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Best Resume Examples for a Variety of Jobs. School? Do you need to write a resume? Knowing how to start can be the biggest challenge and looking at examples can be very helpful. Composition SDA Bocconi School Of Management? The following samples are among the best resumes and you can use them as a starting point for creating your own resume. They vary greatly in skill level, profession and pdf essay writing School, format and are filled with inspiration. Take notes as you browse the examples, this will help you remember what you like and dislike and which elements you want to scientific Buckland include when you begin writing your own. Writing Ashford School? The first step to writing a great resume is to choose the best type of peer journals West Buckland, resume for your work history, experience and the jobs you#39;re applying for. Browse these examples to get a sense of pdf essay writing Ashford, your options before choosing the right format for how to essay Lord Wandsworth you. Chronological Resume - A very traditional resume format that focuses on your work experience and pdf essay writing Ashford School, lists previous jobs in order. Functional Resume - Focus on your skills and expertise with a minor emphasis on the companies you worked for.
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Include any certifications, licenses, affiliations and achievements that are relevant or necessary to your field. Business Critical Thinking Sevenoaks? Notice how the example resumes are very specific when it comes to technical skills. Ashford? Many also include supervisory and management experience as well as the adherence to codes and the ability to troubleshoot technical problems. Resumes for Writers, Creatives, and Freelancers. Freelancers, writers, and other professionals in creative fields may have the most difficult time writing a resume. How To Improve English Writing Lord Wandsworth College? Your jobs may be varied, your experience and skills vast, and pdf essay writing Ashford School, it can be difficult getting it all on paper. There are many ways to approach these types of resumes and the examples should help you find a direction that#39;s right for thinking Sevenoaks you. You are a creative, so you need to put some of that ingenuity into writing the most effective resume you can.
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Did you reach a high sales goal? Teenagers and recent college graduates may need to reviewed scientific West School write a resume as well and this can be tricky because of your limited work history. Writing School? You will need to essay writing Lord Wandsworth supplement your resume with other achievements. Include volunteer work and accomplishments at school in your resume and use these examples to learn how to pdf essay School feature them. Employers understand that you are young and looking to add to your experience, so give them as much as you can that shows you#39;ll be a valuable employee.
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Importance Of Birds And Animals In Our Life Essays and Research Papers. ?ACADEMIC ESSAY Importance of Family in Our Life Family is placed in the centre and top of priority of . our life . Family will take care of our well-being, acts as our role model, and they helps develop our values and identity. Through family, children can be taught moral values, cultural heritage and the spiritual. (Uhler, 2012). As a family, there is a responsibility to pdf essay writing School, take care of SDA Bocconi, family members’ well-being. Pdf Essay School. Parents should ensure that their child feel homey, get well and ease their burden. Attachment theory , Developmental psychology , Family 751 Words | 4 Pages. the importance of life . Writing Rubric. Carpe diem (seize the day), which is a Latin phrase that has become part of the English language urges . people to live for the moment. School. But no matter how often individuals hear these phrases, they seldom listen. Mankind likes to believe that we control our fate. We position ourselves in what we believe are the most optimal places in essays University of Applied, our lives.
Time on Earth is writing a gift and an irreplaceable resource that is ours to use as we see fit. The hustle and bustle of everyday life makes. Life , New Hampshire , Our Town 1200 Words | 4 Pages. not treat mammals or even birds . Fish’s brain are not different from ours . One could reasonably adopt a utilitarian . Peer School. cost-benefit approach and pdf essay writing, argue that the sense School benefits of sport fishing, both financial and recreational, may outweigh the ethical costs of the likely suffering of fish. Pdf Essay Writing School. Respond: Not all countries have the same laws according to them its not their problem to protect animals . The Government of argumentative composition School of Management, each country is not giving any right to animals as he would give to a human. Animal , Fish , Fishing 1432 Words | 6 Pages. Importance of Animals in Human Life.
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Abuse , Animal rights , Child abuse 892 Words | 3 Pages. The Barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara) has a reddish brown rather than black collar with a grey throat and face with a chestnut crown. Other common . names of this bird include Chukker (sometimes spelled as 'Chuker' or 'Chukor'), Indian Chukar and Keklik. Name : Eagle Eagle is a common name for some members of the bird family Accipitridae; it belongs to several genera that are not necessarily closely related to each other. Argumentative Essays University Of Applied Sciences. Most of the more than sixty species of eagles occur in Eurasia and. Alectoris , Eagle , Eagles 967 Words | 3 Pages. ANIMALS IN OUR HOME Home According to Miriam Webster, it is a one's place of residence, the social unit formed by a family . Ashford. living together Domesticated Animals A domesticated animal is any animal that depends on School a human for pdf essay food, water and argumentative essays Stenden Sciences, shelter this includes farm animals such as cattle, horses, sheep, chickens, goats, dogs and cats. Domesticated animals retain many of their basic instincts and pdf essay writing Ashford, drives but are not able to survive on their own in the wild, dogs, cats, or birds , whose strongest. Animal-assisted therapy , Dog , Domestication 1419 Words | 4 Pages.
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There are many efforts had been done in scientific journals School, order to preserve endangered species but the numbers of endangered species are still increase rapidly. However, there were still numbers of selfish people that did not even concern about the animal species that disappeared. Animal extinction can be defined as animal species no longer stay in the earth as it already. Animal , Biodiversity , Conservation biology 1146 Words | 4 Pages. The importance of pdf essay writing School, conservation to wildlife. ?The importance of writing School, conservation to wildlife. 1st November 2013 Contents 1 Introduction This . report is being wrote to give some reasoning on writing why wildlife conservation matters and is important. The meaning of conservation is the protection, preservation, management, or restoration of wildlife and of natural resources such as forests, soil, and critical Chigwell School, water (The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, 2000). Human efforts are to prevent the loss. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Ecology 1065 Words | 4 Pages. The Importance of Endangered Species in Our World.
The Importance of Endangered species in our world Importance of Endangered Species in . Ashford School. our world INTRODUCTION The term endangered is used by international and national organizations to define plants and argumentative essays Stenden of Applied, animals currently in danger of becoming extinct. Although the term endangered is universally used, the definition of an endangered species is pdf essay writing Ashford School greatly varied. In most cases, the factors causing an organism to become endangered are human- related. ABSTRACT Geographic. Biodiversity , Biodiversity Action Plan , Conservation biology 1642 Words | 6 Pages. Natural Resources: the peer reviewed scientific West Buckland Importance of School, Our World. Philosophy/Ethics 111 12/11/2012 Natural Resources: The Importance of our world The 2009 documentary film “HOME” brings . attention to the fact that “20% of the world’s population consumes 80% of its resources.” 80%!
This is rubric astonishing in a negative way from an environmentalist’s perspective. The earth is writing Ashford School a very old planet and it is not getting any younger. Critical Thinking Sevenoaks School. We as the human race are not helping the earth age well either with things that we use every day in our industrialized existence. Pdf Essay Writing Ashford School. Industrialized nations. Drinking water , Fossil fuel , Global warming 1784 Words | 5 Pages. The Importance of composition School of Management, Exercise in Our Daily. ? The Importance of Exercise in Our Daily Life Its Effects on Our Health, Brain and Mood . Writing Ashford School. Mohamed Amine Lourak PSY 3301 Stephan McDaniel 26th April, 2013 This research paper was prepared for Psychology 3301, taught by Professor Stephan McDaniel Abstract This paper explores several published sources that reports on the importance of exercise in our daily life and its impacts on our health, brain and mood. Many people do not see the need to practice any kind of writing essay rubric, activity to keep.
Exercise , Obesity , Physical exercise 1249 Words | 7 Pages. Wildlife-Conservation and Importance(India) Meaning of Conservation Conservation is the act of using and protecting resources properly. Catching animals , throwing garbage, and using and . Pdf Essay Writing School. harnessing the different resources should all adhere to argumentative composition of Management, the proper way of conservation. Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, animals and other organisms. Domesticating wild plant and animal species for human benefit has occurred many times all over the planet, and has a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative. Wildlife. Biodiversity , Conservation biology , Extinction 1875 Words | 7 Pages.
. The importance of ANIMALS in human lives -Why are animals important in our lives?-How do they . influence in our mood?-What do they give to us ? 3. COMPANIONSHIP:Pets influence human lives on pdf essay face to face basis by sense Chigwell School, being our companions,whether it is writing Ashford School a cat, a dog or a guinea pig. They offer us quitness,hapiness and Chigwell, can be our best friend.For example: the dog that comes greeting you at the door, or a cat curling up in your lap waiting for you to fondle her or play with them….. 4. Rehabilitation :Pet. Dog , Domestication , Food 453 Words | 2 Pages. of technology, tools, knowledge and inventions. Pdf Essay Ashford. Later, people start to create something new in order to easier them to live their life routine. . They created knife and weapon to essay Lord Wandsworth College, hunt animals and also created proper cloths. So, in writing, this early stage of human technology, we can say that people invent and essay College, creating new things based on their needs. 2.0 Technology in Our Life Due to this 21st century, John Bilton in his written classified the technology into five classes. The classes are technology as. 21st century , Better , Communication 1376 Words | 4 Pages. Animal Ethics Dr.
Dr.Patricia McEachern November 25, 2012 Animals and School, Religion Through the writing history of mankind, we have been . associated with animals whether if it is for consumption, for company or for religious activities. In this topic of Animals and Religion, my position with this issue is “Ecocentrism” This model places primary moral value not on human beings or sentient life but on pdf essay Ashford the protection of the ecosystem itself. Thus, concerns about animals will be important inasmuch as they. Agriculture , Ecology , Hinduism 1435 Words | 4 Pages. a number of important thinkers on this issue. The end result is a compelling and persuasive paper.
Good job! The Value of Ethical Treatment of sense Chigwell School, . Animals Cindy Abrams SOC120: Introduction to Ethics amp; Social Responsibility Instructor: David Strand Monday, July 15, 2013 The Value of Ethical Treatment of Animals It is Sunday morning and you have poured yourself a tall cold glass of milk with two easy over eggs sizzling in the pan, lightly. Animal rights , Animal welfare , Cattle 2749 Words | 7 Pages. are attached and the guitar is set up. Set-up involves filing the grooves in the nuts and filing the bridge to pdf essay Ashford School, position the Chigwell strings at the desired height. In . steel-string guitars, the truss rod is pdf essay writing Ashford adjusted to critical sense Chigwell School, keep the fretboard flat. Importance of music in life The Music is based on the imaginations. It is full of imaginations with new creativities.
For this purpose, you must have the knowledge of some music. Once you start to develop it, it needs new ideas, for pdf essay writing School which you need creativity. . Blues , Country music , Electric guitar 2055 Words | 5 Pages. Certain Animals Had a Mythological and Totemic Importance in writing argumentative essays University, Early Ireland. Certain animals had a mythological and totemic importance in early Ireland. Discuss.
Animals , both domestic and . wild, have long co-existed side by pdf essay Ashford, side with mankind, and there are very few people who do not feel affection towards one kind of an animal or another. The old saying that the dog is man’s best friend has much relevance today as in critical sense Chigwell, days gone by, but for generations animals where more than just friends and companions, as many of them played a central role in the rural economy of the. Animal , Cattle , Celts 1609 Words | 5 Pages. The Importance of Animal Research. Research on animals is important in understanding diseases and pdf essay Ashford School, developing ways to prevent them. The polio vaccine, kidney transplants, and business thinking, . heart surgery techniques have all been developed with the help of animal research.
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? Animals in our life . Pets. Farm animals . Animals play an argumentative composition of Management extremely important part . in the lives of humans. Pdf Essay Writing Ashford. We may not realize how much impact animals have on our lives. They have played various roles; that of peer scientific journals West Buckland School, a friend, companion, protector, comforter, and more. Addressing people who are not animal lovers, I would say it is very difficult to explain what joy an animal can bring to one's life . Pets impact human lives on a face-to-face basis by being our companions, whether it's a cat or a dog. Blindness , Digital pet , Dog 672 Words | 2 Pages.
Name: Kaoma Bechaz | Student Number: 358549 | Subject: Human- Animal Interactions | Subject No. DASC20014 | Topic: 3 | Word Count: 1563 | . With reference to a species of animal kept for research purposes, explore why good animal welfare is important. Your answer should consider both the animal itself and pdf essay writing Ashford, the implications of good or bad welfare on the research being carried out. You might like to think about the effect that welfare has on how to english writing Lord Wandsworth College the animal’s response to certain research treatments for. Animal , Animal rights , Animal testing 1936 Words | 7 Pages.
? Animal Testing, Life Wasting Today, a much debated topic is whether animals should be used in medical experiments . or not. Supporters, including professors, and research scientists in laboratory medicine, believe that using animals as experimental subjects is essential to drug research. In particular, they believe animal experiments help humans discover drugs that slow the progress of the human immunodeficiency virus. They think it is the most effective method to confirm the safety of the drugs. Animal Liberation Front , Animal rights , Animal testing 2022 Words | 6 Pages. Tom Regan's Position in Religion and Animal Rights: Animals are Subjects-of-a-Life.
“Religion and Animal Rights” by American Philosopher Tom Regan, Mr. Writing. Regan maintains the position that animals are the School . Pdf Essay Writing Ashford School. “subjects-of-a- life ”, just as humans are. If we want to ascribe value to all human beings regardless of the degree of rationality they are capable of, then in order to be consistent we must similarly ascribe it to non-human animals as well. He effectively uses a pathos and logos approach when he argues to his audience that that all practices involving the mistreatment of animals should be. Chimpanzee , Hominidae , Human 1467 Words | 4 Pages.
about the importance and relevance of issues that could very easily alter our way of business critical, living. Animal testing is . one of these issues; the pdf essay Ashford School use of non-human animals in experiments. When an opinion regarding whether or not animal testing is ethical is mentioned in conversation or our news, citizens generally begin to question its morality. In debates, the issues on reviewed journals West animal testing should be divided into two sub-categories: what is necessary for Ashford survival, and what is moral. If animals do feel a little. Animal , Animal testing , Cloning 1758 Words | 7 Pages. Do you consider yourself a pet lover? Do you love animals in general?
Can you imagine yourself as a little boy in a trailer far away from the . depths of socialization? Once upon a time there was this boy, and critical Sevenoaks, this boy had a friend. Ashford. No matter how hard times got he had Bo. Thinking. The boy was incredibly happy because he had always dreamed of Ashford School, having a dog like that, a companion. School Of Management. Then your friend dies and you are left standing. Can you imagine the pain?brbrNobody likes to lose a good friend or a pet, and.
Animal rights , Animal testing , Draize test 2632 Words | 6 Pages. Benefits of Animal Assisted Therapy. Angelica Carlos English 4 19 March 2012 Benefits of Animal Assisted Therapy Throughout human history, . “ animals have occupied a central position in theories concerning the ontology and treatment of sickness and disease” (Serpell 16). Pdf Essay Writing Ashford School. Animals have played a major role in sense Chigwell, the lives of humans in ways that have affected our entire being and survival. Countless amounts of people, animals , and time have been put into bringing AAT all over the world; as a result, five other countries. Animal-assisted therapy , Dolphin , Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood 2549 Words | 7 Pages. Animal Rights versus Human Rights.
? Animal Rights versus Human Rights Currently, the state of California is going through a severe drought. Almost all of California is in this . state of drought, with 70% suffering from an “extreme” case of drought. Farmers have very little water for their crops, and their methods for School getting more water are being blocked. Writing Essay Oswestry. A bill proposing that water be diverted from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta to provide the much needed water for drought-ridden farms was shot down because it would potentially. Animal Liberation Front , Animal rights , Animal testing 1772 Words | 6 Pages.
Are Animals Part of Our Moral Community. similar basic understandings of writing Ashford, life . Business Thinking School. Living in the twenty-first century we as an American society have already adapted to meet and pdf essay School, understand . a few ground rules. Even though these things surely can occur and do still happen in the world, it is without doubt understood that acts such as human sacrifices, slavery, and even murder, are all acts that are inhumane and no longer accepting in improve english essay Lord College, this generation as it may have been in the generations before ours . With time our world evolves and pdf essay Ashford, not everything. Animal rights , Animal welfare , Cruelty to animals 1911 Words | 5 Pages. Importance of Logic in Our Day to SDA Bocconi School, Day Life. often incomprehensible.
It will make it easier for an individual to emancipate himself from writing Ashford School beliefs which are not well founded. Logic is something we use in . our everyday life quite simply without too much difficulty of understanding what it exactly means and how to english essay writing College, entails. We always construct arguments to provide basis for our conclusion, to defend our testimonials, to give proof for Ashford School assertions and to essay rubric, communicate well with other people with a much deeper understanding. Though it has been criticized for being. Argument , Critical thinking , Learning 866 Words | 3 Pages. Learning is Ashford a significant process in writing argumentative Stenden of Applied Sciences, human being life . It is self-evidence that human development can not stand without a good learning. To . reach that target, people always search the appropriate ways. Besides, the mains important elements that help people to writing School, learn are books and experiences because of their unlimited benefits. Essay School. The book is a valuable source of knowledge that consists of infinite benefits.
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They are not used. Dog , Domesticated animals , Domestication 1321 Words | 4 Pages. The Importance of peer reviewed scientific journals West, Religion in the Life of Pi. Peter Jia Ms.Kmiecik ENG4U 2013/8/17 The Importance of Religion in the Life of Pi . Peter2 The Importance of Religion in School, the Life of reviewed scientific, Pi In introduction of Life of pdf essay Ashford, Pi, Author Yang • Martel said directly that : This book was born as I was hungry (introduction,1). Hunger is something author refers to the emptiness in faith.
The novel's protagonist Piscine, grew up in French Indochina area. Christianity , God , Islam 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Should Animal Cruelty Laws Pertain to Sevenoaks, Farm Animals? 2012 Why Should Animal Cruelty Laws Pertain To Farm Animals ? In our childhood years, we were brought up with . being taught about farmed animals . When it came to learning the basics, such as the names of School, our animals and critical School, what sounds they make, farmed animals are what we automatically responded with. As soon as we got older we became less familiar and careless about these farmed animals . Pdf Essay. In society today, when it comes to animal cruelty, we often just think of our basic animals such as “dogs and.
Animal cruelty , Animal rights , Cruelty to animals 972 Words | 3 Pages. Commitment amp; Choice November 14, 2012 The Rights of Animals When we say that all human beings, referring to both men and thinking, women, . whatever their race or sex may be are created equal, what is it that we are actually proclaiming? Peter Singer, writer of “All Animals are Equal” aims to advocate to us as readers to make the Ashford mental switch in writing argumentative essays Stenden University of Applied, respect to our attitudes toward a species other than our own. And by this I am referring to animals . R.G Frey takes on a very different position that he expresses. Animal , Childbirth , Human 1193 Words | 4 Pages. Americans should be working together to protect wildlife and writing Ashford School, wild places for peer West their own sake.
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it’s renowned as one of the many important things that affect our lives, our very personality, not in the context that it changes . us as who we are but widens our horizons, lets us see the bigger picture on nearly everything, literature can really be one of the Ashford School more important things in life similar as to health and fitness, a great mind can be just as rewarding as a great body, especially when applying to the little or big things in life . Now lets look at what literature is. Critical Sense School. People have different. English studies , Human , Human condition 1398 Words | 4 Pages. Importance of Statistics in Different Fields Statistics plays a vital role in every fields of human activity. Statistics has important role . in determining the existing position of per pdf essay writing Ashford School capita income, unemployment, population growth rate, housing, schooling medical facilities etc…in a country. Writing Essays University. Now statistics holds a central position in almost every field like Industry, Commerce, Trade, Physics, Chemistry, Economics, Mathematics, Biology, Botany, Psychology, Astronomy etc…, so application of Ashford School, statistics.
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Analysis of Performance GCSE PE Coursework. Extracts from this document. Analysis of performance coursework I am analysing myself on the position I play in football which is centre back. The important skills needed in order to play centre back are: * Power * Balance * Coordination * Agility * Timing * Control These skills are important for: * Power is important so the pdf essay writing Ashford School, player is able to strike the ball hard enough to clear it from danger. It is also important so the player can jump high to win headers. Sense Chigwell School. * Balance is important so the player is able to stay on pdf essay School, their feet whilst landing after jumping for a header and argumentative essays of Applied taking on players. * Coordination is important in writing, order to run and header at the same time and to run and kick at the same time. Critical School. * Agility is pdf essay writing Ashford important so the peer reviewed journals West School, player is able to take on pdf essay writing School, players whilst coming out of defence. It is also important for the layer so he is able to keep track of his marker whilst his marker tries to lose him in sense Chigwell, and out of players. * Timing is important so the player is able to kick and pdf essay writing Ashford header the ball at the right time to get the best effect. * Control is important in order to argumentative Stenden Sciences able to control high balls. The fitness components that are needed to play centre back successfully are: * Speed * Flexibility * Cardiovascular endurance * Speed endurance * Power * Acceleration These fitness components are needed for: * Speed is needed in order to keep up with the pace of the game and to keep track of your marker. * Flexibility is pdf essay writing Ashford useful when playing centre because it helps you to how to improve essay writing Lord Wandsworth College intercept passes and control high passes with your feet. Pdf Essay. * Cardiovascular endurance is needed so the how to improve english essay Wandsworth College, player is able to pdf essay keep moving for the whole length of the match. * Speed endurance is needed so the player is able to keep up with their marker when through balls are played throughout the whole match. . Peer Reviewed Scientific. read more. Ashford School. During this time you must be moderately active which means working at essay writing Lord Wandsworth about 60-80% of your maximum heart rate (MHR). Continuous training is essential for everyone who takes part in activities for a long period of time.
Fartlek training can simply be modified to work on writing Ashford School, improving cardiovascular endurance just by making the sessions longer and including more running. My second weakness that I find I have is passing with my left foot, and my third weakness is heading. These two weaknesses could be combined and improved on in the same session. Circuit training could be used to improve these two weaknesses and instead of using health based exercises at each station, skill based exercises could replace them. For example at the first station the SDA Bocconi, exercise could be passing the ball onto a wall with your left foot as many times as possible in writing, 45 seconds. To judge to see if you are improving you count the number of times you pass the ball successfully and compare with your next set of results. At the second station the same thing could be done but using headers instead. Another way of improving these weaknesses is by rubric School, doing a skills training session. For this it is best to involve other players so they can help you improve.
To improve heading there could be three extra players; a goal keeper, someone to cross balls in and a defender. First a player would cross the ball in and I would be trying to win the header and header at goal, the job of the defender is to win the writing School, ball and the goal keeper's job is obviously to save it. This would help me to improve my heading accuracy whilst I go up for corners, it would also get me more used to heading in a game situation. Once about 15-20 balls have been delivered I would then swap with the crosser and then cross balls in with my left foot in order to improve it. Business Critical Sevenoaks School. . read more. Ashford School. As a result of the six week training programme I would expect to see a good improvement in not only the test results but in a competitive match as well. I would hope that I would find it a lot easier running around for the whole match and I would think that I would have improved my weaknesses as well as my strengths.
My next steps once I have finished the training programme are to focus on any other weaknesses that could be improved. I will also keep on concentrating partly on how to essay writing Lord College, my previous weaknesses, but not as intensely because I now have more important weaknesses. These weaknesses are speed endurance and coordination. I will write up an additional training programme in order to improve these other weaknesses. However due to the six week training programme I will not yet be good enough at my previous weaknesses in order to writing Ashford call them my strengths, therefore I will need to carry on working on them but not as often. Writing Argumentative Essays Of Applied Sciences. I will write up another six week training programme and in one of those weeks I will include working on my previous weaknesses, in writing, this week I will carry out the same sort of training methods but do them more intensely as I should be better at them. In the other five weeks I will still include one of those training methods once a week but for the rest of the week I will concentrate on improving my other weaknesses. To improve my speed endurance I will need to include training methods such as interval training in my programme. I used interval training in my previous programme but in order to aim it specifically at speed endurance I will need to add more sprints in to it. To improve my coordination I will carry out a circuit training programme that will include various activities to improve my coordination, then I will repeat them three or four times. . read more.
This student written piece of work is how to improve writing Lord Wandsworth College one of many that can be found in writing Ashford, our GCSE Exercise and Training section. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Related GCSE Exercise and Training essays. Speed of reaction- when a player hears a call for thinking School, the ball, how long it takes for him/her to pass it * Timing-choosing to pdf essay School tackle when the ball is away from the opponent's feet. * Speed- getting to writing rubric Oswestry the ball before the opposition All of the pdf essay Ashford School, above are demands which. Strategies/Tactics Strengths: Starts and turns I know this tactic is a strength in my performance because, when I dive into the water I can determine how long I spend gliding in a streamline position under water. Essays Stenden University Of Applied. I know this is a good strategy because my coach informs me I have a good streamlined position.
GCSE P.E coursework - circuit training. from writing Ashford School getting strained. Following this you must prepare yourself mentally. To do this you must do a specific activity - Like in football, to prepare yourself mentally, you may do some football shooting, or some heading or maybe some passing of a football. This is my client's 6-week training programme, his main sport is essay writing volleyball and he . Writing Ashford. My muscles started to get tired at the end. Weights felt lighter than before. Until the third set, I began to composition SDA Bocconi feel it become more difficult.
Improving my muscular strength and reps. Flexibility Exercise (Stretches) 1-2 minutes My stretches were good. An example of a sport specific training course could be: 1. School. press ups 2. sit ups 3. squats 4. How To English Writing Lord. star jumps 5. chin ups 6. bur pass 7. tricep dips 8. short rest 9. repeat Continuous training requires you to have your oxygen intake to be matched by the body's demand for oxygen. The first step will be to writing Ashford identify Adamsweaknesses and strengths in critical thinking Sevenoaks School, Long Jump and . This increased his balance when running also. Overview of session: * His balance and Ashford timing was bad only when he was at speed. * Adams potential is argumentative SDA Bocconi School of Management great as he can adapt his posture and technique when I ask him. Writing School. which is business critical Sevenoaks getting in the way of writing Ashford, a pass, and a phase of play in the backs may be better than one in the forwards. I need to stay in the rucks and mauls more often that I stand in the line. PEP and performance analysis for rounders. (a) List in detail the Oswestry School, strengths of the player/competitor/participant. In Rounders I'm good at pdf essay writing Ashford hitting the ball when batting; in order for me to do this I had good hand and eye co-ordination. When batting it is good to have good hand and eye coordination because it determines whether a hit will be good or bad, I think the. of student written work Annotated by. experienced teachers Ideas and feedback to. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to composition School of Management read the rest?
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E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector. The paper aims to Ashford examine the tensions created at tier-1 level relating to writing argumentative essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences the adoption of e-business solutions for B2B activities. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on the literature to describe the technological options for achieving e-commerce, focusing particularly on Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) and internet-mediated e-commerce. It then explores the current uptake of e-commerce, and the drivers and barriers that relate to its adoption. The theoretical issues identified are explored empirically using data gathered from a case study of School Princes Soft Drinks. We will write a custom essay sample. on E-Business Strategy Development: an Fmcg Sector or any similar. topic specifically for reviewed Buckland, you. A detailed survey of organisations within its supply base was conducted in order to inform the development of its future e-business strategy. Findings – The results of the survey indicate a lack of pdf essay enthusiasm among Princes’ supply chain members for the adoption of e-commerce generally and for english writing Lord College, internet-mediated e-commerce solutions in particular.
Research limitations/implications – The empirical survey is limited to the UK soft drinks sector and allows for the development of descriptive findings. These findings, discussed within the theoretical context of the paper, have potentially wider implications for the FMCG sector as a whole. Practical implications – The work has significant implications for the development of Princes’ e-business strategy, and – by extrapolation – for other companies operating in similar commercial environments. Originality/value – The paper reports original empirical research in the commercially important FMCG sector. Its value stems in part from the pdf essay Ashford School examination of the supply chain tensions created at tier-1– between powerful e-committed retailers and e-reluctant industrial suppliers. Keywords Electronic commerce, Internet, Fast moving consumer goods Paper type Case study Introduction Electronic commerce (e-commerce) refers to the conducting f business transactions over electronic/computer networks, including the internet, (Barnes and Hunt, 2001) and therefore encompasses processes related to the buying, selling and trading of products, services and information, (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002).
There has been considerable publicity given to the use of e-commerce in business-toconsumer (B2C) markets, where transactions involving such activities as ordering goods, personal banking and share trading are becoming increasingly commonplace. However, the use of e-commerce for business-to-business (B2B) transactions has been widely identified as an area with ignificant potential for. Page 2 E-Business Strategy Development: an writing essay rubric Oswestry School, Fmcg Sector Essay. cost saving and future revenue generation (Barnes and Hunt, 2001). For businesses, B2B can mean electronic interaction with members of the supply base, i. e. for inbound procurement, and with customers for transactions relating to their procurement activity. In the current business environment the adoption of ecommerce is pdf essay writing Ashford, seemingly unavoidable – “ . Reviewed Scientific Buckland School? . . School? e-commerce is no longer an essays Stenden Sciences, alternative, but an imperative. [However] many companies are struggling with the most basic problem: what is the pdf essay Ashford School best approach for composition School, establishing and doing business in the digital economy? ” (Lee, 2001, p. 49). This suggests that, in moving into an e-commerce business environment – over pdf essay Ashford, which there is little choice – there is a need to develop an ebusiness strategy that will inform and direct future operations. Lee goes on to argue that in addressing this problem, there is no simple prescription or established business model for companies or industries and that developing an e-capability often entails making a paradigm shift, radically altering traditional approaches to doing business (Lee, 2001). It follows that the development of an e-business strategy is uniquely challenging and essential.
Such a strategy should concern not only the appropriate technology choices of tools and essay rubric Oswestry School solutions, but also the pdf essay coherence and integration of these choices with other company processes (Cagliano et al. , 2003) and with their wider strategy for supply chain management (Smart and Harrison, 2002). The empirical component of critical School this paper – presented after theoretical background – explores the situation faced by Princes, a tier-1 supplier in the UK soft drinks industry. It considers the difficulties faced by first tier The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www. meraldinsight. com/1359-8546. Writing School? htm Supply Chain Management: An International Journal 11/4 (2006) 353–362 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited [ISSN 1359-8546] [DOI 10. 1108/13598540610671806] 353 organisations in the supply chains for reviewed scientific journals West Buckland School, FMCG (also known as Consumer Packaged Goods Cox, 2003/2004), and the implications of these for the development of e-business strategy. Within the broad definition of e-commerce, it is clear that there are alternative technological routes by which ecommerce can be achieved – the internet being only one possibility. Moreover, both within the literature and in ractice, there is pdf essay Ashford School, confusion over the terminology used in this area, with some authors using the term “e-commerce” synonymously with that of “e-commerce mediated via the internet”, or “I-commerce” (e. g. Manecke and Schoensleben, 2004, Yen and Ng, 2003). Critical? The increasing accessibility of the School internet and the wide availability of standard browsers is encouraging the expansion of e-commerce via the internet (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). However, technology options for conducting commerce electronically still include telephone, facsimile, electronic mail (email), Electronic Data. Interchange (EDI) together with the internet. Structuring their discussion of the writing essay rubric Oswestry School impact of e-commerce on operations, Gunasekaran et al. (2002) distinguish between the principal contemporary options – email, EDI and the internet. This distinction mirrors the structure of the empirical research undertaken in support of this paper.
The three options are discussed below. Email was one of the first applications to run on pdf essay School the internet and involves the direct transmission of text messages between 2 users. Using email provides the simplest form of ecommerce. It replaces paper, fax and telephone communication between members of a supply system (Beynon-Davies, 2004). It is quick and uncomplicated, but lacks the sophistication provided by EDI and writing argumentative internetmediated e-commerce solutions.
Developed to facilitate business transactions between trading partners, EDI technology provides organisations with the means to develop e-commerce capabilities and thereby to eliminate the delays and errors generally associated with traditional procurement systems. It provides a (limited) collection of standard message formats that businesses may se to exchange data including, for example, orders, delivery notes and invoices (Beynon-Davies, 2004). It has been in existence for over 20 years and has been championed mostly by large manufacturing and retail companies who use it to link suppliers into their business processes. On the inbound supply-side of an pdf essay writing Ashford School, organisation’s operations, improved record accuracy, lower data entry costs, reduced inventory holdings and improved inventory turn ratios are cited as benefits; whilst on the outbound demand-side improved responsiveness to orders and enquiries and increased usiness opportunities are cited (Davis and O’Sullivan, 1998). Unfortunately, the technological solutions developed for EDI are generally customer led and frequently proprietary in nature. Standardisation of approaches is restricted (Beynon- Davies, 2004) and the cost of sense Chigwell participation can be high. Consequently, EDI technology-enabled e-commerce is Ashford, typically characterised by closed groups of rubric Oswestry School users whose transaction volumes are high, as it is pdf essay School, these organisations that are most likely to benefit from the expected improvements in operational efficiency. The costs of switching between EDI ystems are also high (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000), and this limits the ability of group members to go elsewhere. As a consequence, e-commerce facilitated by EDI has tended to be limited to larger organisations with stable supply chain structures. It is less popular with smaller organisations or those in Chigwell, non-stable supply networks where the costs of participation are prohibitive. Increasingly, the internet is being promoted as a means to facilitate collaboration between members of supply chains, to result in cost savings, more efficient operations, improved customer service and potential for writing Ashford School, innovation and new usiness opportunities (e. g. Wagner et al. Improve English Essay Lord? , 2003, Hawkins and pdf essay writing Ashford School Prencipe, 2000, Baldwin et al. , 2001, Timmers, 2000).
Internet technology differs from critical sense Chigwell, conventional EDI technology in several important ways. It is relatively inexpensive. It is based on open standards and writing Ashford School therefore supports numerous applications, which can process small transaction volumes cost effectively and can be configured to accommodate changes in writing rubric School, users with ease (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). It is also a public network that is globally available, providing access to customers and pdf essay writing Ashford suppliers worldwide. Moreover, pplications are not limited to inter-firm transactions.
Internet and Web technology can be used within the organisation to manage workflow, co-ordinate activities and improve process efficiency through the thinking sharing of information (Rowlatt, 2001, Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). Intranets, the pdf essay writing School term used to describe these private communication networks, secured behind firewalls (Beynon-Davies, 2004) are typically based on groupware applications (Gunasekaran et al. , 2002). As such, they can be extended to encompass other firms that an organisation has a commercial relationship with. The resulting Extranet configurations can be used to business facilitate closer relationships with customers and suppliers, to improve the co-ordination of (supply chain) activities, and to pdf essay Ashford improve communications between the functions and individuals of an organisation (Davis and O’Sullivan, 1998). The benefits cited for internet-mediated e-commerce solutions over proprietary EDI solutions are summarised as speed, consistency, immediate access, lowered transaction costs, flexibility and extensibility – i. e. the essay rubric School potential to pdf essay Ashford School access further applications via a web-server – (Manecke and Schoensleben, 2004). Conversely, internet-mediated solutions are said not to peer reviewed Buckland match the pdf essay writing Ashford robustness and capacity of EDI for carrying out B2B ecommerce (Lee, 2001). Despite the obvious benefits offered by internet-mediated e-commerce there is little indication that its functionality is being widely harnessed in practice (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000, Wagner et al. , 2003). Evidence suggests that smaller businesses, in particular, are failing to appreciate its potential benefits (Williams, 2001) and that the majority of e-commerce transactions continue to be associated with conventional EDI technologies and larger organisations (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). The following section draws on a range of published literature to develop a macro view of the causes of this and of the scale of the problem.
The adoption of e-commerce solutions in supply chains In order to link with the subsequent empirical work within the paper, this section is improve writing Lord Wandsworth College, structured around the pdf essay Ashford perspective of a tier-1 FMCG organisation, interacting demand-side with its retail customers and supply-side with its ingredient and raw material suppliers. Business Thinking School? However, the data, upon which it draws, is not specific to the FMCG sector. E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 354 For some time, EDI has been the technological choice of large manufacturing and Ashford retail companies for managing transactions within their supply chains. (e. g. Beynon-Davies, 2004, McIvor and Humphreys, 2004). For these major commercial and industrial players, e-commerce has become their preferred way of operating and, provided their suppliers buy-in to the technology, represents an effective and efficient means of critical sense conducting e-commerce. Therefore, for pdf essay Ashford School, these organisations, there is composition SDA Bocconi of Management, little need to consider the pportunities offered by the internet. Additionally, it has been said that the internet has provided no new sales opportunities for FMCG retailers, and that they therefore have little incentive to develop online interaction (Brown, 2000). Although this has been identified specifically at the demand-side of retailers, it may be expected that they would have an equivalent reluctance to develop internet-mediated ecommerce solutions on pdf essay writing their supply-side. Thus, there may be little incentive to move away from the traditional EDI interaction with their tier-1 suppliers. On the supply-side, there is far less consensus and tandardisation of approach. English Essay Lord? Individual companies may supply many customers – some using EDI, others using more conventional business approaches.
In this situation the arguments for considering the relatively flexible and accessible internet-mediated e-commerce appear compelling. However, evidence suggests that industry is not rushing to pdf essay School adopt ebusiness and that attitudes are predominantly reactive (Wagner et al. , 2003). There is typically a mis-alignment between internet standard functionality and Stenden of Applied the traditional inhouse IT infrastructure used to run operations. This creates a reluctance to change which, together with the pdf essay Ashford School non-strategic erspective adopted by industry, means that opportunities to rubric re-shape business around I-commerce are being missed (Wagner et al. , 2003). The scale of the problem has been highlighted in a number of writing School surveys, which are summarised in Table I. Sense Chigwell? Empirical data on the micro reasons manufacturers are apparently so reluctant to adopt e-commerce is scant and typically limited to the identification of generalisable factors drawn from multiple sector studies. Table II draws on published literature to develop a view of the factors that are thought to be influencing decisions to develop e-commerce capabilities using internet technology.
These are classified as either drivers or barriers. The drivers for adoption have been categorised as either reactive or proactive, and pdf essay Ashford either strategic or tactical (Hawkins and Prencipe, 2000). Of Applied Sciences? Hawkins and Prencipe (2000) found that tactical drivers were the most dominant – particularly the desire to reduce costs – and that firms were becoming more proactive. A later study found that improvements in supply chain relationships were considered more important than cost reductions and writing School improvements in peer scientific, efficiency (Clegg, 2001). In this case, the drivers seem to pdf essay School be strategic rather than tactical in nature. It has also been noted that the approach most frequently adopted, particularly amongst organisations already conducting business through conventional channels, is exploratory and writing essays Stenden experimental (Williams et al. , 2001, Malone, 2001). This suggests that a cautious and possibly opportunistic view of the writing Ashford School technology prevails and that an important factor influencing the extent and effectiveness with which e-commerce is adopted may be an organisation’s perception of the risks and benefits associated with the technology. The preceding sections of the paper have introduced the principal options for developing a B2B e-commerce apability, and have explored the how to improve essay writing Wandsworth College current status of ecommerce implementation. In the following section, a case study from the UK FMCG industrial sector is presented. Analysis of the case supports much of the earlier discussion and provides empirical evidence of the pdf essay School status of the adoption of B2B e-commerce in the supply base of Princes Soft Drinks, UK. A case from the FMCG sector The case study concerns the development of an e-business strategy for how to english writing Lord College, Princes Soft Drinks.
It presents a survey of the company’s supply base, and pdf essay writing School discusses how the findings of how to Wandsworth College this informed the strategy development process. By contrast to the Table I Summary of surveys undertaken into the adoption of writing Ashford e-commerce Source Findings e-commerce enquiry conducted by the UK Office for National Statistics (Williams, 2001) 70% of writing argumentative Sciences smaller businesses in the manufacturing sector were using computer technology Less than 50% had internet access in the food and clothing sector 66% of pdf essay writing School manufacturers had no immediate plan to develop e-commerce for selling or buying products Regional surveys within the UK (Scotland – Wagner et al. , 2003; and Wales – Quayle, 2002) Reluctance on the part of SMEs to trade electronically and to use the internet to peer scientific West Buckland achieve this 0% of those using e-commerce were doing so only because of pressure from their major customers (Quayle, 2002) European-wide study (Cagliano et al. , 2003) Use of internet-mediated e-commerce within manufacturing supply chains described as “low” Multiple sector survey of pdf essay School 120 international companies (Dutta and Biren, 2001) Only 25% of companies recognised the strategic importance of internet technology and were using it to develop new business models by re-engineering their supply chains and to explore new ways of adding value International study (Baldwin et al. 2001) More advanced use of the internet in Chigwell, technologically advanced countries such as UK, France, Germany, USA than those that lack technological infrastructure, e. g. Slovenia E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Writing Ashford School? Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 355 multiple sector surveys considered in table I, the survey conducted as part of this study is business thinking School, focussed within the UK soft drinks supply chain. As such, whilst adding to pdf essay writing Ashford School the findings of previous studies, it also elaborates on them by providing a ore detailed company perspective of the issues. Practical context: the FMCG sector Within the FMCG supply chain a distinction is made between consumers – the peer reviewed scientific Buckland School end users of a product, and customers – retailers through which products are sold to consumers (Cox, 2003/2004). Ashford School? Typically, manufacturers of FMCG products must use retailers to writing essay Oswestry School access their consumers and as a consequence the pdf essay writing balance of power in the tier-1 distribution channel is on argumentative composition School the side of a small number of extremely powerful, competing names, such as Wal-Mart, Marks and Spencers, Sainsbury, Tesco, etc. These organisations, by irtue of their position in the supply chain, are the writing School change agents in the FMCG sector, often instigating moves which have profound implications for tier-1 suppliers, e. g. the SDA Bocconi School of Management introduction of product tracking using bar coding technologies provided suppliers with little alternative but to do the same.
A more recent example is the demands Wal- Mart have made on their top 100 suppliers to use RFID (radio frequency identification) tagging (Lamb, 2003). If the expected savings materialise as expected, other retailers will follow and tier-1 suppliers will have to respond. These nitiatives reflect a general shift from a focus on volume and internal efficiency to an external one on value and consumers (O’Keeffe, 2001). This O’Keeffe refers to as the change from the “supply chain management era” to the “network era”, key components of the change being summarised in Table III. However, this by no means describes the sector as a whole. The UK soft drinks industry, continues to adhere to the earlier supply chain management model characterised by fierce price competition, with “powerful buyers and traditionally weak sellers” (O’Keeffe, 2001); i. Pdf Essay? e. an nvironment in which cost reduction is a management mantra.
Tier-1 companies in the FMCG supply chain typically produce finished products for eventual sale to consumers via retailers and as such form the rubric interface between a small number of powerful retail customers and a plethora of smaller industrial suppliers of pdf essay School both specialised and commodity products. Thus tier-1 organisations wishing to writing argumentative Stenden University develop an ebusiness strategy can find themselves in the unenviable position of pdf essay School being squeezed between e-committed retailers on the outbound side and e-reluctant suppliers on the inbound ide, a situation with the potential to create considerable tension for the parties concerned. Improve English College? Princes soft drinks The Princes Food Group is pdf essay writing, wholly owned by the Mitsubishi Corporation and is the improve english essay writing Wandsworth College largest UK supplier of own-label processed grocery products. Pdf Essay Ashford School? The Soft Drinks division within the group is the major supplier of fruit juices, carbonated, ready-to-drink and dilute-to-taste soft drinks in the UK. Critical Sense? It principally supplies own-label drinks to major supermarket retailers. It is a market where there has been much negative Table II Drivers and barriers to the adoption of e-commerce. Drivers (reactive – R, proactive – P, strategic – S, tactical – T) Barriers Pressure from Ashford, others in the supply chain (R) Internal pressure to maintain an e-commerce presence (R) Re-structuring of the supply chain (P,S) Exploration of new business models – e. g. the role of intermediaries and distributors (P,S) Cost reduction – e. g. transaction processing, inventory holding, purchase price (P,T) Improved process efficiency – e. g. SDA Bocconi Of Management? reduced lead times, improved procurement and production practices and writing Ashford School logistics (P,T) Business process integration – integration of purchasing and sales with other business functions (P,T) Improvements in supply chain relationships (P,S) Costs of acquiring and maintaining an e-commerce capability (Quayle, 2002, Williams, 2001, Clegg, 2001) Concerns about writing rubric, security and control (Quayle, 2002, Williams, 2001, Davila et al. , 2003) Lack of knowledge of the internet and e-commerce (Williams, 2001, Wagner et al. , 2003) Lack of senior management understanding, attitude and vision (Clegg, 2001) Lack of skills/technology/training in-house (Clegg, 2001, Wagner et al. , 2003) Resistance from pdf essay Ashford School, employees – based on fear, inertia, lack of faith (Quayle, 2002) Poor availability of external skills (Clegg, 2001) Resistance from suppliers – unwilling to drop proprietary systems and a lack of equipment and time (Quayle, 2002) System compatibility (Clegg, 2001, Davila et al. , 2003) Incoherence and perceived lack of SDA Bocconi security and pdf essay School flexibility – internet-specific (Quayle, 2002) Table III Key components of alternative business eras in peer scientific journals West Buckland School, retail supply Supply chain management era Network era The age of reason: efficiency The age of possibility: opportunity Taking costs out Putting value in Introverted Customer-focused Chain starts at the DC (distribution centre) Chain starts with the consumer Logistics productivity Marketing productivity.
Physical distribution Information management Economies of scale Network economics Negative feedback Positive feedback Focus on Ashford volume Focus on value Source: O’Keeffe, 2001 E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Writing Stenden Of Applied? Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 356 pressure on prices to the extent that suppliers have been forced to cut costs, improve process efficiency and push price reductions back up the writing Ashford School supply chain to lower tier suppliers. Figure 1 illustrates the position of Princes within its supply network. In 2001 it became clear that Cotts Beverages UK, one of Princes’ major competitors, was enjoying business benefits from the implementation of an internet-based supply chain management software solution (Tinham, 2001). Facing intense pressure in the FMCG marketplace, the report that Cotts were enjoying significant benefits from how to improve english essay writing, internet-based fulfilment generated considerable interest within Princes. If Cotts’ system was delivering reduced supply chain costs and improved supply chain processes then the ensuing business benefits of pdf essay writing lower selling prices and improved delivery adherence represented a significant competitive threat. Since the early 1990s Princes had been communicating electronically downstream with the major supermarket retailers using EDI. Different technological approaches were used for different customers meaning that Princes has had to invest in alternative solutions in order to trade downstream. The use of EDI enabled transactional data to be imported into and exported out of SAP – Princes’ Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system – quickly and composition accurately. The use of EDI, together with the writing Ashford School integration of transactional data into Princes’ SAP system, had increased the effectiveness of the company’s outbound, demand-side supply chain. During this period however, communication with suppliers had remained largely unchanged, relying on a combination of telephone, fax and the traditional postal service.
During the latter part of the 1990s, Princes had explored the possibility of adopting EDI links with suppliers, but high costs and technological issues had prevented its adoption. Business? At this time, with the rise of the internet, communication with suppliers was increasingly taking place via Email. Whilst this often proved more effective than telephone communication, it was generally nable to handle the transactional data that was required and this was frequently sent via fax or post. Pdf Essay School? The company began to thinking Sevenoaks pilot an application called “Business Connector” which used the internet to transmit transactional data between organisations that operated a SAP ERP system. However, whilst SAP is the global leader in providing ERP solutions for large organisations its adoption is far from universal and many companies – large and small – make use of alternative ERP packages. Thus, Princes’ use of this application had been restricted to only a small number of pdf essay Ashford School its total supply base (i. Improve Lord College? e. to those that used SAP). The company was aware of many national and multinational manufacturers that were implementing internet-based systems to improve the quality and the value of the information that they exchanged with their business partners, the objectives of writing such collaborative initiatives being to improve the writing essay School overall performance of the supply chain (Fernie et al. , 2000). Faced with this knowledge, the need to review supply-side (inbound) transactional mechanisms and writing Ashford the potential threat posed by Cotts, Princes felt compelled to explore the opportunities that the new and emerging B2B solutions could create within a FMCG supply chain.
In particular, they were interested in establishing the writing School positions and views of the Ashford School organisations within their supply base on the adoption of possible B2B solutions and what the current and anticipated impact of the english essay writing Wandsworth College internet on B2B communication and writing Ashford business transactions might be. The results of the investigation were to inform the critical sense Chigwell School development of a B2B ecommerce strategy that would take the pdf essay writing Ashford company forward into the twenty-first century. As a tier-1 business within an aggressive market, Princes was in a very challenging position, squeezed between ecommitted customers on its demand-side and potentially ereluctant uppliers on its supply-side. Critical? In order to writing Ashford School develop and implement future strategic direction for the use of ecommerce in all its B2B interaction, there was an urgent need to investigate the existing position of its supply-side partners, and to determine the prevailing degree of enthusiasm for e-commerce. Study design issues Prior to undertaking this research, Princes’ knowledge of its suppliers’ views on e-commerce was largely anecdotal. The development of future strategy without formal knowledge or Figure 1 The Princes soft drinks supply network E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study. M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 357 understanding in this area would have been unwise. There was therefore a critical need to carry out an exploratory study that would yield clear findings for the particular case of this supply chain.
In the sense that it should allow the of Management company to focus on understanding the Ashford dynamics present within a single setting (Eisenhardt, 1989) and to develop an enhanced understanding of real world events (McCutcheon and how to improve essay Lord Wandsworth Meredith, 1993), the Ashford School study needed to thinking Sevenoaks School be case-based. Within he development of the case study however, it was considered essential to gather the views of as many members of the supply network as possible. Detailed dyadic data relating to a single supplier relationship with Princes, whilst interesting, would be inadequate for writing, the purposes of this work; it would not truly reflect the views of all supplying organisations, nor would it necessarily gather the multi-disciplined perspective necessary to inform the development of an e-business strategy. Accordingly, a study design based on School the collection of data through a supply-base wide survey was considered most appropriate. Survey research, i. e. he statistical analysis of data gathered by large-scale data collection techniques such as postal questionnaires (Barnes, 2001), is the most popular approach used in OM research, representing approximately 60 per Ashford School, cent of the Oswestry published research in this field (Forza, 2002). A major advantage of this approach is that the techniques used are recognised and largely approved of by writing School the research community. Business Critical Thinking? Additionally, data collection can be undertaken quickly and for relatively little cost. The means by which the questionnaire is administered can have a significant influence on response rates and hence the value of the results obtained. In this case, care needed to be taken in the design of the Ashford questionnaire and also its method of implementation to ensure that as comprehensive picture as possible from the supply chain could be built up. Study methodology and limitations Princes’ procurement strategy had been to peer scientific Buckland School work in partnership with a small number of suppliers who themselves were major players within their particular sectors, and to develop strong relationships with them. As a consequence of this consolidation strategy, Princes’ supply base consisted of Ashford School approximately 100 suppliers.
Of these, 61 ere selected to take part in the survey. The selection criteria applied was that the volume of critical sense Chigwell business from each should exceed 1 per cent of pdf essay writing Princes’ annual purchases. How To Essay Writing Lord Wandsworth? A survey questionnaire was designed for which completion would be unsupervised. It was structured around the following key themes and topics: . current approaches adopted by suppliers in relation to B2B strategy and current communication methods; . Pdf Essay? suppliers’ views of the thinking Sevenoaks specific electronic communication channels, i. e. EDI, Email and internet/websites; and . a section on organisational details. The majority of the questions were of the “closed” type as these were felt to be most suitable for the easy unsupervised completion of the questionnaire, but where it was thought that qualitative data might improve the writing School understanding of the issues, “open” questions were also included. Given the relatively small number of responses possible it was considered important that a high response rate was achieved. To this end, the 61 supplier companies were contacted prior to dispatch of the questionnaires to identify the appropriate respondent by name, to how to improve essay Lord encourage their cooperation and to ask if they would participate in pdf essay writing School, the study. 4 (88 per essays Stenden University Sciences, cent) responded positively and were sent the questionnaire. Of these, 39 completed questionnaires (72 per writing School, cent of the 54) were received in time for the subsequent analysis. Whilst this response does not cover the entire Princes’ supply base, it is estimated that it represents over 85 per cent of all annual procurement transactions measured by value and business critical thinking Sevenoaks volume. Additionally, the writing Ashford responding organisations included all but two of the business thinking Sevenoaks School company’s top 20 suppliers (measured by annual value).
The constitution of the respondents means that the findings of the research are ikely to reflect the views of Ashford School those suppliers with a high level of commitment to Princes and possibly to those that have a positive view of e-Business. A research methodology incorporating interviews with the collaborating suppliers would have facilitated a higher level of analysis that would undoubtedly have led to greater depth of reviewed scientific journals West understanding. However, the primary purpose of the pdf essay writing School study was for essay rubric Oswestry, the rapid collection of data that would inform the writing Ashford development of strategy. The findings are largely descriptive. Study findings Of the respondents, 51 per cent indicated that their rganisations had formulated a B2B strategy. Of these, several had not yet started implementation and most had not completed it. Of the strategy-formulators, 33 per cent identified the use of EDI as part of the strategy, and business thinking 28 per cent mentioned the use of their SAP ERP systems within it. Business integration with XML-based documents, along with the development of websites and portals were other common themes. Of those without a B2B strategy, all indicated that they expected to formulate one. The percentage of this group looking to their key customers to contribute to the formulation totalled 63 per cent.
All survey respondents currently used at least two methods of communication with their business partners, and the majority used at least four methods. The most popular methods of communication were email, fax, and phone, used by 92 per writing Ashford, cent, 92 per cent and 90 per cent of respondents respectively. Peer Scientific Journals West Buckland? By contrast, use of the internet (excluding email) had only a 13 per cent adoption rate. Whilst the traditional postal service was no longer used by approximately 40 per cent of the sample, its use remained far more widespread than non-Email communication via the internet. In line with the literature-based discussion earlier in the aper, respondents’ views of the 3 options were sought: EDI, email and the internet/websites. The adoption of email as a channel for B2B communication has been rapid and far-reaching and has been described as the primary technical focus for organisations involved in pdf essay writing Ashford, developing an e-commerce capability (Clegg, 2001). Of the survey respondents, 95 per cent used email and many saw it as equally essential to business as the telephone or computer.
It was used for both demand-side and supply-side transactions. Transactional security and difficulties of backoffice integration were considered important issues, but the peed, ease of use and low cost of critical School email meant that it remained the preferred medium of many organisations and for many transaction types. Writing School? It is journals West Buckland School, seen as less useful for payment and pdf essay Ashford invoicing transactions than for transactions such as notification of order acceptance, dispatch confirmation, forecasting, ordering and business Sevenoaks acknowledging receipt. Most users E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Pdf Essay Writing Ashford? Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 358 process email messages by Oswestry printing or downloading to preadsheet software, although 15 per pdf essay writing School, cent of sense School respondents are able to integrate some of the messages directly to internal business systems. Ashford? The disadvantages cited for email included the high volumes of email communication (including junk mail), inefficient processing methods and lack of security.
The percentage of respondents who expect the business thinking Sevenoaks importance of email as a B2B communication channel to increase numbered 97 per cent. Of the respondents, 59 per cent were using, or had used, EDI. Of these, 70 per cent had adopted it because it was a requirement from pdf essay, their customers. There was no indication of the importance of this channel for individual businesses relative to other channels, but intuitively this adoption rate seems high. This may be explained by the relatively high adoption rate in the FMCG sector as a whole, where – as discussed earlier – tier-1 suppliers are frequently required to use it by the major retailers and distributors who appear to have the power to thinking force its adoption (Hill and Scudder, 2002). A number of Princes’ suppliers – described as “dual suppliers” in pdf essay writing, Figure 1 – are themselves tier-1 suppliers to retailers and would therefore already be using EDI (e. . the argumentative SDA Bocconi of Management sugar suppliers).
Others supply to customers in the chemical industry where use of EDI is relatively high. Additionally it may have been influenced by pdf essay writing School the fact that the average turnover of the responding companies was ? 372m, suggesting that small organisations were not equally represented in critical Chigwell School, the sample. Writing Ashford? In the survey, EDI is most used for conducting supply-side transactions, with comparatively few on School the demand-side. Of those using EDI, more than 50 per writing Ashford, cent had interfaced it with their internal business systems. Essay? Others either download the EDI output to spreadsheet systems or use hard copies. The major reason cited for non-adoption of EDI by the other respondents was lack of demand from their customers rather than for cost or technology reasons. There appears to be a possible link between the adoption of EDI and company turnover – with adopters tending to have higher turnover than non-adopters. Of all respondents, 59 per cent believe that they will be using EDI for business transactions in pdf essay School, the future. Only 35 per cent of writing essay rubric respondents felt that the importance of pdf essay writing School EDI would increase as a channel for B2B communication.
Overall, this suggests that the scope for critical sense Chigwell, uture EDI adoption is limited, with those perhaps that have already invested in the technology continuing to derive benefit from it. The most cited advantage perceived for using EDI is the efficiency gains that derive from its use for transaction handling. Other benefits mentioned – but with much lower frequency – included improved partnerships, reduced costs, and volume efficiency. Pdf Essay Writing? Evidence that supports an observation made by Hill and Scudder (2002) following their survey of the use of EDI in the American food industry as a vehicle for improving supplier coordination that companies “may see. EDI as a tool for improving efficiencies rather than a tool for developing supply chain management” (ibid, p. 383).
The most cited disadvantages relate to costs, inflexibility and technical complexity. Others included general poor adoption rates, the need for dedicated one-to-one links, the School danger of obsolete technology, security and Ashford the multiplicity of standards. Although 67 per cent of respondents claimed to SDA Bocconi of Management use the pdf essay writing Ashford internet (excluding its use for how to english writing Lord College, email) to communicate with partners, only 13 per cent were regularly using internet platforms for business communication. Of the adopters, rivate exchanges were the predominant platform used, although this may be because many of pdf essay School Princes’ suppliers are already hooked into an exchange that has been set up by one of writing Lord Wandsworth their competitors. General websites are the second most used platform. A wide range of business processes were being executed through the internet, including both demand-side and supply-side transactions. Examples included ordering, order acceptance, dispatch notification, and delivery receipt. Less common uses are for invoicing, forecasting, and payment.
Unlike EDI, the majority of messages transmitted hrough the internet were processed manually and were not interfaced directly into internal business systems. The most commonly cited reason for the lack of adoption of internet B2B communication was that this did not represent a business priority. Other reasons included the view that the technology was still too immature to be of significant benefit, and that customers did not want to use it. However, all respondents expect its use to increase in the future. As shown in Figure 2, perceived benefits of using the Ashford internet to communicate included lower costs, ease of use, high availability of argumentative composition SDA Bocconi School nformation, flexibility and writing Ashford speed.
These benefits were expected to contribute to business benefits such as improved customer service, forecasting and business integration, increased processing and labour efficiency, stronger business partnerships, and reduced processing errors, transaction costs and inventory holdings. As indicated in Figure 3, perceived disadvantages included security issues, a lack of universal standards, insufficient technical knowledge, loss of critical School personal interaction, and the inefficiency of the pdf essay writing School internet. Respondents identified technological needs in order to implement internet ommunication including requirements for an XML infrastructure, for software middleware and for integrative hardware. Study summary As summarised below, the study’s findings indicated that the development of a B2B procurement strategy needed to take account of three key factors: Technical issues Technical barriers to the implementation of generic B2B software solutions were found to be: . the immature nature of the B2B marketplace and of the software available within it; . the lack of universal standards for e-Business middleware that can integrate internal business processes with e- Business messages and transactions; and a lack of evidence of the ability of B2B software to synchronise supply chains, to improve collaboration or to deliver sufficient return on investment (Fontanella, 2001). Sense School? Particularly important to Princes was the costs already sunk in the company’s ERP system (SAP). This had given the company a high degree of internal integration with many business processes being automated and capable of sharing information easily. Thus, MRP, purchasing and accounts modules worked together to pdf essay writing automate the essay rubric Oswestry procurement process from order generation through to writing School settlement. Documentation was also generated automatically and could e channelled via a variety of media; currently the argumentative essays Stenden University of Applied Sciences preferred channel was automated fax. The e-commerce proposal for any future implementation needed to take account of these issues. Ashford School? E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 359 Customer/commercial issues Competition within the grocery retail industry continues to be intense and retail customers continue to exert pressure on their tier-1 suppliers.
Price pressures increased during the time in which this research was undertaken. In such a business climate, the SDA Bocconi justification for capital investment can be problematic. Clearly, this very practical commercial constraint also applied to Princes’ suppliers. Thus, there was a need for pdf essay Ashford School, solutions that would minimise capital and other forms of investment. Supplier issues It was clear that the approaches taken to B2B varied between Princes’ suppliers. The technical sophistication of their approaches to critical thinking School internal business processes also varied from leading edge ERP systems to those using stand alone PCs. It was evident that few had coherent strategies for developing future B2B initiatives. Thus, any solution reached by Princes had to be capable of Ashford School operating over a variety of channels and communicating in a variety of formats. Furthermore, in order to argumentative School achieve full integration of the supply chain, information needs to flow seamlessly up and down the chain in the same way that using internal business systems enables the exchange of data within an individual organisation. Partnerships incorporating mutual trust are a prerequisite of writing Ashford securing the open exchange of information between agents, which is necessary to business Sevenoaks School integrate inter-business processes.
Cultural change is pdf essay School, necessary to develop such artnerships, which must be based on trust, collaboration and Figure 2 Perceived advantages of internet communication Figure 3 Perceived disadvantages of internet communication E-business strategy development: an FMCG sector case study M. Webster, R. Beach and sense School I. Fouweather Supply Chain Management: An International Journal Volume 11 · Number 4 · 2006 · 353–362 360 a unified vision of the supply system. For many of Ashford Princes’ suppliers, the volume of trade does not justify the writing argumentative essays University of Applied Sciences financial and resource-based investment needed to develop this level of collaboration and for others, the nature of the trading elationship precludes its achievement. High levels of interbusiness integration and Ashford School collaboration are not considered appropriate for all partnerships. Peer? Thus the B2B solution for Princes would have to be based around a few key suppliers (typically those with a high volume of transactions) whilst providing functionality for trading with others. Discussion and conclusions The constitution of the respondents to pdf essay writing School the Princes survey means that the findings of the research are likely to reflect the views of those suppliers with a high level of commitment to Princes and possibly to those that have a positive view of business critical thinking ecommerce. Given this, the findings are somewhat depressing. The lack of enthusiasm for e-commerce in general and for writing School, internet-mediated solutions in particular, supports the evidence summarised earlier in the paper that industry is not yet ready for full scale adoption of internet-mediated B2B e-commerce.
However, although it has shown the use of business critical internet-enabled transactions to be limited, a notable statistic is the writing Ashford School number of respondents that use email to communicate within the supply chain and thinking who see it as growing in importance. Perhaps, where the pdf essay School benefits are clear and the osts and risks acceptable, companies are willing to writing essay School adopt new technology, to identify its limitations and to exploit its potential. This case-based evidence supports the findings of Hawkins and Prencipe (2000), that manufacturing organisations are tactically orientated. Ashford School? Equally clear is the fact that they are predominantly reactive rather than proactive in their approach. The adoption of contemporary e-commerce solutions requires co-operation with external members of the supply chain. Considering the particular position of tier-1 suppliers in FMCG chains where the nature of relationships has raditionally been transactional and adversarial, it is clear that the development of an e-commerce strategy is extremely problematic. As evidenced within this study, these organisations are squeezed between powerful e-committed retail customers and e-reluctant suppliers.
The cautious, customer driven approach adopted by the Princes’ suppliers is understandable, but difficult to Stenden of Applied incorporate into a “one-sizefits- all” supply-side e-commerce strategy. For Princes, the findings of the survey meant that the development of a coherent, universal e-commerce strategy for its supply-side was not possible. The majority of its suppliers additionally supplied other tier-1 and retail customers, with the result that they were unwilling and pdf essay unable to writing essay School invest in a Princes-specific approach. Princes only feasible option at this stage was therefore to pdf essay Ashford School continue with a piecemeal approach to supplyside e-commerce in the hope that technical developments would ultimately lead to peer reviewed School improved accessibility and greater standardisation. As shown in Figure 1, Princes is squeezed between multiple retailers and multiple suppliers. Writing Ashford School? Whilst there is some coherence of critical sense approach to e-commerce among the retailers (EDI) the study has found that there is no common approach r purpose within the supply base. Princes finds itself forced to pdf essay Ashford School adopt different prescribed systems at its demand-side but unable to develop a unified approach at its supply-side. Arguably this uncomfortable position is a general feature of tier-1 supply within the FMCG sector.
In addition to informing strategy development for Princes, this study may have more far-reaching implications within the FMCG sector and beyond. For organisations (suppliers) with just one customer who wants to critical Chigwell trade using a particular approach (e. g. EDI) the associated investment may be seen as too large and pdf essay writing uncertain. On the argumentative composition SDA Bocconi of Management other hand, if the supplier has several ustomers demanding the same approach then the writing Ashford investment may more easily be justified. Where customers demand different approaches, the supplier must apportion the investment among the different relationships. This process of thinking Sevenoaks investment may ultimately lead to structural changes within the School industry via the critical sense School development of a range of tier-1 supplier types, defined by their approach to the use of e-commerce. Pdf Essay School? At one extreme will be small specialised suppliers using the same solution across all their relationships, and at the other will be large organisations that can afford to peer scientific School maintain several means of electronic trading.
As a supplier, Princes falls within the latter category, whilst the majority of its own suppliers fall into the middle ground of having multiple customers, insufficient financial resource to fund a variety of solutions and hence little enthusiasm for e-commerce. As shown in figure 1 a few exceptional “dual suppliers” fall into the same category as Princes – typically where they supply directly to the retailers also. This view of writing School future industry re-structuring has parallels to developments within the automotive industry where tier-1 suppliers have increased in power and size, and business critical thinking School are able to pdf essay writing rade with a range of customers using alternative e-commerce solutions. Notes 1 Groupware is a range of business critical software tools and associated technology that is used to support groups of people working together. Typically, this includes a number of personal computers, laptops or other terminals connected in real time by a network. The span can range from School, a single room to full global reach achieved by internet links. 2 Middleware is defined here as a separate software application that interfaces between two disparate applications and enables the composition of Management transfer of information and Ashford School he synchronisation of activities between the two applications. 3 The ideas discussed in the final paragraph were stimulated by the comments of an anonymous reviewer.
We are grateful for the contribution.