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apa bibliographies Cite your work in four easy steps! Fast and free citation generator. APA 6th ed. • MLA 8th ed. • Chicago 16th ed. To create a citation, select your source above in Step 1 or watch this video tutorial. You have no saved citations in this bibliography . Critical Thinking Bias Adelphi University! Copy the information below in your paper according to the Guide on the right. Use your own page numbers. In-text citations are required when you use someone else's ideas, theories or research in essay writing University, your paper. Examples: (choose depending if author and/or date is mentioned in text) The bones were very fragile (Cole, 2011, p. 13). Critical Bias! Cole (2011) found that The bones were very fragile (p. 33).

In 2011, Cole found that The bones were very fragile (p. 33). The bones broke easily because they were porous (Cole, 2011). Cole (2011) discovered that the effect Lime School bones broke easily. In 2011, Cole found that the bones were easily broken (p. 33).

Note: APA style encourages the thinking Adelphi University inclusion of page numbers for paraphrases, but it is not mandatory. Include page or paragraph numbers if it will help reader find the information.) No authors : Use the title in place of author. Shorten title if needed. Use double quotation marks for title of an article, a chapter, or a web page. Use italics for title of a periodical, a book, a brochure or a report. the observations found (Arctic Voyage, 2014) the nursing essay writing Macquarie book Vitamin Discoveries (2013) Two or more authors : Within the text use the word and . If the authors' names are within parentheses use the symbol. Cole and Dough (1998) argued . . if they were left to their own devices.(Cole Dough, 1998) Three to five authors : Include all authors' last names the first time the citation is thinking bias University used. If you use the same citation again within the articles same paragraph, use only the first last name followed by 'et al'. If you used the citation again omit the year. First time: Cole, Dough and Ferris (1998) explained. Second time: Cole et al. Critical Bias University! (1998) proved . Third time: Cole et al. demonstrated.

Six or more authors: Include only the last name of the first author followed by et al. (Wasserstein et al., 2010) Spell out the name in full the first time and abbreviate subsequent times only write School, if abbreviation is well known. First time: American Psychological Association (1998) explained. Bias! Second time: APA (1998) proved . When quoting always provide author, year and specific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginated material. If the quotation is less than 40 words incorporate it into the text and enclose the quotation with quotation marks. Cite the source immediately after the close of the quotation marks. If the authors are named in the text, they do not have to be used in the citation. In fact, a neurosis is Ellesmere characterized by critical bias anxiety (Kristen Warb, 2012, p. 157). A neurosis is characterized by anxiety, according to Kristen and prompts Istituto Warb's (2012, p. 157) longitudinal study. If the quotation is over 40 words, you must indent the entire quotation and start the quotation on a new line. No quotation marks are required.

Cite the quoted source after the final punctuation mark. Critical Thinking University! Alberta is occasionally divided into paper, two regions, Northern Alberta and Southern Alberta. The majority of Alberta's population is located in large urban cities, mostly located in the South. Bias Adelphi University! Alberta is Canada's most populous Province of all three Canadian prairie provinces. Edmonton is the Capital of writing prompts Istituto, Alberta. (Hern, 1996, p. 22)

APA style encourages the inclusion of page numbers, but it is not mandatory. Critical Thinking Bias! Include page or paragraph numbers if it will help reader find the information. If the document does not contain page numbers, include paragraph numbers. If neither is available omit page and paragraph numbers. Do not count paragraph numbers. When paraphrasing from multiple sources, include all authors name in parentheses in alphabetical order.

In-text citations are called parenthetical references in MLA. This involves placing information about the source in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase. The information in writing University, the parenthetical references must match the corresponding information in the list of University, works cited. The purpose of parenthetical references is to persuasive essay prompts Istituto Marangoni, indicate to readers not only what works you used, but what you used from each source and thinking where in the source you found the material. This can be done by inserting a parenthetical reference in your text at the spot where you have used the source's ideas or words. You should keep parenthetical references as brief and write House School as few as clarity and accuracy permit. Author's last name followed by the page number referenced in work. These are placed in parentheses at end of Adelphi University, sentence before period.

The Soviets were surrounded by enemies (Waters 119). If author's name is in nursing writing University, text only use the page number, it is not necessary to repeat the thinking Adelphi author's name. Waters argues that the essay Ellesmere Soviets were surrounded by enemies (119). Authors – Identification of source. Group or corporate authors : use full name of group or a shortened form. (Natl. Research Council 15) Do not use abbreviations such as ed. or trans. No author : use a few words of the critical bias Adelphi title. (The evolving internet) Two authors : Use last name of both, no comma. (Black and Mondoux 123) Three authors : (Eddison, Zhu, and Lalonde) More than three authors : Give all the persuasive Marangoni last names or just the first and et al. for thinking bias Adelphi University, the rest (Becker et al. 13) (Becker, Lafontaine, Robins, Given, and Rush 13) If your work cited page contains multiple references by the same author, include the author's last name and a full or shortened title of their work and the page number. (Feder, The Birth of a Nation 124) Location of passage within source. give relevant page number if available give volume and nursing University page number in a multivolume work if citing entire work omit page numbers for electronic works use paragraph numbers or other reference number (Louis par. 20) film, television, broadcasts cannot be cited by numbers.

Placement of parenthetical reference in text. You should generally put the parenthetical reference at the end of a sentence and as close as possible to the material referred to. Critical Thinking Adelphi! The parenthetical reference goes before the punctuation mark. Cole found that The bones were very fragile (33-34). If the quotation is over 4 lines, you must indent the whole quotation and start the research paper articles quotation on a new line. Thinking! No quotation marks are required. Notice the placement of the period is before the brackets for long quotations. Alberta is writing University occasionally divided into critical University, two regions, Northern Alberta and words University (Navitas) Southern Alberta.

The majority of Alberta's population is located in large urban cities, mostly located in the South. Critical Adelphi University! Alberta is Canada's most populous Province of all three Canadian prairie provinces. Words University London! Edmonton is the bias Adelphi University Capital of Alberta. (Herick 22) In Chicago style, footnotes or endnotes are used to reference pieces of work in the text. To cite from a source a superscript number is placed after a quote or a paraphrase. Citation numbers should appear in sequential order. Each number then corresponds to a citation, a footnote or to an endnote. Ellesmere! Endnotes must appear on an endnotes page.

The page should be titled Notes (centered at bias University, top). This page should appear immediately before the bibliography page. Essay Brunel University! Footnotes must appear at critical Adelphi University, the bottom of the page that they are referred to. Cole found that The bones were very fragile (33-34). 1. Each superscript then refers to a numbered citation in the footnotes or endnotes. The first time the in-text reference is cited you must include, author's first name, author's last name, title, place of publication, publisher name, year and referenced pages. e.g. Brunel University London (Navitas)! 1. James Smith, The first and University last war , (New York, Hamilton, 2003), 2. Essay College! If the citation has already been cited it may be shortened to author's last name, shortened title, and page referenced number. Thinking! e.g. 2. Smith, The first , 220-221. If the citation has been referenced immediately prior, the essay writing note may be shortened even further to ibid with the page number. e.g. For each author-date citation in the text, there must be a corresponding entry in the reference list under the same name and critical thinking Adelphi date.

An author-date citation in running text or at the end of a block quotation consists of the last (family) name of the author, followed by the year of publication of the work in persuasive essay prompts Marangoni, question. In this context, author may refer not only to thinking bias University, one or more authors or an institution but also to one or more editors, translators, or compilers. Essay Istituto! No punctuation appears between author and date. Abbreviations such as ed. or trans. are omitted. (Schuman and critical bias Adelphi Scott 1987) When a specific page, section, equation, or other division of the work is cited, it follows the date, preceded by a comma. When a volume as a whole is referred to, without a page number, vol. is used. For volume plus page, only a colon is needed. The n in the Fischer and Siple example below indicates note (see 14.164).

The last example shows how one might cite a section of a work that contains no page or section numbers or other numerical signposts—the case for some electronic documents (see 15.8). (LaFree 2010, 413, 417–18) (Johnson 1979, sec. 24) Fowler and College Hoyle 1965, eq. 87) (Garcia 1987, vol. 2) (Garcia 1987, 2:345) (Barnes 1998, 2:354–55, 3:29) (Fischer and critical thinking Siple 1990, 212n3) (Hellman 1998, under The Battleground) The following features have been recently added to Citefast: Edit and delete citations Copy and paste functionality Citations will be saved for 24 hours A short wizard to guide you through the site the first time you use it Updated interface for inputting citation information Ability to persuasive essay writing Istituto, create In-text citations In-text guide for critical thinking University, APA, MLA and essay writing prompts Marangoni Firenze Chicago citations Export your bibliography to Word Add editor and chapter information to bibliography for book More tool tips to make entering data easier. Thank you to all those who emailed us with their suggestions for improvements. Sign up for a free account and keep your citations! (Otherwise after four days of thinking bias University, inactivity your citations will be deleted.) Want to keep your citations for longer and access them from other computers? Already have an account?

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Securitization Theory and Biological Weapons. The Threat of Biological Weapons: A Justification of Biological Weapons Securitization. In 2001, when attacks were carried out in the United States involving Bacillus anthracis, the bacterial agent that causes anthrax, the threat of critical University, biological weapons came into sharper focus for the American government. These attacks were not the beginning of the research Lucton biological weapons threat, but rather a point along a continuum of increasing risk. Article 1 of the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention defines biological weapons to include the “microbial or other biological agents, or toxins, whatever their origin or method of production, of critical thinking Adelphi, types and in essay Ellesmere College, quantities that have no justification for prophylactic, protective, or other peaceful purposes” as well as the “weapons, equipment, or means of thinking Adelphi, delivery designed to use such agents or toxins for hostile purposes or in effect essay Lime School, armed conflict” 1 . The use of biological weapons dates back centuries, but the fear of biological weapons of thinking bias Adelphi University, mass destruction, here defined as weapons that pose an existential threat to the target, is relatively recent 2 . Much of it is essay College, attributable to the rapid advances made in the biological sciences over bias the past decade, particularly with respect to paper the field of genomics, where there is a growing ability to manipulate genes 3 . This knowledge has a variety of bias University, applications in the field of bioweapons. Additionally, while states use of biological weapons was a concern through much of the 20 th century, the possibility that rogue states or non-state groups would use biological weapons was largely ignored until the start of the 21 st century 1 . Therefore, the threat of biological weapons has been framed as a security issue 4 . This essay examines whether, and to what degree, the threat of a biological weapons attack has been overstated with respect to the government’s response by drawing on nursing essay University securitization theory, which critically evaluates the process through which an thinking issue comes to write Lime be viewed through a security framework.

In addition, the essay will also use the precautionary principle, described by the 1998 Wingspread Statement as the notion that “when an activity raises threats of harm to human health or the environment, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically” 5 . Bias Adelphi! Though more often applied to considerations of persuasive essay words London, environmental risk, in the case of biological weapons, the principle could be used to justify caution even in the absence of consensus surrounding the thinking Adelphi University probability of an attack, simply due to the severity of the consequences if an attack was to occur. It will be argued that the biological weapons threat has not been overestimated and that the biodefense measures expressed in journal articles School, current policy and funding decisions are warranted. Despite measures such as likelihood-adjusted mortality, which may suggest the U.S. government response is an overreaction, other characteristics of the bioweapons threat justify its securitization and resulting prioritization in the government agenda. To do this, the essay provides a discussion of how the critical bias potential consequences of an attack pose an existential threat to the United States, how there is an inadequate degree of preparedness for such an event, how the mere possibility of an attack is enough to warrant high spending on preventive and preparative programs, and how the response has been appropriately measured given the threat. The focus will be on the United States government because it has taken such a prominent role in bioweapon securitization and biodefense funding. Prompts Istituto Firenze! A single country, the US, was chosen as a point of focus to avoid confusion due to differing levels of threat and response across countries. Additionally, any exaggerations that may exist in how the media or the public portray and view the biological weapons threat will be ignored; though this could be related to the government’s decision to securitize bioweapons, this is a separate issue from government policy decisions in critical bias Adelphi University, response to the security threat and is outside the scope of nursing Macquarie, this paper.

2. Securitization Theory and Biological Weapons. Securitization theory is a constructivist approach informing how certain issues become framed through a security lens 6 . It offers a useful analytical framework for critical thinking bias University, understanding how, why, and what issues come to be viewed as security threats. Securitization is an essay College active process wherein a securitizing actor, in bias University, this case the American government, presents and writing academic articles addresses an issue as an existential threat to a particular group, or referent object 7 . In these situations, emergency response measures and extensive resource commitments are considered justified 7 . Securitization theory generally promotes desecuritization as preferable because it avoids the negative consequences of securitization, including a heavy-handed state response, reduced democratic accountability, and critical bias the narrowing of public choice 8 . However, it also recognizes that securitization is sometimes appropriate. Recent considerations of securitization theory identify three criteria that, if fulfilled, justify securitization: an objective, existential threat, a referent object whose protection promotes human well-being, and a response appropriately measured to essay words University London the particular threat 6 . In the case of bioweapons securitization, the second criterion is less controversial, given that the referent object is human population; thus, any harm to thinking bias Adelphi the referent object would directly reduce a human well-being. How To Write Cause Lime House School! However, the question of whether securitization of biological weapons meets the critical thinking other two criteria is more contentious.

Skeptics may point to Colin Powell’s 2003 address to the United Nations as a case where the biological weapons security threat may have been exaggerated and securitization was promoted for political ends, thereby calling into question the legitimacy of the securitizing actor, the U.S. government. In his speech, Powell made the Ellesmere College case for an invasion of Iraq by claiming Iraq had capabilities to produce biological weapons of mass destruction, including mobile bioweapons labs, a claim that later turned out to be false 9. Critics also target the policies resulting from securitization, arguing that the capacity of aggressors to carry out large scale attacks causing mortality has been overestimated, calling into question whether an existential threat truly exists and whether the response has been appropriately measured 10 . Government funding may be seen as unjustifiably skewed in favour of biodefense, defined as the capacity to respond to a biological weapons attack, to the neglect of critical bias Adelphi, other key areas, such as endemic and pandemic diseases. For instance, Klotz calculated what is referred as the “likelihood-adjusted mortality” for biological weapons, pandemic diseases, and endemic diseases by multiplying the probability of occurrence by an estimate of mortality were an event to occur 11 . By comparing these values with government funding allocated to each category, he demonstrated that biodefense receives more funding than its likelihood-adjusted mortality estimate would suggest is warranted 11 . However, objections have been raised to this argument. Ellesmere! Supporters of biodefense prioritization point to the fact that focusing solely on University potential fatalities ignores other issues, such as the negative social and economic fallout from an attack 12 . Additionally, they point to the possibility that it is more expensive to combat intentional threats, where there will be an explicit effort to circumvent current practices by exploiting weaknesses 12 . It should also be considered that the probability of one attack is not independent from persuasive Istituto Firenze, another, and that an increasing probability of success may elicit more attempts 12 . To follow will be an examination of whether government spending and policies constitute a justified response to the threat of biological weapons. Securitization is relevant in that it was a way for decision-makers to implement the policies they want and Adelphi University is justifiable to the extent that the programs themselves are necessary and appropriate. Despite other consequences of securitization, such as public fear, political manipulation, and a heavy-handed response, which may give the impression of an overreaction, the reality is that securitization was a means of enabling the implementation of certain policies and programs necessary to respond to academic articles Lucton the threat of biological weapons. 3. Consequences of an bias Adelphi University Attack. A government’s decision to securitize an persuasive Brunel University London (Navitas) issue is a strategy to critical thinking Adelphi make extreme responses seem justified, and it centers on the perceived existential risk a threat poses to the population 7 . Beginning with a brief history of biological weapons use, this section will aim to defend the framing of biological weapons use as an existential threat by examining their ability to cause mortality or to generate negative social and economic fallout. A brief discussion of the potential catastrophic consequences of a smallpox attack will illustrate the argument.

The use of biological weapons dates back centuries. Examples include the Tatars catapulting plague-infected corpses over city walls at the siege of Kaffa in the 14 th century, the deliberate triggering of a smallpox epidemic among Native Americans via contaminated blankets in the 18 th century during the French and Indian War, and the contamination of salad bars with salmonella at a restaurant in academic journal Lucton, Oregon in the 20 th century 2 . However, with the thinking Adelphi University development of the germ theory during the 19 th and into essay words Brunel (Navitas), the 20 th century, there was an increase in scientific knowledge about thinking bias Adelphi, biological weapons 10 . States became increasingly interested in such weapons, with Japan establishing a bioweapons program between 1932-1945, the nursing writing Macquarie United States in critical Adelphi University, 1942, and the Soviet Union in 1973 13 . In 1972, in response to increasing concern about the essay writing Marangoni threat of biological weapons, the United Nations proposed the Convention on critical thinking bias Adelphi the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Lucton School Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction , more commonly known as the Biological Weapons Convention (or BWC) 14 . The treaty came into effect in 1975, and banned the development, acquisition, and stockpiling of biological weapons 1 . However, it failed to halt the research and development of biological weapons, which have continued into the 21 st century. Those who argue that government response to the biological weapons threat has been overstated point to bias very low mortality in previous attacks 11 . Nursing Essay Writing University! The anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, for example, resulted in only 5 deaths 15 . This argument could be used to urge governments to instead invest resources in critical thinking bias University, areas that consistently cause higher mortality, such as infectious diseases like AIDS or even the seasonal flu. However, in carrying out research articles Lucton School, a threat assessment, it is critical thinking Adelphi, also important to how to essay Lime School look at the potential for critical University, mortality. Here it has been suggested future attacks may not be on the same relatively small scale as those in the past 15 . It is difficult to produce reliable estimates of persuasive words Brunel University, fatalities that might result from an attack; there is thinking University, huge variation in articles School, estimates and, often, little statistical evidence to Adelphi University support the predictions 11 . That said, it is agreed that, in theory, even small amounts of a dangerous biological agent could cause significant mortality if prepared and disseminated effectively 16 . For instance, the WHO estimates that 50kg of B. Ellesmere College! anthracis distributed upwind of a population of 500 000 would leave 95 000 people dead and 125 000 more incapacitated 17 . Other sources suggest that 100kg of B. anthracis , disseminated via a crop-sprayer, could kill as many as three million people, and comparable values have been projected for other agents 2,18 . Another concern is that a contagious biological agent will result in person-to-person transmission, creating a self-sustaining effect not present in critical Adelphi University, any other weapons class 10 . While mass casualties are possible, it is also important to journal Lucton note that, even in situations with few casualties, biological weapons attacks may have profound social and economic ramifications 3 . Such attacks could lead to widespread social panic and disorder, resulting in self-destructive behaviour and creating what is called a “societal autoimmune effect” involving increases in crime and looting 19 . While there is thinking bias Adelphi University, little evidence to predict this would occur based on previous disaster situations (such as the terrorist attacks on persuasive essay Firenze the World Trade Center in 1993 and 2001, where the public reaction is University, described as effective and adaptive, rather than panicked and persuasive essay writing Firenze disruptive), it must remain a consideration 20 . The effects of a largescale attack involving biological weapons are unknown, and epidemics of highly fatal diseases may cause serious social disruption 20 . The economic consequences of biological weapons attacks are severe and suggest that investing in critical bias Adelphi, defense makes good economic sense. While there were only five deaths in essay Ellesmere College, the 2001 anthrax attacks, those attacks resulted in tens of billions of thinking bias Adelphi, dollars in government spending 21 . Also, the financial sector may be negatively impacted if investor confidence plummets 3 . Similarly, an attack on the agricultural sector, which accounts for 15% of the United States GDP, could have severe economic ramifications 3 . If the biological agent being used is contagious, there could also be implications for trade and Lucton travel restrictions 3 . The SARS epidemic of 2003 showed the economic consequences of a highly infectious disease, essentially “crippling” some of the bias Adelphi University most dynamic cities in Ellesmere College, the world 4 . The Center for Biosecurity has estimated the critical thinking bias Adelphi University economic cost of College, a biological weapons attack in the U.S. could exceed one trillion USD 15 . In short, there are social and economic consequences that, considered in conjunction with the potential for catastrophically high mortality, justify the Adelphi University framing of biological weapons as a significant existential threat to the United States. This is illustrated by considering the specific case of smallpox. The Variola virus, which causes smallpox, is an example of an essay writing prompts agent that, if weaponized and used in an attack, would pose a serious existential threat to the United States 22 . It is highly contagious; in a 1972 outbreak in Yugoslavia, even with routine vaccinations, which are no longer carried out, the disease spread rapidly, with each affected individual infecting 11 to 13 others 23 . Thinking Bias! It is also lethal, with a 30% fatality rate 1 . Human populations are highly susceptible because, since eradication, vaccinations have not been given for 20 years 24 . Other features make smallpox an appealing option for Ellesmere College, bioterrorism: it has no treatment once symptoms occur; it would not be detected for 7-17 days; it is physically disfiguring; and critical thinking bias Adelphi University the virus is stable in aerosol form 1,24 . Perhaps the most problematic aspect of smallpox is that those infected are contagious before symptoms appear. Simulations have been carried out, including a 1999 exercise by the Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies at persuasive writing prompts Istituto Firenze, Johns Hopkins University, where a terrorist release of Variola virus grew into a global outbreak, which the thinking bias Adelphi health and emergency response system was unable to academic Lucton School control 22 . Critical Bias! Here it could be suggested that prevention efforts promoted by securitization are the only option, given the apparent inability to contain a global outbreak after an attack has occurred.

While the dangers posed by the Variola virus are not contested, skeptics argue that it is too difficult to acquire to be a real danger 10 . However, there is significant concern over thinking bias unaccounted Soviet Union smallpox samples, and a 1999 U.S. report pointed to evidence that secret stockpiles of the virus are held by nursing essay, North Korea, Russia, and Iraq 1,25 . It has also been suggested that the critical terrorist organization Aum Shinrikyo holds quantities of the Variola virus 22 . Threat and risk assessments should not rely solely on the worst-case scenarios of biological weapons attacks, especially since practical challenges still limit terrorists’ ability to conduct attacks that will have the greatest possible effect. However, it is University London, equally crucial to be aware of the critical thinking bias Adelphi wide range of consequences of such an attack. This section has argued that there could be serious ramifications on several dimensions, ramifications which justify the framing of biological weapons as an existential threat to the United States and warrant investment in an appropriate response capacity. Securitization, therefore, played an important role encouraging policy responses that were justified and appropriate. 4. Preparedness for an Attack. This section will examine the capacity of the United States to mitigate the consequences of an attack, a primary aim of biodefense. For government action to be justified, the response must be appropriate to the given threat level. The argument will be that this is the case with biodefense programs, which must seek to address key weaknesses in the preparedness system. There is writing articles, a general consensus that the critical thinking Adelphi United States has insufficient capabilities to respond effectively to a biological weapons attack 3 . School! Three primary components of preparedness will be addressed: the ability to detect an attack, the preparedness of the health care and emergency response system to respond, and the medical countermeasures that currently exist. It will be shown that there are important deficiencies in all three of these areas, further suggesting that programs aimed at developing a more appropriate response capacity are not overestimating the threat but are both justified and necessary. Biological weapons are a unique class from critical thinking, conventional, nuclear, and chemical weapons because their effects may not be felt immediately 26 . It could take days before it becomes apparent that an attack has taken place; this is problematic as immediate treatment may be crucial to survival 27 . Oral antibiotics for inhalational anthrax, for example, should be administered within 48 hours of exposure, which leaves little time for detection and delivery 1 . Any delay in detection could result in a large number of casualties.

Additionally, if the weapon agent is contagious, failure to detect and respond the how to write cause effect Lime School attack may result in a greater spread of the infection. Critical Thinking! For this reason, adequate detection capabilities are essential to bioterrorism preparedness. Unfortunately, while funding for persuasive essay writing Istituto Firenze, biodefense has led to improvements, such as biosurveillance systems that seek information on disease outbreaks, there are still weaknesses in the system 15 . The systems are still quite rudimentary, relying on a time-consuming process of clinician reporting, laboratory diagnostics, and the phoning, mailing, or faxing of reports 15 . To improve, biosurveillance must be modernized. Bias Adelphi! We need more effective electronic reporting, quick, cheap, and writing academic Lucton School reliable diagnostic tests, and critical thinking bias University the integration of public health surveillance data with that from essay prompts Istituto, other sectors such as law and intelligence agencies 26 . Currently, however, detection systems are not able to critical thinking Adelphi detect biological agents at relatively low concentrations, or to detect multiple biological agents with a single system, and they are not sufficiently portable and user-friendly 26 . Detection ability is further compromised by essay Ellesmere, poor diagnostic capabilities in hospitals. One U.S. study found that 91.2% of U.S. hospitals surveyed lacked the bias University necessary diagnostic technology to analyze and identify biological agents 28 . Hospitals have been targeted as the essay College weakest link in the preparedness chain, in particular due to their inability to accommodate a sudden influx of mass casualties 29 . It has been found that 60% of hospitals lack such resources as the supplies, equipment, beds, and critical bias staff to Ellesmere College respond to a mass casualty situation 28 . Consequently, hospitals lack the surge capacity to attend to patients; this could be disastrous in terms of victims not receiving life-saving treatment, the failure to quarantine infectious individuals, and the possibility of critical thinking, social disorder as a result of journal articles Lucton School, public frustration. The problem is that hospitals need far greater resources to respond to a bioterrorist attack than they do for everyday functioning 30 . Practice scenarios have demonstrated this resource shortage problem on more than one occasion. A simulated attack on a U.S. Bias Adelphi University! city that involved the writing academic pneumonic plague resulted in critical bias University, antibiotic shortages after just three days; the situation worsened until, at the end of the weeklong simulation, 3700 cases of plague had been identified and 2000 “deaths” had been reported 31 . Also of concern is the overall inadequacy of medical countermeasures for biological weapons, identified as one of the critical areas in nursing writing University, greatest need of critical thinking bias, attention 15 . Of the essay Ellesmere College twelve biological agents identified as posing the highest threat to the United States, only anthrax, smallpox, and botulism receive substantial funding for medical countermeasure development and critical thinking bias acquisition 15 . One reason for this is that pharmaceutical companies are not as motivated to fund research and development addressing biological weapons since there is not as great a commercial market as there is for chronic diseases and influenza 15 . Even such practices as decontamination require funding and improvement. The decontamination procedures for academic articles, B. anthracis, previously used in the 2001 anthrax attacks, while effective, were also slow and expensive, and could not be replicated in a situation with mass casualties 15 . In the discussion above, it was argued that high government funding is not overestimated but is appropriate and justified to implement biodefense initiatives required to improve response capacity. This was done by critical Adelphi, demonstrating that the United States is nursing writing Macquarie, ill-equipped to deal with a significant biological weapons attack, and that this lack of preparedness risks further exacerbating the thinking University already potentially catastrophic consequences of a biological weapons attack. Securitization was useful in how to write cause House School, helping justify prioritizing funding to address this issue. 5. Probability of an Attack.

The potentially disastrous consequences of an attack and the lack of preparedness for such an thinking bias Adelphi University event have been demonstrated, but perhaps none of that would matter (or justify prioritizing biodefense) if the essay College probability of an attack by states or terrorists was negligible, due to thinking bias University an absence of capacity or will to carry out a biological weapons attack on the United States. This section will consider the likelihood of a biological weapons attack in the United States by journal articles Lucton School, states or terrorist groups. This issue is hotly contested, with some groups arguing that the bias University chances of an attack are much lower than popular fears and perceptions would suggest, while others, like CIA Director Gross, believe it is “only a matter of persuasive essay words, time”, and predict another biological weapons attack on the United States before 2020 28,32 . As noted earlier, this essay’s focus is critical thinking bias, not on whether media rhetoric is inflated or public perceptions unrealistic. Rather, it will be argued that the increasing availability of biological weapons and the documented intent of various hostile groups to acquire such weapons make an attack more likely. This is where we see the relevance of the precautionary principle, as an uncertainty surrounding the probability of an attack encourages us to adopt the principle, promoting caution where funding is College, allocated in light of the dire consequences that may arise were an attack to occur. Officially ratified in 1975, the Biological Weapons Convention addressed concerns relating to the increasing biological weapons threat 1 . While commendable, the convention had important flaws including an absence of any formal verification of compliance by thinking bias University, states. For instance, after signing the declaration, the Soviet Union continued to develop their biological weapons program (unbeknownst to the global community) 33 . Soviet defectors later confirmed the scale of their program, describing a massive, covert operation 34 . Other countries have also been alleged to have biological weapons programs, including Iraq, North Korea, Iran, Libya, and Syria 33,35 . While Iraq has since claimed that its biological weapons were all destroyed, this has been impossible to verify 2 . Additionally, with the recent emergence of biotechnology industries in low and middle-income countries, most notably Brazil and Ellesmere College India, more states are gaining advanced scientific capacity that could potentially be applied to biological weapons development and production 3 . The key here is that many states now have the scientific and technological capacity to develop biological weapons, but there is a limited capacity for national states or international organizations to monitor such a process 36 . In the BWC definition of critical, biological weapons, the primary focus is on cause effect essay Lime intent—both in terms of the Adelphi University purpose of the microbial agent and the delivery system 1 . Intent is the determining factor in the classification of biological weapons, but this is extremely difficult to measure or prove until after an act has been committed. In the biological sciences, much research is readily applicable to justifiable ends (vaccines), as well as hostile ones (biological weapons). The United States will often accuse other states of hostile intent based solely on the presence of pharmaceutical and nursing Macquarie University biotechnological expertise necessary for biological weapons development 35 . This can be viewed as an thinking University area of overreaction to the bioweapons threat, illustrating how securitization processes seem to legitimize some bad policy responses as well as good ones. Ellesmere College! Despite the critical thinking University fact that most states could use this expertise to essay words Brunel London develop biological weapons, the majority does not.

This suggests that, while capacity is present, the intent to use biological weapons is limited. In fact, over the past century, there is critical thinking, only one confirmed case of a biological weapons attack by one state on another: Japan’s striking against essay writing, China in the 1930s and 1940s 1 . It has been suggested that reasons for thinking, this may stem from fear of persuasive essay Marangoni, retaliation or the difficulties of controlling effects on civilians and combatants 1 . Most countries possessing biological weapons claim their purpose is to deter attacks or biological weapons use by others 35 . In the past, the prospect of terrorists using biological weapons received little attention 3 . It was generally believed that terrorists would not be able to engineer biological weapons because they lacked access to the necessary biological agents, the technological capabilities, and Adelphi the specialized knowledge to weaponize and disseminate a biological weapon 10 . Essay Marangoni Firenze! Skeptics still believe that the advanced genetic capabilities required to produce biological weapons will not be available to bias terrorists in the near future 3 . For instance, the ability to process a biological agent into aerosol form, the nursing essay writing most effective delivery method, requires expertise across a wide range of scientific disciplines 32 . Also suspect is their ability to account for environmental and meteorological conditions that may disrupt weapon dissemination 10, 32 . However, a changing global and scientific landscape has led to a greater potential for the acquisition of biological weapons capacity by terrorist groups. For instance, during the Cold War, the Soviets reportedly employed approximately 55, 000 scientists and technicians at 6 biological weapons research labs and 5 production facilities 37 . Among other things, smallpox was weaponized into ballistic missiles and bombs 38 . In 1997, the United States conducted a visit to one of these research labs to find that the facility was half empty, poorly guarded, and that most of the scientists had left 39 . It is, therefore, possible that the biological agents, the thinking bias Adelphi University equipment, and the human knowledge and Ellesmere expertise have since fallen into thinking bias, the hands of persuasive essay Brunel London (Navitas), rogue states or terrorist organizations. Additionally, methods of biological weapons production are now freely accessible via the Internet, and the technological requirements are not beyond the means of a determined, well-funded terrorist organization 2 . Moreover, recent scientific advances may support biological weapons production by enabling the production of a higher yield of high-quality product 36 . They may also support more effective weaponization, by making agents more resistant to environmental hazards or by making agents targetable against specific biochemical pathways 36 . As these capabilities spread across the critical thinking bias globe, there will be a greater potential for terrorists to harness and use these techniques. While the capabilities of terrorists to engineer biological weapons may have been overstated in persuasive words Brunel University London (Navitas), the past, this can no longer be said to be the case. It has been argued that two of the bias preconditions for assessing the threat of paper School, bioterrorism, vulnerability to an attack and terrorist capability, are in place; the only remaining consideration is intent 40 . It is important to determine whether the intent to acquire and use such weapons is present among terrorist groups. While terrorist groups have not often used biological weapons, it is unclear whether this is due to insufficient capabilities or lack of intent 1 . There are a variety of reasons why they may not be interested in the use of biological weapons, including viewing such weapons as illegitimate in critical thinking bias Adelphi, military combat, risks of tactical failure, perceptions of high technical difficulty, and concerns about the indiscriminate nature of a biological weapons attack 3 . That said, various terrorist groups, including Aum Shinrikyo and articles Lucton School al Qaeda, have a documented interest in the acquisition of biological weapons, and with advances in biotechnology and weaponization, their use may become more attractive 2, 41 . Experts also point to a shift in terrorist intent: “post-modern” terrorism aims to inflict the highest mortality rather than make political statements through violence 33 . This makes biological weapons an attractive option for bias Adelphi University, such groups; one estimate suggests that the cost to cause civilian casualties is only one dollar per square kilometer for biological weapons, compared to 800 and journal Lucton 2000 dollars per square kilometer for nuclear and conventional weapons, respectively 42 . In a similar vein, the recent “war on terror” has created an increasingly decentralized terrorist threat; biological weapons are particularly well-suited to this form of smaller, more informed terrorist groups 28 . In short, while the intent to use biological weapons has been documented in terrorist groups in the past, present circumstances may make the acquisition and use of biological weapons more attractive. To conclude, it is critical bias Adelphi, difficult to either predict or prevent a bioterrorism attack, which makes any assessment of attack probability, by necessity, subject to a high degree of estimation. However, due to the potential severity of consequences of an essay College attack, the bias precautionary principle justifies the government decision to allocate spending according to the severity of consequences, recognizing a situation where it is better to overestimate than to underestimate the probability of an attack. As argued by Michael Moodie of the Chemical and Biological Arms Control Institute, “The odds (of bioterrorism) are increasing…we have to Ellesmere walk a fine line between hyping the risk…and trying to convince people that it is a possibility for which we need to invest resources” 2 . 6. Thinking University! Biodefense Funding. The essay’s previous sections have argued that a biological weapons attack would pose an existential threat to the United States, that there is an inadequate capacity to respond to such an event, and that the possibility exists for nursing essay writing Macquarie, such an attack to critical thinking occur.

This would suggest that a substantial amount of government funding should be allocated towards addressing this threat. The decision to securitize bioweapons facilitated this process. Nursing! Critics who believe the threat has been overstated often argue that the government should not invest so heavily in biodefense, but instead, improve other sectors, such as reducing mortality from endemic disease 11 . Meanwhile, proponents may argue that a securitized issue should receive more funding than issues that are not framed as an existential threat 4 . This section will argue that the response, in critical bias Adelphi, terms of government spending, is justified in that it seeks to protect the public and has not exaggerated the threat of bioterrorism. This will be demonstrated by examining the degree of investment in biodefense, showing that a relatively small amount is persuasive Brunel London, allocated specifically to biodefense. In 2000, the United States federal budget proposed that 10 billion USD be allocated to counterterrorism programs, an increase of 3.3 billion dollars from the previous year 10 . This covered all forms of terrorism, but there was a greater focus on biological terrorism than in the past, with spending on medical countermeasures and critical defense measures increasing fourfold from 91 million USD in persuasive essay prompts Marangoni Firenze, 1998 to 336.6 million in 2000 2 . Thinking Bias University! These trends intensified after the 9/11 attacks and the subsequent “Amerithrax” scare.

While estimates vary, the research consensus is that, since 2001, the bias Adelphi United States government has invested between 50 and 100 billion USD towards research and development in response to the perceived threat of a biological weapons attack 43 . One calculation posited that the essay College U.S. allocated 54.39 billion USD to civilian biodefense programs between 2001 and 2010 44 . This did not include allocations to Bioshield, a program designed to address the lack of adequate medical countermeasures for terrorist attacks; 8.7 billion USD has been allocated since 2004 45 . However, of civilian biodefense funding, 42.57 of the 54.39 billion USD was directed towards programs with multiple goals beyond biodefense improvement, such as basic infectious disease research, programs to improve public health planning and operations, and improving preparedness for a range of disasters 44 . One example is the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Hospital Preparedness Program, which seeks to improve surge capacity in healthcare facilities 44 . Thinking Bias University! Some estimates suggest that up to 92% of biodefense funding has been directed to programs that serve secondary purposes, such as improving preparedness for disease pandemics and natural disasters 15 . One could argue that the amounts dedicated to biodefense as a percentage of Macquarie University, entire budgets are not very substantial given the existential threat posed by an attack. The DHHS, the largest recipient of critical thinking Adelphi, federal biodefense funding, has a budget of 879 billion USD, of which biodefense made up only 0.5% 44 . Similarly, biodefense makes up less than 1% of the Department of Homeland Security budget, and only 0.10% of the essay Department of Defense Budget 44 . Accordingly, it could be argued that the bioweapons threat does not, in fact, take as high a priority in critical thinking bias, terms of government funding as one might expect, given the associated security risk. Paper! Additionally, almost all of the increases in investments have arisen from new funding; other sectors are not suffering at the expense of critical University, biodefense prioritization 12 . High funding is appropriate independent of any controversy relating to estimates of write cause effect essay House School, attack probability, as the precautionary principle would suggest that decisive action is critical thinking bias Adelphi University, warranted given the potential for dire consequences, even with a low probability of the event occurring. These figures show that the funding response is not an overreaction but has been justified and appropriate given the documented threat of biological weapons, targeting programs that are likely to protect the public. The anthrax attacks of writing, 2001 are a case where biological weapons were used against the United States in the absence of any direct provocation. Since then, though the issue is controversial, biological weapons have been considered an important threat to U.S. security. This essay has defended the securitization of the thinking Adelphi biological weapons threat as a means to an end. It is a process to engage in where it is necessary to get approval for policies that are, in themselves, necessary and justified. Persuasive Writing Prompts Istituto Marangoni Firenze! By analyzing the existential threat posed by bioweapons, the lack of preparedness by the United States for such an event, and the possibility of an attack, evidence presented in this essay suggests that these policies and the overall government response were appropriate. Taking these issues into critical University, account, the essay concluded that the threat of bioterrorism has not been overestimated; it warrants securitization and the resulting response measures.

Moving forward now, government must recognize and respond to the reality of an increasing bioterrorism threat. Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism. 2008. World at Risk: The Report of the Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and writing Macquarie Terrorism . New York: Random House. Chapter on ‘Biological Proliferation’. Bellamy RJ, Freedman AR. Bioterrorism.

Quarterly Journal of Medine 2001; 94(4):227-34. Moodie M. Dangerous weapons in dangerous hands: responding to the challenges of chemical and biological terrorism. IFRI Proliferation Papers; 2009. Critical Thinking Bias! Abraham T. The chronicle of a disease foretold: pandemic H1N1 and the construction of a global health security threat. Political Studies 2011; 59: 97-812.

Science and writing academic journal articles Lucton School Environmental Health Network . The Precautionary Principle: A Common Sense Way to thinking bias Protect Public Health and the Environment. January 2000. Floyd R. Can securitization theory be used in normative analysis? Towards a just securitization theory. Security Dialogue 2011; 42 (4): 427-439. Oelsner A. Essay Ellesmere College! ‘(De)Securitisation Theory and critical thinking Adelphi Regional Peace: Some Theoretical Reflections and a Case Study on the Way to Stable Peace’. Essay! 2005.

European University Institute, Fiesole, Italy, pp. 1-21. Waever O. Politics, security, theory. Security Dialogue 2011; 42 (4): 465-480. CNN World. “Former aide: Powell WMD speech ‘lowest point in my life’”.

23 August, 2005. [online] Available at 19/world/powell.un_1_colin-powell-lawrence-wilkerson-wmd-intelligence?_s=PM:WORLD [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. United States General Accounting Office. University! “Combating Terrorism: Need for Comprehensive Threat and Risk Assessments of Chemical and Biological Attacks.” GAO , September, 1999. How To Cause House! Klotz, Lynn. Casting a wider net for countermeasure RD funding decisions. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism . 2007; 5(4): 313-318. Epstein, Gerald. Security is more than public health: commentary on “Casting a wider net for countermeasure RD funding decisions”. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism , 2007; 5(4): 353-357. CBC News Online. “In depth: biological weapons”.

18 February, 2004. [online]. Critical Bias! Available at Ellesmere College, [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. Accelerating Future. Critical Bias University! “Overview: Biological Weapons Convention”. 24 October, 2007. [online] Available at biological-weapons-convention/ [Accessed 12 March, 2012]. US Senate Committee on College Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. “Ten years after 9/11 and the antrax attacks: protecting against biological threats”. Thomas Inglesby, Director of Center for thinking University, Biosecurity of essay writing prompts Istituto Marangoni, UPMC. Critical! 18 October, 2011.

Danzig R, Berkowsky PB. Why should we be concerned about biological warfare? Journal of the research paper American Medical Association 1997; 278: 431-432. Report of WHO Group of Consultants. Health Aspects of Chemical and Biological Weapons.

Geneva 1970, WHO. Stephenson J. Confronting a biological Armageddon: experts tackle prospect of bioterrorism. Critical Bias! Journal of the writing articles American Medical Association 1997; 276: 349-351. Steinbruner J. Terrorism: practical distinctions and research priorities. International Studies Review 2005; 7: 139. Glass TA, Schoch-Spana M. Critical Thinking Bias Adelphi University! Bioterrorism and the people: how to vaccinate a city against College, panic. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2002; 34: 217-23. Dando M. 2005. “Bioterrorism: what is the real threat?”, Risk Case Studies , Nuffield Trust Global Programme on Health, Foreign Policy and Security. Tucker, Jonathan B. Scourge: The Once and critical thinking bias Adelphi University Future Threat of Smallpox. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2001.

Henderson DA. Smallpox: clinical and epidemiologic features. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 1999; 5: 537-39. Essay Marangoni Firenze! Cherry CL, Kainer MA, Ruff TA. Biological weapons preparedness: the role of physicians. International Medicine Journal 2003; 33: 242-253. Critical! Broad, William J., and Judith Miller. Persuasive Essay Words! “Government Report Says 3 Nations Hide Stocks of Smallpox.” New York Times 13 June 1999. Thinking! [online] Available at [Accessed 14 March, 2012]. Thavaselvam D, Vijayaraghavan R. Biological warfare agents.

Journal Pharm Bioallied Sci 2010; 2(3): 179-188. Altman GB. Invisible threats. Nursing Management 2002; 33: 43-7. Bennett RL. Chemical and biological terrorist attacks: an analysis of the preparedness of hospitals for managing victims affected by chemical or biological weapons of mass destruction. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2006; 3: 67-75. Joseph AB, Anthony GM, Craig AD. Writing Academic! “Ambulances to Nowhere: America’s Critical Shortfall in Medical Preparedness for Catastrophic Terrorism.” BCSIA Discussion Paper 2001-15, ESDP Discussion Paper ESDP-2001-07, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, October 2001.

United States General Accounting Office. “Hospital preparedness: GAO report to Congressional Committees.” GAO , August 2003. Fraser M, Fisher S. “Elements of effective bioterrorism preparedness: a planning primer for local public health agencies.” National Association of County and City Health Officials January 2001. United States General Accounting Office. Critical Adelphi University! “Combatting Terrorism: observations on the threat of research articles Lucton School, chemical and biological terrorism”. GAO , October 1999. Atlas R. Bioterrorism: from bias, threat to reality. Annual Review of Microbiology 2002; 56: 167-85. Alibek K, Handelman S. Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World . New York, Random House, 1999. Fidler D, Gostin L. (2008).

The problem of biological weapons. In Biosecurity in write essay Lime House School, the Global Age: Biological Weapons, Public Health, and thinking Adelphi University the Rule of Law . New York: W.W. Norton Company. Petro JB, Plasse TR, McNulty JA. Biotechnology: impact on write House biological warfare and biodefense.

Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2003; 1(3): 161-168. Christopher GW, Cieslak TJ, Pablin JA, Eitzen EM. Biological warfare: a historical perspective. Journal of the thinking Adelphi American Medical Association 1997; 278 (5): 412-7. Persuasive Firenze! Henderson DA. The looming threat of bioterrorism. Science 1998; 283: 1279-1282. Henderson DA. Bioterrorism as a public health threat.

Emerging Infectious Diseases 1998; 4: 488-92. Siegrist DW. The threat of biological attack: why concern now? Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999; 5: 505-508. Dunn LA. “Next generation weapons of mass destruction and weapons of thinking Adelphi University, mass effect terrorism”. Persuasive Essay! ASCO Final Report, Defense Threat Reduction, January 2008. Pearson GS. “The Threat of Deliberate Disease in the 21 st Century”. Critical Thinking Bias Adelphi University! Henry L.! Stimson Center Report, No. 24. Washington, DC: Stimson Cent, 1998. Franco C. Billions for critical, biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2008-FY2009.

Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2008; 6 (2): 131-146. Franco C. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding FY2009-FY2010. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2009; 7 (3): 1-19. Franco C, Sell TK. Federal agency biodefense funding FY2010-FY2011. Biosecurity and Bioterrorism 2010; 8 (2): 129-149. Written by: Patrick Saunders-Hastings. Written at: University of Sussex.

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Diaper Manufacturer Business Plan. Baby Nappies World plans to enter and penetrate the baby nappies and sanitary pads market. Baby Nappies World is poised to take advantage of the impressive growth rate and minimal local competition in this market. It will have a dedicated and experienced staff, excellent order procurement, and effective management and marketing. Research? Read Full Business Plan. Critical Thinking Adelphi? The Falls River Theatre will provide the residents of Falls River with a long-awaited, hometown movie theatre. How To Write Effect House School? The films shown will be second run releases of the most popular movies in two target markets: families and young adults. Read Full Business Plan. 21. Parenting Centre Business Plan. A Mother#8217;s Place is a new company targeted to open in downtown Santa Cruz.

We will provide a family-friendly environment with high quality customer service to meet the daily emotional, physical and social well-being needs of mothers, young children and other family members. Read Full Business Plan. 22. Recreation Center Business Plan. Play Time for Kids has identified the family entertainment industry as its primary interest and the company has focused its efforts on the development of one or more family entertainment centers (FEC) to provide quality family entertainment activities to the communities in the Our County, Big City area. Read Full Business Plan. Thinking University? 23. Tutoring Service Business Plan. Bryan#8217;s Tutoring Service offers a wide range of academic subjects. Sessions can be set up as private or students may form groups for tutoring.

Private sessions offer intense individual assistance, but groups sessions can also be beneficial with decreased economic costs and the use of team-based approach that the business program encourages. Read Full Business Plan. 24. Educational Software Business Plan. Paper Articles Lucton? Third Degree I.D. designs, develops, and markets instructional products and services for the corporate, education, government, and healthcare e-learning industries. It provides a core deliverable of programs, courses, and learning objects for the distance education, distributed learning, and e-learning markets. Read Full Business Plan. Markam Driving School (MDS) offers a wide range of driver services. It is ultimately the goal of the company to be a one-stop facility for all driver needs, including registration, licensing, etc., but at this time Markam mainly offers private and commercial driver education in the Seattle, WA area.

MDS is positioned as a low-cost facility with excellent service. Read Full Business Plan. 26. Computer Software Business Plan. FoodFun Lifeskills Instructional Software (FoodFun LIS) is a start-up organization whose vision is to create the finest education/entertainment software for bias non-reading individuals with developmental disabilities.

The software product is designed and created for the special education industry. It will be constructive by teaching certain lifeskills and will be fun to use, encouraging the student to use it as often as possible. Read Full Business Plan. 27. Teachers Employment Agency Business Plan. is a new job search website that is designed to provide teachers with part-time or seasonal employment, supplementing their current income.

The site will be effective in matching educated, mature, responsible educators with employers in need of their part-time or summer assistance. Read Full Business Plan. 28. Agriculture Farm Business Plan. Botanical Bounty is working hard to write cause effect School, become a leading producer of botanical plants for the natural supplement industry as well as plant nurseries. By leveraging a well thought-out business plan executed by a skilled management team, Botanical Bounty will generate over $216,000 in sales in the next three years. Read Full Business Plan. 29. Agriculture Fruit Farm Business Plan.

Farmers Group is a company whose mission is to thinking bias Adelphi University, provide high quality, nutritional, and flavourful vegetables and strawberries for essay Ellesmere consumption in both near and remote areas. University? Additionally, the company will provide high quality planting materials for use nationwide. Read Full Business Plan. Silvera Sons prepares green Arabica coffee beans grown in Brazil for exportation to American specialty roasters and sells to wholesalers on the Brazilian market. Essay? Our coffee stands out from the competition. We prepare the top five percent, in terms of quality standards, of all Arabica beans on critical University, the market. Our customers seek this product as it provides them with a point of differentiation to specialty roasters. Read Full Business Plan. Oasis Juice is planning to expand its operation to include distribution to stores within the essay Istituto Marangoni, entire state.

Owner funding and internally generated cash flow will enable most of the expansion plans. The company will also secure a $100,000 short-term loan. Sales projections for bias Adelphi the next three years are based on current sales success with the target customer base. This plan will result in sales revenues growing to $1.2 million by Year 2. Read Full Business Plan. 32. Feed and Farm Supply Business Plan.

Latheethen Feeds , Inc. is journal Lucton School a well-established custom feed store. The company is engaged in the production of custom livestock feeds, bird feed, deer feed, and critical thinking University, other animal products in relation to livestock animals, pets, etc. Nursing? Latheethen Feeds, Inc. has recently expanded its production facility (custom mill) and is well-positioned to market its workroom production beyond its present client base. Read Full Business Plan. The Mountain Brook Fitness Center is a thriving business-person#8217;s club but is also one of the only family-focused clubs in the Monroe area. Fifty percent of our members are under the age of 45 and have young children. Currently, the thinking University, center has 900 members. Prompts Istituto Marangoni? A center membership is $800 a year. The Mountain Brook Fitness Center wants to add an critical Adelphi additional 300 members with families over the next three years. Read Full Business Plan. 34.

Fitness Equipment Business Plan. Circuit Fitness Importing is a start-up business that has become the exclusive importer of the Wega Corporation#8217;s innovative Esercitazione Diritta (Exercise Standing) fitness equipment. Circuit Fitness Importing is poised to receive the exclusive license to sell this patented equipment, already very popular in Europe, in the U.S.A. Words Brunel (Navitas)? Read Full Business Plan. 35. Adelphi? Martial Arts School Business Plan. Cents and Sensibility will be a value-priced taekwondo martial arts school serving its customers in our community by providing several programs for a variety of purposes, ranging from basic martial arts, to self defense, to esteem and life skills building, and more. Cents and Sensibility Martial Arts School plans to enhance its programs as it expands, developing new programs to ensure the write effect essay, students have as much access to the different aspects of Songahm Taekwondo as possible. Critical University? Read Full Business Plan. 36. Persuasive Essay Istituto Marangoni Firenze? Physical Fitness Gym Business Plan.

Ladies Only Fitness is critical thinking bias Adelphi University a women-only health club that creates a personalized environment for women to pursue their fitness goals. We have the best equipment and research articles Lucton, the best training program in this arena. We prepare our clients for success because we have the best weight-management program. Positive Lifestyle Systems is a truly responsible and effective weight-management program. We offer this program with confidence. It is unbeatable. Read Full Business Plan. 37. Wholesale Bicycle Distributor Business Plan. Wheelie Deals is critical Adelphi University a wholesale distributor that serves the retail bicycle industry. Wheelie Deals will carve out a focused niche within this industry, providing closeouts, last-year models, and fairly-used bicycles.

Currently, most of the large wholesalers will occasionally have a closeout to offer, however, the persuasive essay words (Navitas), availability of thinking Adelphi special deals is spotty. Wheelie Deals will quickly become the nursing essay, #1 source to provide retail shops with above average margins. Thinking Bias Adelphi University? Read Full Business Plan. 38. Clothing Manufacturer Business Plan. New Look is a recent start-up manufacturer of an upscale clothing line targeted at males between the Lucton School, ages of 20 and 40.

New Look not only develops the clothing line, but supports it with advertising and promotion campaigns. The company plans to strengthen its partnership with retailers by developing brand awareness. New Look intends to market its line as an alternative to existing clothing lines, and differentiate itself by marketing strategies, exclusiveness, and high brand awareness. Read Full Business Plan. 39. Cosmetics Manufacturing Business Plan. Bluespa is a company that has created a brand concept consisting of University both skin care and athletic apparel utilizing multiple channels of distribution. We are seeking recurring investment to fund the growth of the brand, and position the company for an IPO. This plan shows how Bluespa will reach profitability in persuasive essay writing Istituto, our third year of operation and generate shareholder return on equity within five years. Read Full Business Plan. Bias? 40.

Plastics Recycling Business Plan. The growing utilization of persuasive words (Navitas) plastics in industrial and consumer applications, combined with increased consumer awareness surrounding solid waste recycling, has led to critical thinking bias University, an increased demand for recycled plastic resins and products. One of the fastest growing types of collected plastic materials for recycling is polyethylene terephthalate (#8220;PET#8221;) from post-consumer beverage and water bottles. Replay Plastics will capitalize on Ellesmere College, the opportunities in critical University, the recycled resin and packaging markets through two main divisions: a Recycling Division and a Packaging Division. Read Full Business Plan. 41. Cleaning Products Business Plan. The marketplace for persuasive writing prompts Istituto Marangoni janitorial products and critical bias, services is changing, both in Lucton School, nature and scope. The consumer is becoming more conscious of the environmental impact of thinking bias University cleaners as the nursing essay writing Macquarie, market expands. ChemSafe offers a innovative line of critical University biodegradable, environmentally safe, citrus cleaners to janitorial services, retail outlets and consumers.

The product line includes: Automotive cleaners; Industrial cleaners; Degreasers; Hand cleaners; Odour control; Tar remover; Concrete cleaners; Vehicle wash and wax products. Read Full Business Plan. 42. Office Furniture Manufacturer Business Plan. Willamette Furniture helps create pleasant and productive office environments with well-designed furniture that incorporates new technology into the classic office mode in persuasive prompts Marangoni Firenze, which real people can work happily. We are sensitive to the look and feel of good wood and fine furniture as well as to high-powered personal computing. We always provide the critical thinking Adelphi, best possible value to our customers who care about writing articles Lucton, quality office environments, and we want every dollar spent with us to be well spent. Read Full Business Plan. Comgate is a custom mill house specializing in critical thinking University, creating architectural woodwork in the form of wall paneling, custom cabinets, and other products for the local residential market. Academic Journal Lucton School? After initial losses and several thin profit years of competitive bidding construction projects, Comgate is creating this business plan in order to bring its mission statement into clearer focus. Prior years were characterized by hectic efforts to University, bid as many jobs as possible.

Margins were thin as pricing policy was #8220;flexible#8221; for essay Istituto fear that there would be insufficient work for thinking production staff. Read Full Business Plan. 44. Retail Furniture Manufacturer Business Plan. Producing and selling furniture is a $12 billion industry.

The focus of the industry is on the affluent customer who can spend upwards of $3,000 on furniture purchases. In our region, there are fifteen furniture stores that are competing for words (Navitas) these customers with deep pockets. Those customers who can#8217;t afford these high prices are left with a poor selection of inferior products. Read Full Business Plan. Pink Lady Bug Designs LLC (PLBD) is a provider of high-quality, uniquely crafted chocolates, gift baskets and other fine products that are sold for the purpose of raising awareness and funds for women#8217;s health programs.

Read Full Business Plan. The Discount Pharmacy#8217;s main goal is to provide prescription medications for critical thinking Adelphi our customers at the lowest prices on the market. We will be able to sell prescriptions at reduced prices by carefully maintaining efficiencies in our operations and by targeting a specific segment of the market those customers who pay for how to write cause effect Lime House their prescription medications themselves. Read Full Business Plan. Critical Bias Adelphi University? Fargo Medical Laboratories (FML) is a start-up company committed to providing the most convenient, friendliest blood testing service to academic articles, the physicians of the Main Street Professional Building and critical thinking bias, the surrounding area. Read Full Business Plan. Writing Academic Journal Lucton? 48. Medical Equipment Business Plan. MedNexis, Inc. (the company) is a medical device development company that has designed and patented medical devices which it plans to produce and market.

A magnetic muscle stimulator/field generator has been designed with the participation of leading medical personnel and bias Adelphi, biomedical engineers. One patent is initially incorporated. Read Full Business Plan. 49. Real Estate Broker Business Plan. While many people hope one day to purchase their own home, cultural barriers and essay College, shortages in affordable housing are just two of the issues that can prevent these dreams from materializing. Reed Properties is working to keep these dreams alive. This new real estate brokerage will not only thinking bias Adelphi define success by the number of units closed and essay words London, sales volume but also by whether people were helped in the process. Read Full Business Plan.

Jolly#8217;s Java and Bakery (JJB) is a start-up coffee and bakery retail establishment located in Southwest Washington. JJB expects to catch the thinking bias Adelphi, interest of a regular loyal customer base with its broad variety of persuasive Brunel London (Navitas) coffee and pastry products. The company plans to build a strong market position in the town, due to the partners#8217; industry experience and mild competitive climate in thinking Adelphi University, the area. Cause Effect Essay Lime House? JJB aims to critical bias Adelphi, offer its products at a competitive price to meet the demand of the middle-to higher-income local market area residents and tourists. Read Full Business Plan. Sumptuous Cuisine Catering is essay writing a local catering company serving both business and private clients within a ten mile radius. Critical Adelphi? Established in Lucton, 2005, the business has operated a catering kitchen and specialized in thinking University, full-service catering and event planning for upscale events in the region.

The business event management, event staff, a variety of Lucton cuisine for critical bias Adelphi University breakfasts, lunches, dinners, and appetizers, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverage service, floral design, space design and decor, musicians and DJs, event equipment and furniture rentals, and other event services. Read Full Business Plan. New World Delicatessen (NWD) is an eating establishment focusing on essay writing prompts, heathy, nutritious, and fast food to the local downtown area. Critical Bias Adelphi University? The New World Deli will be an upscale deli specializing in a combination of fast hot or cold sandwiches and salads plus specific recipes focusing on the Pacific Northwest cuisine. Based on this distinct menu, New World Deli will follow a differentiation strategy that will provide unique, or hard to find choices to deli patrons. Paper Articles? Read Full Business Plan.

53. Fast Food Restaurant Business Plan. Fresin Fries is a locally owned fast food outlet that will be positioned as an international franchise through our creative approach to the company#8217;s image and detail presentation. Fresin Fries will provide a combination of critical thinking bias Adelphi excellent food at value pricing, with fun packaging and atmosphere. Academic? Fresin Fries is the answer to an increasing demand for snack-type fast food, to be consumed while window shopping and walking around inside a shopping mall. Thinking Bias Adelphi University? Read Full Business Plan. 54. Fine Dining Restaurant Business Plan. Gabri#8217;s Lounge Restaurant is a 60-seat fine-dining restaurant with a 20 seat lounge.

We focus on essay Ellesmere College, our New American-Swedish menu with a touch of critical bias Asian influence. The menu will be inspired from different countries#8217; specialties and appeal to a diverse clientele. Persuasive Essay Prompts Istituto Marangoni? Read Full Business Plan. 55. Food Preparation Business Plan. What#8217;s For Dinner? is an critical bias exciting, new business with a unique approach to helping people enjoy home cooked meals with their families. Customers will come to our office location and prepare 12 meals that they pre-select from a menu in a party atmosphere. Lucton? In two hours, they will have a month#8217;s worth of critical Adelphi University meals to put in their freezer. Read Full Business Plan.

JavaNet , unlike a typical cafe, will provide a unique forum for communication and entertainment through the medium of the essay words Brunel, Internet. The public wants: (1) access to the methods of communication and critical thinking bias Adelphi University, volumes of information now available on research School, the Internet, and (2) access at bias University, a cost they can afford and in such a way that they aren#8217;t socially, economically, or politically isolated. JavaNet#8217;s goal is to provide the community with a social, educational, entertaining, atmosphere for persuasive essay Istituto worldwide communication. Read Full Business Plan. Thinking Adelphi University? There is a need in community for a large selection of quality used cars, and Integrity Auto Sales will sell these top-quality used vehicles at a competitive price to writing articles Lucton School, customers in the area.

The owner and sales manager have over 30 years of combined experience in new and used auto sales. Bias Adelphi University? We will continue to develop our excellent working relationship with local dealers and auctions to essay College, bring the savings to the customer. Read Full Business Plan. 58. Home Accessories and Gifts Business Plan. The Scarlet Tassel is a start-up retail store offering eclectic home accessories and gifts to consumers wanting to create a personalized home environment that #8220;I#8217;m home#8221; feeling.

The Scarlet Tassel plans to cater to middle- and upper-class consumers who look beyond the national home accessory and gift chain stores for those expressions of individual personality and style. Read Full Business Plan. Thinking Adelphi? 59. Home Decoration Fabrics Business Plan. Interior Views is a retail store offering home decorator fabrics and complementary home accessories and resources. It is now approaching its fifth year in essay writing University, business. This destination store offers the advantages of providing fabrics specifically designed for home decorator use in Adelphi University, fabric widths of 54 inches and greater.

Over 900 fabrics are available on the floor at any time with more than 10,000 sample fabrics for custom #8220;cut#8221; orders. Read Full Business Plan. 60. Gifts, Novelties, Souvenir Business Plan. Academic Articles School? The Avant-Garde Shop is a retail store specializing in the sale of novelty of various product mix. The store, however, will emphasise the sale of official merchandise of the critical thinking, Avant-Garde brand with a full assortment of apparel, accessories and stationary, as well as other lifestyle related novelties. Read Full Business Plan.

Basket of persuasive essay writing prompts Istituto Marangoni Goodies (BOG) is a premier gift basket retailer. Thinking? BOG is concentrating on words University (Navitas), making gourmet gift baskets out of a wide range of high-quality ingredients. In addition to having several flagship baskets, BOG will also offer the option of a custom basket allowing the customer to choose the ingredients themselves. Read Full Business Plan. ReHabiliments is a clothing and apparel business with located in Sandybar Harbour. The company sells trendy clothing and apparel, such as casual and critical bias Adelphi, active wear, head gear, work-out gear, leather coats, and baseball jackets to an international market consisting of individuals of all ages, from all walks of life. Read Full Business Plan. 63.

Drapery Fabricator Business Plan. Cutting Edge Drapery is a well-established decorators#8217; workroom. The company is engaged in the production of essay draperies, slip covers, and other textile products in accordance with the designs and concepts of thinking interior designers. Cutting Edge Drapery has recently expanded its production facilities and is well-positioned to market its workroom production beyond its present client base. Read Full Business Plan. 64. Custom-Printed T-Shirts Business Plan. Essay Ellesmere College? Your T-Shirt! is an critical thinking bias Adelphi University exciting new business that allows people to custom design a shirt (specifically the design on the front or back) any way that they would like. By intelligently leveraging cutting edge technology, Your T-Shirt! will harness the how to cause Lime House, power of computer sublimation to allow custom shirt printing in production runs as small as one unit. Read Full Business Plan.

65. Convenience Store Business Plan. MillenniumMart is the critical, convenience store of the 21st Century future, fulfilling a need that will continue to exist into the future the need for speed. MillenniumMart will be the first fully automated, 24 hour convenience store that is more like an enormous dispensing machine than the traditional store. Read Full Business Plan. Mahogany Western Wear is a new apparel store that caters to the African-American cowboy community in essay writing prompts Marangoni, Houston, Texas. As our name suggests our focus is to provide western wear apparel and accessories, and position ourselves as the top retail store servicing this particular market.

Read Full Business Plan. Parkdale Meats , is thinking bias a startup specialty butcher shop to nursing writing Macquarie, be launched in the coming year. It will sell a wide menu of meats to critical bias Adelphi, customers including medium- and high-income residents of Parkdale, as well as high-income residents of neighboring towns, and high-end caterers. Read Full Business Plan. 68. Write Cause Essay Lime? Cell Phones Retailer Business Plan. Adelphi? Garbles Cellular Phones is taking advantage of an words Brunel University (Navitas) opportunity to critical thinking, become a highly distinguished and recognized leader in the mobile phone communications industry. Nursing Writing Macquarie University? It is the critical thinking Adelphi University, goal of our company to nursing essay writing, become established as the leading distributor of wireless communications services in bias University, the metro area. Read Full Business Plan. Moms, Maids, and More is a wedding attire shop like no other.

While most retail bridal shops focus on selling wedding gowns, our focus is everything else. We will cater to nursing essay, the mothers of the bride and groom, bridesmaids, and critical bias, flower girls. Essay Writing University? In addition, we will provide an array of University accessories for University London (Navitas) all the female members of the critical thinking Adelphi, bridal party. Read Full Business Plan. Write Cause Essay Lime? 70. Automotive Car Repair Business Plan. Mad Keen Motors is thinking bias a family-owned business located in a suburb of London. Writing Articles Lucton School? It has been under the ownership of the Keen family for 35 years and has grown from critical Adelphi, a single mechanical repair shop to five locations that deal with body and mechanical repairs, vehicle storage and towing, washing and valeting and used car sales. Read Full Business Plan. 71.

Recycling Waste Materials Business Plan. Mid-Atlantic Recycling#8217;s area of business will be to collect, recycle/compost, and market waste from municipality waste processing plants for use as a consumer good. Our recycled waste will be targeted toward fertilizer manufacturers, nurseries, landscapers, farmers, government agencies, golf courses, and other. Prompts Istituto Marangoni? Read Full Business Plan. Portland Mobile Auto Inspectors is a mobile car inspection service for prospective used car buyers practicing due diligence. Portland Mobile Auto Inspectors travels around with all of the necessary test equipment to critical thinking Adelphi, inspect used cars. Within one to University, one-and-a-half hours, the inspection is complete and the customer is given a detailed custom printout that indicates the thinking Adelphi, tests performed and the results, thereby indicating the condition of the vehicle.

Read Full Business Plan. 73. Essay Words University London? Auto Repair Service Business Plan. Critical Bias Adelphi? Quick and Dirty Auto Repair aims to offer high-quality auto repair services and a full range of nursing essay writing University auto parts. QDAR focuses on personalized service to its customers by offering convenience and rapid service. Additionally, QDAR is technologically savvy with computerized monitoring of all parts inventory, to ensure that parts are always in stock, while keeping a balanced level of inventory to critical, maximize inventory turnover. Read Full Business Plan.

Soapy Rides will be providing customers with three services: exterior car washing, , interior cleaning, and detailing. Soapy Rides has no true competitors that are trying to offer a high quality service for a reasonable rate. Most are trying to compete on price alone. Soapy Rides#8217; ability to provide a high quality service, both in regards to the actual washing as well as customer service is all based on their ability to find the, best employees. Read Full Business Plan. 75. Carpet and Upholstery Cleaning Services.

Like New Carpet Cleaning will sell carpet and upholstery cleaning services to home and Adelphi, condominium owners, building its brand around the fact that it will make carpets look #8220;like new.#8221; To that end, the business will raise $57,500 from outside investors to purchase its delivery van, carpet-cleaning equipment, and develop a unique, service-oriented website which will keep administrative costs low and drive sales through its simple and easy accessibility for the consumer. Read Full Business Plan. 76. Catering Company Business Plan. Fressen Catering is nursing essay writing Macquarie University a kosher catering company. Fressen offers creative, colorful, and unusual food options for kosher as well as the critical bias, traditional standbys. Articles Lucton? The service offerings are quite a change relative to the existing kosher catering market which is quite stagnant. Read Full Business Plan. Critical Adelphi? 77. Cause? Commercial Photography Business Plan.

Flash Commercial Photography will serve small and medium-sized businesses and non-profits for all of their studio photography needs by creating beautiful shots that serve the client#8217;s needs, offering excellent service and flexibility with a personal touch, and University, offering value-added services related to School, photography. Read Full Business Plan. PC Repair will provide computer and technical consulting (repairs, training, networking and upgrade service) to local small businesses as well as home PC users. The company will focus on marketing, responsiveness, quality, and critical Adelphi University, creating and retaining customer relations. Read Full Business Plan. 79. Janitorial Services Business Plan. Clean Office Pros is a new cleaning service specializing in office cleaning and serving the essay, Kansas City, Missouri area. The business will sell office cleaning and related services to businesses with office spaces of any size. The business also offers office cleaning, floor treatment, carpet cleaning, and window cleaning for businesses with office space in the Kansas City area. Read Full Business Plan.

80. University? General Freight Trucking Business Plan. Mike#8217;s Trucking Service is a trucking company that aims to be one of the largest trucking companies in paper Lucton School, the country. Mike#8217;s is initially focusing on the food industry with plans to diversify into new industries. Mike#8217;s has chosen the University, trucking industry as the growth prospects are encouraging and research, stable, with trucking dominating the freight industry in critical thinking bias University, this country. Read Full Business Plan. San Francisco Limo is a limousine service serving customers with top quality transportation services using late model limousine sedans. San Francisco Limo will generate $52,000 in net profit by persuasive essay words Brunel London year three. Read Full Business Plan. City Taxi is critical thinking University a company whose mission is to provide reliable, timely, and safe taxi cab services by Lucton School using complete, in-car credit and debit card access, along with computer-aided dispatch. The company will establish its presence in the industry by thinking University acquiring an existing taxi cab association, Mighty Cab, a family-owned business that was formed 12 years ago.

Read Full Business Plan. Ellesmere College? Integrity Auto Sales plans to provide a unique car buying experience to its customers. One that focuses on customer satisfaction first. We understand that vehicle purchasing is a necessary, but sometimes unpleasant experience. Our goal is to provide the customer with an bias Adelphi enjoyable, honest service by satisfying individual customers practical transportation needs with a quality product. Read Full Business Plan.

84. Personal Event Planning Business Plan. Occasions strives to be the best choice of clients by helping to ease their event planning burden. Through consistent, predictable professionalism, Occasions will ensure a worry and research Lucton School, hassle-free event at critical thinking Adelphi University, a reasonable price. By combining old fashioned values, going the Ellesmere College, extra mile, and critical thinking bias Adelphi University, using cutting edge event-planning software, Occasions will lead the market, providing the same quality results, every time. Read Full Business Plan.

The Corporate Retreat Professionals (CRP) is an event planning company specializing in academic journal Lucton, corporate customers. CRP will offer two types of services, retreat training services as well as product launch event planning. The retreat training services will be either leadership development training or teaming skills training. For both types of retreats, CRP can take care of the University, planning of the event, as well as actually hosting the training through the use of one of CRP#8217;s strategic business partners. Read Full Business Plan. To be continued… We will keep updating this list until the world runs out of sample business plans!

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In most books, small roles are never very significant, but in A Man For All Seasons one of the characters proves this wrong. The . common Man is an ordinary person who the audience can relate to. This ties in with one of the main idea of the play, human nature. The audience learns that the Common Man can jump into different roles and critical assume that characters identity. The roles he plays although modest, are still very important to the development of the Macquarie University plot.

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Central and Eastern Europe Environmental Issues Essay. Eastern Europe’s environmental problems are not as simple as they may seem on critical thinking University, the surface. The environmental problems that face Eastern Europe are complicated by political, economic, and social implications. The current environmental problems are a bi-product of rapid industrial expansion under a socialist government. The soviet government was more concerned with surpassing the western cultures in technology and military might than the environmental damage they were doing to their country.

The following paragraphs will address the current environmental problems facing Eastern Europe, the various solutions to the environmental problems, and the efforts taken to correct the environmental problems. Persuasive Essay Brunel University London (Navitas)? Environmental Problems in Europe Eastern Europe during the 1980s had rapidly become the bias Adelphi University industrial giant for the Soviet Union. Massive industrial factories would be built throughout the eastern bloc of the Soviet Union and the factories used obsolete technology to provide the industrial needs of the country. The heavy industrial activity characteristic of the post-World War II period took a heavy toll on both the region’s population and its environment“(U. S. University? Environmental Protection Agency, 2010). Various local populations were suffering from high rates of cancer, respiratory issues, and infant mortalities. The environments in critical the areas around the industrial regions were also being damaged on unprecedented levels. Legacy of Pollution According to the U. How To Write Essay Lime House School? S. Environmental Protection Agency (2010), The outmoded, energy-intensive technologies were such an integral part of Central and thinking Adelphi, Eastern Europe (CEE) and New Independent States of the former Soviet Union (NIS) region’s economy in Lucton the post-war era not only wasted resources, but also caused severe local, regional, and trans-boundary pollution problems.

Not only was the industrial technology outdated, the critical communication among the post-war government, local governments, and various environmental ministries was ripe with secrecy and non-communication between each other. The results would prove to be catastrophic pollution of the air, surface water, soil, ground water, marine zones, and coastal areas. Air Pollution Air pollution in Eastern Europe is the top concern because of the levels of essay writing Istituto Marangoni Firenze sulfur dioxide found in thinking bias Adelphi University all the industrial areas. High levels of sulfur dioxide exposure can lead to asthmatic children and adults, respiratory illness, decreased lung defenses, and worsening of existing cardiovascular diseases. When Sulfur Dioxide is exposed to rain it creates acid rain and raises the acidity level of everything it touches such as soil, lakes, and streams. Buildings corrode faster and there is also a reduction in persuasive essay writing prompts Firenze visibility. Water Pollution Agricultural and industrial practices were causing large spread water pollution because of outdated waste regulation practices and no environmental regulation.

According to Liroff (1990), Drinking-water supplies throughout Eastern Europe are heavily contaminated. Vast reaches of the Vistula River in Poland, which drains much of the country, are classified as unfit for use even by industry. The Baltic and Black Sea coasts are badly degraded by domestic sewage, agricultural run-off, and heavy metals and Adelphi, organic pollutants from industry. The Eastern Europe governments have been slow to implement solutions to purify the drinking water in the various regions. Soil Pollution Samples of produce from upper Poland have yielded 30 to 70 higher percentages of cadmium, lead, zinc and mercury then acceptable levels listed by the World Health Organization. The high percentages of these heavy materials indicate how polluted the soil is in the upper polish regions. In Hungary alone, waste generators dispose of more than 500,000 tons waste found in effect essay Lime House School illegal landfills. The local government has trouble tracking any kind of critical thinking bias University waste transportation and disposal due to obsolete tracking processes, and because not all waste is indicated as waste before being disposed of. Eastern Europe is wreaked with not only environmental problems, but also with government, and local government problems also. The good news is effect essay Lime that there are viable solutions to University the environmental problems that the Eastern Europe countries are having. Viable Environmental Solutions.

The environmental problems that face Central and Eastern Europe are much the same as any other country in the world with one exception, the proximity of the research paper environmental hazards. Most countries in the world deal with environmental hazards, but the bias University hazards are spread out over different parts of the country. Central and essay Ellesmere College, Eastern Europe are unique when it comes to Adelphi environmental disasters because Central and Eastern Europe was the persuasive essay writing Istituto industrial might behind the critical University soviet military. For every environmental disaster Central and persuasive Marangoni, Eastern Europe faces, there is a viable solution thanks to modern technology and bias, proven environmental regulations. Possible environmental solutions Because of the vast environmental disasters throughout Central and Eastern Europe there are several possible environmental solutions. The possible environmental solutions that Central and Eastern Europe are considering will be decided by the cost of the solution, ease of implementation, and research articles School, consultation from environmental agencies such as the Adelphi United States Environmental Agency. Prompts Istituto Marangoni Firenze? Even with the various economic, governmental agency communication problems, and various ecological disasters Central and Eastern Europe have a number of viable solutions.

Air Pollution Solutions One of the bias possible remedies for air quality in Europe would be to switch to burning low sulfur coal. When coal is burned, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and nursing essay Macquarie University, mercury compounds are released. For that reason, coal-fired boilers are required to have control devices to bias reduce the essay College amount of emissions that are released. The amount of critical bias University sulfur oxides produced by power can be reduced by using coal with low amounts of sulfur present. Effect House? Another possible air solution would be to use scrubbers. Scrubbers are an critical thinking bias Adelphi, air pollution control system that removes pollutants from the research paper articles air stream they are most commonly used to help control the emissions of sulfur into our air. There are a few types of scrubber, Air scrubbers, wet scrubbers, and gas scrubbers are differentiated by the manner in thinking Adelphi University which they remove gases and particulates from the air; either wet or dry. Ellesmere? Wet scrubbers literally wash dust and particles out of the air. Critical Bias University? Exhaust air is forced into a spray chamber, where fine water particles cause the dust to drop from the air stream. The dust-laden water is then treated to remove the solid material and is often re-circulated. Dry scrubbers are used more commonly with acid gases.

The pollutant is collected on or in a solid or liquid material, which is injected into writing prompts, the gas stream. A dry scrubber produces a dry product that must be collected downstream from this control device. Water Pollution Solutions One of the many possible water pollution solutions would be aeration. Aerating is the process to University bring river water at the bottom of rivers up to the surface so that the entire river is oxygenated by the atmosphere surface to bottom. They can do this by pumping air into bodies of water at the very bottom. On the other hand Central and Eastern Europe could use more wastewater treatment plants these types of plants would drastically help the water quality in how to write cause effect essay Lime Central and Eastern Europe by removing harmful bacteria’s, animal wastes and pollutants and then recycling the clean water back into their system.. Soil Pollution Solutions There are many different types of soil pollution that hurt the environment and by treating Sewage before dumping wastes would cut back on many of the current environmental issues.

Spraying pesticides may be good for the crops but it’s destroying the soil and the drain off into the water system is affected by this as well. Cutting down on bias, the usage of fossil fuels would create less solid waste and harmful gasses that may seep into the soil. Eastern Europe needs to adapt to more of these possible solutions. Using low sulfur coals, Scrubbers and limestone in the remedies of air pollution would set a chain reaction in the environment the water would then become cleaner along with the soil. These remedies may not fix the issue completely for essay, Eastern Europe, but it would help them greatly. Efforts to correct Central and Eastern Europe have been left untouched since the end of the Nazi/German rule and the fall of the Great Berlin Wall on November 9th, 1989. Thinking? Many of the people living in such a terrible environment still struggle every day to Ellesmere College survive, but it is not a war against bias, other countries it has turned into an environmental war and one that is near impossible for them to essay College win without help. As with most all larger countries around the world Eastern and Central Europe are suffering from the same types of environmental issues but, in their case they do not have the means that we do in order to make the necessary changes that they need. Practical and low cost solutions need to be the wave of the future and used as often as possible. The problems need to be prioritized based on critical thinking, the highest health risk and the surrounding public will be educated and involved in its’ own environmental decision making. Essay Writing Prompts Firenze? AIR- Airborne pollution is said to be one of the greatest environmental risks identified in the region.

There is a large amount of sulfur dioxide found in the air, it comes from critical thinking Adelphi several different places but are byproducts of several different types of older industrial facilities like the old coal burning power plants that used to be found there (EPA). The United states are one of the few countries in which it is a law for vehicle owners to participate in an annual emissions test. The Czech government however has accelerated its’ efforts in cleaning the write cause air pollution through it $240 million project that will assist its residents in converting homes from critical thinking bias coal to natural gas in writing Macquarie University hopes to subsidize conversion costs (EPA). Along with this local agencies in many areas lack the equipment needed to assess and thinking bias Adelphi, identify local problems so the research Krakow Air Monitoring project. This project is under the supervision of the thinking bias University EPA and the Polish environmental experts are working together to essay Ellesmere College identify and measure the major sources of industrial, residential and vehicle emissions testing (EPA). Along with such a huge problem facing the bias countries the EPA has also transferred some very low-cost techniques to help them out. Water pollution- Along with clean air there is the Krakow Water and Wastewater Improvement project, the idea here is to provide safe drinking water to paper articles city residents.

Most people are drinking from contaminated drinking sources, especially those outside of the city limits. The idea here is critical University not only to decontaminate the water before it is consumed, but to attack the problem at the source and to educate the people of the possible affects that waste dumping in unsecure facilities can have on them and their families. The Krakow project as a result installed modern ozonation and chlorination equipment that in turn disinfected the persuasive essay words Brunel London (Navitas) drinking water of critical bias University 400,000 residents in the area. It also focused on the improvement the forming of the Raba River Watershed Association as well as focusing on the agricultural runoff into local streams and nursing essay writing Macquarie, rivers (EPA). In addition to thinking bias Adelphi this a team of EPA, Wisconsin, and Latvian environmental managers have also come up with a solution to protect supplies of future ground water in Daugavplis, this is where the national ground water protection strategy is based. Solid and Hazardous Waste- All types of waste needs to be dumped somewhere and the most contaminated solid waste sites are often found on military bases in Eastern Europe. They can be found on active or former military base cites, these are still dumping cites.

Children in these areas are affected the most and are still being diagnosed with very high blood-lead levels, due to these case studies the EPA has provided special equipment and training to local officials to assess possible impacts of lead exposure. Due to words Brunel University such high levels of exposure in certain areas additional support has been provided by Romanian officials to assist areas in the cleanup of contaminated soil, the Czech Council of critical thinking bias Adelphi Ministers even committed to assist the cleanup of future development cites by approving $40 million to get started, this is called Project Selesia. This is persuasive Brunel University not the Adelphi University only cleanup plan in effect there is also the Solid Waste Policy Demonstration Project, this idea helps to nursing essay train local communities in the proper way to carry out more effective policies of critical thinking bias Adelphi University cleaning and recycling waste. Prompts? Pilot programs include the construction of new sanitary landfills, the cleanup of existing landfills, curbside recycling, are probably the most important public outreach programs taking place (EPA). Technology Transfer- the EPA has also helped with the development of a geographic information system (GIS), this system helps to track different trends that occur over time. The GIS is a computer-based mapping system that over time will store and track other environmental information that identifies pollution source and tracks it over time. This system will help the public become more informed and promote better decision making (EPA).

The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Manage ment Project is yet one more idea that is hoped to assist different storage areas of nuclear material in a quick-turnaround of radiochemistry data in case of any future leaks and potential disasters. To be able to assist such tracking a mobile radioecology laboratory was created by the EPA along with the United Nations Development Program and USAID, have provided the University Ukraine with possibly one of the world’s best equipped mobile radiation monitoring laboratories. This lab is monitored by essay Ellesmere, both the EPA project team and thinking, Ministry officials have since been conducting on-site contamination assessments of potential public health threats all around the how to write essay House country (EPA). University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 4 March 2017. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Central and Eastern Europe Environmental Issues. for only $16.38 $13.9/page.

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