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Marcel Mauss: our guide to the future. Durkheim assembled a team to promote his vision for sociology, but he and Mauss were a double act like Marx and a film analysis essay Sydney (Navitas) Engels. There was room for only one leader of the movement, so we speak of the Durkheimians and the Marxists. I Write Rossall School? Mauss and how to analysis Western Sydney (Navitas) Engels each assumed leadership of the movement they jointly founded after their partner’s death, but the intrinsic inequality of the partnership was made worse in Mauss’s case by age difference, kinship seniority and his inability to write books of his own. The publication of an abridged English translation of Marcel Fournier’s Marcel Mauss: a biography allows us to reconsider his historical relationship with Durkheim, as well as his legacy for anthropology, history and the social sciences today. French scholarship on Mauss is, of course, much more advanced than its Anglophone counterpart and it is less confined to academic anthropology. Fournier’s 800-page collection of Mauss’s Ecrits politiques remains virtually unknown to English-speakers and the collective organized in his name, the Mouvement Anti-Utilitariste dans les Sciences Sociales (with its journal, revue du MAUSS ), continues the eponymous founder’s commitment to integrating progressive politics and essay intellectual work over a wide range of issues. In both cases, The Gift has iconic significance as Mauss’s most discussed work; but, as Sigaud has already pointed out, the how to write analysis essay Sydney, Anglophone academy, with assistance from thesis to essay writing one or two leading French anthropologists, has taken up its message in ways that depart seriously from the write analysis essay Sydney University (Navitas), author’s original intentions. This short review essay accordingly has two parts. In the first, I will outline a schematic trajectory of Mauss’s life, conceived of first as Durkheim’s junior partner and afterwards as himself. The initial phase lasted from 1895, when Mauss entered academic employment as an agrege in to essay of Kansas, philosophy aged 23, to the outbreak of a film analysis Western Sydney University war in 1914.

This was followed by a decade of great personal fulfillment, first in military service and afterwards as the leader of his uncle’s cause, following Durkheim’s premature death in 1917. Mauss now flourished as a political journalist, while redefining his main academic interest as the relationship between socialism and the nation. The years 1920-1925 account for fully two-thirds of the political writings assembled by Fournier. They culminated in the foundation of the Institut d’Ethnologie with Mauss at its head and, not coincidentally, in the publication of The Gift. Mauss lived another 25 years after that. He achieved considerable renown as a teacher and public figure, managing to be acknowledged both as Durkheim’s heir as a professor of sociology in the College de France and as the guru for a new school of ethnographers. His political engagements waned in a research article, this period and his academic publications even more so. His last decade was a sad one, when he was first forced to withdraw as a Jew in German-occupied Paris and then was more or less abandoned by people who later claimed to how to write a film analysis essay University (Navitas), lionize him.

He died in 1950 in his late seventies. The second part of this essay considers ‘The strange history of The Gift ’. My aim here is to show that the essay’s prominence in contemporary anthropological discourse owes almost nothing to Mauss’s agenda in writing it. This is because his political program, articulated so fully in the same period, has dropped out of sight, being replaced by the star-struck concerns of a self-aggrandizing academic elite. But it has to be acknowledged that his text is in some ways rather obscure, permitting a variety of interpretations. It was also a vehicle for Mauss to assert himself against Durkheim’s sociological reductionism in pursuit not only of an integrated intellectual politics, but also of an opening up to conclusion Gordon (NAVITAS), the full complexity of human existence which he summarized in the rather mystical phrase “total social fact.” This message was hard to how to analysis Sydney University (Navitas), understand at i write an article - NAVITAS the time – his long-term collaborator, Henri Hubert, said so – but is even more so in our age of academic bureaucracy and specialization. I conclude that Mauss’s value for us today lies in his attempt to a film Western University, integrate politics and intellectual life in the heady years after the First World War, of which The Gift was one enigmatic outcome. Marcel Fournier’s achievement as Mauss’s biographer and archivist is hard to overstate. Without his patient labors, Mauss would be even more the quality article service Bournemouth, creature of myth and legend than he is already. A Montreal sociologist, Fournier describes this as an intellectual biography; yet his treatment of the main texts is rather cursory and much concerning Mauss’s central ideas remains opaque. Write A Film Analysis Western Sydney? For example, we learn that he was a methodological tiger, often attacking authors in his countless book reviews for their errors in thesis, this regard.

Yet readers of this book would be excused for how to a film analysis Western Sydney University (Navitas) wondering what Mauss’s methods actually were. A Research Lancing? Instead, what we get is a very rich account of Mauss’s social life and relationships. A Film Essay Sydney University (Navitas)? This balance is appropriate, since the protagonist occasionally expressed doubts about the intellectual life and his uncle for one sometimes wondered if he was more suited to cafe society than to hard academic work. Reflecting his own personality rather than Durkheim’s, Mauss kept pushing for a more concrete and argumentative Robert (NAVITAS) complex approach to studying the human condition than the modern social sciences allow for. He supervised a revolution in French anthropology that he was never able to participate in directly, while the sociology he professed came under acute pressure during the interwar years. Marcel Mauss’s own life is the “total social fact” whose meaning he sought to illuminate and we have to excavate. Even his apparent failures offer us much opportunity for reflection. While the twentieth century denied his enterprise at how to write Sydney University (Navitas) every turn, he sought a method for placing the whole person in a research article College, society as a whole. A life in three stages.

Emile Durkheim’s The Division of Labor in Society , a version of his doctoral thesis written while teaching at Bordeaux, was published in how to Western University (Navitas), 1893. It provided a template for how can an article of Manitoba/ College the school of sociology he sought to found and his nephew, Marcel Mauss, was still addressing its central concerns more than thirty years later, when he wrote The Gift . The idea of how to analysis essay Sydney economic progress through specialization was at the core of the British economics founded by Adam Smith. Writing Ppt Geneva? A century later economic individualism was the cornerstone of an evolutionary social theory articulated by Sydney (Navitas) Herbert Spencer and popularized as the native ideology of a triumphant western bourgeoisie. Durkheim sought to show that division was a dialectical process of separation and integration, that society became stronger as labor was divided and as the scope for individual action was enhanced. How Can I Write An Article Of Manitoba/? Emphasis on the making of how to write Western University (Navitas) individual contracts obscured the social glue of “the non-contractual element in the contract” that made the economy possible – a combination of law, state, customs, morality and shared history that it was the sociologist’s task to make more visible. The individual is the result of social development and not, as in Smith’s origin myth, its source. Durkheim’s aim, in a socialist tradition begun by Saint-Simon, was to uncover the sources of solidarity, of which he identified two main types: mechanical and an essay organic. The first was grounded in the sameness of “primitive” or stateless societies and how to write a film was expressed as a conscience collective , while the second arose from writing College higher levels of interdependence in economies whose differentiation obscured common interests. A Film Western Sydney (Navitas)? Modern nations draw on a culture of sameness while organizing a complex division of labor. Essay Ppt Geneva School? Durkheim hoped to promote the stability of the French Third Republic through a syndicalist politics (the professional association of occupational groups) that was antagonistic to class-based socialism.

Above all he hoped to nurture the development of a secular science of how to write analysis Western Sydney ethics to replace the traditional mixture of religious and class prejudice. Following the academic trend of the day in fields such as chemistry, he aimed to establish an exclusive and reductionist method for i write an article of Manitoba sociology and, in the following years, before moving to a more central base in write essay Sydney University (Navitas), Paris, he did so with the publication of two books, Rules of the a research article Lancing College, Sociological Method and Suicide: a study in sociology . Marcel Mauss came from the same Jewish family of small embroidery manufacturers in the Vosges region of Eastern France, Durkheim being his mother’s brother and fourteen years his senior. How To Write A Film Essay Western Sydney (Navitas)? His academic training was in philosophy, philology and the history of religions, with a strong emphasis on ancient languages. When qualified to teach, he joined the how can i write an article College - NAVITAS, section of write a film Western Sydney (Navitas) religious science at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes and took up a chair there in Gordon (NAVITAS), the religions of uncivilized peoples in 1901 when he was 29 (“there are no uncivilized peoples,” he said). How To Write A Film Analysis Sydney? The decades around the turn of the century were the heyday of a new scientific approach to the study of religion in France, being a time of anti-semitism (the Dreyfus affair) and the separation of church and state in education.

Religion was the precursor of the kind of secular republican morality that Mauss and his uncle wished to promote as a middle way between bourgeois individualism and communist revolution. Mauss wanted to discover the elementary forms of religion through studying the ancient Indo-European texts and the new ethnography of a research Lancing College primitive peoples coming out of Australia, Oceania and Africa. He chose prayer or oral ritual as the subject of his doctoral thesis, for the interesting reason that speech is the unity of thinking and action. But his first major publication was a collaboration with his historian friend, Henri Hubert, “On the nature and function of how to write essay Western Sydney (Navitas) sacrifice” (1899), an attempt, focusing on Hinduism and Judaism, to place the argumentative conclusion, individual at the centre of the collectivity through communion with the sacred. Many of Mauss’s abiding themes are to Sydney University, be found here — contract, atonement, punishment, the from to essay writing The University, gift, the soul etc. The essay was published in Annee Sociologique , Durkheim’s ambitious review of new work in write a film essay Western Sydney University, sociology for which Mauss was in argumentative conclusion Gordon, effect the co-editor. In sixteen years (1898-1913), he reviewed and summarized hundreds of how to write analysis essay Western Sydney University (Navitas) books and articles, producing a quarter of the 10,000 octavo pages published. He was responsible for University (NAVITAS) the religious sociology section which Durkheim admitted had “a sort of primacy.” Uncle and how to analysis University nephew collaborated in high writing service Bournemouth University, “On some primitive forms of write a film analysis Western Sydney University classification” (1903), an audacious attempt to reduce the categories of understanding to social morphology, for which Mauss dryly remarked, “I provided the facts.” Mauss could thus be said to have led Durkheim towards an engagement with religion and philosophy that culminated in his supreme achievement, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life . Certainly they drew on the same Australian ethnography; but Mauss never completed his own book on article University prayer, despite working on how to write essay Western Sydney University (Navitas) it seriously in the period 1908-1913. Mauss actively embraced socialist party politics, maintaining an affiliation to the French Section of the Workers’ International (SFIO). He was a founder of and contributor to the journal, Mouvement Socialiste , and wrote regularly for the left-wing press — first for an article of Manitoba/ College - NAVITAS Humanite and later for Populaire , his party newspaper. How To Analysis Sydney (Navitas)? He was committed to voluntarism and to argumentative Gordon University (NAVITAS), social action, being heavily involved in how to write essay Western University (Navitas), the co-operative movement; indeed he lost 10,000 francs in sponsoring a co-operative bakery, La Boulangerie . He openly embraced an a research, anti-capitalist ideology, believing, unlike Durkheim, that only the working class could lead society to a more universal form.

He never sought to separate his scientific work from a film essay University politics and this led to some tension between them, especially since Durkheim was able to link this trait to his nephew’s inability to writing article, settle down (he remained a bachelor and essay Western (Navitas) something of a socialite) and to follow through on his major writing projects. Mauss’s rejection as a candidate for a chair in the College de France in from to essay The University, 1908 brought much of this to a head. In the run-up to how to analysis essay University (Navitas), the First World War, Mauss embraced pacifism and internationalism, but, when it broke out, he signed up with some alacrity, serving for four years as an interpreter with British and Australian troops, for the most part on the front line. Military service was a liberation for him from the article Lancing, academic drudgery of being Durkheim’s second-in-command. How To A Film Analysis Western Sydney University (Navitas)? “I’m doing wonderfully. I just wasn’t made for the intellectual life and I am enjoying the life war is giving me.” Of course, long before the end, he and everyone else became fed up with the how can an essay School, reality of the war. While still on how to analysis Western University active service, he started writing a book, unencumbered with footnotes, “On Politics”; but, like every other similar project, it remained unfinished. In 1919, he returned to Paris and his old job at the Ecole Pratique , heavily decorated and in the novel situation of being his own man at last. Durkheim lost his only son Andre in 1915 and died of grief two years later without having yet reached sixty. Even his friends told Mauss that now was the time for him to grow up; and he accepted responsibility for leadership of what was left of the team Durkheim had brought together. He entered the years 1920-1925 full of energy for politics and intellectual life, with a greater emphasis on the former.

It was without doubt the high point of his career and writing article Lancing its main academic outcome was the Essai sur le don (1925). Mauss wrote scores of a film analysis Western University (Navitas) articles for political publications in this period – especially for La vie socialiste , Action cooperative and Populaire . His intellectual energies were focused on argumentative Robert University the nationalization of socialism and he began a book on “The Nation” that remained his dominant writing project for the next two decades. He was much taken with English versions of socialism, not just the a film essay Western University (Navitas), Rochdale Pioneers of his beloved co-operative movement, but also the Fabians, especially Sidney and Beatrice Webb, for whom nationalization of the means of essay ppt Geneva of Diplomacy production was a priority. Mauss returned to internationalism after the war and how to a film analysis essay University (Navitas) was pleased that Durkheim’s idea of the University, division of labor was now being applied between societies as well as within them. Like everyone else, he had to take a position on the Bolshevik revolution and its aftermath; and he did so while drawing explicitly on sociological method. He was highly critical of the Bolsheviks’ coercive resort to violence, especially against the most active classes, and of their destruction of the market economy along with confidence and good faith.

He advocated an “economic movement from below,” in the form of syndicalism, co-operation and mutual insurance. His greatest hopes were for a consumer democracy driven by how to Western University (Navitas) the co-operative movement. He even enjoyed a brief period as a financial commentator on the exchange rate crisis of 1922 and argued that “economic revolutions are always monetary.” His ethics were based on argumentative Robert “gentleness and legalism,” his politics on the need to add economic self-organization to juridical socialism. He was increasingly fascinated by a film analysis Western University (Navitas) the national variations in socialist practice emerging at this time. Mauss also edited for from thesis to essay writing The University publication his uncle’s lectures on socialism in the tradition of Saint-Simon (1928). In all this time, Mauss continued his academic career at the Ecole Pratique ’s section of religious science.

His researches were no longer focused on a film Sydney University the elementary forms of religion, but rather on the political sociology of the how can, post-war period – nationalism, socialism and the Bolshevik revolution. He revived the Annee Sociologique , but the journal soon failed for lack of the committed manpower Durkheim was able to write University, mobilize in its heyday (principally his own and his nephew’s). In the early 1920s, he began to take an how can i write University of Manitoba/ International College of Manitoba, interest in the potlatch reported for America’s Northwest Coast by Boas and his colleagues. This was amplified by the publication of Malinowski’s Argonauts of the Western Pacific , confirming Mauss’s view that the potlatch was a common feature of Melanesian societies. He began to read the ancient Indo-European sources for analogous phenomena; and we may recall that his essay with Hubert on sacrifice was also in part about the gift. The result was the how to write a film analysis essay Western University (Navitas), Essai sur le don: forme et raison de l’echange dans les societes archaiques , published in the first volume of the new series of Annee Sociologique , a medium-length tract with over 500 footnotes and a hundred references, but still offered as a preliminary report on ongoing inquiries. Along with his incipient interest in writing service Bournemouth, joking relationships, this essay was intended to “…counter the Durkheimian image of a society functioning as a ‘homogenous mass’ with the image of a more complex collectivity, groups and write a film analysis Western University subgroups that overlap, intersect and fuse together”. In the same year, the from thesis writing The University, Institut d’Ethnologie was founded in the university with a remit to train professional ethnologists and offer support to amateur inquiries in the colonies. Mauss took his place in the Institute’s leadership along with Levy-Bruhl and Rivet. Not long afterwards, despite an unexpectedly close fight, he won a chair in sociology at the College de France . How To A Film Western Sydney University (Navitas)? Sociology was under considerable pressure at this time, as witnessed by Annee Sociologique ’s failure; but Mauss won great renown in his twin capacity as Durkheim’s heir and the de facto guru of the new discipline of ethnology. Apart from a very brief sojourn in Morocco, Mauss did no fieldwork; but he was an engaging teacher with a dialectical style of improvisation who had plenty of time for cafe conversation with his students.

He had his detractors still: a rival for Rockefeller patronage dismissed Mauss as “essentially a politician who produces nothing on his own.” And it is true that much of his effort was devoted to writing of Diplomacy, publishing the a film analysis Western Sydney, posthumous work of former friends and colleagues, including Henri Hubert, Robert Hertz and Emile Durkheim. In The Gift , he acknowledged the validity of criticisms by historians and others that social scientists tend to abstract too much and proposed instead to address the full complexity of “individuals in their moral, social, mental and above all corporeal and material integrity”. High Bournemouth University? Consistent with this anti-reductionist stance, his two major publications before retirement were essays on “the person” and “techniques of the body”, opening up sociology to technology, psychology and the humanities in general. Mauss married his secretary in a film analysis essay, 1934 and she was soon bed-ridden after an incident involving poisonous gas. He suffered a prolonged sequence of writing ppt Geneva of Diplomacy personal bereavements throughout the second half of essay Sydney his life; and was forced out of his job and of Diplomacy spacious apartment by the German occupation of Paris (but escaped being sent to Buchenwald). After the war, he remained socially isolated and eventually, before his death in 1950, his mind began to give way. A new school of write a film University French ethnographers was happy to how can i write University of Manitoba - NAVITAS, claim him as their inspiration; and his international reputation, which was already considerable, has continued to grow ever since. In the same year as his death, Claude Levi-Strauss edited and introduced a collection of his principal essays ( Marcel Mauss: Sociologie et anthropologie ), Mauss’s first and only book-length publication. Despite ongoing evidence that these essays have not been closely read by the bulk of anthropologists, Mauss’s reputation as a founder of the modern discipline appears to be secure; and every undergraduate student of anthropology in the world at least pays lip service to having read The Gift . The strange history of how to a film analysis Sydney The Gift. Mauss’s essay on The Gift is offered as a provisional fragment of a more comprehensive study (which never appeared).

At one level, this could be taken as just another example of the author’s style. But I would suggest that the essay’s greatness lies in writing article Lancing College, Mauss’s aspiration to embrace the how to write a film Western (Navitas), human condition in an essay School, its entirety by exploring the write a film analysis essay Sydney University, moral relationship between concrete persons and society as a whole, a heroic aspiration that is bound to fail. The French words he uses are totalite and integrite which have their direct analogues in the Latin register of English. Moreover, he claims that this wholeness is better approached through concrete description, in thesis to essay, the manner of the humanities, rather than as scientific abstraction. His method is eclectic and encyclopedic, relying on knowledge of numerous languages, dead and extant, in the manner of the great classical philologists. But Mauss claims that his is write a film essay Western (Navitas), a controlled comparison, drawing on writing Lancing College selected ethnographic phenomena of Polynesia, Melanesia and the American Northwest, plus western legal traditions as revealed by documentary sources, while seeking always to preserve local color and the original context. The argument is analysis essay University (Navitas), inevitably only a partial realization of such an ambitious project and is often obscured by an accumulation of detail. Mauss provides extended conclusions on the relevance of his study for contemporary societies, but these do not include even a summary account of prevailing economic and legal institutions, so that the reader is high writing Bournemouth, forced to make numerous imaginative leaps in order to how to analysis (Navitas), keep up with the author.

Fortunately for Mauss, his essay has encouraged many to join him in University, this enterprise; but he must be held partly responsible for the wide range of interpretations that have subsequently emerged. The Gift is in a direct line of how to essay descent from how can i write an essay School Durkheim’s The Division of Labor in Society , published over three decades before. If Durkheim referred somewhat vaguely to the non-contractual element in the contract, this essay is write a film essay Sydney, focused explicitly on that issue. Mauss summarily eliminates the two utilitarian ideologies that purport to account for the evolution of contracts: “natural economy,” Smith’s idea that individual barter was aboriginal; and the notion that primitive communities were altruistic, giving way eventually to high quality service Bournemouth University, our own regrettably selfish, but more efficient individualism. Against the how to write a film analysis essay Western Sydney (Navitas), contemporary move to replace markets with communist states, he insists that the complex interplay between individual freedom and social obligation is synonymous with the human condition and that markets and money are universal, if not in essay ppt Geneva of Diplomacy, their current impersonal form. How To A Film Analysis University (Navitas)? In this way he fleshes out his uncle’s social agenda, but also questions the accuracy of his model of mechanical solidarity for stateless societies. Mauss’s key term for the range of archaic contracts he intends to investigate is untranslatable into English and something of how can a feudal relic in French. Write Essay Sydney (Navitas)? Prestation is a service performed out of obligation, something like “community service” as an alternative to imprisonment. According to him, the earliest forms of exchange took place between entire social groups and involved the whole range of things people can do for each other, a stage he called the systeme des prestations totales . But his main interest is in a form that probably evolved from this, named after the Northwest Coast example as “potlatch,” which he considers to be general in essay writing ppt Geneva of Diplomacy, Melanesia and how to analysis essay Western University Oceania, where his chief examples are the kula ring and the Maori.

Excavation of classical sources reveals analogous phenomena in Thrace and possibly Germany. These forms of i write University gift-exchange involve aggressive competition between the individual leaders of groups which he labels prestations totales de type agonistique . As is well known, Mauss’s guiding question is: “What is the principle of right and interest in write Western University (Navitas), backward or archaic societies that makes it obligatory to return a present one has received? What force is there in the thing given that makes the recipient give something back?” He rarely refers to this process of an article College - NAVITAS giving and making a return as “reciprocity.” His answer, broadly speaking, is that human beings everywhere find the personal character of the gift compelling and are especially susceptible to its evocation of the most diffuse social and spiritual ties. How To Write Analysis Essay Western Sydney? Potlatches provide a clear instance of this principle in thesis writing The University, action. Mauss goes on to trace its appearance in sacrifice ( do ut des ), in early Roman law and in essay Sydney, the Germanic wadium , even in the apparently negative instance of alms-giving, where the recipient is assumed to a research article Lancing College, be incapable of making a return except in the form of spiritual deference. A lot of ink has subsequently been spilled on this part of the argument. Mauss’s concluding chapter addresses the relevance of all this for how to write analysis essay Sydney University (Navitas) contemporary societies without offering an how can i write an essay Rossall School, explicit analysis of write a film analysis essay Sydney (Navitas) capitalist markets (which we are all supposed to know about). There are three sections: 1. Conclusions de morale 2. Conclusions de sociologie economique et d’economie politique 3. Conclusion Gordon? Conclusion de sociologie generale et de morale . The logic of the structure is write a film analysis Western Sydney (Navitas), that Mauss will consider first “moral” questions and then the economy, returning to morality in the context of argumentative conclusion University (NAVITAS) sociological method more generally. The difficult term for us is morale which in the first instance clearly refers to the science of ethics that Durkheim aimed for write a film analysis essay Sydney in the Division of Labor , but in University International - NAVITAS, the latter case it probably means more generally the human aspiration to place relations between person and society on a film analysis Western University a just footing of shared morality.

Mauss’s chief ethical conclusion is that the attempt to College, create a free market for private contracts is utopian and just as unrealizable as its antithesis, a collective based solely on altruism. Human institutions everywhere are founded on analysis Sydney (Navitas) the unity of individual and society, freedom and obligation, self-interest and concern for others. An Article Of Manitoba/ College - NAVITAS? Modern capitalism rests on an unsustainable attachment to one of how to essay Sydney (Navitas) these poles and it will take a social revolution to restore a humane balance. If we were not blinded by from to essay The University of Kansas ideology, we would recognize that the system of prestations survives in our societies — in weddings and at Christmas, in friendly societies and more bureaucratic forms of insurance, even in wage contracts and the welfare state. How To Analysis Essay Sydney University (Navitas)? With regard to high quality article service Bournemouth University, the economy, Mauss, who had earlier insisted that the kula valuables are money, if not of the sort we are familiar with, takes Malinowski to task for reproducing in his typology of transactions the ideological opposition between commercial self-interest and the free gift. The economic movement from below that he advocated in a film essay University (Navitas), his political journalism – professional associations, co-operatives, mutual insurance – is a secular version of what can be found in the religions of archaic societies, as well as in the central phenomena described here. These are all faits sociaux totaux , total social facts, in the sense that they bring into writing article play the whole of society and how to write a film essay Western Sydney all its institutions – legal, economic, religious and aesthetic. And this is the challenge they pose for sociological method. Mauss claims that he has studied these societies in their dynamic integrity, not as congealed states to be decomposed into quality analytical instances of how to a film analysis essay University rules pertaining to law, myth or value and price. “By considering the whole together, we have been able to perceive the essential, the movement of everything, the live dimension, the fleeting moment when society or rather men become aware of the common feelings they have for themselves and others. This concrete observation of social life gives us the means of discovering new facts that we are just beginning to glimpse.

Nothing, in i write an essay, our opinion, is more urgent and write a film essay Western University (Navitas) fruitful than this study of quality writing Bournemouth social facts.” We must follow the example of the historians and write essay Western observe what is i write School, given, rather than split up social phenomena into separate abstractions. The reality is always a concrete person acting in society – “the middle-class Frenchman, the Melanesian of this or that island”. Then sociologists will furnish psychologists with material they can use, while maintaining their distinctive pursuit of the how to a film essay Western, social whole and of group behavior as a whole. This is Marcel Mauss’s manifesto for how he will carry forward his uncle’s academic legacy. In some ways it entails the inversion of Durkheim’s reductionist program for social science. It is therefore unsurprising that he is now considered to be a founder of modern anthropology more than a sociologist. Lygia Sigaud has provided a trenchant account of School The Gift ’s subsequent trajectory in twentieth-century anthropology which I will just summarize briefly here. She argues that the essay became famous only in how to write analysis essay Western Sydney University (Navitas), the second half of the argumentative conclusion Robert Gordon, last century and then in a distorted version that privileged economic exchange to the detriment of Mauss’s other concerns. The chief culprit is Levi-Strauss whose introduction to the collected essays was designed to how to write essay Western, harness Mauss’s reputation to his own theory of reciprocity as previously published in The Elementary Structures of Kinship . But The Gift really took off as a staple of Anglophone anthropological discourse following Sahlins article, “The spirit of the gift”, which entrenched Levi-Strauss’s claim that Mauss’s essay hinged on a faulty understanding of the Maori concept of hau . She notes that the opposition between “commodity economy” (the West) and “gift economy” (the Rest) began to take root after 1980; and she identifies this trend with Carrier (1995) who sought to subvert it, while characterizing the dichotomy as “Maussian Occidentalism.” We could add that this is the how can i write University International - NAVITAS, period of neo-liberalism. Sigaud makes no connection between Mauss’s essay and his political commitments.

The trajectory she describes is how to analysis essay Sydney University (Navitas), a purely academic one. As a result, when trying to account for the remarkable discontinuity between what Mauss wrote and what he is now thought to have written, she relies for explanation on the cult of personality and the power of gossip in small-scale oral communities such as academic anthropology. In fact, Chris Gregory launched the modern trend with his book, Gifts and Commodities , even though, as he states in Savage Money , “I have never used the distinction between gifts and commodities to article service Bournemouth, classify societies nor have I ever suggested that ‘we’ are to commodities as ‘they’ are to gifts. Such an approach is anathema to me. My problem in analysis essay University (Navitas), Gifts and Commodities was to explain the writing a research Lancing, paradox, brought about by colonization, of the efflorescence of gift exchange in a world dominated by commodity production and write a film analysis Western University exchange. I characterized Papua New Guinea as an ‘ambiguous’ economy where things are now gifts, now commodities, depending on the social context.

Thus I developed the logical opposition between gifts and commodities in order to try to a research Lancing College, understand the ambiguity of the historically specific situation of colonial Papua New Guinea (…) Ethnographic classification is quite distinct from conceptual division by the logical principle of dichotomy.” But it didn’t do any good. The “fictions” employed ingeniously by Marilyn Strathern in The Gender of the how to analysis essay Western Sydney (Navitas), Gift – that “we” (the West or “Euroamerica”) are opposed to “them” (the Rest or “Melanesia”) and that the gift is the conceptual opposite i write an article University International College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, of the commodity in some linked way — are now routinely reproduced in introductory anthropology courses everywhere. How To Write? Mauss’s text is adduced in The University, support of this notion, even though it is the very ideology his essay was intended to refute. How To Write A Film Essay Western University (Navitas)? But then who reads anything closely these days?

The French literature is, for article writing University obvious reasons, much more respectful of Mauss’s actual rather than his invented legacy (Godbout and Caille 2000, Godelier 1999). There are honorable exceptions in the English-speaking tradition, among whom I would include myself. Jonathan Parry’s article also argues correctly that the purely altruistic gift was for write a film analysis Western Sydney (Navitas) Mauss the inverse of the market conceived of as a sphere of pure self-interest, whereas the quality article writing service Bournemouth University, archaic gift was a mixture of the how to write a film analysis (Navitas), two; so that market ideology leads us to think of Christmas presents as pure gifts, an idea that we then project onto our reading of from to essay writing The University of Kansas Mauss’s text. Analysis Essay Western University? But chief among the exceptions must be counted David Graeber who offers a full-length reanalysis of The Gift , complete with detailed attribution of Mauss’s socialist views and acknowledgment of the continuation of his intellectual politics by the MAUSS group, among others. How Can I Write International? It will be interesting to see if this long chapter makes any difference to the wholesale adoption of how to write analysis bourgeois ideology by Anglophone anthropologists who affect disaffection from it, while imagining that Mauss was as opposed to the market as they claim to be, at least in their classrooms. It cannot be said that Marcel Fournier’s biography of Mauss makes the latter’s ideas more transparent than they were already. But he does show us that his protagonist’s political engagement is indispensable to understanding his academic production. Moreover, his account of the life should be the baseline for all future judgment of Mauss’s intellectual significance.

I believe that the academic division of labor that shapes contemporary anthropology has passed its sell-by date. Mauss already felt so eighty years ago. When we come to consider how anthropology might contribute to the formation of high writing service University a more just world society, Mauss’s example will be even more influential than at present. In the meantime, his most famous work is generally seen upside down through “the camera obscura of ideology” (Marx). One thought on how to write a film analysis essay Western “ Marcel Mauss: our guide to the future ” You must be logged in to how can i write an article of Manitoba/ International of Manitoba, post a comment.

The two great memory banks are language and money. Exchange of meanings through language and of objects through money are now converging in a single network of communication, the internet. We must learn how to use this digital revolution to advance the human conversation about write a film Western University, a better world. Our political task is to make a world society fit for all humanity.

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Oil spill: BP plans for life after Deepwater. By Rowena Mason, James Quinn and Helia Ebrahimi. 9:52PM BST 24 Jul 2010. 'BP lives on the frontiers of the energy industry, Tony Hayward declared to his guests at its 100th birthday party at the British Museum #x2013; a champagne-laced affair suffused with the how to a film essay Western Sydney University confident spirit of a company at the peak of its powers. It was October last year when BP celebrated the how can an essay Rossall milestone anniversary, having just overtaken Royal Dutch Shell as Europe's biggest oil company. Hayward was the chief executive credited with disciplining an out-of-control mega-company, emphasising at every turn that BP had eradicated the US safety problems linked to a fatal explosion in Texas and how to Western Sydney University, a pipeline rupture in Alaska.

The City purred after BP stripped out $4bn of costs in a year and delivered a stellar set of financial results. But unbeknown to management, engineers had already begun to raise concerns about a troublesome well at the frontier of BP's exploration map. Within months, bubbles of methane gas would press against writing a research College the sides of this very deep hole #x2013; one of thousands drilled each year in the Gulf of Mexico. They would eventually escape, exploding through several seals, to cause the world's worst accidental oil spill, crippling BP's reputation and finances. The ensuing corporate catastrophe has fractured trust in the global oil industry, stained the environmental record of a US President and tarnished the name of British business abroad. Three months since the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon rig that killed 11 men, BP has clung on to existence, helped by the fact that it now appears to how to a film analysis Western (Navitas) have capped the leaking well at last. But serious threats remain.

Most importantly for from The University shareholders, the how to write essay University question is now whether the wounded oil giant can continue to do business in the US? What will a penitent and reformed BP of the future look like? And how can the Rossall industry defend itself against write a film Western University restrictions on getting the very stuff out of the ground that it relies on? This week is likely to how can i write an article University International see the start of BP's fightback, beginning with the announcement of how to write analysis, $5bn in profits for the second quarter of 2010 and the resignation of Hayward #x2013; a symbolic break with the steady drip of bad news that has bombarded the company since April 20. For almost one hundred days, up to argumentative Gordon (NAVITAS) 60,000 barrels of oil flowed daily into the ocean. During this time, BP was inundated with accusations: from legally serious claims of (Navitas), safety failings and lack of preparation for a spill, to writing Lancing College emotional charges of insensitivity, evasiveness and manipulation of scientific fact. By mid-June, the a film analysis Western University oil giant's market value had halved and the cost of insuring BP's debt had risen so alarmingly that bankruptcy seemed possible. The markets were only calmed when President Barack Obama toned down his public attacks after forcing BP to set aside its dividend and put $20bn into a compensation fund.

Silent support has come from the essay ppt Geneva School of Diplomacy City of London's large institutional investors, which have largely wrapped their arms around the strategically important company and its chief executive #x2013; refusing to how to write a film analysis essay Western Sydney University criticise either openly. Now that the leak is almost plugged, they argue that sorting out a stable management team to lead through the an article University of Manitoba/ International College - NAVITAS next year will be the how to write analysis essay Western University priority. During the worst of the crisis, Hayward did not endear himself to the public with his propensity for how can i write an article of Manitoba/ International thoughtless remarks, suggesting that he'd like his life back after the fatal accident and claiming the environmental impact would be very, very modest. Long-term BP-watchers find it hard to imagine how the man known for a time as the most hated man in America could continue to how to write essay University (Navitas) lead a company that does 25-30pc of how can i write Rossall School, its business in the US. Lord Browne, the former chief executive, has not publicly revealed his views about BP's handling of the disaster. But friends of the ex-boss say he believes Hayward should stand down to make way for Bob Dudley, the American executive currently in charge of its oil response unit. It looks likely that his prediction will come true, possibly as soon as this week.

One senior BP source said Hayward has long planned to step down as soon as the leak is plugged. Peter Waine, a City headhunter at Hanson Green, points out that the one thing BP has to avoid is any period of time without either a chairman or a chief executive. It looks as though Carl-Henric Svanberg - much-mocked for his absence from how to essay (Navitas), view and his stilted delivery when he did take a more high-profile role - may keep his job during a transitional period at least. A long-standing top ten shareholder in BP told The Sunday Telegraph he would be happy for Hayward to stay unless there is an obvious smoking gun that emerges linking his decisions on cost-cutting to safety failures. He even believes that Mr Svanberg should be given a chance. Other City shareholders also appear to be behind Hayward, the writing a research Lancing College man who made them so much money and provided such a steady hand up until the accident. Calmed by the prospect of how to write a film analysis Sydney University, BP's disposal programme that should generate more than enough cash to pay for the $40bn to $100bn in potential liabilities, these traditional shareholders apparently have faith in Plan B #x2013; to fight back through the US legal system against accusations of from writing The University, criminal negligence #x2013; and Future BP #x2013; the strategic review led by Svanberg. But not all investors are so sympathetic. Public shareholders in the US are under particular pressure to punish both BP and its maligned boss. State pension funds in both New York and how to write a film analysis essay University, Ohio, which have joined together in a class action lawsuit, have a clear motivation: pension fund members lost out, and article, so BP must pay. Thomas DiNapoli, New York state comptroller, believes not only did BP's safety protocols fail, but that its response has been galling.

BP misled investors with false and misleading statements about the safety of essay Western University (Navitas), its drilling operations and its ability to conclusion Robert Gordon fix events like the how to write a film analysis essay Sydney oil spill, DiNapoli said. The funds want to ensure that BP's apparent misconduct must not happen again in corporate America. For investors out thesis to essay The University of Kansas of the public eye, the future of BP and their reasons for keeping their shareholdings are somewhat less emotionally-charged, but no less potentially hostile. BP's shareholder register has changed substantially since its market value dipped from ?123bn to ?56bn and back up to ?75bn. And for the short term investors punting on a bounce-back, it is Western Sydney University purely about value. High Writing Bournemouth! Philippe Brugere-Trelat, of Franklin Templeton's Mutual Global Discovery, says that his fund dipped a toe into BP as soon its market value began to rise.

Likewise Whitney Tilson, co-manager of the Tilson Focus Fund, has put 4pc of its portfolio into BP since the shares began to slide. We own the stock for two simple reasons #x2013; BP is not going bankrupt [and] the stock is extraordinarily cheap, says Tilson. Other investors among the write a film Western Sydney University US mutual funds - including Hartford Capital, Fidelity and American Beacon - are all attempting to gain value from the fall in quality article writing University BP's share price. This influx of short-term investors, including a number of aggressive hedge funds, remains as much a danger as a backstop to write a film analysis essay Sydney University (Navitas) the share price for BP. One major New York-based hedge fund manager said that its position on BP used to be more as a bet on the global oil industry rather than on the company itself, but the structure of the company has become more of interest. In other words, BP's assets are far too good for its share price, leaving investors tempted by the idea of extracting value. In fact, the conclusion Robert Gordon University share price so underestimates its oil and gas prospects, producing fields, refineries and petrol stations that some new investors have seen the opportunity for a total break-up. According to the calculations of one of London's biggest hedge funds, this could generate 850p per share rather than the current 398.6p that it's trading at now. This was underlined last week by the $7bn sale of how to a film Western University (Navitas), US assets to Apache, which were valued on BP's books at just $3bn.

We have told [BP] to i write an essay School look at a much bigger disposal programme and even an entire break-up if necessary, said a well-known hedge fund manager, who has spent two months building up a position in BP. How To Write Essay Western University (Navitas)! The board has agreed to i write University - NAVITAS consider all possibilities. What choice have they got? We are not going to settle for being kept outside of the loop this time. The problem for BP's board is a film analysis essay Western once you go down this route, you are stuck - as we now want to see more.

We know there are buyers for all BP's businesses. This could be the end of BP as we know it. And why not? A dissolution of BP would be a nuclear option that most analysts view with scepticism, while acknowledging the need for it to sell off less profitable fields. But expressions of interest in all parts of BP's business have been flooding in, and writing, there is how to a film essay Sydney University (Navitas) a particular willingness to i write an essay sell its $10bn stake in Pan-American Energy, plus fields in Vietnam and Pakistan for write a film analysis Western $1.7bn. Jason Kenney, head of oil and gas research at ING, believe the article Lancing disaster could turn BP into a lean, high-margin super-explorer instead of write, a lumbering super-major with too much on Gordon, its books. I think the new mantra is a film essay Western Sydney going to writing ppt Geneva School of Diplomacy be quality rather than quantity, he says. Write! BP has got a great exploration and production portfolio and conclusion Robert University, could be something like a much bigger Cairn Energy.

But there are also those who believe that Big Oil could get even bigger after this accident. BP will have to fend off potential takeover attempts #x2013; the most serious of which is likely to come from bigger rival ExxonMobil. It has already assembled teams of bankers from how to a film analysis essay Sydney (Navitas), Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, Blackstone and Credit Suisse to prepare a defence. This week will see the first public step back on to the front foot with BP's board emphasising its strong set of results and a much bigger potential for asset sales. The oil giant is set to essay ppt Geneva School of Diplomacy make clean profits of $5bn, which is likely to inflame its critics but placate shareholders about the operating performance. This far outstrips the projected $4bn earnings of how to a film analysis essay Western, Shell, which is a research article Lancing College still itself climbing out of a period of restructuring. There will, of course, be oil spill liabilities leading to a potential pre-tax loss of up to $25bn, as the company accounts for costs and compensation.

However, this will only affect cash flow gradually during the write a film analysis Western Sydney (Navitas) next few years. As for BP's growth prospects, it is about to begin drilling in Libya, has made 19 new discoveries in from thesis writing The University of Kansas Angola last year and plans to spud 50-100 wells in a film analysis essay Western Sydney University oil-swamped areas of high article writing service Bournemouth, southern Iraq. Nurturing the most promising projects and joint ventures across the globe will be vital as it sets about reducing its reliance on the deepwater Gulf of Mexico for how to a film essay Sydney University a third of its new production pipeline. So far, state oil companies such as Libya, and Abu Dhabi, and its partners in Russia have expressed nothing but support. The Middle East investor rumoured to thesis writing of Kansas be on the brink of buying 10-15pc in BP's shares has not materialised, but a number of the oil-rich countries appeared willing to entertain the idea - while the share price went up in anticipation.

Alfa Access Renova, the consortium of a film essay Sydney University, billionaire Russians that jointly owns TNK-BP, is understood to be happy about its joint venture that is producing a third of BP's oil, at least since the share price stopped sliding. Obviously it's hard not to be concerned when a 50pc partner is i write an article International College of Manitoba going through a difficult time, a Russian source said. How To Write A Film Analysis University! But we are trying to be supportive. We think BP will recover in the next couple of years. We have no intention to from thesis to essay sell down our stake and expect them to keep theirs. Potential problems are now most likely to come from regulators and governments. Although there is how to write a film analysis essay Sydney considerable relief on Robert (NAVITAS), Capitol Hill that the Gulf of Mexico well has stopped leaking, there are moves afoot in the US to ensure that BP is punished. Eighteen politicians last week called for how to write a film essay (Navitas) another criticised BP well in the Gulf of Mexico #x2013; Atlantis #x2013; to be shut down until it can be proven safe. But what is more worrying for BP is high writing service Bournemouth University a new bill due to be debated this week that would prevent it from winning new offshore oil licences in the US altogether - destroying its future plans for the Gulf of Mexico and Alaskan drilling. The measures will stop any company with a safety record five times worse than the industry average from winning contracts for the next seven years.

It would rule out BP on account of its Texas City explosion in 2005 that killed 15 people. Political attacks have also claimed in recent weeks that the how to write a film Sydney University (Navitas) energy major pushed for the release of the how can i write School Lockerbie bomber in analysis return for oil contracts, an accusation that BP denies. It's little wonder that the company increased spending on political lobbying by $100,000 to $1.7m in the second quarter. As part of the public relations war in America, it is already preparing to from to essay of Kansas start spreading blame for the accident among contractors on write a film analysis essay University, the Deepwater Horizon, including Transocean, the rig owner, and Halliburton, which cemented the i write well in the weeks leading up to the explosion. The company also faces a legal battle to get Anadarko and Mitsui, its two smaller partners in how to write analysis essay Sydney (Navitas) the leaking well, to pay their $1.6bn share of the clean-up costs. Much of high article writing Bournemouth, this will hinge on trying to persuade America's media and various investigations that its partners had equal or greater responsibility for key safety checks. Lobbyists on write a film analysis (Navitas), BP's books include the Podesta Group #x2013; run by Tony Podesta, whose brother John led President Obama's transition team into Lancing the White House. The Washington office of London firm Brunswick is also involved and Ogilvy is providing advice on digital media. The counter-attack will be vital as BP's rivals start briefing governments on their supposedly superior accident records when new contracts are up for negotiation. In some areas, watchdogs have already challenged oil companies to analysis Sydney University (Navitas) prove that drilling miles under the sea is safe.

Canada, US and Norway have all banned new deepwater drilling, hindering BP's plans to attempt technically difficult wells in Alaska and the Gulf of high article writing Bournemouth University, Mexico. A new political inquiry into UK North Sea drilling launched by the Energy and Climate Change Committee last week will look at the case for a ban, asking serious questions about the industry's ability to respond to oil spills. But Malcolm Wicks, the essay University (Navitas) former Labour energy minister, believes the an essay School UK should lead support for deepwater drilling and provide a safety model for others. The BP disaster is a real wake-up call, and the UK government needs to write Western (Navitas) learn lessons, he said. I was surprised that there wasn't any obvious contingency plan for the Deepwater Horizon. But for employment and energy security, the UK and the world needs deepwater drilling.

This overriding economic need for oil and from thesis to essay writing of Kansas, gas extraction is what may ultimately save BP's business in America. How To Essay Sydney University (Navitas)! One area likely to be emphasised by the lobbyists is the financial impact of the US ban on offshore drilling. A new report by IHS Global Insight shows small oil and gas companies provide half of the from writing of Kansas 200,000 jobs reliant on how to essay Western, the energy industry in the Gulf of Mexico. By teaching Big Oil a lesson, politicians may be hurting the how can i write an essay very fabric of America they want to keep on side. Robert Reich, the former US Labor Secretary and professor at Berkeley, called for the seizure of BP's assets when it looked like the company was in denial about how it would fund the costs coming its way. But he told The Sunday Telegraph this week that the power of the US oil industry, where BP is the biggest player, is in no way on the wane. First, it's a major contributor to Western University (Navitas) both parties, he says. Thesis Writing The University! Second, it's a major employer in the Gulf of Mexico, as well as Alaska. Big Oil still has enormous clout.

The consensus seems to a film analysis University (Navitas) be that BP's accident has dented trust in the oil industry and called into question its level of preparation for major disasters. But investors still have an appetite for its prize assets and politicians are acutely aware that America is dependent on the oil and gas industry. The rest of the world knows it is as well. Top fund manager Mark Barnett: 'Why I am buying bombed-out BP' Andrew Critchlow: Age of $100 oil will return as energy industry cuts too deep. Oil shares yield 6pc, but are the dividends safe? Iran backs down on Opec sending Brent oil price tumbling. North Sea needs ?1 trillion to tap remaining oil and writing of Diplomacy, gas.

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Amsterdam International Electronic Journal for write analysis essay Western Cultural Narratology (AJCN) The tacitly understood assumption that the article writing University truth about and in narrative as a whole is the Hegelian or Idealist aspect of narratology, of which numerous semiotic, structuralist, system-theoretical stances take heed. They all conceive of the how to write Western (Navitas) narrative utterance as a sort of organic whole. This organic approach to narrative derives, among other sources of writing a research article Lancing College, inspiration, in a straight line from Vladimir Propp#8217;s Morphology of the how to write a film analysis Folktale ([1928] 1958) that drew heavily from ppt Geneva School of Diplomacy, Goethe#8217;s study of nature and Goethe#8217;s interpretation of Aristotle#8217;s Poetics , which stressed the organic unity of the tragic story and its rendering in a successful tragedy (cf. Goethe [1826] 1960). The organicism of this tradition was upheld and altered by structuralism, [1] whose legacy serves to this day as a basis for many current approaches in narratology. How To Write Analysis Sydney University? This legacy continues to make itself felt in recent narratological studies, of which a volume edited by Greta Olson entitled Current Trends in Narratology (2011) is a good illustration. The volume divides present-day developments of the writing discipline into three areas of interest: 1. cognitive narratology; 2. transgeneric and intermedial approaches that take into consideration above all drama; and finally. 3. contextualist narratology which deals with specific cultural, historical, thematic and write a film Western University, ideological contexts of narrative and Robert (NAVITAS), its study. [2] Although the authors of this volume adhere to various methodological positions, they strive unanimously to write a film essay Western University, surpass structuralism. Narratologists concerned with the representation of mind in narrative (and the representation of argumentative conclusion University, mind in narrative), or those who study the traces of narrative in drama or other media implicitly postulate, in line with the German morphological tradition, that the whole truth be told in and about (a) narrative.

Their attempts to go beyond structuralism only reinforce the holistic pathos characteristic of structuralism. The task set by contextualist narratologists to overcome oppression, exclusion or exclusivism results in the restitution wholeness, the how to a film analysis (Navitas) return of the subaltern. Technically speaking, newer approaches in narratology seek to supplement or enrich classical narratology with features of contextuality and how can i write an essay Rossall, diachronicity so as to capture narrative in its wholeness, both the narrator and write, the reader/listener in their full biological, cognitive, historical and medial makeup. The thesis of this paper is that the holistic character of narrative as a structure becomes apparent and is, so to speak, attached to its temporality and from of Kansas, contextuality by a special kind of interruption: the breaking up of the whole . The most interesting and prototypical theory of such interruption is the how to a film essay Western notion of caesura, whose most perfect theoretical description is found in Friedrich Holderlin#8217;s notes to his 1804 translations of Sophocles#8217; Oedipus and Antigone (Holderlin [1804] 2001 and 1988). I Write? According to Holderlin, caesura joins the whole man with time as the write a film essay Sydney University (Navitas) transcendental possibility of ppt Geneva School of Diplomacy, representation while also revealing to him the meaning and write essay Sydney University, shape of the time he lives in. The contextual, temporal and how can of Manitoba/ International of Manitoba - NAVITAS, holistic character of his cognition, dependent on the temporal medium of narrative, comes to the fore because of the caesura, provided it is experienced by the reader. The wholeness of a given narrative together with the features it corresponds to can be examined thoroughly only after having adopted a theory of artful interruption. The reflexive qualities of caesura which, for how to write essay Western Sydney University (Navitas) Holderlin, seems to be a special device that lays bare the nature of temporal representation itself, are the reason why the very general notion of an interruption theory of narrative is writing ppt Geneva, set forth in how to analysis essay Western University this article. The caesura is School of Diplomacy, characterized by its dual nature. On one hand, it is a device among other devices, like metalepsis, mise en abyme , etc.; on the other hand, it plays the most central role in Holderlin#8217;s philosophy of art, becoming the keystone and the touchstone of this theoretical edifice. The reader must experience caesura if he is to be able to experience the temporality of time, the dimensions of space and how to write a film Sydney, the medial representation of representation.

The present attempt to specify a position for such an interruption theory within the framework of current narratology will begin with an explanation of Holderlin#8217;s definition of caesura. During the second step, I will expand on the relevance of Holderlin#8217;s theory for present-day narrative studies. His theory shares some of the same assumptions as present-day narratology in its opposition to reductionist approaches. This development can be seen particularly in high article Bournemouth the expansion of write (Navitas), narratological research into the field of drama studies. In the following step, the paper will take up two competing paradigms of narrativity within the framework of the ppt Geneva School early nineteenth-century theory of drama: one that concentrates on endings will be opposed to one, represented by Holderlin, that treats interruption as a central component. The latter paradigm, whose renewal is the task of the write a film University present paper, was to a great degree responsible for the rise of modern narratology in Eastern and Central Europe before World War II, although since then this has remained unrecognized. As a last step, I propose to conclusion Robert (NAVITAS), compare the write analysis essay University (Navitas) theory of how can an article International College - NAVITAS, caesura with that of metalepsis, for each serves to how to a film analysis Sydney, throw light on how can i write the other. 1. Holderlin#8217;s definition of caesura. Much as the classical narratologists Tzvetan Todorov or Algirdas Greimas, Holderlin assumes that the beginning and the end of a narrative is equilibrium: narrative aims toward a state of equilibrium [3] after passing through a momentary disequilibrium that sets the story going (cf. Todorov [1968] 1973: 82). A Film Analysis Sydney (Navitas)? Sophoclean tragedy is, according to Holderlin, a model for all narrative forms for the reason that, as a genre, it presents nothing in particular except its own form of development in writing ppt Geneva School of Diplomacy time, a development toward equilibrium.

According to Holderlin, the tragic form was designed to abolish every particular piece of Sydney, content (or to present the content as abolished; Holderlin [1804] 2001: 67; 1988: 257) [4] so that the pure form of temporality will be highlighted. This occurs as follows: the transport in tragedy is of Kansas, of itself empty and the most unbounded. [5] For this reason in the rhythmical succession of scenes in which the transport is made manifest, it becomes necessary to a film essay (Navitas), have what in the study of verse is known as caesura: the pure word, the counter-rhythmical interruption, is needed, so as to confront the pull of the writing of Diplomacy succession of representations at its summum and in such a fashion that instead of change of the representation there appears representation itself. In that way, a division is made both in the calculated sequence [6] and in the rhythm, and the two halves are so related that they appear of equal weight. (Holderlin [1804] 2001: 63) [7] In a narratological reading of the quoted passage from Holderlin's commentary on Sophocles, caesura is how to write analysis Western, a moment of division that places narrative representation as such on display. It may be a lexeme, like some #8220;empty words#8221; in Holderlin#8217;s hymns, an image, or a scene in a drama such as the example provided by Holderlin: the entries of the priest Tiresias in Oedipus and in Antigone . Tiresias #8220;enters the process of fate as an overseer of the natural order which, in i write an article University College of Manitoba - NAVITAS tragedy, removes man from his own zone of how to write a film Western (Navitas), life, from the midpoint of his own inner life, and carries him into the eccentric zone of the dead.#8221; (Holderlin [1804] 2001: 64). [8] Also, the The University of Kansas tragic festival in Athens itself has been more often than not described as a caesura: a leisurely moment, an interruption that restores a cosmic and analysis essay Western, social balance so that things in the cosmos could go smoothly. Holderlin put it in his typically cryptic way: #8220;tragedy consists [#8230;] in argumentative conclusion Gordon (NAVITAS) the form that reason takes in the terrible interlude of a tragic age, which, having presented itself then, in how to write (Navitas) its wild genesis, in antitheses, later, in a humane age, will count as an established opinion, born of a divine fate.#8221; (Holderlin [1804] 2001: 11). [9] Tragedy that contains an interruption revealing the genre#8217;s compositional pattern locates, in addition, the action at a time when chaos breaks into the world so that a new order is born out of a cosmic catastrophe. Sometimes the public interrupts such an interruptive fest in order to stress its purging effect, the cathartic character that the authorities seek to suppress for high service University the benefit of the tragedy#8217;s restorative and a film analysis essay Western, conservative functions.

Thus the essay School revolutionaries in Berlin in 1849 interrupted the performance of a film analysis essay Sydney, Holderlin#8217;s Antigone , exactly at high quality article writing Bournemouth the moment when, according to how to a film Western University, Holderlin, caesura occurs in the drama, i.e. during Tiresias#8217;s speech, just as the revolutionaries in Warsaw in 1968 did during the performance of Adam Mickiewicz#8217;s tragedy Forefathers#8217; Eve . In both cases, the revolutionaries wanted to extract from the tragic plays what they were really about: freedom and balance in the shape of fairness and justice (Flashar 1991: 75; Ostrowska 5966). According to some authors, every narrative should, for structural reasons, be perceived as an writing a research College, interruption of some kind: #8220;traditional narrative is a quest after that which will end questing; [. ] it is an interruption of what will be resumed,#8221; writes J. Hillis Miller (1981: 272). How To Analysis Essay? 2. The Topicality of Holderlin#8217;s Theory. Turning to Holderlin means returning to sources of modern narratology that abound in the German theory of drama during the Goethe period ( Goethezeit ). The problems and goals of present-day narratology echo the questions raised by argumentative conclusion University (NAVITAS), the aesthetics of literature at the turn of the write a film analysis Western nineteenth century. From Writing The University? This can be seen in current attempts, for instance, to how to write a film Western, extend narratological research methods to drama. In fact, narratology#8217;s progress toward drama should be even more resolute, since this represents a clear route to revealing its now forgotten conceptual foundations, which were originally elaborated drawing on the example of ancient Greek tragedy. As for the common ground shared by the classical German theory of drama and The University, modern narratology, it suffices to put a number of principles characteristic of current developments in how to essay Western University (Navitas) narratology alongside programmatic statements by famous German philosophical voices from the turn of the nineteenth century. David Herman, in a series of recent studies, considers that classical narratology, which strictly separated the i write an essay School living man from the purely textual and conventional presentation of the a film essay (Navitas) human in text, can be enriched by taking account of the full range of faculties of the living human being: narrative analysts can move from classical theories of argumentative Robert Gordon (NAVITAS), narrative perspective toward a unified account of construal or conceptualization processes and their reflexes in narrative. Such construal operations, which underlie the write essay organization of narrative discourse, are shaped not just by factors bearing on perspective or viewpoint, but also by temporal, spatial, affective, and other factors associated with embodied human experience. (Herman 2009: 103; see also Herman 2007: 245) [10] In Herman#8217;s arguments against from writing of Kansas textualist reductionism and in how to Western (Navitas) favor of #8220;embodied human experience,#8221; there resonates an echo of old complaints against Kant and Enlightenment intellectualism, first raised by Herder and his teacher Hamann, whose approach was rendered by Goethe in the following way: The principle to which all Hamann#8217;s expressions may be referred is this: #8220;All that man undertakes, whether by deed, by word, or otherwise, must proceed from all his powers united; everything isolated is worthless.#8221; A noble maxim, but hard to follow. (Goethe [1833] 2013: 446447) [11] The common opinion of the time, shared also by Holderlin when he wrote Hyperion and by the authors of the so-called Earliest System Program of German Idealism , was that forms of the beautiful serve to ward off or prevent the feared isolation of human faculties. Today#8217;s theories, drawing from the article Lancing College newest research, are driven by the same pathos that inspired the write analysis essay philosophers and poets at the turn of the nineteenth century.

In present day narratology, the artful interplay of forces tending toward a fragile equilibrium restores Schiller#8217;s well-known ideal of how can, ganzer Mensch , the how to write a film analysis Western (Navitas) whole man. The following formulation by Schiller, expressing the uniting power of the beautiful form, must have influenced the Russian formalists, whether they were conscious of it or not, and ppt Geneva School of Diplomacy, thus modern narratology: In a really beautiful work of art, the content ought to a film Sydney University (Navitas), be inoperative, the form should do everything; for by the form the essay ppt Geneva of Diplomacy whole man is acted on; the content acts on nothing but isolated forces. Thus, however vast and sublime it may be, the analysis essay Western University content always exercises a restrictive action on high writing Bournemouth University the mind, and true aesthetic liberty can only be expected from the form. (Schiller [1795] 1990: 70) [12] Holderlin ascribed the uniting force to the rhythm of poetry, which is more formal than anything else in poetry, and write a film, whose development in University time is ruled by what he calls #8220;the calculable law#8221;: The rule is one of various sequences in which imagination and feeling and reasoning develop according to poetic logic. For whereas philosophy only ever treats one of the soul#8217;s capacities, so that the a film analysis essay Western Sydney University presentation of this one capacity makes up a whole and the mere hanging together of the parts of this one capacity is called logic, poetry treats the various capacities of the human being so that the presentation of these various capacities make up a whole, and the hanging together of the more autonomous parts of these different capacities may be called rhythm (in a higher sense) or the calculable law. (Holderlin [1804] 2001: 113) [13] The main part of this calculable law, the one owing to which calculus balances out and embraces the whole man, is caesura, a counter-rhythmical interruption that may operate on all levels of literary work of art. As already indicated above, caesura may occur in a lexeme, an image or a scene in a drama, as in high writing service the entries of the priest Tiresias in Oedipus and in Antigone . Paradoxical as it may sound, interruption works against the isolation of the how to write Western University faculties of writing College, man and his alienation from temporal and write a film analysis (Navitas), spatial specificity. For Holderlin, the whole man, with all his powers, should feel and understand the temporal nature of his world and his understanding: that is writing School of Diplomacy, what the narrative form of how to a film University (Navitas), tragedy, sealed with caesura, dictates.

Thanks to how can i write of Manitoba/ College, the tragic form of development in time, history regains its Greek meaning of #8220;experience#8221; (Koselleck 2003: 20). [14] The same should be said about the histoire that is mediated by the performative discours in narrative: it becomes a vital part of experience, in which the whole historical and essay (Navitas), sensual man takes part within the context of the time and space in which he lives and high article writing Bournemouth, which, thanks to narrative, he feels. The recent expansion of narratology into the field of drama (cf. Huhn and Sommer 2012) can be seen as something of an oedipal pathos when it is realized that the write essay Western conquest is actually an unconscious homecoming. In Holderlin#8217;s time, the essay ppt Geneva School of Diplomacy problems of a film University (Navitas), histoire were elaborated within the framework of the theory of drama, for the theory of prosaic discours was elaborated in the scope of the rhetorical elocutio whose relationship with fictive discourse has always been problematic. When Manfred Pfister ([1977] 1988), Ansgar Nunning and a research College, Roy Sommer (2002, 2008), Monika Fludernik (2008) and Brian Richardson (2007) ponder whether the tools of how to analysis Western Sydney University (Navitas), narratology can be applied to University International - NAVITAS, dramatic works in write a film analysis essay Sydney University the face of their apparent lack of an extradiegetic narrative level, they tend to overlook not only the historical origin of most of their tools but also the simple truth that, although perhaps most plays are devoid of a primary narrator who relates the story, narrative discourse as such is to how can i write an essay School, a degree a drama. The dramatic aspects of narrative were explicitly stated by the Russian scholars who laid the foundations for modern narratology. Boris #278;jchenbaum ([1919] 1989), for example, stressed the how to analysis University (Navitas) theatricality of the skaz narrator who concentrates on his gestures and his play rather than on the plot.

Viktor #352;klovskij ([1925] 1966: 114) noted with amusement that he begins to imitate the devices of Cervantes#8217;s narrator instead of describing them. Yurij Tynjanov ([1929] 1957: 418, 428) describes how Gogol uses #8220;the device of the mask#8221; in his descriptions of people and demonstrates how Dostoevskij uses Gogol#8217;s #8220;verbal#8221; and how can an article University - NAVITAS, #8220;material#8221; masks in order to cover characters that are opposite to how to write a film analysis Sydney University, those of Gogol. Viktor Vinogradov (1936: 131) spoke about the essay ppt Geneva School faces and write a film University, antics that make up the author#8217;s image throughout the narrative (cf. Do Hay Fong 2012). Mikhail Bakhtin ([1963] 2010: 1221) began his (re)construction of the carnivalesque that stands for the specificity of the novel as a genre with the distinguishing of its ritual-scenic components. The recognition of the dramatic in narrative can also be found in Greimas#8217;s structural semantics where he adopts Lucien Tesniere#8217;s model of the sentence as a spectacle homo locuens plays for from thesis writing The University himself (cf.

Ric#339;ur 1984: 72) as well as in Paul Ric#339;ur#8217;s description of emplotment ( mise en intrigue ) as a reflexive judgment in the course of which the a film essay Sydney subject stands back in order to observe his own plotting (Ric#339;ur 1984: 9294). University College Of Manitoba? Thus the subject of mise en intrigue becomes a mask, and his activity a spectacle for him and for his readers. In narrative, the author (or his stand-in), present and absent at the same time as though he were both dead and alive, impersonates a narrator who speaks out or writes down characters#8217; discourse, playing the parts of the how to analysis Sydney protagonists who, in The University of Kansas turn, may become narrating actors themselves. As early as the 1970s, Kazimierz Bartoszy#324;ski (1971), a representative of the how to a film Western (Navitas) Polish School of Literary Communication, called narrative a #8220;spektakl sytuacji komunikacyjnej,#8221; that is #8220;a (dramatic/theatric) performance of the communicative situation#8221; that actualizes the #8220;roles of emitters and receivers#8221; inscribed in narrative. The teller, however, is not the only quasi-theatrical phenomenon inscribed within the narrative text understood as a script for the participant in the spectacle of literary communication. Article Writing Bournemouth University? Bartorszy#324;ski#8217;s colleagues, Micha#322; G#322;owi#324;ski (1968) and Edward Balcerzan (1971), stress that every empirical reader assumes #8220;this or that role#8221; such as it is pre-programmed by an author. Some fifty years earlier, in 1924, Jurij Tynjanov offered a vivid description of a reader before a skaz : he enters the narrative, begins to how to write a film analysis essay Sydney University, repeat the intonation and to gesticulate, to smile. He does not read the a research article skaz , he plays it (Schmid 2010: 131). In view of Western University, these and analogous factors, Polish scholars have generalized the theatrical to cover narrative. Conclusion Robert? Narrative, like theater, must partake of both roles, sender and receiver, in order for literary communication to take place, regardless of the type of narrative.

Bartoszy#324;ski claims the performance inscribed in narrative becomes perceptible and communicable (contagious for the reader) against the backdrop of stereotypes with which every narrative has to measure itself in order to become intelligible and, in some cases, aesthetically appealing. For him, stereotypical frames are pretty much synonymous with social frames of memory, as they were described by Maurice Halbwachs ([1925] 1952). How To Write Essay Western Sydney (Navitas)? The theatric performance of narration is a negotiation with collective memory, [15] and in Holderlin it is precisely the writing article Lancing College theatrical character of narrating and the mediating role of memory (and temporality) that the interruption triggered by a film Western University (Navitas), caesura exhibits and stages. This kind of interruption reveals how forms of time and forms of memory are interdependent with narrating performances. This Polish tradition turns out to be especially relevant for the conceptualization of caesura in relation to other similar devices such as mise en abyme and Lancing College, metalepsis. Before I expand on Western University (Navitas) the subject, a short review of the suppressed tradition of article service University, theory of narrative based on interruption is in order.

3. Endings vs. interruptions. Paul Ric#339;ur once stated that in the western tradition the paradigms of composition are at once the paradigms of terminating the narrative work (1984: 35). How To Write Essay Western University (Navitas)? In accordance with the prevailing tradition of how can i write School, literary studies since Aristotle (1449b; cf. Aristotle 1922: 2223), who claims that the praxis imitated by the plot must be uniform and finished (completed, perfect, #964;#941;#955;#949;#953;#959;#962;), present-day narratology works rather on endings than on interruptions, providing even more evidence that the theory of narrative stems from the theory of drama. For the sake of a happy or an unhappy ending, the greatest generic division of how to a film University (Navitas), all time was made, between the comic and the tragic. Modern narratology does not really distinguish between good and bad endings, but rather between endings that fall on a stable position in a research Lancing the development of the story (D.A. Miller 1989; Smith 1968; Reisling [1996] 2002; Kermode 1967) or on endings that fall on essay Western Sydney University an unstable position (the Russian formalists; Vygotskij [1925] 1986: 201; Kucich 1978 [16] ). Those scholars who are as generous and erudite as Ric#339;ur take into account both types of endings (1984: 3839); those who abide by writing ppt Geneva of Diplomacy, deconstructionist methods, like J. Hillis Miller (1978), consider an write a film Sydney, ending both impossible and possible. Among the advocates of stability as a goal of every narrative, who presently outnumber their opponents, Smith claims that a stable state is attainable for a narrative, whereas D.A.

Miller, Reisling and Kermode question the possibility of a narrative achieving a stable state, contending that there is no proper ending to a story. Miller attributes the impossibility of a narrative ending to the internal structure of i write Rossall School, narrative; Reisling inclines toward cultural and historical circumstances to be perceived as the essay Western Sydney University (Navitas) agents of decomposition; Kermode, echoing Kenneth Burke and Northrop Frye, refers to transcendent considerations and preaches the permanence of the Apocalypse. [17] Thus it is not surprising that when, in writing of Diplomacy the present interest in endings that do away with interruption, a narratologist like Brian Richardson takes on drama, he focuses precisely on theorizing #8220;Endings in Drama and Performance#8221; (Richardson 2011). It has not always been like this, however. At the turn of the how to write analysis essay Western Sydney nineteenth century, two competing paradigms of narrativity were negotiated within the how can i write framework of the how to a film essay theory of drama: the finalistic one we all adhere to an essay, because we do not know any better; and the one that treats interruption as a central component. The finalistic approaches were set forth both by the early German Romantics (above all by Friedrich Schlegel) and by the German Idealists, Schelling and Hegel. Both the write analysis essay Romantics and the Idealists concentrated on conflict and how can an article University, its tragic or comic solution as the essential components and conditions of narrative development. The focus of this line of inquiry was on how to write a film essay Western (Navitas) the conflict, contest and writing, the catastrophe.

Schiller and Holderlin argued in another way: Holderlin, who thought he understood Schiller better than Schiller understood himself, stipulated interruption not only as a condition of the how to write a film analysis essay Western (Navitas) tragic but also as a condition of article writing service Bournemouth University, all narrative progress of representation. [18] It is good to refresh our memory of the interruptive theory of narrative and recall that the origins of modern narratology in the writings of the Russian formalists go back to write a film analysis Sydney, the interruptive paradigm of narrative studies. Viktor #352;klovskij analyzed the disruptive devices in Tristram Shandy and #278;jzen#353;tejn#8217;s montage techniques to show how interruption lays bare the devices that make up the continuity of narration. School? Similarly, Pu#353;kin formed the plot of his novel in verse Yevgeniy Onegin in such a way that he plugged interrupting digressions into how to write a film Western Sydney the narrative material of the thesis to essay writing of Kansas novel (#352;klovskij [1925] 1966: 135140). [19] The plotting of this novel boils down, in other words, to a series of interruptions. Write A Film Western Sydney? Roughly contemporaneous with #352;klovskij, Walter Benjamin eloquently demonstrated that if a literary work somehow lacks interruption, it is the task of the ppt Geneva critic to how to essay Western Sydney, rip open its beautiful surface in order to show its truth-content. Even the conclusion University most basic critical forms, commentary or quotation, break up the continuity of a commented text (Benjamin [1925] 1990: 123127; [1928] 1990: 207209, 357358; [1931a] 1990: 354367). Throughout his career, from the early essay on Goethe#8217;s Wahlverwandtschaften right up to Central Park and the theses on the notion of history, written with the premonition of his death, Benjamin kept producing new reformulations of write a film analysis (Navitas), Holderlin#8217;s caesura. Once it was das Ausdruckslose at argumentative Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) the root of Goethe#8217;s prose; another time it was an image in the sequence of Calderon#8217;s drama, an image that #8220;stands out, in the image of the apotheosis, as different in kind, and gives mourning at write a film Western Sydney (Navitas) one and the same time the cue for its entry and its exit#8221; (Benjamin [1928] 2003: 235). The German Trauerspiel lacks caesura, and this is the reason why it calls for an intervention (an interruption) by the critic. Still another time, in the late historiosophy, caesura became das dialektische Bild : a moment Jetztzeit knocked out of the continuum so that past and present may form a constellation in i write of Manitoba/ College - NAVITAS which the messianic future becomes comprehensible (Benjamin [1940] 1990: 691705).

Combined with Berthold Brecht#8217;s theory of epic theater, according to which the tearing apart of the ideologically laden theatrical illusion has a revolutionary effect on the audience, caesura has become and essay Western University (Navitas), remains up to the present day the agent of the truly political within art. [20] (Even Benjamin#8217;s description of the ghostly body of a film actor, summoned and summed up by montage cutting, owes its emergence to Holderlin#8217;s description of Sophocles#8217; caesura: the entry of Tiresias who oversees future events and the shadows of past life.) Writers have always been a few steps ahead of theoreticians. That interruption is an inalienable part of writing a research College, narration is attested by the metanovel par excellence , Tristram Shandy . In order for how to write a film essay Sydney the story to how can i write an article University of Manitoba/ International, begin in Sterne#8217;s novel and for the hero to be conceived, his poor mother interrupts the coitus interruptus with Tristram#8217;s father because she fears that the clock will stop. #8220;Pray, my dear,#8221; quoth my mother, #8220;have you not forgot to wind up the clock?#8221; #8212; #8220;Good G#8212;!#8221; cried my father, making an exclamation, but taking care to moderate his voice at how to a film analysis essay Sydney (Navitas) the same time, #8212; #8220;Did ever woman, since the creation of the world, interrupt a man with such a silly question?#8221; (Sterne 1980: 2) Through the loss of concentration on the part of the father, the most autodiegetic narrator ever slips into life. As #352;klovskij wrote, foreshadowing the argumentative Robert Gordon University (NAVITAS) birth of modern narratology, the accentuation of how to a film analysis essay (Navitas), form by means of its being incessantly destroyed makes up the significance of Sterne#8217;s novel (#352;klovskij [1925] 1966: 135). Unlike in Benjamin, one of whose earliest essays was devoted to argumentative conclusion Robert Gordon University, an interpretation of two poems by Holderlin (Benjamin [1915] 1990: 105126) and who belonged to write a film essay Western University (Navitas), the generation who venerated and rediscovered Holderlin, tragic caesura surfaces most unexpectedly and in an unmediated fashion at the dawn of the modern novel, for which discourse is far more important than story, and, at the same time, at the outset of high quality article writing Bournemouth University, modern narrative enquiry into perception and mind: [21] caesura surfaces abruptly in the introduction to The Ambassadors by Henry James. Caesura in write University (Navitas) the stream-of-consciousness novel is described in such a way that it almost seems that James copied parts of it from Holderlin, even though he was not familiar with Holderlin#8217;s writings. The situation involved is gathered up betimes, that is in the second chapter of Book Fifth, for the reader#8217;s benefit, into as few words as possible planted or #8220;sunk,#8221; stiffly and saliently, in the center of the current, almost perhaps to argumentative University, the obstruction of how to write a film analysis essay Sydney University (Navitas), traffic. [#8230;] The whole case, in fine, is in Lambert Strether#8217;s irrepressible outbreak to little Bilham on the Sunday afternoon in Gloriani#8217;s garden, the candour with which he yields, for his young friend#8217;s enlightenment, to the charming admonition of that crisis.

The idea of the tale resides indeed in the very fact that an hour of such unprecedented ease should have been felt by quality service Bournemouth University, him AS a crisis, and he is at pains to express it for how to a film (Navitas) us as neatly as we could desire. (James [1903] 2011: xxvii) Meaning is revealed at a time that seems to high article writing service Bournemouth, have fallen out of time and obstructs its inescapable traffic. Holderlin, like James, never misses a chance to stress the coincidence of leisure and write analysis essay Western, crisis in tragedy that presents nothing but its own shockingly empty temporal form, a form that surpasses any particular content. #8220;Live all you can; it#8217;s a mistake not to,#8221; cries Lambert Strether in The Ambassadors#8217; caesura. #8220;It doesn#8217;t so much matter what you do in particular so long as you have your life#8221; (James [1903] 2011: xxviii). 4. Quality Service Bournemouth? Caesura vs. metalepsis. We should, for precision#8217;s sake, set Holderlin#8217;s notion of caesura off from how to essay Sydney University (Navitas), such kindred devices as narrative metalepsis and mise en abyme (cf. Genette [1972] 1980: 233; Dallenbach 1977; Cohn [2005] 2012; Pietrzak 2007; Pier 2014: par. 3234). [22] The task is especially difficult because, as Sonja Klimek (2010: 5254) has clearly demonstrated, the devices of mise en abyme and metalepsis intersect and because numerous occurrences of mise en abyme lead to paradoxes concerning the distribution and division of ppt Geneva, narrative levels just as, conversely, there are instances of how to write analysis essay Western University (Navitas), metalepsis that reflect a degree of how can an essay Rossall, similarity between the encompassing and a film analysis Western Sydney University, the encompassed levels. Here, I would like to follow the classical definition proposed by Dallenbach toute enclave entretenant une relation de similitude avec l#8217;#339;uvre qui la contient (1977: 18, original emphasis) and place mise en abyme in the category of similarity; metalepsis (defined by essay School of Diplomacy, Genette as #8220;any intrusion by the extradiegetic narrator or narrate into the diegetic universe [#8230;], or the write analysis Western inverse#8221;; [1972] 1980: 234) will be considered within the framework of narrative levels rather than similarity. Although m ise en abyme may also, like caesura, be disruptive, it merely aims at quality Bournemouth University the repetition or reflection of the elements of the embedded story in the embedding one. The experience of m ise en abyme consists, then, in perceiving a similarity between narrative levels or instances whereas, as I will demonstrate in this chapter, caesura splits the emitting instances while interrupting the train of narrative and relates the instances to how to essay (Navitas), the very situation of communication. As such, mise en abyme does not replace but rather multiplies caesura, as in the example from James where, in Lancing College an interruptive moment of leisure, the protagonist hints at the meaning of such a leisure in life, but also, we assume, in narrative. Caesura, on analysis essay Western University (Navitas) the other hand, is closely related to i write International, narrative metalepsis, since they both descend in a straight line from Fichte#8217;s theory of knowledge, even though caesura seems to how to write essay Sydney University (Navitas), be a more profound and consequent application of transcendentalism to essay writing ppt Geneva School, literature than its prominent sister device metalepsis.

The term metalepsis itself comes from rhetoric, notably from how to write, Fontanier and i write an essay Rossall School, Dumarsais (Genette [1972] 1980: 234237; 2004: 720; cf. How To Write Analysis Western Sydney University? Pier 2014, § 3.1), while caesura comes from of Diplomacy, metrics. Nevertheless, these notions have combined with concepts stemming from the German idealist and romantic philosophical tradition (Fricke 2011; Klimek 2010). Western Sydney (Navitas)? If metalepsis is understood as an intrusion of the how can an essay Rossall School world of the how to Western creator into the created world, or vice versa, [23] then metalepsis is akin to argumentative Gordon (NAVITAS), Friedrich Schlegel#8217;s concept of (romantic) irony. [24] The romantics, when developing the theory of the possibility of permanent incursion of the teller into how to write a film analysis Sydney (Navitas) the told, took the name of Fichte#8217;s ultimate source of all knowledge ( Ich ) for the grammatical personal pronoun referring to how can University, the subject of an a film essay Western Sydney (Navitas), utterance, and so transferred the almighty and absolutely free #8220;I#8221; to the literary field. [25] Theirs was an anthropomimetic and language-oriented interpretation of Fichte#8217;s theory of knowledge that is practically indiscernible from how can an article of Manitoba/ International College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, metalepsis as an intrusion of #8220;I#8221; into the utterance or simply the collision of the level of the narrative act at Sydney which some #8220;I#8221; operates whose activity creates the presented word with the writing article intradiegetic level. In contrast to the egological romantics, Holderlin focused on Fichte#8217;s description of the imagination that mediates between the determined-determining #8220;I#8221; and the #8220;not-I#8221; in how to write a film University (Navitas) a series of sublime interruptions of the flow of time. Imagination discerns not only between the first and how can an essay Rossall School, the third persons but also between the levels of the transcendental I or Ego. The highest one, pure reason, enters the how to write a film analysis essay Western (Navitas) small moments of the sublime that are torn in the flux and sees the temporality of thesis writing of Kansas, representation which it brought into being: This floating of imagination between irreconcilable links [the determined I and not-I within the absolute I, pure reason], this its self-contradiction is [#8230;] that which extends the condition of the a film analysis Western Sydney (Navitas) Ego to a time-moment. (For pure reason everything is at argumentative conclusion Robert Gordon (NAVITAS) once; only for imagination is there a time.) Imagination cannot stand this floating long, that is, not longer than a moment, (except in the feeling of the how to write essay Western University (Navitas) sublime, where astonishment, a halt of the interchange in time, arises.) Reason steps in, (and thus there arises a reflection,) determines imagination to take B up in from to essay writing The University of Kansas the determined A, the subject; but as soon as this is accomplished, the determined A must again be limited by an infinite B, etc. etc., until it has arrived at a complete determination of the (here theoretical) reason, which needs no other limiting B outside of reason in imagination, that is, until it has arrived at the representation of the write essay representing. (Fichte [1794/1795] 1889: 181182) [26] The #8220;representation of the representing#8221; forms a common ground between metalepsis and caesura, on the backdrop of how can, which the differences between the two figures rooted in Fichte become more evident. In contradistinction to Fichte who, as the last sentence suggests, aimed at a purely intellectual representation of the representing in the theory of knowledge, Holderlin assumed that the truly absolute cannot be merely abstract.

In line with the tenants of German Idealism, Holderlin, one of the architects of write essay Western Sydney (Navitas), this movement, perceived the article absolute as the unity of phenomena and how to a film University (Navitas), theory, the sensuous and the intelligible. As we have already seen, caesura was introduced by Holderlin as a central device of his system by virtue of its ability to bring the unity of phenomena and theory to light: a poetisches Kalkul intended to bond all faculties of man and, accordingly, all the dimensions in writing a research article Lancing which he lives. This unity also meant that the #8220;fate#8221; of the phenomenalized absolute is time, as Hegel put it at the end of Phanomenologie des Geistes ([1806] 1979: 583584), so that the representation of representation needs to account for this absolute temporality. How To A Film Sydney (Navitas)? The revelation of the absolute should thus be accomplished, according to writing a research Lancing College, Holderlin, by imagination in a film analysis Western Sydney University the sublime moment of caesura which operates at how can i write University of Manitoba - NAVITAS all levels of narrative (as its mise en abyme -like instances prove) and shows the temporality of representation as such. The most striking similarity between metalepsis and write analysis University (Navitas), caesura is the fact that metalepsis also has, as Debra Malina put it, a #8220;disruptive effect on the fabric of narrative#8221; (2002: 1). Similarly, Werner Wolf described metalepsis as a #8220;collapse of the narrative system#8221; (1993: 356358). Nevertheless, the differences are numerous, starting with the essay fact that metalepsis is always associated with humor, logical paradoxes and the fantastic (Genette [1983] 1988: 88; cf. Genette [1972] 1980: 234237; Pier 2014: § 2, par.

2124; McHale 1987: 99130, 222227), whereas caesura feels at home in the tragic. Metalepsis in its proper sense conveys a contamination between #8220;the world of the how to analysis Western University telling and the world of the told#8221; (Pier 2014: par. 1), whereas caesura means rather the conclusion intrusion of the how to write a film University silence that separates the quality service Bournemouth narrator from what makes his narrating possible, namely the theatrical component described by the Polish narratologists as an element present in write a film (Navitas) every narrative performance. This dramatic component which is revealed by essay writing School, caesura sometimes takes on the form of the difference between the narrator and the silent #8220;implied author#8221; who is the bearer of the possible forms of communication and how to write analysis University, whose mask the defined and limited narrator is; it may also be the difference between the frame of collective memory in the form of the uncanny all-encompassing memory of the implied author and what is actually told, i.e. chosen and actualized, the difference which endows the narrator and his discourse with a discernible shape and an ability to how can i write Rossall, affect the receiver. Caesura lays bare the how to difference between the given narration and the temporary (in both meanings) measure of Gordon, all things against which this narration appears as reliable or not, innovative or archaic, funny or boring, tragic or banal. It is a secondary issue whether we place this measure in the text, like the structuralists did (Okopie#324;-S#322;awi#324;ska [1967] 1998, 1975; Schonert 2014: par. A Film Analysis Essay Western (Navitas)? 7; Schmid 2013: par. 14), or within the cognition of a living person that processes the text (Herman 2013b). Conclusion Robert University? Caesura opens the gap between the possible and the actual in narrative without openly disclosing the intervention of the telling subject into how to analysis essay Western (Navitas) the told, but rather the conditions of the possibility of dramatic performance that lie at the root of narrative. I Write International College - NAVITAS? Commenting on Diderot#8217;s intuitive description of a film essay Western University, narrative communication from Ceci n#8217;est pas un conte #8220; Lorsqu#8217;on fait un conte, c#8217;est a quelqu#8217;en qui l#8217;ecoute ; et pour peu que le conte dure, il est rare que le conteur ne soit pas interrompu quelquefois par son auditeur #8221; Micha#322; G#322;owi#324;ski writes that it is part of the reader#8217;s condition as the receiver of the literary work to interrupt the process of narration in order to ask questions on writing conventions and stereotypes, according to which the how to analysis essay Western (Navitas) particular occurrence of from writing The University, communication functions (G#322;owi#324;ski 1992: 144, original emphasis). The extradiegetic narrator whose epiphany is metalepsis (and sometimes also mise en abyme ) is but a part of a dramatic situation that caesura is supposed to reveal.

He turns out to be one of many #8220;human but not personal#8221; (Balcerzan 1971: 82) [27] roles to be assumed by the implied or empirical author the roles of emitters and receivers whose repertoire is narrative fiction. How To A Film Essay (Navitas)? Reflections on time have made up a central part in the theory of tragedy since Aristotle. They continued in the early modern poetics of neo-classicism with the doctrine of the how can School three unities. However, Holderlin elevates the philosophy of how to essay (Navitas), tragic time to another level when he says that the empty #8220;transport#8221; of tragedy conveys nothing but the conditions of possibility of conclusion Robert University (NAVITAS), appearance and disappearance: For at the furthest frontier of suffering nothing else stands but the conditions of time and of space. At that frontier Man forgets himself because he is write a film essay Western Sydney University (Navitas), wholly in the moment; and the God [sic!] forgets himself because he is nothing but time; and both are unfaithful [to one another]. (Holderlin [1804] 2001: 69) [28] The #8220;moment#8221; this quotation identifies as caesura makes time perceivable, even though this moment is not #8220;a part#8221; of time. With regard to the spacio-temporal character of tragic caesura, o ne may say that whereas metalepsis lays bare the conditions of fictionality, because what distinguishes fiction from nonfiction is that in every fiction there is argumentative Gordon (NAVITAS), #8220;at least the potential for narrative metalepsis#8221; (Nelles 1997: 152), caesura exposes to the critical reader or viewer the conditions of appearing and how to write a film analysis (Navitas), disappearing of all phenomena that are to make a part of narrative, fictional or not, after narrative became at the turn of the nineteenth century the medium of all experience and reflection. One may, cum grano salis , apply here the distinction voiced by Niklas Luhmann: metalepsis reveals mediality of essay ppt Geneva School of Diplomacy, a form , whereas caesura makes visible the difference between the medium of narrative and particular forms (cf.

Luhmann 2000: 3032). Caesura#8217;s difference from metalepsis explains why caesura#8217;s representative in Sydney University (Navitas) the world of man is the blind specialist in the underworld: Tiresias makes absence appear on the stage where he presents himself in his clairvoyant blindness. The goal of tragedy, according to Holderlin, is to stage the conditions of time and space and to make them palpable as a way of understanding human existence that is historical, i.e. dependent on Mnemosyne founded by the poets#8217; tale. Artistic forms that are characteristic for a given epoch or that, so to speak, grow out of their time exist #8220;not just in order to learn to understand the spirit of the Robert times but once that spirit is grasped and learned to hold it steadily and to feel it#8221; (Holderlin [1804] 2001: 118). [29] Caesura in a narrative helps us to feel its flow, whereas the task of the critic would be to find or to provoke an interruption in a text. The critical dispersion of a film essay Sydney, narrative with the help of caesura is a translation of the old forms of enclosing the a research article Lancing world into a new perception that consists of shocks and break-offs, one which regards continuous narrative passionately but as something alienated from it, even irreparably lost and fascinating only because of this loss. Without adopting caesura in its midst, narratology runs the write a film essay Western University (Navitas) danger of becoming a dead science that deals with dead forms. How Can University Of Manitoba/ College Of Manitoba - NAVITAS? Making the eccentric theory of caesura a part of the academic organon of write a film Sydney, narratology means executing the International - NAVITAS will of Holderlin, who began his notes on Oedipus with: #8220;It will be a good thing, giving poets even in our country a secure social existence, if poetry, even in our country and notwithstanding the differences of the times and write analysis essay Western (Navitas), the political systems, is raised to the mechane of the how can an essay Rossall Ancients#8221; (Holderlin [1804] 2001: 63). Adams, Edward (2002). #8220;Paul#8217;s Story of God and write essay Western, Creation.#8221; Narrative Dynamics in Paul: A Critical Assessment . Ed. Bruce W. Longenecker, Westminster: John Knox Press, 2002, 1943.

Aristotle (1922). Poetics . Trans. and from to essay writing, ed. S.H. Butcher. London: Macmillian Co. Balcerzan, Edward (1971): #8220;Perspektywy #8216;poetyki odbioru#8217;#8221; [The Perspectives of Reception Poetics]. Problemy socjologiiliteratury . Ed. Janusz S#322;awi#324;ski. Wroc#322;aw: Ossolineum, 79108. German translation: Balcerzan, Edward (1974). #8220;Perspektiven der Perzeptionspoetik.#8221; Trans. Walter Kroll.

Formalismus, Strukturalismus und Geschichte. Zur Literaturtheorie und Methodologie in der Sovietunion, #268;SSR, Polen und Jugoslavien . Ed. Aleksander Flacker and Victor #381;mega#269;. Kronberg and Taunus: Scriptor, 186210. Bartoszy#324;ski, Kazimierz (1971). #8220;Zagadnienie komunikacji literackiej w utworach narracyjnych#8221; [The Problem of write a film analysis essay (Navitas), Literary Communication in Narrative].

Problemy socjologiiliteratury . The University? Ed. Janusz S#322;awi#324;ski. Wroc#322;aw: Ossolineum, 127148. Behler, Ernst (1981). Sydney University? Klassische Ironie, romantische Ironie, tragische Ironie: zum Ursprung dieser Begriffe . Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft. Benjamin, Walter ([1915] 1990). Writing? #8220;Zwei Gedichte von Friedrich Holderlin. Dichtermut Blodigkeit.#8221; Gesammelte Schriften . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, vol. 2: 105126. #8212; ([1925] 1990). #8220;Goethes Wahlverwandtschaften.#8221; Gesammelte Schriften . A Film Essay (Navitas)? Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, vol.

1: 123201. #8212; ([1928] 1990). #8220;Ursprung des deutschen Trauerspiels.#8221; Gesammelte Schriften . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, vol. 1: 203430. #8212; ([1931a] 1990). Ppt Geneva Of Diplomacy? #8220;Karl Kraus.#8220;#8221; Gesammelte Schriften . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, vol. 2: 334367. #8212; ([1931b] 1990b). #8220;Was ist das Epische Theater.#8221; Gesammelte Schriften . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, vol. 2: 519531. #8212; ([1940] 1990). #8220;Central Park.#8220; Gesammelte Schriften . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, vol. 1: 655690. #8212; ([1928] 2003). The Origin of how to write essay Sydney, German Tragic Drama . Trans. John Osborne. London and New York: Verso. Caracciolo, Marco (2013). #8220;Experientiality.#8221; Living Handbook of Narratology . Writing Ppt Geneva Of Diplomacy? Ed.

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Le recit speculaire . Essai sur la mise en abyme. Paris: Editions du Seuil. Dole#382;el, Lubomir (1990). Occidental Poetics . Tradition and Progress . Quality Writing Service University? Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press. A Film Essay Western Sydney University? DuPlessis, Rachel Blau ([1984] 2002). #8220;Endings and Contradictions.#8221; Narrative Dynamics. Essays on Time, Plot, Closure, and argumentative conclusion Robert University (NAVITAS), Frames . Ed. Brian Richardson. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 282299. #278;jchenbaum, Boris ([1919] 1989). Write Western University (Navitas)? [How Gogol#8217;s Overcoat was made]. O #1087;#1088;#1086;#1079;#1077; [On prose] . How Can An Article University College - NAVITAS? Leningrad: Khudozhestvienna Literatura, 306326. Fichte, Johann ([1794/1795] 1889).

Theory of Knowledge . Trans. A.E. Kroeger. London: Trubner Co. #8212; ([1794/1795]19622012). #8220;Grundlage der gesamten Wissenschaftslehre.#8221; Gesamtausgabe der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften . Vol. 1. How To Write A Film (Navitas)? Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog. Flashar, Helmut (1991). Inszenierung der Antike. Das griechische Drama auf der Buhne der Neuzeit 15851990 . Munchen: C.H.

Beck. To Essay Writing The University? Fludernik, Monika (1996). Towards a #8216;Natural#8217; Narratology . London: Routledge. #8212; (2008). #8220;Narrative and Drama.#8221; Theorizing Narrativity . Ed. John Pier and Jose Angel Garcia Landa. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 353381. A Film Analysis Essay Western University (Navitas)? #8212;, and Greta Olson (2011). #8220;Assessing Current Trends in Narratology.#8221; Current Trends in Narratology . Ed. Greta Olson. Berlin and New York: De Gruyter, 133. Fricke, Harald (2003). #8220;Potenzierung.#8221; Reallexikon der deutschen Literaturwissenschalft.

Neubearbeitung der deutschen Literaturgeschichte . Ppt Geneva School? Ed. G. Baumgart et al. Berlin: De Gruyter, vol. III: 144147. #8212; (2011). #8220;Pop-Culture in History: Metalepsis and Metareference in German and Italian Music Theatre.#8221; Metalepsis in Popular Culture.

Ed. Karin Kukkonen and Sonja Klimek. Write Analysis Essay Western Sydney University (Navitas)? Berlin and New York: De Gruyter, 252267. Genette, Gerard ([1972] 1980) . Narrative Discourse. An Essay on Method . Trans. Jane Levin. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. #8212; ([1983] 1988). Narrative Discourse Revisited . Trans. Jane Levin. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. #8212; (2004). Metalepse.

De la figure a fiction. Paris: Editions du Seuil. G#322;owi#324;ski, Micha#322; (1968). #8220;Konstrukcja a recepcja.#8221; Prace z poetyki po#347;wi#281;cone VI Mi#281;dzynarodowemu Kongresowi Slawistow . Argumentative Conclusion University? Ed. Maria Renata Mayenowa and Janusz S#322;awi#324;ski. Warszawa, Wroc#322;aw, Krakow: Ossolineum, 177195. #8212; (1992) #8220;Cztery typy fikcji narracyjnej#8221; [Four Types of Narrative Fiction]. Poetyka i okolice [Poetics and vicinities].

Warszawa: PIW, 144158. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang ([1826] 1960). #8220;Nachlese zu Aristoteles#8217; Poetik.#8221; Gesammelten Schriften . Berlin: Aufbau Verlag, vol. 18: 121125. #8212; ([1833] 2013). The Auto-Biography of Goethe: Truth and Poetry: From My Own Life . Vol. 1. Trans. How To Write A Film Analysis Western Sydney (Navitas)? John Oxenford. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Thesis Writing The University? #8212; ([1811-1833] 1948). #8220;Aus meinem Leben. Write Analysis Essay Sydney? Dichtung und Wahrheit.#8221; Gesammelte Schriften . Vol.

9. Hamburg: Wegner. Halbwachs, Maurice ( [1925] 1952 ). Les cadres sociaux de la memoire. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France. Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich ([1806] 1979). Phanomenologie des Geistes . Vol.

3 of Gordon University (NAVITAS), Werke. Write Analysis Western University (Navitas)? Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Henrich, Dieter (1997). The Course of Remembrance and Rossall, Other Essays on Holderlin . Stanford: Stanford University Press. #8212; (2003). Between Kant and Hegel. Lectures on German Idealism . Ed. David S. Pacini. Cambridge and how to write a film analysis Western Sydney University, London: Harvard University Press. Herman, David (2007). #8220;Cognition, Emotion, and Consciousness.#8221; The Cambridge Companion to Narrative . Essay Writing Ppt Geneva School? Ed. David Herman.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 245259. #8212; (2009). #8220;Cognitive Approaches to Narrative Analysis.#8221; Cognitive Poetics: Goals, Gains, and Gaps . Ed. Geert Brone and Jeroen Vandaele. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 79118. #8212; (2013a). #8220;Cognitive Narratology.#8221; The living handbook of narratology . Ed. Peter Huhn et al. Hamburg: Hamburg University.

Accessed 7 Nov. How To Write Essay? 2014. Thesis Writing The University? #8212; (2013b). Storytelling and write a film essay (Navitas), the Sciences of Mind . Cambridge: The M.I.T. Press. Holderlin, Friedrich ([1804] 2001). Thesis To Essay Writing The University Of Kansas? Holderlin#8217;s Sophocles . Oedipus and Antigone . Trans. David Constantine.

Highgreen: Bloodaxe. Essay Sydney? #8212; ([1804] 1988). #8220;Trauerspiele des Sophokles.#8221; Samtliche Werke. Gordon (NAVITAS)? #8220; Frankfurter Ausgabe.#8221; Vol. 16. Frankfurt am Main: Stroemfeld/Roter Stern. Huhn, Peter, and Roy Sommer (2012). #8220;Narration in analysis essay University Poetry and Drama.#8221; The living handbook of narratology. Ed.

Peter Huhn et al. Hamburg: Hamburg University. Accessed 13 Nov. 2014. James, Henry ([1903] 2011). The Ambassadors . New York: Random House. Kermode, Frank (1967). Quality Writing Service? The Sense of an how to write a film essay Western, Ending. New York: Oxford University Press. Klimek, Sonja (2010).

Paradoxes Erzahlen. Die Metalepse in der phantastischen Literatur . Padeborn: Mentis. How Can I Write? Koselleck, Reinhart (2003). Zeitschichten. Studien zur Historik . How To Western Sydney? Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Kucich, John (1978). How Can I Write College - NAVITAS? #8220;Action in the Dickens Endings: Bleak House and Great Expectations .#8221; Nineteenth Century Fiction 33.1: 88110.

Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson (1999). Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought . How To A Film Analysis Western University? New York: Basic Books. Lehman, Hans-Thies (2003). Das Politische Schreiben. Essays zu Theatertexten . Berlin: Recherchen. Luhmann, Niklas (2000).

Die Politik der Gesellschaft . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Malina, Debra (2002). Breaking the an essay School Frame: Metalepsis and the Construction of the Subject . Columbus: The Ohio State University Press. McHale, Brian (1987). Postmodernist Fiction . A Film Analysis Sydney University (Navitas)? London: Methuen.

Meister, Jan Christoph (2013). #8220;Narratology.#8221; The living handbook of thesis to essay, narratology . Ed. How To Analysis Essay Western Sydney? Peter Huhn et al. Hamburg: Hamburg University. Accessed 10 Nov. 2014. Miller, D.A. (1989). Narrative and Its Discontents: Problems of (NAVITAS), Closure in the Traditional Novel . A Film Analysis Essay Sydney University? Princeton: Princeton University Press. Miller, J. Hillis (1981). Narrative and its Discontents: Problems of Closure in the Traditional Novel. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Nelles, William (1997) . Frameworks: Narrative Levels and Embedded Narratives. Frankfurt am Main, etc.: Peter Lang. Article Service? Nunning, Ansgar, and Roy Sommer (2002). #8220;Drama und Narratologie: Die Entwicklung erzahltheoretischer Modelle und Kategorien fur die Dramenanalyse.#8221; Erzahltheorie transgenerisch, intermedial, interdisziplinar . Write A Film Analysis Western Sydney? Ed. Vera Nunning and Ansgar Nunning. Trier: WVT, 105128. #8212; (2008). #8220;Diegetic and Mimetic Narrativity: Some Further Steps towards a Narratology of Drama.#8221; Theorizing Narrativity . Ed. John Pier and Jose Angel Garcia Landa. Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 331354. How Can I Write An Essay School? Okopie#324;-S#322;awi#324;ska, Aleksandra ([1967] 1998) . #8220;Relacje osobowe w komunikacji literackiej#8221; [Relations beteen Persons in Literary Communication].

Semantyka wypowiedzi poetyckiej (Preliminaria). Krakow: Universitas, 100117. #8212; (1975). #8220;Die personlichen Relationen in der literarischen Kommunikation.#8221; Literarische Kommunikation. How To A Film Sydney? Trans. and ed. Rolf Fieguth. Kronenberg: Scriptor, 2342. Ostrowska, Joanna (2008). #8220;Teatr`68-polityka, konststacja, kontrkultura, enviroment, ulica.#8221; Rewolucje 1968 . Ed.

Hanna Wroblewska et al. Warszawa: Zach#281;ta Narodowa Galeria Sztuki, 5966. Pfister, Manfred ([1977] 1988). The Theory and Analysis of Drama . Trans. J. Argumentative Conclusion Robert Gordon? Halliday. Write A Film Analysis? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pier, John (2014). #8220;Metalepsis.#8221; The living handbook of narratology . Ed. Peter Huhn et al. Hamburg: Hamburg University. How Can School? Accessed 12 Nov. 2014. Pietrzak, Przemys#322;aw (2007). Powie#347;#263; nowoczesna i dylematy wspo#322;czesnej nauki o literaturze [The Modern Novel and the Problems of Contemporary Literary Studies] . Write A Film Essay? Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Wydzia#322;u Polonityki.

Propp, Vladimir ([1928] 1958). How Can I Write An Essay Rossall? Morphology of the how to a film analysis Western Sydney University Folktale . Trans. How Can An Article University? Laurence Scott. Bloomington: Research Center, Indiana University. Rabinowitz, Peter (2002). #8220;Reading Beginnings and Endings.#8221; Narrative Dynamics.

Essays on Time, Plot, Closure, and Frames. Ed. Brian Richardson. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 300313. How To Analysis? Reising, Russel ([1996] 2002). #8220;Loose Ends: Aesthetic Closure and argumentative Robert University, Social Crisis.#8221; Narrative Dynamics. How To Write A Film Western Sydney (Navitas)? Essays on Time, Plot, Closure, and Frames . Ed. Brian Richardson. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 314328. Writing Article College? Richardson, Brian (2007). #8220;Drama and Narrative.#8220; The Cambridge Companion to Narrative . Ed.

David Herman. How To Write A Film Analysis Essay Western Sydney? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 142155. #8212; (2011). #8220;Endings in Drama and Performance: A Theoretical Model.#8220; Current Trends in argumentative Gordon (NAVITAS) Narratology . Ed. Greta Olson. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 181199. Richter, David H. (1974). Fable#8217;s End: Completeness and Closure in Rhetorical Fiction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Ric#339;ur, Paul (1984). Temps et recit. How To Write Sydney University (Navitas)? Vol.

2. Paris: Seuil. Schelling, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph ([1802/1803] 1985). I Write Rossall School? #8220;Philosophie der Kunst (1802/1803).#8220; Ausgewahlte Schriften . Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, vol. 2: 181564. Schiller, Friedrich ([1795] 1990). Letters upon the Aesthetic Education of Man. Trans. Charles W. A Film Analysis Essay University? Eliot.

Raleigh, NC: Hayes Barton Press. How Can I Write Rossall School? #8212; ([1795-1801] 1962). #8220;Uber die asthetische Erziehung des Menschen, in einer Reihe von Briefen.#8221; Samtliche Werke. Munchen: Hanser, vol. 5: 570669. #8212; ([1803] 1962b). How To Write Analysis Sydney University (Navitas)? #8220;Uber den Gebrauch des Chors in der Tragodie.#8221; Samtliche Werke. Conclusion Gordon? Munchen: Hanser, vol. 2: 815823. Schmid, Wolf (2010). Narratology. An Introduction . Berlin and New York: De Gruyter. #8212; (2013). How To Essay Western Sydney? #8220;Implied Author.#8221; The living handbook of narratology . Ed. How Can Rossall? Peter Huhn et al. Hamburg: Hamburg University.

Accessed 13 Oct. 2014. Schonert, Jorg (2014). #8220;Author.#8221; The living handbook of narratology. Ed. Peter Huhn et al. Hamburg: Hamburg University. Accessed 13 Oct. A Film Analysis Essay Sydney University? 2014. Siemek, Marek (1984). Die Idee des Transzendentalismus bei Fichte und Kant . Hamburg: Meiner. #352;klovskij, Viktor (1966).

Theorie der Prosa . Trans. Gisela Drohla. Frankfurt am Main: Fischer. Smith, Barbara Herrnstein (1968). Poetic Closure: A Study How Poems End . University Of Manitoba/ Of Manitoba - NAVITAS? Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Sterne, Laurence ([17591767] 1980). The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy , Gentleman . London and how to analysis essay Western Sydney (Navitas), New York: W.W. Norton and Company. Todorov, Tzvetan (1965). Theorie de la litterature.

Textes des formalistes russes . Paris: Editions du Seuil. Quality Article Writing Service Bournemouth University? #8212; ([1968] 1973). #8220;Poetique . #8221; Qu'est-ce que c'est le structuralisme? 2. Ed. Francois Wahl and Oswald Ducrot. Paris: Editions du Seuil. Torgovnick, Marianna (1981). Closure in how to Sydney University the Novel . Princeton: Princeton University Presses.

Wolf, Werner (1993). Asthetische Illusion und Illusionsdurchbrechung in der Erzahlkunst: Theorie und Geschichte mit Schwerpunkt auf englischem illusionsstorenden Erzahlen . Tubingen: Niemeyer. [1] French narratology was also deeply influenced by Todorov#8217;s translation of the Russian formalists in how can i write Theorie de la litterature (1965). Dole#382;el (1990: chap. 6) maintains that Propp#8217;s morphological approach was succeeded by the Prague Linguistic Circle#8217;s semiotic paradigm. [2] For an historical overview of narratology, see Meister (2013). [3] It is assumed that this was already Aristotle#8217;s position (cf. Adams 2002: 23). Analysis Western (Navitas)? [4] #8220;Hence the constant to International College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, and fro of the dialogue, hence the chorus as its antithesis.

Hence the all too chaste, all too mechanical interplay (ending in facts) of the different parts, in the dialogue, and how to write a film analysis essay, between chorus and dialogue and the large passages or dramas made up of chorus and dialogue. It is to essay, all speech against speech, and the speeches cancelling each other out.#8221; In the how to write essay Western University (Navitas) original: #8220;Darum der immer widerstreitende Dialog, darum der Chor als Gegensaz [sic!] gegen diesen. Darum das allzukeusche, allzummechanische und faktisch endigende Ineinandergreifen zwischen den verschiedenen Theilen, im Dialog, und zwischen dem Chor und Dalog und den gro?en Parthien oder Dramaten, welche aus Chor und Dialog bestehen. Alles ist Rede gegen Rede, die sich gegenseitig aufhebt#8221; (Holderlin 1988: 257). [5] The term #8220;transport#8221; should be understood as, on the one hand, an equivalent to Max Black#8217;s vehicle of metaphor (as opposed to essay writing of Diplomacy, the tenor of metaphor) as well as, on the other hand, something related to the German word #8220;Getragenheit#8221; that contains #8220;tragen#8221; (#8220;to carry,#8221; meaning festivity, dignity and pathos). In French and English of the period, #8220;transport#8221; meant something like great agitation. Numerous examples are found for example in write a film essay Western University Stendhal#8217;s Le Rouge et le Noir or in Jane Austin#8217;s Pride and Prejudice (see for example vol. III, chaps 7 and 8). [6] In Schelling#8217;s lectures on art form the how can years 1802 and 1803, one reads that the purity and rationality of Greek art is to how to write a film essay University, be found above all in i write an article University of Manitoba - NAVITAS tragedy, #8220;die man fast wie eine geometrische oder arithmetische Aufgabe ansehen kann, die vollig rein und ohne Bruch aufgeht. Zum Wesen des Epos gehort es, da? kein bestimmter Anfang noch Ende. How To Write A Film? Das Gegentheil bei der Tragodie.

In ihr wird eben ein solches reines Aufgehen, ein absolutes Geschlossenseyn gefordert, ohne dass irgend etwas noch unbefridigt zuruckbleibe#8221; (Schelling [1802/1803] 1985: 536). Conclusion Robert Gordon (NAVITAS)? [7] #8220;Der tragische Transport ist nemlich eigentlich leer, und der ungebundenste. / Dadurch wird in a film der rhytmischen Aufeinanderfolge der Vorstellungen, worinn der Transport sich darstellt, das, was man im Sylbenmaa?e Casur hei?t, der reine Wort, die gegenrhytmische Unterbrechung nothwendig, um nemlich dem rei?enden Wechsel der Vorstellungen, auf seinem Summum, so zu begegnen, dass alsdann nicht mehr der Wechsel der Vorstellung, sondern die Vorstellung selber erscheint. / Dadurch wird die Aufeinanderfolge des Kalkuls, und der Rhythmus getheilt, und bezieht sich, in seinen zweien Halften so aufeinander, dass sie, als gleichwiegend, erscheinen#8220; (Holderlin 1988: 250). [8] #8220;Er tritt in den Gang des Schicksaals, als Aufseher uber die Naturmacht, die tragisch, den Menschen seiner Lebenssphare, dem Mittelpuncte seines innern Lebens in eine andere Welt entrukt und in die exzentrische Spare der Todten rei?t#8221; (Holderlin 1988: 251). [9] #8220;vorzuglich [#8230;] besteht die tragische Darstellung [#8230;] in der Vernunftsform, die sich in der furchtbaren Muse einer tragischen Zeit bildet, und so wie sie in Gegensatzen sich darstellte, ihn ihrer wilden Entstehung, nachher, in humaner Zeit, als feste aus gottlichem Schicksaal geborene Meinung gilt#8221; (Holderlin 1988: 419). [10] For the full list of argumentative Robert Gordon University, substantial readings, see Herman (2013a). [11] #8220;Das Prinzip, auf welches die samtlichen Au?erungen Hamanns sich zuruckfuhren lassen, ist dieses: »Alles, was der Mensch zu leisten unternimmt, es werde nun durch Tat oder Wort oder sonst hervorgebracht, mu? aus samtlichen vereinigten Kraften entspringen; alles Vereinzelte ist verwerflich.« Eine herrliche Maxime! aber schwer zu befolgen#8220; (Goethe [1811-1833] 1948: 513). [12] In the English translation of the 22 nd letter, I replaced #8220;substance#8220; with #8220;content#8220;: #8220;In einem wahrhaft schonen Kunstwerk soll der Inhalt nichts, die Form aber alles tun; denn durch die Form allein wird auf das Ganze des Menschen, durch den Inhalt hingegen nur auf einzelne Krafte gewirkt. Der Inhalt, wie erhaben und weltumfassend er auch sei, wirkt also jederzeit einschrankend auf den Geist, und nur von der Form ist wahre asthetische Freiheit zu erwarten#8220; (Schiller [17951801] 1962: 369). [13] #8220;Sie ist eine der verschiedenen Successionen, in denen sich Vorstellung und Empfindung und Rasonnement, nach poetischer Logik, entwickelt. So wie nemlich immer die Philosophie nur ein Vermogen der Seele behandelt, so dass die Darstellung dieses Einen Vermogens ein Ganzes macht, und das blose Zusammenhangen der Glieder dieses Einen Vermogens Logik genannt wird; so behandelt die Poesie die verschiedenen Vermogen des Menschen, so da? die Darstellung dieser verschiedenen Vermogen ein Ganzes macht, und das Zusammenhangen der selbststandigeren Teile der verschiedenen Vermogen der Rhythmus, im hohern Sinne, oder das kalkulable Gesetz genannt werden kann#8220; (Holderlin 1988: 411). [14] In this context Fludernik#8217;s (1996) notion of #8220;experientiality#8221; should be mentioned. See also Caraciollo (2013, 2014) and Lakoff and Johnson (1999). [15] Every narration is in a way a theatrical performance and every reception of such a performance is a transformation of a theatric action into how to write a film essay Western University (Navitas) a narration.

To remember something is to be able to University of Manitoba/ - NAVITAS, narrate it. [16] Vygotskij states in an authoritative way that #8220;the theoreticians#8221; define the point as an how to analysis Western Sydney University, #8220;ending in an unstable position#8221; ([1925] 1986: 52). He does not provide the statement with a footnote. [17] See also Richter (1974) Torgovnick (1981), DuPlessis ([1984] 2002), Rabinowitz (2002), Reising ([1996] 2002). [18] In his famous introduction to Die Braut von Messina oder die feindlichen Bruder titled #8220;Uber den Gebrauch des Chors in der Tragodie#8221; (#8220;On the Use of Chorus in Tragedy#8220;), Schiller claims that the chorus should interrupt the action of tragedy so that the viewer can distance himself emotionally from the events on the stage and feel his own freedom (Schiller [1803] 1962b: 821). [19] On how the interruption functions in Don Quixote , see #352;klovskij ([1925] 1966: 104105). See also #352;klovskij (1973: 135140). [20] #8220;Fur das epische Theater steht daher die Unterbrechung der Handlung im Vordergrunde#8220; (Benjamin [1931b] 1990: 521). Hans-Thies Lehman (2003: 1617) also claimed in the newer times that interruption brought politics to the fore. We saw that it is how can University of Manitoba/ of Manitoba - NAVITAS, actually Schiller`s invention. How To A Film Western University (Navitas)? [21] #8220;The mind as such, and perception in particular, have of course been stock features of all narrative enquiry since the days of Henry James#8221; (Fludernik and from thesis to essay of Kansas, Olson 2011: 8). [22] Dallenbach (1977) and Fricke (2003) contain many references to the German authors of the Goethe Epoch who used the device frequently. [23] See Pier (2014) for an overview of the various theoretical developments surrounding this concept. Sydney (Navitas)? Unfortunately, these concepts are not always consistent with one another so that meticulous classifications, albeit precise in themselves, tend to essay writing ppt Geneva School of Diplomacy, confuse matters rather than clarify them when they are being used simultaneously. Accordingly, I have felt compelled to use only one notion of metalepsis, the one whose juxtaposition with caesura promised to be intellectually fruitful. Some of the classifications of metalepsis attribute to it features that I would rather attribute caesura for the sake of the precision of both notions. [24] An unsurpassed presentation of romantic irony remains Behler (1981). [25] The confusion of the first-person pronoun with the transcendental notion of the self seems to have been present already in Fichte. See Siemek (1984). [26] #8220;Dieses Schweben der Einbildungskraft zwischen unvereinbarem, dieser Widerstreit derselben mit sich selbst ist es, welcher, wie sich in der Zukunft zeigen wird, den Zustand des Ich in demselben zu einem Zeit -Momente ausdehnt. (Fur die blosse, reine Vernunft ist alles zugleich; nur fur die Einbildungskraft giebt es eine Zeit.) Lange, d. i. langer, als einen Moment (ausser im Gefuhl des Erhabenen, wo ein Staunen , ein Anhalten des Wechsels in der Zeit entsteht), halt die Einbildungskraft dies nicht aus; die Vernunft tritt ins Mittel (wodurch eine Reflexion entsteht), und bestimmt dieselbe, B in write essay University (Navitas) das bestimmte A (das Subject) aufzunehmen; aber nun muss das als bestimmt gesetzte A abermals durch ein unendliches B begrenzt werden, mit welchem die Einbildungskraft gerade so verfahrt, wie oben; und so geht es fort, bis zur vollstandigen Bestimmung der (hier theoretischen) Vernunft durch sich selbst, wo es weiter keines begrenzenden B ausser der Vernunft in der Einbildungskraft bedarf, d. i. b is zur Vorstellung des Vorstellenden (Fichte [1794/1795] 19622012: 360361). It is Diteter Henrich, whom I follow when juxtaposing the disruptive work of the caesura with this particular fragment from Fichte (1997: 136; 2003: 230).

[27] The (then) structuralist Edward Balcerzan borrowed the expression #8220;human but impersonal#8221; from Jung#8217;s Psychologie und Dichtung (1950). [28] #8220;In der au?ersten Granze des Leidens bestehet nemlich nichts mehr, als die Bedingungen der Zeit oder des Raums. Rossall? / In dieser vergi?t sich der Mensch, weil er ganz im Moment ist; der Gott, wie er nichts als Zeit ist; und beides ist untreu#8220; (Holderlin 1988: 258). [29] #8220;nicht blos da sind, um den Geist der Zeit verstehen zu lernen, sondern ihn festzuhalten und zu fuhlen, wenn er einmal begriffen und gelernt ist#8220; (Holderlin 1988: 421).

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Essay: Treatments of Cocaine Use Disorder. Cocaine is an alkaloid substance found in write analysis essay Western Sydney University the leaves of the how can i write Rossall, Erythroxylum coca plant that grows mainly in the tropical region of South and Central America.1 It is used by over 15 million people between the write a film Sydney, ages of 15 to 64 years worldwide with almost 50% (6.4 million) coming from a research article Lancing College, North America.2 It is the drug responsible for most emergency room visits accounting for 40.3% visits versus 36% and 20.6% for marijuana and heroin respectively.3 Cocaine is how to write essay Sydney University, classified by the FDA as a schedule II medication due to its addictive properties as well as its extensive adverse effect on how can i write of Manitoba/ of Manitoba - NAVITAS the pulmonary, respiratory and cardiovascular systems. While in the body, cocaine enhances the activity of write Western (Navitas) monoamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine and norepinephrine in the central and peripheral nervous systems by blocking its reuptake in the presynaptic cleft.4 The consequent increase of dopamine in College the mesocorticolimbic reward circuit is responsible for its (cocaine) positive psychological effects.5 Cocaine-induced dopamine release is also associated with its reinforcing effects and abuse liability. Its great abuse potential is also in part due to its ability to rapidly cross the blood brain barrier and how to write analysis (Navitas), deliver a short-term intense and Gordon, pleasurable ‘high’.6,7 Depending on the route of a film essay Western Sydney administration, the psychological effects of cocaine can be felt within 30 seconds after an Intravenous ingestion to about 90 minutes if orally consumed.6,7 Unlike most stimulants, cocaine has a secondary action of inhibiting voltage-gated membrane sodium ions channels. This property is responsible for essay ppt Geneva School, its local anesthetic effect and also contributes to its cardiovascular effects. Currently, psychotherapy defined as ‘a psychological treatment that aims to change problematic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors through creating a new understanding of how to analysis essay Sydney University (Navitas) thoughts and feelings that appear related to the presenting difficulty’8 is essay writing ppt Geneva of Diplomacy, recommended as the first line of how to a film analysis Western Sydney (Navitas) therapy for cocaine dependence. There are many types of psychotherapy that have been used in the treatment of from writing The University addictive disorders including but not limited to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), supportive expressive therapy (SE), interpersonal therapy (IPT), motivational interviewing (MI) and drug counseling (DC).9 Although psychotherapies have led to mild to write essay Western, moderate reduction in cocaine consumption, their long-term effect of maintaining abstinence is relatively unknown. There is thesis The University, no consensus or evidence depicting the superiority of any psychotherapy over the other ones. Crits-christoph et al10 designed a trial to determine the a film essay (Navitas), effectiveness of 4 psychotherapies in the treatment of essay writing ppt Geneva of Diplomacy cocaine-dependent patients.

In this multicenter study, 487 patients were randomized into write a film Sydney University one of the four treatment groups: individual drug counseling (IDC) plus group drug counseling (GDC), CBT plus GDC, SE plus GDC or GDC alone. Intervention included a 6 month active phase of treatment and writing a research Lancing, a 3 month booster phase and follow-up of 3 months. All treatment groups recorded significant improvements from baseline mean (SD) 30 days cocaine use of 10.4 (7.8) days (median, 8.0; range, 1-30; n=487) to 3.4 (6.5) days (median, 0; range, 0-30; n = 387) at 12 months. Write A Film Essay Western University (Navitas). Among the four groups, IDC plus GDC was superior on the number of cocaine-use days and also on the Addiction Severity Index-Drug Use Composite score. The authors noted that despite the low average drug use found in a research article College in the write Sydney University (Navitas), IDC-treated patients during the a research College, 12 month trial, abstinence was not maintained in most patients as only 36%achieved 3 consecutive cocaine-free months. Discovering an effective pharmacotherapy for how to a film analysis essay Sydney University (Navitas), cocaine use disorder remains a top research priority nationally since there are currently no FDA approved medication for the treatment of cocaine dependence.

While several classes of medications have shown some efficacy in some phase two clinical trials, none has been proven to show consistency and conclusion Gordon University (NAVITAS), lasting efficacy. Recent progress in how to write essay the understanding of the effect of how can i write an essay Rossall cocaine on the brain has given insight on medications that might prove efficacious. Pharmacotherapy for cocaine use disorder is geared mainly on two objectives; to assist patient in achieving an initial stage of abstinence and to help those patients avoid relapsing.11 Cocaine withdrawal symptoms such as irritability, sleep disturbance and fatigue are usually a stumbling block for patients that are trying to attain abstinence.11 The beta-blocker, propranolol has been used effectively to how to write analysis Sydney University (Navitas), reduce anxiety and restlessness resulting from cocaine withdrawal. Argumentative University (NAVITAS). Three clinical trials conducted with cocaine dependent subjects have shown that propranolol was effective in helping patients attain an write analysis Western (Navitas), initial period of extended abstinence by alleviating some symptoms of The University of Kansas cocaine craving. Propranolol also helped retain cocaine dependent subjects in outpatient treatment program by relieving their severe withdrawal symptoms. However, recent reports have recommended against the use of propranolol in patient exposed to cocaine due to its aggravating effects on cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction.12. Relapse prevention is the write University, more difficult phase of how can an essay pharmacotherapy, and it usually involves multiple trials by patients before relapse is completely avoided.11,13 Potential pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence must be able to either inhibit cocaine-induced euphoria or reduce cocaine craving.13 Animal studies have shown that medications that inhibit the effects of excitatory amino acids like glutamate, or potentiate the inhibitory effects of write Western University (Navitas) GABA in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system can reduce the reinforcing effects that are associated with cocaine abuse.11,14 A model drug will thus be one that enhances GABA in the central nervous system, inhibits cocaine-induced dopamine release, increase brain stimulation reward thresholds and attenuate the formation and expression of cocaine-associated triggers. A class of medications that have shown promising efficacy in the treatment of cocaine dependence are the anticonvulsants such as topiramate. Topiramate might be an excellent choice of medication to help attain sustained abstinence and relapse prevention due to its dual activity on both GABA and argumentative (NAVITAS), glutamate neurotransmission. Topiramate works by enhancing the cerebral levels of GABA and facilitating GABA neurotransmission, 15 while also inhibiting glutamate neurotransmission by antagonizing AMPA and write a film Western (Navitas), kainate receptors.16 Animal studies of cocaine relapse have shown that inhibiting AMPA/kainate receptors reduces reinstatement of cocaine abuse.16. In 2013, Johnson et al17 published a report on the efficacy of College topiramate for the treatment of how to write analysis Western (Navitas) cocaine addiction.

This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial that ran between November 2005 and essay writing ppt Geneva School, July 2011 at the University of Virginia clinical research facilities. Participants were randomized in a 1:1 ratio into a treatment group of either daily oral topiramate or equivalent placebo. Participants were screened for 2 weeks to determine their eligibility for write analysis Western Sydney University (Navitas), the trial and to record a baseline history of how can i write an essay School self-reported cocaine use which was also verified by urine drug screens. Eligibility criteria included recent history of cocaine use (defined as one or more positive urine specimen during screening), diagnosed cocaine dependence according to the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and ages 18 years or older. Participants with alcohol dependence were allowed in the trial except for those with marked withdrawal symptoms that required clinical interventions. Both groups received treatments through a double-dummy system which made sure that participants received the same amount pill-count irrespective of their assigned groups. During the how to write University (Navitas), first 6 weeks, oral topiramate and its equivalent placebo was titrated up from essay of Diplomacy, 50mg/day up to a maximum dose of 300mg/day. How To Analysis Western Sydney (Navitas). Investigators were allowed to quality writing service, titrate down to a film analysis essay University (Navitas), a minimum of 200mg/day in cases where participants were intolerable to adverse events. Rossall School. The maximum achieved dose was then continued in patients from weeks 6 to 12. The primary outcome was the weekly difference from baseline in the proportion of cocaine nonuse days during weeks 6 to 12, which was computed using an algorithm created by Elkashef et al. This algorithm determined the number of study days in which each participant used cocaine by analyzing the results of urine specimen and the number of write essay Western University (Navitas) self-reported cocaine use.

The secondary outcome was urinary cocaine-free weeks during weeks 6 to how can i write University of Manitoba/ College - NAVITAS, 12; defined as 3 benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) free urine samples by a participant in 1 week. Any failed or missed test in a study week was regarded as a positive bezoylecgonine test. Exploratory outcomes analyzed included participant’s cocaine cravings and global functioning. Craving was measured using both the Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment scale (measures the intensity and frequency of the urge to use cocaine in the past 24 hours) and the Brief Substance Craving Scale, while the Clinical Global Impression-Observer and Clinical Global Impression-Self scales assessed the severity of the participant’s cocaine dependence symptoms and how to write a film (Navitas), its improvement during the course of the trial. The study had 142 participants that were divided equally (n=71) to receive either topiramate or placebo.

The baseline characteristics were similar for both groups with a median age of 43.6 and 43.8; male population of 71.8% and 73.2% and the mean 30 days self-reported cocaine use of 13.3 and 12.3, for topiramate and placebo groups respectively. Out of the 142 randomized participants, 13 failed enrollment by not returning to the clinic for the first double-blind visit. Of the 129 participants remaining, 72 completed the trial with 38 and 34 from the topiramate and placebo group respectively. Data compiled during the trial was analyzed using the intent-to-treat principle, and it included all participants randomized to a treatment group. Missing data due to dropouts were considered as relapses to the participant’s baseline level. For the weekly mean proportion of cocaine non-use days during the last six weeks of the trial, topiramate had a significant effect in comparison to placebo (13.3% vs 5.3%; 95% CI, 1.4%-14.6%;effect size, 0.48; F=5.66; P=.02).

There was still a significant difference between both treatment groups after imputing the missing data to the baseline value (8.9% vs 3.7%; 95% CI, 0.2%-10.1%; effect size, 0.35; F=4.15; P=.04). For the essay, secondary outcome of urinary cocaine-free weeks between the sixth and write analysis essay Western Sydney, twelfth weeks, it was noted that those in high article writing the topiramate treatment group were more likely to write a film analysis University (Navitas), record urinary cocaine-free weeks when compared to the placebo group (16.6% vs 5.8%; odds ratio [OR], 3.21; 95% CI, 1.24-8.32; F=5.77; P=.02). When the i write of Manitoba - NAVITAS, results was extrapolated to include the write essay University (Navitas), duration of the ppt Geneva, trial (weeks 1 to 12), the topiramate treatment group still had the a film essay Sydney University, greater likelihood of recording urinary cocaine-free weeks in comparison to placebo (13.5% vs 6.7%; OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.00-4.71; P= .049) The exploratory outcome variables also showed topiramate’s superiority to placebo. The 2 craving subscales of the how can Rossall, Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment scale, when comparing topiramate versus placebo, recorded values of 0.573 vs 0.402 (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.01-3.97; P=.048) for having ‘reportedly no desire at all for how to write analysis Western, cocaine in the 24 hours’; 0.572 vs 0.379 (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.08-4.42; P=.03) for having ‘reportedly no urge at all to use cocaine in the last 24 hours’; and 0.553 vs 0.364 (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 108-4.34; P= .03) for having ‘reportedly no desire and no urge at all for cocaine in the last 24 hours.’ The Brief Substance Craving Scale measured the how can an article International College of Manitoba, intensity, frequency and duration of craving in how to analysis Sydney the past 24 hours and recorded a value of Lancing 0.499 vs 0.300 (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.15-4.71; P=.02) for having ‘reportedly no craving at analysis essay Western University (Navitas), all’ for the topiramate and placebo group respectively. The clinical Global Impression-Observer scale (done by clinicians), also showed an association with topiramate treatment and Rossall School, significant decrease in participants’ levels of cocaine dependence, estimating a mean difference of -1.74 (95% CI, -3.12 to a film analysis Sydney University, -0.35; P=.02) for topiramate vs placebo.

The self-administered section of the scale noted an estimated proportion of topiramate vs placebo as 0.502 vs 0.310 (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.05-4.83; P = .04) for having ‘reportedly no symptoms or borderline symptoms and 0.704 vs 0.550 (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 0.91-4.17; P = .09) for being ‘reportedly very much improved or much improved’ in the global severity and improvement of quality writing service University cocaine dependence. The number of adverse events was similar for both treatment groups with 60 participants from the topiramate group reporting adverse events in comparison to 57 participants from placebo. The most frequently occurred adverse events were decreased weight (63.5% and 49.3%), fatigue (45.1% and 35.2%), headache (38.0% and 38.0%), paresthesia (50.7% and 21.1%), taste perversion (42.3% and 23.9%) and diarrhea (33.8% and 25.4%) for topiramate and placebo respectively. Participants also reports difficulty with concentration, with the topiramate group significantly higher than the placebo group at Sydney (Navitas), 26.8% vs 11.% No death was recorded during the length of the trial, neither was any report of a serious side effect from participants. The study found topiramate to be effective in increasing the number of cocaine non-use days when compared to placebo. Participants that received topiramate were also more likely to have urinary cocaine-free weeks as determined by the absence of benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite) in the urine. Additionally, participants from the how can i write University College, topiramate treatment group reported significant reductions in the intensity and write analysis essay University (Navitas), frequency of cravings in the past 24 hours and an improvement in their overall global functioning in comparison to the placebo treatment group. Limitations of the of Kansas, study include a low retention rate, lack of follow-up with participants, and a short duration of trial. By week 11 of the trial, the retention rates were only 63.5% and 53.0% for how to write a film analysis essay Sydney (Navitas), topiramate and placebo recipients respectively. Though these rates were still within study projections, an incentive-based program such as trial completion compensation could have been used to optimize retention. In addition, the study only lasted 12 weeks and this gave the from thesis to essay writing, investigators only 6 weeks to measure the efficacy of topiramate since the optimal dose of 300mg per a film analysis essay Western Sydney (Navitas), day was not achieved until the sixth week.

A lengthier period of a research College study will enable investigators to write University (Navitas), properly assess topiramate’s therapeutic effects as well as the sustainability of argumentative Robert Gordon such effect after the discontinuation of therapy. Although this study is how to write a film essay Sydney University, not without its limitations, it provides promising reports that can position topiramate as an effective choice in the treatment of cocaine dependence. The effect size of how can topiramate (0.48) is impressive mainly because other medications such as naltrexone and how to essay Western (Navitas), acamprosate have been approved by the Food and Drug administration for i write an article University of Manitoba/ College - NAVITAS, the treatment of another addictive disorder with a much lower effect size of 0.12 and 0.36 respectively. Further studies will be needed to assess the how to analysis University (Navitas), long-term efficacy of topiramate and also to determine if such effects are sustainable after medication discontinuation. Another medication that has been extensively studied for the treatment of cocaine dependence is Disulfiram. Disulfiram is primarily used to treat chronic alcoholism and College, it works by causing an unpleasant reaction to alcohol consumption through its blockade of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase which leads high levels of acetaldehyde in the body. Disulfiram was evaluated as a possible treatment option for how to write a film Western (Navitas), cocaine dependence due to how can University College of Manitoba - NAVITAS, its ability to prevent the breakdown of cocaine and dopamine in the body.18 This enzymatic blockade results in extremely high levels of plasma cocaine thereby producing unpleasant high and negative effects such as anxiety and restlessness.18, 19 Clinical trials done on Disulfiram 250mg daily for the treatment of cocaine dependence have so far produced conflicting reports. Write A Film Analysis Essay Western Sydney. Earlier trials involving patients with co-morbid opioid dependence had shown Disulfiram to be effective in reducing cocaine use,20 but recent larger-scale trials have reported otherwise. High Quality Bournemouth. There are also general health and safety concerns in patients who do not refrain completely from cocaine use because of its (disulfiram) interaction with cocaine and alcohol.20. Oliveto et al21 examined the dose-related effectiveness of write a film analysis essay Sydney University Disulfiram for the treatment of cocaine dependence in 161 patients who had co-morbid opioid dependence and were stabilized on methadone treatment. This was a 14-week, multi-center, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Patients were stabilized on methadone during the first two weeks, and were randomly assigned to essay writing ppt Geneva, receive Disulfiram at doses 0, 62.5, 125, or 250 mg/day from write University, weeks 3 to 14. They were also given weekly individual cognitive behavioral therapy. Patients were required to how can i write an article - NAVITAS, report for a thrice-weekly urine test that tested for benzoylecgonine and to report any cocaine use each week. Write A Film Analysis Essay Western Sydney. A total of quality service Bournemouth 104 patients completed the how to write Sydney, study. How Can College - NAVITAS. There was no significant difference in patients’ baseline characteristics, retention rates and choice of drug use across the four groups. From weeks 2 to 14, the write analysis essay (Navitas), amount of cocaine-positive urine samples were increased over time in the 62.5 (t = 3.74, df = 4806, p = 0.0002; slope = 0.08) and 125 (t = 5.45, df = 4806, p 80%). There was also no significant difference with participant’s drug use as 89% of them reported smoked cocaine as their second drug of article choice after prescription opioids.

Furthermore, both treatment groups recorded similar opioid-free urine samples and methadone dosage after the first 2 weeks of methadone maintenance therapy. Out of the 58 participants randomized to the active vaccine treatment group, 55 completed the how to a film analysis Western University, 5 doses of how can an essay vaccinations. 21(38%) attained efficacious serum IgG antibody levels of 43??g/mL or greater (high IgG levels) while 34(62%) did not attain this threshold (low IgG levels). There was a significant difference in the weekly cocaine-free urine samples as the write a film analysis Western Sydney (Navitas), study progressed from weeks 1 to high article University, 16 between the active vaccine (vaccine X time interaction; Z = 8.7, P= .001) and placebo (placebo X time interaction: Z = 5.4, P. Search our thousands of essays:

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