposts” in academic article in Dubai Greek: because they are omnipresent, students tend to ignore them or at least to forget earlier signposts when later ones, in corresponsion with them, appear. Writing For Persuasive Les Roches International Management College. One area, then, where one must be a pedant is in accounting for every single connective word in a sentence. One can then turn pedantry to profit by writing University of Wollongong in Dubai, (re-)reading the author’s words and letting the sentence unfold as the original audience experienced it. Before we turn to the analysis of sample passages from Greek authors, let us consider the two main types of coursework writing help College sentence structure which ancient critics recognized: the loose style (lexis eiromene) and the periodic style (lexis katestrammene). The first phrase means literally “speech strung together” (from eiro, “to string or thread together”, like beads in a necklace); the second, “speech turned or guided toward an end”; the word “period” (periodos, “way around”) refers metaphorically to a racecourse, where the University of Wollongong, starting and finish lines were the same: contestants went out and around the turning-post, then retraced their path.
The loose style is for persuasive essays International Hotel College, often called the “running style”, a term which can be confusing in view of the race-course metaphor of the academic, term “periodic”. [Dover points out the difficulty of interpreting the terms lexis katestrammene and periodos ( The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2, Appendix: Period and Kolon). He thinks that the word periodos , rather than referring to a race-course, describes “a unit of utterance which begins from major pause and ‘returns’ to a state of rest by leading to a thematic Academy a second pause” (p. 39).] These two styles represent two ways of academic writing University in Dubai developing and structuring sentences. In the how to St. Louis University (INTO), loose style one statement is simply followed by another with no indication that another statement is writing article, coming. Topics For Writing Braemar College. The sentence ends with the final statement, without giving the reader or hearer any idea that it is writing University of Wollongong, about to end. It could just as easily have ended one clause (or several) earlier or later. Here is a banal example in English: “Bill went to the store and topics Braemar bought some milk and decided to get some cheese; he came home and academic writing in Dubai saw that the cat had gotten out; he looked for it and couldn’t find it; his TV suddenly went blank.” No statement looks ahead to what follows; the series could stop at any point or go on indefinitely. There is no “race-course” with a beginning, a turning point, and an end.
The virtue of this style is how to literary Leman Preparatory, that it produces an impression of plain speaking. In a court case, for example, if one is academic article in Dubai, trying to for persuasive essays Hotel Management College set out the academic writing article of Wollongong in Dubai, facts and convince the topics, jury of one’s honesty and straightforwardness (no matter how one has actually slanted the “facts”), this is the style to use. Of course, the loose style, when handled well, is every bit as “rhetorical” as the periodic style–but its art is less apparent. In the periodic style, by article in Dubai, contrast, markers of help various sorts, often introducing phrases or clauses subordinate to the main idea, indicate the academic writing article of Wollongong in Dubai, path ahead. Writing Prompts For Persuasive Les Roches Hotel College. The reader sees signs of academic University of Wollongong in Dubai things to come and is prepared for them when they appear. The art of composing and of reading this sort of Greek involves setting up and then fulfilling (often with variations along the way) assumptions about how the sentence will develop. At the finish, the how to write Leman Manhattan Preparatory, audience should feel that an appropriate end has been reached, a clearly defined course completed.
All periodic composition involves, in one way or another, suspension of sense: the article of Wollongong in Dubai, arrangement of coursework help one or more elements of the article University of Wollongong, sentence so that the thought is not felt to be complete until something else has been added. Let us rewrite the sentence above in periodic style: “After his trip to the store, where he bought milk and an argumentative Braemar (on a sudden whim) cheese, Bill’s arrival at home was marred, first by writing article of Wollongong, his cat, who had gotten away and couldn’t be found, then by his TV, which suddenly went blank.” Bill’s shopping expedition has become a noun phrase introduced by critique an article Windermere School, the preposition “after”. His purchases are subordinated in a clause introduced by the conjunction “where”. Writing Article University. A parenthesis characterizes his acquisition of cheese. The center of the sentence makes the main point: coming home was no fun.
The two reasons for this are appended in two parallel expressions consisting of an adverb (“first”, “then”), a prepositional phrase (“by his cat”, “by his TV”), and a relative clause (“who. . .”, “which. . .”). As silly as these sentences are, they illustrate an important point: unlike a simple narration in the running style, a periodic sentence will highlight the main point(s) the writer is trying to put across and will require the writer to decide how various events or ideas are related. This need not mean, and in Greek usually does not mean, that the sentence is left grammatically incomplete until the very end. More often, as above, the main clause is in for writing Braemar College the middle or even at the beginning, with subordinate elements appended. Many other arrangements are of course possible and none is “objectively” better than another. What is important, in reading as well as in composing such sentences, is to understand the thought which drives the structure.
Loose Style and Periodic Style: Examples in English. The periodic style is not at home in present-day American English. Short, clear sentences pack more punch for us than syntactical and rhetorical baroque. Too many connectives, too many subordinate clauses, too much suspension of sense makes one seem fussy, pedantic, orotund. But we should recall the importance of Latin and Greek periodic style as a model for modern prose from the Renaissance onward.
Here are examples in English of both styles. First, the lexis eiromene which has enjoyed such a vogue in academic writing article in Dubai English through the twentieth century, in a paragraph from Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises : The bus climbed steadily up the road. The country was barren and rocks stuck up through the clay. There was no grass beside the road. Looking back we could see the for writing College, country spread out below. Far back the fields were squares of green and brown on the hillsides.
Making the horizon were the brown mountains. They were strangely shaped. As we climbed higher the horizon kept changing. As the bus ground slowly up the road we could see other mountains coming up in the south. Then the road came over the crest, flattened out, and went into a forest. It was a forest of cork oaks, and the sun came through the trees in patches, and there were cattle grazing back in the trees. We went through the forest and the road came out and academic turned along a rise of write a thematic essay Stevenson Academy land, and out ahead of us was a rolling green plain, with dark mountains beyond it. These were not like the University of Wollongong in Dubai, brown, heat-baked mountains we had left behind.
These were wooded and there were clouds coming down from an article Windermere, them. The green plain stretched off. It was cut by fences and the white of the road showed through the trunks of a double line of trees that crossed the plain toward the north. As we came to the edge of the rise we saw the red roofs and white houses of Burguete ahead strung out on the plain, and away off on the shoulder of the first dark mountain was the gray metal-sheathed roof of the monastery of Roncesvalles. (Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises , New York 1926, repr. 1954, chapter 3, p. 108) As an example of periodic style here is Samuel Johnson in the Preface to his edition of Shakespeare:
That praises are without reason lavished on the dead, and that the honours due only to excellence are paid to University of Wollongong in Dubai antiquity, is a complaint likely to be always continued by those who, being able to add nothing to truth, hope for eminence from the heresies of paradox, or those who, being forced by disappointment upon consolatory expedients, are willing to hope from posterity what the present age refuses, and flatter themselves that the regard which is yet denied by envy will be at last bestowed by time. . . For Writing College. . To works, however, of which the excellence is not absolute and definite, but gradual and comparative; to works not raised upon principles demonstrative and scientific, but appealing wholly to observation and experience, no other test can be applied than length of duration and continuance of esteem. What mankind have long possessed they have often examined and compared, and if they persist to value the possession it is because frequent comparisons have confirmed opinion in its favour. Writing Article University. As among the works of for persuasive Les Roches Jin Jiang Management nature no man can properly call a river deep or a mountain high without the knowledge of many mountains and many rivers, so, in the productions of genius, nothing can be styled excellent till it has been compared with other works of the same kind. . . . The reverence due to writings that have long subsisted arises, therefore, not from any credulous confidence in the superior wisdom of academic writing University in Dubai past ages, or gloomy persuasion of the degeneracy of mankind, but is the consequence of acknowledged and indubitable positions, that what has been longest known has been most considered, and what is most considered is best understood. (Samuel Johnson, Selected Writings , ed. R. T. Davies, Evanston 1965, pp. 262-263) The elegant and varied architecture of these sentences, made clear by how to essay University, a fullness of expression where parallel phrases reinforce one another, will serve to remind us that English, too, is capable not only of “straight talk” but also of grandiloquence. We live in a Lysianic age, but our forbears were Ciceronians and Isokrateans. [For the difference between the academic writing article University in Dubai, two see Cicero‘s comments on writing essays Les Roches Hotel Management College, Isokrates; E. Laughton, “Cicero and the Greek Orators”; G. Williamson, The Senecan Amble (on stylistic models in academic writing of Wollongong the Renaissance).] We should note, too, that in setting out to compose in a classical language we are participating, however tenuously, in writing essays International Management College a tradition which goes back to the humanists of the Renaissance, and indeed to the Hellenistic age. [Lanham (s.v. “period”, p. 113) quotes Michael Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators (Oxford 1971), pp.
20-21 and 131: “The pattern of the grand neo-classical sentence was the period: that is, the sentence combining a number of thoughts and statements in a number of balanced clauses. . . . Academic Article In Dubai. It is quite difficult to coursework help College enjoy the humanists’ preoccupation with the periodic sentence. . . . But one cannot come to historical terms with the humanists’ verbal performance without recognizing how supremely important it was for writing University of Wollongong them, and in how many different ways. The periodic sentence is the basic art form of the early humanists. It was a test of prowess, a focus for how to write essay criticism, the full flower of the classical way with words and notions, the medium of most statements about relationships, and . . . it became at a critical moment a humanist model of artistic composition in general. . . . Compositio was a technical concept every schoolboy in a humanist school had been taught to writing article apply to language. It did not mean what we mean by write a thematic essay Stevenson, literary composition, but rather the putting together of the single evolved sentence or period, this being done within the framework of a four-level hierarchy of elements: words go to make up phrases, phrases to make clauses, clauses to make sentences.”] As we turn to Greek we shall be looking for examples of a loose style, where phrases and clauses come one after the other with no prior preparation, and a periodic style, where we are guided from a starting post, around a course, and back to a finish-line.
As one would expect, the loose style developed before the more elaborate periodic style. But only scraps of the earliest prose remain, and the greatest writer associated with this style, Herodotos, is far more sophisticated than some caricatures of him suggest and writes just as elegantly and effortlessly in the periodic as in the loose style. The longest surviving fragment of Herodotos’ predecessor Hekataios (FHG 1, F15) provides a rare sample of a loose, naive style: For a graphic image of the Greek text click here. Orestheus, son of Deukalion, came to Aitolia for a kingdom and writing article University his dog gave birth to a log, and he ordered it to how to write Leman Preparatory School be buried, and from it grew a vine with many grapes. Thus he also named his own son Phytios. And from this one, Oineus was born, named from the vines (for the academic writing article University of Wollongong in Dubai, Greeks of old called vines oinai). Write Literary Leman Manhattan Preparatory School. And from of Wollongong in Dubai, Oineus was born Aitolos. Most striking is the almost complete lack of subordination or hypotaxis. Critique An Article Windermere. Except for the participle kletheis modifying Oineus each idea is “strung” after the previous one with a coordinating conjunction, i.e. paratactically (with coordination or parataxis).
The first three such links are made with kai; the repetition seems matter-of- fact, while in a more sophisticated writer such as Lysias it would have made an academic University in Dubai, emphatic point. The remaining linkages are: dio (= dia ho, “on account of College which, therefore”), de, the writing University of Wollongong, participle kletheis, gar, and again de. The Greek text above is given with Jacoby’s punctuation: two complete sentences, each with a concluding clause separated by a raised dot, the second containing also a parenthesis. There is nothing, however, in either the grammar or the sense to prevent putting a full stop at the end of each clause, including the topics for writing Braemar College, one set off by parentheses. (The phrase kletheis apo ton ampelon could not, of course, stand alone, but it too is writing article University, “tagged on” at the end of a clause.) Note also the somewhat repetitive pronouns: autou, hos, auto, autou, autou, toutou. Different as this is from the Greek of Lysias or Isokrates, it shares with the styles of later authors a concern that every clause be clearly connected to what precedes and follows. Nor is the connection in any way crude: in the first sentence the three kai’s lead to a conclusion introduced by dio. The second sentence uses different connectives (de, the participle, gar, de) and the words oinas, ekaloun and ampelous in the gar clause echo Oineus, kletheis, and ampelon in the preceding clause. College. Even in the two simple statements introduced by de (toutou d’ Oineus egeneto. . .Oineos d’ egeneto Aitolos) the position of egeneto changes, as does the position and case of Oineus’ name.
This is not to claim any great sophistication for academic article University in Dubai Hekataios’ Greek, but only to remind us that naivete is writing prompts for persuasive Hotel, a relative notion. This passage survives because it was cited as an example of the loose style and, as with other authors whom we know only by tiny fragments, we cannot be sure that it is typical of Hekataios. He may have assumed a more naive style when he was recounting a myth. Plato does this in a more sophisticated way, for example in a passage from the academic University of Wollongong, Protagoras , discussed below, which suggests a parody of a traditional style of coursework Algonquin College naive storytelling. Hekataios’ successor Herodotos is vastly more sophisticated. One should remember that he lived in Periclean Athens and was a friend of Sophocles; he wrote in Ionic dialect about the archaic age but was not himself “archaic”. He is a sophisticated storyteller (and historian!) who often employs, but is not limited to, lexis eiromene. Indeed, many a “loose” Herodotean sentence leads us step by step to a dramatic climax–and has, in retrospect, the essential quality of a periodos. Such sentences gain much of academic writing of Wollongong their effect from the very fact that they do not broadcast their intentions. Here is Herodotos’ description of the arrival of for writing essay Braemar College Adrastos at Sardis (1.35): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
When Croesus’ child had in hand his marriage, there arrived at Sardis a man bound up with misfortune and not clean in hands, being a Phrygian by birth and of the royal house. This man, coming to Croesus’ house according to the local customs asked to receive cleansing, and Croesus cleansed him. Cleansing is similar for the Lydians and the Greeks. When Croesus had performed the accustomed rites, he inquired where the man was from and writing of Wollongong who he was, saying as follows: “Man, who are you and from where in Phrygia have you come to be at my hearth? Whom of men or women did you kill?” And he answered: “King, of Gordias son of Midas I am the child, and I am called Adrastos, and having killed my brother unwilling I am here, driven out by School, my father and writing article in Dubai deprived of everything.” And Croesus answered him as follows: “You are born of men who are friends, it turns out, and you have come among friends, where you will lack for nothing, remaining in our land, and bearing this misfortune as lightly as possible you will profit most.” [This translation is Algonquin College, as literal as possible consistent with giving a sense of the flow of Herodotos’ narrative. Academic Writing Article University In Dubai. A useful exercise in coursework writing help Algonquin College coming to understand an author’s style is to academic University of Wollongong in Dubai note the things which even such a close translation cannot convey.]
Herodotos’ sentences are longer and more complex than Hekataios’ and, like all later writers, he uses participles far more extensively. As each sentence unfolds, however, each phrase or clause is topics essay Braemar, immediately clear: it advances the story without requiring us to academic article University hold several thoughts suspended at once. Thus the first sentence consists of a genitive absolute, followed by the main verb apikneetai, followed by its subject (aner, still unnamed), followed by essay Manhattan School, more about the man: his misfortune, his uncleanliness, his birth. Academic Writing Article Of Wollongong. At the end the essays International Hotel Management, phrases with men and de, both dependent on eon, lead up to academic article of Wollongong in Dubai the climactic word basileiou; the chiastic placement of the personal essay St. Louis, similar words geneei and geneos accentuates the final phrase. Each sentence that follows has a somewhat different structure and length. In the second sentence, for example, a participle leads off, then the academic writing article of Wollongong in Dubai, main verb, then a second verb appended with de.
Especially notable is Adrastos’ reply to Croesus, when he reveals who he is: the connectives are men. . .de. . .de. Write Essay Manhattan. He begins with his father’s and grandfather’s names, then his own; then, in article a clause far longer than the first two clauses, he reveals his misfortune. The aorist participle phoneusas (what he did) and the perfect participles exelelamenos and esteremenos (his present circumstances) carry the weight of this clause, with an unemphatic main verb (pareimi) coming between them. This sentence is a good example of an ascending trikolon , that is, a sentence in three parts with the longest element last. Further, this last element is itself divided into two parts, the second of which is again divided. One could thus call the sentence “periodic” in the sense that it forms a structured whole with (literally, in this case) a clear beginning, middle and end. Yet the effect, as we read it, is of one thought added to another in a linear, “strung together” sequence. Also imparting “flavor” to Herodotos’ style are the repetitions and “superfluous” words or phrases: in the first sentence, perhaps eon; in the second, houtos; in the fourth, legon tade. More generally, Croesus’ questions to Adrastos are stated first indirectly, then directly: epunthaneto hokothen te kai tis eie. . . .tis te eon kai kothen. (Note the chiastic order, and note also that Adrastos replies chiastically, answering kothen before tis!) The effect is of an unhurried narrative–but not a flaccid one. Rather, Herodotos asks us to pause over each question, each answer, each event in the tale of Croesus, Atys and essay Braemar College Adrastos so that at the end, in the magnificent, fully periodic sentence which concludes the academic University in Dubai, story (45.3), the whole weight slowly and relentlessly built up comes crashing down. [Cf. Help Algonquin College. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 8.]
For an analysis of the periodic sentence which begins Herodotos’ History , click here. Let us turn next to Lysias, who was noted for the simplicity and elegance of academic writing University of Wollongong in Dubai his style and the vividness and clarity of his narrations. In the speech Against Eratosthenes (8-10) he is describing his own arrest by how to Preparatory School, the Thirty Tyrants: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Dividing up the in Dubai, houses, they went on their way. Me they found while I was entertaining guests; they sent them away and handed me over to Peison. The others went to topics for writing essay College the workshop and made a list of the slaves. I asked Peison if he wanted to take money and rescue me. University Of Wollongong In Dubai. He said he would, if it were a lot. I said then that I was ready to give him a talent of how to write St. Louis (INTO) silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this.
Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or human beings, but nevertheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to academic University in Dubai be imperative to get some pledge from him. After he swore an how to write essay St. Louis (INTO), oath, calling down ruin on writing of Wollongong in Dubai, himself and writing essays Les Roches International Hotel Management his children, that he would accept the talent and save me, I went into the room and opened the chest. Peison noticed and came in, and when he saw the contents he called two of his servants and ordered them to take the things in the chest. This translation ignores most of the connectives and converts most of the participles to finite verbs but nonetheless retains the University of Wollongong in Dubai, exact order in which Lysias’ narrative unfolds. Indeed, one sign of lexis eiromene is that one can translate it in order, phrase by phrase, without transposing anything. Such a translation, however, involves a considerable restructuring of Lysias’ Greek. To examine further the way Lysias has structured his narrative let us reproduce each element of the Greek on a separate line, with indentations to show the for writing essay Braemar, relationship among them; the excruciatingly literal translation which follows will show how complex the writing article University of Wollongong in Dubai, “loose” style of Lysias really is. To emphasize the careful connection and subordination of the Greek (even where ideas seem to critique Windermere School follow straightforwardly one after the other), words which serve as signposts are in academic article University boldface and circumstantial participles, which express so many subordinated ideas so concisely, are underlined in the Greek graphic. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. And dividing up the houses they went on their way.
And me, on the one hand, they found entertaining guests, whom driving out they handed me over to an article Peison; the rest, on the other hand, going to the workshop, made a list of the slaves. And I asked Peison, on academic writing University of Wollongong in Dubai, the one hand, (5) if he wanted to writing College rescue me, taking money. he, on the other hand, said he did, if it were a lot. I said then that I was prepared to give a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. (10) Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or men, but nonetheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to be most necessary. to take a pledge from him. And when he swore, calling down ruin on article of Wollongong, himself and his children, (15) that accepting the talent he would save me, going into the room I opened the box; But Peison, noticing, came in. and, seeing the how to write personal essay (INTO), contents, called two of his servants.
and ordered them to take the things in the box. [As a tool for academic article of Wollongong analyzing Greek style such an ultra-literal translation is far more useful than a smooth, fully Englished version, since the goal is to understand the Greek, not to writing prompts essays Les Roches Jin Jiang International Hotel Management College replace it. Students should develop the habit of translating Greek this way, in the order of the original. Writing Article University. To aim for a “polished” translation is to ignore what makes the Greek distinctive.] Before we analyze this passage, a general note about the College, line-division and indentation of this and other passages below. Academic Of Wollongong In Dubai. It is intended only to suggest the units of meaning into which the sentence seems to fall. (INTO). Each such unit was probably, but far from certainly, followed by academic University of Wollongong, a distinct pause when the Greek was spoken aloud; much depended on how to write Academy, a speaker’s (or reader’s) delivery. Academic Of Wollongong. No “scientific” accuracy is claimed or, indeed, is write Manhattan, possible. Lines often, but not always, correspond to academic writing University of Wollongong in Dubai kola. (To be entirely consistent one would have to place eipon oun , for example, on a separate line, but this would create a false impression of writing for persuasive essays Les Roches Jin Jiang International composition in academic article University very short units [kommata].)
We should remember, more fundamentally, that the very idea of a “sentence” is essay Academy, modern: ancient writers speak of a dianoia or sententia, “thought”, which may not coincide with our idea of academic writing article University a “sentence”. [For a modern definition of a sentence see, e.g., Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , p. 111.] Likewise, while a “period” (periodos) often corresponds to what we would call a “sentence”, a portion of a sentence can constitute a complete period (as remarked by Aristotle and Demetrios). Modern punctuation represents the help, judgment of modern editors; in setting out texts I have generally followed the consensus of editors on the placement of full stops. [See, e.g., Johnson, Luxuriance and Economy , pp. Writing Article University. 15-17 with references.] Nor does a kolon (“limb”, membrum) necessarily correspond to what we call a “clause”; E. Fraenkel has shown that even a short phrase can have the force of a kolon. [See also H. Dik, Word Order in Ancient Greek , chapter 3.] And there is how to personal University (INTO), no hard and writing of Wollongong fast distinction between a kolon and the shorter unit called a komma (“cutting”, incisum). As for the indentations, they do not follow any set system but are intended as guides to the structure of the sentence. How To Literary Essay Manhattan School. In particular they do not always correspond to levels of academic writing article subordination. College. (I have always found complex systems of notation, based on subordination, baffling.) Readers can learn a great deal by (re)organizing the academic article in Dubai, “layout” of how to write a thematic essay Stevenson Academy these passages in their own way and analyzing other passages of their own choice. Now for Lysias. In the passage quoted above there is almost nothing of overt rhetorical artifice, but its art becomes apparent when one observes, for example, the interweaving of participles and finite verbs.
They tend to be paired, but not mechanically so. Writing Article Of Wollongong. The last sentence (lines 18-20), which describes Peison’s actions, is set out in three parts linked by kai. Write Personal St. Louis University. Lysias could have achieved greater concision and concentration, perhaps, by putting everything into academic article University of Wollongong, a single clause with several participles and one main verb, but this would spoil the simplicity of the narrative: Peison came into the room; he saw what was in the chest; he issued a command. (Two historical presents, eiserkhetai and kalei [but not a third –note ekeleusen], add to the vividness.) The participles tell why (proximately) he did what he did, and it is worth analyzing each participle in this passage as to Stevenson whether it is causal, temporal, conditional, or whatever. Note especially eparomenos in Peison’s oath (15): the phrase in which it appears is a longer element between two shorter ones, and we linger on it before coming to academic writing University of Wollongong the oath itself, labon. . How To Literary Essay Manhattan Preparatory. .sosein. Of course, even without such analysis the reader responds directly to what Lysias writes–but for this very reason it is easy to miss how much he is telling us, simply and elegantly.
Notice also the variety. Shorter elements are interspersed among longer ones; constructions are varied. An indirect question leads to indirect statements: Peisona men eroton ei. . . , ho d’ ephasken ei. . . ., eipon oun hoti . . University Of Wollongong In Dubai. . ., ho d’ homologese. . How To Write Leman Manhattan. . ., epistamen men oun hoti. . ., homos d’. . .edokei. Academic Writing In Dubai. . . ., epeide de omosen. . Prompts International Hotel Management College. . . Note, too, the placement of sosai. . .labon (6), labein (13), labon. . .sosein (16), labein (20). The repetition is “subliminal” rather than rhetorically insistent and includes a nice chiasmus (6, 16). In short, this is rhetorical art which succeeds by academic writing of Wollongong in Dubai, concealing itself. As with Herodotos, lexis eiromene is anything but naive. An Article School. If one wants to appreciate Lysias fully, one need only article attempt to translate a similar narrative from prompts for persuasive Jin Jiang, English to Greek! For an analysis of periodic sentences by Lysias, click here.
Sophisticated in a different way is the academic writing article of Wollongong in Dubai, storytelling style which Plato adopts from time to time, for example in the fable about the origin of justice told by Protagoras in the dialogue of that name. Here is an excerpt (320c8-e4): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Once there was a time. when gods existed. but mortal kinds did not. And when for these too there came the appointed time of birth, gods molded them within the earth (5) from earth and fire mixing them. and from the things which blend with fire and earth.
And when they were ready to how to write a thematic essay lead them to the light, they bade Prometheus and Epimetheus. adorn them and assign powers to each as was fitting. Academic Article In Dubai. (10) And Epimetheus asked Prometheus if he could assign them himself. “And when I’ve assigned them,” he said, “you inspect them.” And so persuading, he assigned. And in his assigning, to some he attached strength without speed; the weaker with speed he adorned; (15) some he weaponed; to some awarding a weaponless nature, another power he devised for their safety: to the ones he wrapped in how to literary Leman Manhattan Preparatory smallness. winged flight or underground home he assigned; (20) the ones he increased in greatness, by this very thing he made them safe. And so he assigned the rest, maintaining a balance.
On its surface the style of this passage is naive: Plato imparts a “flavor” of archaism to academic writing University of Wollongong his story with short clauses, simple declarative statements, and repeated words. How To Write Essay Academy. The first sentence (1-3) has three brief clauses with the verb eimi; the second and third clauses are exactly parallel, and the whole sentence begins and ends with the same word (the figure of kyklos). The variation theoi/thneta gene avoids a too-exact symmetry. The next two sentences (4-7, 8-10) are structured like each other, but there is variety within that structure: an epeide-clause, then the main verb, then a subordinate verb form (participle/infinitives), then a subordinate clause (hosa. . .hos. . .). [The subordinate clause hos prepei is virtually an adverb and thus does not have a line to itself.] The first of academic writing University of Wollongong in Dubai these sentences could have been ended after lines 5 or 6; the addition of how to write personal St. Louis University (INTO) line 7 is article University, elegant, with its chiasmus (ges kai puros, 6; puri kai gei, 7) and the variation meixantes/kerannutai. Three short statements follow (11-13), with a fivefold repetition of forms of nemo carrying over from the preceding sentence (10) and into the next (14). In particular, the essay Stevenson Academy, repetition of the last word of a sentence at the beginning of the writing University of Wollongong in Dubai, next one (neimai/neimantos, nemei/nemon) is in the manner of topics essay Braemar Herodotos. Each of these three statements could stand as a separate sentence; each is shorter than the one before. One can see the art of this by glancing at the next sentence, which runs through line 18 (in thought, all the way to 23): exactly the sort of variety that Plato always seeks, and a sure sign that he is writing University of Wollongong, creating the illusion of a naive style, not the real thing. This sentence catalogs the attributes which Epimetheus assigned to various creatures. After the link-word nemon these are set forth with a men and three des; note the chiastic variation tois/tous/tous/tois and how to a thematic essay Stevenson Academy the varied length of the clauses.
The fourth clause (17) begins with a participle instead of a finite verb and introduces the whole category of animals without natural weapons; the longer kolon in writing of Wollongong 18, with the how to personal essay University (INTO), verb emekhanato at its center, sets the stage for the second catalog of attributes in 19-23. Here each category of writing article of Wollongong in Dubai animals is introduced by a relative clause, followed by a main clause detailing how these creatures were protected. The description of small animals, of course, is much longer than that of large ones! Finally, again very much in the manner of Plato, the enumeration is concisely cut short by the final summary in 23. Particularly elegant is the repetition nemon (14), enemen (20), enemen (23): a kyklos with an extra form in the middle. A playful and writing International Management sophisticated Platonic fable, then, where the narrative progresses straightforwardly even when sentence-structure becomes complex. Academic Writing Article Of Wollongong. Nowhere is anything essential to grammatical sense or meaning suspended for more than one line, so that the dominant impression is of someone speaking in prompts Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel Management College the loose, “strung-together” style. Periodic Style: Demosthenes and Isokrates. Turning to lexis katestrammene (lexis he en periodois), let us begin with a sentence of Demosthenes which Demetrios quotes as an example of a period whose form is determined precisely by its content, and which Demetrios then re-arranges into non-periodic style (Demosthenes 20.1; Demetrios 10-11). Here, and in the examples which follow, the periodic effect is academic writing University, gained by how to write Stevenson Academy, suspending until the end of the sentence an element essential for the grammar and the sense. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
Men of the jury, most of all because I think it benefits the city for the law to writing of Wollongong be annulled, second for the sake of how to Manhattan Preparatory School Chabrias’ child, I have agreed that I shall, as best I am able, speak for these men. Demetrios says that this period, which consists of three kola [apart from the opening vocative], has a certain “bending” or “turning” (kampe) and “concentration” or “coiling together” (sustrophe) at the end. Writing Of Wollongong In Dubai. What gives it this quality? Unlike the examples of lexis eiromene quoted above, this sentence begins with two kola subordinate to the final kolon not only grammatically but also in writing prompts for persuasive Les Roches Hotel Management College sense: malista men heineka. . . ./eita kai. Writing University Of Wollongong. . .heineka. . . . The main verb homologesa comes at the beginning of the last kolon but requires an infinitive in indirect statement to complete its meaning. Demosthenes holds this infinitive until the end by dividing toutois from sunerein with a subordinate clause. The whole sentence is coursework writing, aimed at an end, which sunerein provides. Note, incidentally, that Demosthenes avoids a too-exact corresponsion of the first two kola by varying their length, changing the position of heineka, having heineka govern first an articular infinitive then a noun, and by academic writing article of Wollongong in Dubai, answering men not with de but with eita kai. Demetrios’ re-arrangement of this into a non-period is instructive. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I shall speak for these men, citizens of Athens.
For Chabrias’ son is topics, a friend of mine, and much more than him the city, for which it is article of Wollongong, right for me to speak. As Demetrios remarks, the period has disappeared. Each kolon is independent in sense; a full stop could be placed at the end of any of the first three kola. Nothing forces us to look ahead for for writing essay Braemar a conclusion to come. Academic. (Indeed, Demosthenes’ final word has become Demetrios’ first.) We are not on a circular course, with a turning point and a finish line in sight, but on critique, a straight path of academic University in Dubai uncertain length. Each kolon is appended to the preceding one rather than fulfilling an expectation set up earlier. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. A longer periodic sentence of Demosthenes is analyzed below. To return to how to Stevenson Academy the table of contents, click here. Here is academic writing article of Wollongong, a period from Isokrates’ Panegyrikos (186), cited by Aristotle in the Rhetoric (1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Fame and memory and glory.
how much ought one to think. those will either possess while alive. or leave behind when they die. who in critique an article Windermere School deeds of writing of Wollongong in Dubai this sort excel? Only a tortured English translation, as above, can reflect the way Isokrates has directed this sentence toward its “finish-line”, aristeusantas. Each element of the an article Windermere, sentence requires something later to academic article of Wollongong in Dubai complete its meaning: first come three accusatives; then they are made part of a question governed by critique School, the verbs khre and nomizein, the first of which requires an accusative subject, the second an infinitive; then come two parallel accusatives and infinitives, but since the accusative words are participles we still don’t know who the academic article of Wollongong in Dubai, sentence is about; finally, the phrase tous. . Writing Help Algonquin. .aristeusantas, with a prepositional phrase enclosed, tells us.
Notice also how Isokrates emphasizes the structure of the sentence with repeated sounds and academic writing in Dubai words: phemen, mnemen, posen; nomizein, ekhein, kataleipsein; e, e; zontas, teleutesantas, aristeusantas. Each of these repetitions spans two or three kola and critique an article leads us forward to the conclusion. A longer periodic sentence of Isokrates is writing, analyzed below. Short and Long Kola: Xenophon and writing prompts for persuasive Jin Jiang International Management Thucydides. As is academic writing article University, usual in Greek, each kolon in the examples just discussed is short and easily comprehended. Were this not so, it would be very difficult to suspend the sense until the very end.
Two examples cited by Demetrios, each a description of a river, show the strikingly different effect of very short kola (kommata) and unusually long ones. First, Xenophon’s description of the river Teleboas ( Anabasis 4.4.3, Demetrios 6): houtos d’ en kalos men, megas d’ ou. This (river) was beautiful, but not large. Then Thucydides’ description of the Acheloos (2.102.2, Demetrios 45): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. For the river Acheloos, flowing down from Mount Pindos through Dolopia and the Agraioi and Amphilochoi, and through the Akarnanian plain, skirting the city Stratos upland. and discharging into the sea by Oiniadai and creating a marsh around their city, makes it impossible, because of the water, in winter to how to write literary Preparatory mount a campaign.
The sentence, like the academic writing article University in Dubai, river, flows and twists and turns to its conclusion. Only in the last kolon do we get the main verb, and the adjective aporon preceding it forces us to wait for essays International College the final word, strateuein, which explains the strategic reason for the entire excursus introduced by gar. An appropriately serpentine periodos! As a final example of a periodos where sense is suspended until the end, here is a sentence of Lysias, who was just as much at home in the periodic as in academic in Dubai the loose style (25.18): For a graphic image of the how to write literary essay Manhattan Preparatory, Greek text, click here. But if you think it necessary. the men whom those ones omitted to writing in Dubai harm. yourselves to ruin, none of the citizens will be left. In the protasis of this conditional sentence Lysias gains extra force first by using ei plus the indicative rather than the more usual ean plus subjunctive (making the whole sentence in how to Stevenson effect a future most vivid or minatory conditional sentence), then by bringing the relative clause forward to precede the infinitive apolesai on academic article, which it depends.
The sentence concludes both logically and an argumentative essay Braemar dramatically with the main verb hupoleiphthesetai. Not every periodic sentence postpones an academic, essential element until the very end. Such sentences are indeed the most neatly “rounded” and “directed toward a finish-line”, but a longer period expressing complex ideas would be difficult for an audience to a thematic essay follow if they had to keep track of multiple suspensions of meaning and multiple subordinations until the final kolon. Academic Article Of Wollongong. Often the main verb comes at the beginning or in the middle, and the effect of how to write literary Leman Manhattan Preparatory School a structured whole is achieved by academic University of Wollongong, carefully arranging parallel or antithetical kola whose sense is complete before the write personal essay St. Louis University (INTO), sentence moves on. Here is Isokrates’ description of Xerxes’ march through northern Greece ( Panegyrikos 89, cited in part by Aristotle, Rhetoric 1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Who came to so great a point of arrogance.
that, thinking it was a small task to subjugate Greece. and wanting to leave a monument so great. that it is not a thing of human birth, he did not earlier stop (5) until he discovered and compelled. the thing which all men talk about: how with his army. to sail through the mainland. and march through the sea, (10) yoking the Hellespont. and digging through Athos. This is academic article of Wollongong in Dubai, a splendid example of a long and carefully crafted period where the for writing an argumentative Braemar College, main verb comes in academic writing the first kolon and everything else unfolds in later subordinations.
The layers of subordination, rather than creating a tangled suspension of sense, unfold clearly and in sequence. Prompts For Persuasive Jin Jiang International Hotel. Note how small the elements are which make up most of this sentence. The longest kola, the writing article University of Wollongong in Dubai, second and third, describe Xerxes’ grandiose thoughts; as his plan progresses, things seem to get easier until, in critique Windermere School two short phrases, he yokes the sea and digs the land. And note the academic University, careful and varied connections: relative clauses, result clauses, a temporal clause, pairs of participles and personal essay University (INTO) a pair of infinitives set off by writing University in Dubai, men and de. Note, finally, how similar sounds reinforce parallel structures: pleusai, pezeusai (9,10); zeuxas, dioruxas (11,12).
End-rhyme links the paired verb forms, the topics College, first syllable of zeuxas picking up sounds from the preceding pair. Another period of Isokrates is analyzed above. Many periodoi are based neither on suspension of sense nor on grammatical subordination but consist of academic writing University a series of parallel or antithetical kola. Topics An Argumentative. Here are two examples from Lysias cited by C. D. Article University In Dubai. Adams in his insightful discussion of the how to literary essay Preparatory, differences between loose and periodic style (Lysias, Selected Speeches , pp. 345-352): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. The killing of men they thought of no importance; the taking of money they considered of academic University great importance. (12.7) For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. many of the citizens to our enemies they banished; many they wrongly killed and left unburied; many with civic rights they disenfranchised; of many the daughters about to be married they balked. (12.21)
Strictly speaking, the first of for persuasive International College these sentences presents an antithesis, the second a series of parallels. In each, however, as commonly, the kola are closely parallel in form: in the first, each kolon consists of infinitive + direct object + phrase with peri + main verb; at the end the rhyme hegounto/epoiounto (homoioteleuton) reinforces the parallel and academic article in Dubai brings closure. The kola are nearly equal in length: 18 and 16 syllables (the figure of isokolon or, more strictly, parisosis). An Article School. The conjunctions men and de produce a suspension not of immediate meaning but of general thought: while the first kolon gives a complete thought, we know that more is to academic come. In the second sentence four parallel kola portray the writing for persuasive essays International College, nefarious character of the Thirty Tyrants. Writing Of Wollongong In Dubai. Not only are the kola nearly identical in length (17, 17, 15, and 18 syllables) but their similarity is strengthened by how to a thematic, the repetitions pollous/pollous/pollous/pollon at the beginning and exelasan/epoiesan/katestesan/ekolusan at academic article of Wollongong, the end. The detail added by the fourth kolon–the confiscations of property even prevented some families from giving their daughters dowries–provides a vivid and dramatic climax and brings a sense of periodic closure. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. For a graphic of Lysias 12.99-100 laid out in kola and kommata, click here.
Even a single kolon can be periodic. Demetrios cites (17) the opening of Herodotos’ History : Herodotou Halikarnasseos histories apodexis hede. . . . Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this. A neat suspension of sense, where longer words lead to a shorter “capstone”, hede. Since this period is part of writing Algonquin a longer sentence, it is worth quoting the whole thing: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this, that neither may the things done by men with time become extinct. nor may great and wondrous deeds, some by foreigners shown forth, both the other events and through what cause they warred with each other. Thus, in a masterful period, does Herodotos reveal the goal and scope of his History . Writing Of Wollongong. Note the careful connections and the alternation of long and short kola. Literary Leman Manhattan. Note the double purpose clause (hos mete. . .genetai, mete. . .genetai), where the second clause makes us wait while the meaning of erga is amplified by academic University in Dubai, ta men. . Writing Prompts Essays Jin Jiang International College. . ta de. . Writing In Dubai. . in apposition. Note, especially, how the Persian Wars appear, understated, in a kolon appended at the very end, in apposition to and amplifying what went before. Critique An Article School. Isokrates could have done no better.
Rhetorical, Historical, and writing article University of Wollongong in Dubai Philosophical Periods. Thus periodic sentences can have various structures and can achieve “rounding” or “concentration toward an end” or “completeness” in various ways and to various degrees. In addition to Adams‘ distinction between periods involving suspension of sense, antithesis, and personal essay St. Louis University (INTO) parallelism one should take note of the more fundamental distinction which Demetrios draws between three types of period, according to how tightly they are constructed: the academic writing article of Wollongong, rhetorical period, the historical period, and the philosophical period or period of dialogue. The rhetorical period is the most rounded, with a “turning” and “concentration” at Stevenson, the end (Demetrios 10). Examples are the passages from Demosthenes (20.1), Thucydides (2.102.2), and Isokrates (Panegyrikos 186) discussed above, where a crucial element is withheld until the conclusion. To return to the table of contents, click here.
A Short Historical Period of Xenophon. As an example of a historical period Demetrios cites the opening of Xenophon’s Anabasis : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Dareios and academic of Wollongong in Dubai Parysatis were born two children, the older Artaxerxes, the younger Kyros. (Anabasis 1.1; Demetrios 3) According to how to write University Demetrios this sentence consists of two kola, each of which, while an integral part of the sentence, completes its own thought. [One could also treat the phrases with men and de as separate kola (or kommata).] That is, the first kolon is complete in itself, but the in Dubai, second adds details which, once we have them, we perceive as part of an organized whole.
Many sentences, both shorter and an argumentative essay Braemar longer, are organized in this way, not only by historians but by every kind of writer. The construction is looser than that of a rhetorical period but still produces the academic writing article University of Wollongong in Dubai, impression of writing essays Jin Jiang College a rounded whole. To return to the table of contents, click here. The philosophical period or period of dialogue is looser still and barely gives the writing article University of Wollongong, impression of being a period at all. Demetrios cites the opening of Plato’s Republic : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I went down yesterday to Peiraios. with Glaukon, Ariston’s son, to pray to the goddess. and also wanting to see the critique School, festival, how they would perform it, since now they’re holding it for the first time. (Plato, Republic 327a1-3; Demetrios 21) Demetrios notes that kolon is piled on kolon in apparent artlessness–yet, as critics have long remarked, this is one of the most studied and writing of Wollongong in Dubai artful of how to write literary essay Preparatory Greek sentences. [See, for example, Denniston’s remarks ( Greek Prose Style , p. Writing Of Wollongong In Dubai. 41).] Plato is said to have puzzled long over the order of the opening words. The very first word is the main verb; a full stop could be placed at the end of each kolon (except for the third, where te looks ahead to kai hama); the indirect question tina tropon poiesousin comes as a seeming afterthought, picking up the accusative heorten of the previous kolon (the fairly common figure of prolepsis).
Yet by the end we have run a full course, a periodos. The sentence is more than what it seems to be: formally (grammatically) one could regard it as lexis eiromene, but it is really periodic. There is coursework writing Algonquin College, no one formula, then, for academic writing in Dubai a periodic sentence nor, as we are reading an author, should we expect to be able to say with certainty whether this or that sentence or passage is “loose” or “periodic”, much less classify each sentence as rhetorical, historical, or philosophical. Rather, we should observe how Greek writers ring changes on sentence-patterns and how they use connectives and rhetorical figures as “signposts” for the listener and reader. Labels, where we can assign them, are means, not ends. For Demetrios’ remarks on the three types of period, click here. In order to place in perspective the use of writing essays Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel rhetorical figures as guides to the architecture of a sentence, let us look at the most exuberant rhetorician of them all, Gorgias of Leontinoi, who amazed the Athenians with a style in which repeated sounds and plays on words were part of the very texture of the Greek. Our Gorgianic exemplar is chapter 6 of the Encomium of Helen . For a graphic image of the academic in Dubai, Greek text, click here. For either by for persuasive essays Les Roches Hotel College, Fortune’s volitions.
and the gods’ counsels. and Necessity’s decrees. she did what she did, or by force seized (5) or by words persuaded. If, then, because of the first, worthy to academic writing article of Wollongong in Dubai be accused is the one accusing: for god’s zealousness by human forethought it is writing for persuasive essays Hotel College, impossible to hinder. (10) For it is natural not for the stronger thing by the weaker to be hindered, but for the weaker by the stronger to be ruled and guided, and for the stronger to article lead. and the weaker to follow.
But god than man is a stronger thing (15) both in force and in wisdom and in all else. If, then, to Fortune and the god the blame one must assign, verily Helen from her ill fame one must absolve. Not only is the passage composed for the most part of very short elements (kommata rather than kola) but many of these are the same or nearly the same in length (isokolon or parisosis): Tukhes boulemasi, theon bouleumasi, and Anagkes psephismasin (lines 1-3) are 6, 6, and 7 syllables; to essays Les Roches Jin Jiang Hotel Management College men kreisson hegeisthai and to de hesson hepesthai (13-14) are each 7 syllables. End-rhyme (homoioteleuton) is everywhere: boulemasi, bouleumasi, psephismasin; harpastheisa, peistheisa, (5-7) [ is a medieval conjecture based on Gorgias’ development of the argument in chapter 15]; anatheteon, apoluteon (17-18). Parallel phrases follow one another in academic writing article University of Wollongong staccato succession: genitive noun + dative noun (1-3); substantive + phrase with hupo + infinitive(s) (11-12); substantive + infinitive (13-14). Parallelism of sound and how to write a thematic essay Stevenson structure comes from academic in Dubai, plays on sound (parechesis) and meaning (paronomasia) within and between phrases, with similar words and even forms of the same word juggled kaleidoscopically: boulemasi/bouleumasi (1-2); aitiasthai/aitiomenos (9), where the first form is essays Jin Jiang International Hotel Management College, passive, the second middle; kreisson. . .hessonos. Writing Article In Dubai. . Literary Essay. .hesson. . Writing Article University Of Wollongong In Dubai. .kreissonos. . .kreisson. . .hesson (11-14), a double chiasmus.
Note also the end-rhymes in topics Braemar College -sthai and the alliteration of h- in 13-14: hegeisthai/hesson/hepesthai. Especially bizarre is theou prothumian/anthropinoi promethiai in 10: what appears to be a longer kolon is writing article University, broken up (or is it simply tangled, like vain human intentions?) by these nearly impenetrable phrases. Before dismissing these devices as puerilities, we should remember two things: first, the Greeks did not regard words merely as arbitrary collections of phonemes randomly assigned meanings; sound was connected to sense. Second, the argument from which this passage is excerpted is coursework writing help College, meticulously logical and entirely typical of fifth-century “sophistic” argumentation as exemplified in Euripides, Thucydides, and academic writing article University in Dubai Aristophanes. [See the works of John Finley cited in the bibliography.] The layout of St. Louis University (INTO) this passage in the graphic attempts to isolate its smallest constituent elements. Article In Dubai. Gorgias encourages this with his insistent repetitions and isokola. Coursework Help Algonquin. But if we step back and look at overall sentence-structure, Gorgias’ sophistication is evident. The first sentence (1-7) pivots around epraxen ha epraxen; the possible reasons for article University in Dubai Helen’s elopement are presented on either side of this main clause. Manhattan School. Preceding it is one possibility (Fortune, gods, Necessity) divided into three; following it are others (probably three in number with one phrase each). Although we cannot know, as we read, exactly where the series will end (and indeed we do not know, since line 7 is academic writing article of Wollongong in Dubai, a conjecture!), Gorgias suspends the sense nicely near the center of the sentence.
The second sentence (8- 9), a straightforward protasis + apodosis, is inherently periodic. In the next (10) the predicate adjective adunaton, which reveals the College, grammatical construction, comes next to last, and the direct object prothumian receives its infinitive (the subject of the sentence) only at the end. By contrast, in the longer sentence which follows (11- 14) everything depends on the first word, pephuke: the first kolon, introduced by academic writing of Wollongong, ou, leads to the second, which answers ou with alla and where koluesthai is coursework help, answered by two infinitives, arkhesthai and agesthai; at the end (13-14) two further articular infinitives amplify the idea expressed in line 12. Since the phrases with men and de form a single thought, they could just as easily be placed on a single line. Writing University. They would then complete an ascending trikolon.
The next-to-last sentence (15-16) is a straightforward nominal sentence, with kreisson amplified by three datives each introduced by kai. The final sentence consists of protasis + apodosis, each concluded by a verbal adjective. [In line 18 the first word is MacDowell’s conjecture (CQ [n.s.] 11  p. How To Write Personal University (INTO). 121).] Thus if we go beneath the dazzling surface of academic article of Wollongong in Dubai Gorgias’ rhetoric the confident construction of the School, sentences which convey his argument is academic article University of Wollongong, apparent. Gorgias’ prose, with its successive kommata and insistent jingles, seems at first anything but “periodic”. Demetrios, however, describes Gorgias as writing entirely in periods (15). Critics have puzzled over write Academy how his audience could have been so impressed by Gorgias’ speaking, but in the courts as well as in the ekklesia the academic University of Wollongong in Dubai, goal, after all, was effective argumentation, and how to a thematic Stevenson the present epideixis is a tour de force of exactly that. If we look to the overall length and structure of each successive argument in Gorgias’ logos, a different Gorgias emerges, an expert packager of solid, familiar arguments in novel form. Often cited in this context is Kleon’s condemnation of the Athenians’ obsession with rhetoric (Thucydides 3.38). The Athenians, says Kleon, want to anticipate a speaker’s words and be seen doing so.
Later, for an audience to do this was a sign of an academic article, unoriginal speaker whose words followed an all-too-predictable course (cf. Demetrios 15). This is the audience that, only months later, Gorgias astounded with his speaking. Such a seasoned, even jaded audience was ready for something new. Gomme‘s notes ad loc., citing several passages from Aristophanes, evoke well the intellectual atmosphere attending Gorgias’ arrival. To conclude this section here is an appropriately rhetorical translation of this passage by Larue Van Hook: For either by the disposition of fortune and the ratification of the gods and the determination of necessity she did what she did, or by violence confounded, or by help, persuasion dumbfounded, or to academic writing article University of Wollongong Love surrendered. If, however, it was against her will, the culpable should not be exculpated.
For it is how to write personal St. Louis University (INTO), impossible to academic of Wollongong forestall divine disposals by human proposals. It is a law of nature that the stronger is not subordinated to the weaker, but the weaker is subjugated and dominated by the stronger; the stronger is the leader, while the weaker is the entreater. Divinity surpasses humanity in might, in sight, and in all else. Write Personal (INTO). Therefore, if on fortune and writing article University of Wollongong the deity we must visit condemnation, the infamy of Helen should find no confirmation. [Published in his introduction to how to write essay St. Louis Isokrates’ Helen , in vol. 3 of the Loeb edition of Isokrates, pp. 55-57.] Here, lastly, is an example of the finest periodic style in Greek, the mature style of Demosthenes. Over the course of his career, Demosthenes developed a style unrivaled for its variety, intensity, and University of Wollongong concentration, a style not wholly periodic like that of Isokrates but mixing long and complex periods with shorter, simpler statements, questions, exclamations. A good Demosthenic periodos, often cited, is the opening of the speech On the critique an article Windermere School, Crown : For a graphic image of the writing article University of Wollongong in Dubai, Greek text, click here. First, Athenian men, I pray to all the gods and goddesses, as much good will as I continually have to writing prompts for persuasive Les Roches Hotel the city and all of you, that so much be accorded me from you for this contest; second, a thing which especially concerns you and your piety and reputation, this for academic the gods to grant you: (5) not to make my opponent your advisor.
about how you ought to listen to me. (that would be outrageous) but the laws and the oath, in which, in addition to the other just things, this too is written: (10) to listen to both in how to write literary Leman Preparatory School the same way. At the academic University of Wollongong, outset of his speech Demosthenes gives original form to a commonplace idea: both sides deserve a hearing, and each speaker should be allowed to how to write essay Leman Manhattan develop his arguments in his own way. At each stage of the sentence grammatical “signposts” and academic writing University of Wollongong other key words create a suspension of meaning which is only resolved in a later kolon. Prompts Les Roches Jin Jiang Management College. Demosthenes casts the entire sentence as a prayer (as he does the writing University in Dubai, conclusion of the speech , which repays comparison). The prayer has two main parts, introduced by proton men (1) and epeith’ (4). The unremarkable words tois theois eukhomai are made memorable by three more words, bracketing the how to write, verb: tois theois eukhomai pasi kai pasais, which gives a striking rhythm: three cretics and a spondee. As for the content of the prayer, it will be given by the infinitives huparxai (3) and parastesai (5).
Preceding the first is a relative clause introduced by hosen, which looks ahead to article University the correlative tosauten for the completion of its meaning: in return for his efforts on behalf of the city and its citizens, Demosthenes asks an equal recompense (a point reinforced by humin. . .par’ humon). The second infinitive, parastesai, is again preceded by a relative clause, this time introduced by hoper, which looks ahead to its antecedent touto (and note, in 4 and 5, huper humon and humin, forming an elegant chiasmus with the earlier pronouns humin  and humon ). But the how to write essay Academy, second part of the prayer is not complete. University In Dubai. Unlike toiauten huparxai the phrase touto parastesai forces us to look ahead to complete the meaning of touto, which is supplied by the infinitive me. How To Write A Thematic Essay Academy. . .poiesasthai, in article apposition to touto. But we are not through yet. School. The word sumboulon requires an academic writing article University of Wollongong in Dubai, explanation, provided (7) by a concise prepositional phrase with an articular indirect question (!). Demosthenes then pauses for a parenthetical remark (8). Then he picks up and Leman Preparatory continues the construction which he had interrupted: me ton antidikon sumboulon poiesasthai. . .alla tous nomous kai ton horkon. His delivery would have made it clear that me was here not a simple negative but required alla to complete its meaning.
The period concludes with a relative clause explaining the jurors’ oath–a clause whose culmination is prepared for by a prepositional phrase with pros and by the pronoun touto, in apposition to which comes the final articular infinitive–the point of the whole sentence, an equal hearing for both sides, invested now with the authority of the gods and the solemnity of the oath. A complex period, with many suspensions of academic writing article University of Wollongong sense. Writing Prompts Essays Jin Jiang International Management. With a subtle art Demosthenes resolves one suspension even as he introduces another. The main verb leads off; the climax of the sentence comes in a “mere” relative clause. There are clear signposts, but they are varied and academic writing not pedantically regular. The same variety is apparent in the two parts of the prayer (2-3, 5-11). Even proton men and epeith’, the linchpins of the sentence, are not placed strictly logically: epeith’ should introduce a parallel prayer, with another verb answering eukhomai or with the same verb understood, but it does not. It introduces the second prayer dependent on personal essay St. Louis (INTO), eukhomai. Line 4 above should logically be indented in academic writing of Wollongong the Greek graphic, but this is where logical strictness yields to art. To put it another way, proton men should really be placed after the first kolon–but how banal that would be!
A shorter period of Demosthenes is analyzed here. More Periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and personal essay St. Louis Demosthenes. Here are some graphic representations of periods of writing article Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes not discussed above. Click here to see Gorgianic periods. Click here to see Isokratean periods. Click here to see Demosthenic periods. The distinction between the coursework Algonquin, periodic structures favored by academic writing University of Wollongong in Dubai, Isokrates and those of Demosthenes is brought out prompts for persuasive essays Jin Jiang College well by Eric Laughton in his comparison of these orators with Cicero, who is University in Dubai, Demosthenic rather than Isokratean (“Cicero and the Greek Orators”, AJP 82  27-49; see especially pp. 41-49). Cf. H. C. Gotoff, “Thrasymachus of Chalcedon and Ciceronian Style.”
But when one looks back at the elegant repetitions and subordinations, at the effortless variety of Plato’s expression, and write personal essay St. Louis (INTO) especially at the elaborate edifice of 14-23 (nemon . . . enemen), one has, in retrospect, a sense of rounding, a sense that one has been led on a planned path with a clear beginning, middle, and end. It should be no surprise, in a writer so artful as Plato, that even a “loose” narrative has, beneath its surface, more than a hint of periodic style. [For a detailed analysis of Protagoras’ story as an example of a traditional fable, and a discussion of writing article University lexis eiromene in general, see E. Norden, Agnostos Theos, Anhang VII, pp. Braemar. 366-379. Academic Article University Of Wollongong. On Greek and Roman fables see Ben Perry’s introduction to write personal (INTO) the Loeb edition of Babrius and Phaedrus (Cambridge, Mass./London 1965), pp. xi-xxxiv.]