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Leonerd heard a knock on the door. An Article Pdf Xi’an? It was a sweet old lady who was as plump as a blueberry. A Winning? “I’m here for Lucy. Is she here?” the lady asked. “Yes, in fact she is,” said Mrs. How To Write An Article University? Leonerd. “Lucy?” The lady said, “I’m going cure your problem. Here are some vegetables.” “Oh, OK,” whispered the lady as she walked away. “No! Wait!

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She looked into the mirror and what she saw was the online writing, most frightening thing ever! She was a bumpy, lumpy, puke green pickle! She started to panic and scream. Her mother was horrified when she saw Jamie. Jamie started to cry and how to write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, went back to her room.

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Since that day, Jamie ate pickles whenever she wanted and write pdf Xi’an, didn’t care what the other people said. by Blair, sixth grade writer. Ell Langstorf was in the fourth grade. She was pretty and numbers Mercersburg Academy, smart, but she was also always sleepy. She slept at breakfast, at dinner, and at how to write an article pdf Xi’an school. She loved to sleep so much that she brought a blanket and a pillow wherever she went.

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She shook her head and, in spite of how to pdf Xi’an, herself, thought, “Poor Victoria. I bet she is having a rough day,” for how to write Academy Shannon had heard about the ears. Shannon masterfully entered her locker combination and as her locker swung open, a note drifted out. How To Pdf Xi’an University? It was crinkled, and had obviously been shoved through the slits at the top of the locker. Shannon smoothed out the note and essay, quickly read it. It said: I need help.

Meet me in the locker bay at locker number 320 after school. I can’t tell you my name. All I can tell you is that I am in an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, a dire situation. Please come I’m begging you. Practical Marbella International School? Shannon just stood there for a moment, overwhelmed by the sense of urgency in the note. Then and write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, there, Shannon knew that it was Victoria, and how to write a rhetorical analysis essay Abbey, she couldn’t say no. Victoria was waiting at write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University locker number 320 for Shannon. Victoria paced and chewed on her fingernails, checking her shiny, pink, polka dotted wristwatch every few minutes. How To Write In An? “Please come, Shannon,” she thought, “Please.” Unbeknownst to write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, her, Shannon was on her way. With her phone in hand she was texting her parents that she would be home late.

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The mournful sound of a lone saxophone drifted towards them from the band room, and a gust of wind from an open window made Victoria shiver. Pdf Xi’an University? “Yes,” said Shannon slowly, “I will help you.” Victoria gave Shannon a smile that seemed to light up the hallway. “So,” said Victoria, “when do we start?” They talked and talked and how to a business essay Marianapolis Preparatory, shared ideas and evaluated options for an hour, but nothing seemed likely to help Victoria. Then Shannon said, “Victoria, maybe your body gave you more ears to make you listen to the people around you. If you talk less and write an article University, start listening more, maybe you could be cured.” “Great idea!” said Victoria. All night long Victoria imagined the questions she would ask to write a business Marianapolis Preparatory, evaluate how others felt. An Article Pdf Xi’an University? She thought about these questions hour after hour until she fell asleep. Essay College Cambridge? And the next day, when she began to really listen to others, the ears melted away one by one and were replaced by new friendships, especially a new best friend named Shannon. Victoria woke up on an ordinary Monday.

She leapt out of bed, a smile on her face, and threw open the curtains in her room to greet a new day. Her mom stuck her head through her door and said, “Hi, honey. I made pancakes for breakfast! Happy Monday.” “Wow, Mom!” Victoria replied grinning from ear to write an article University, ear. “That is write a business essay Preparatory School, so sweet of you! I’ll be down for breakfast soon.” She whipped on some jeans and a sweater. Then she picked up the phone and an article pdf Xi’an, dialed a number she knew by pdf St. heart. “Hi Shannon! Yeah thanks for the happy birthday wishes! Uh huh.

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19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume. Recruiters spend an average of six seconds reviewing a resume before they make the initial decision on candidates, according to research conducted by TheLadders, an online job-matching service for professionals. That means you have to win them over fast. To get a better idea of what makes a resume great, we reached out to Amanda Augustine, career expert at TheLadders. She created an example of an excellent resume and allowed us to share it. How To An Article Jiaotong-Liverpool University. While resumes should be tailored to the industry you're in, the one below offers a helpful guide for University (UCL) entry- and mid-level professionals with three to five years of how to pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University relevant work experience.. What makes this resume so great? Augustine outlines the following reasons: 1. It includes a URL to practical thinking Les Roches School of Hotel Management, the jobseeker's professional online profile. If you don't include URLs to your professional online profiles, hiring managers will look you up regardless. Augustine tells Business Insider that 86% of recruiters admit to reviewing candidates' online profiles, so why not include your URL along with your contact information? This will prevent recruiters from having to guess or mistaking you for someone else.

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There's no point in including a generic objective about a professional looking for opportunities that will allow me to how to write essay Marianapolis School, leverage my skills, says Augustine. It's not helpful and distracting. Ditch it. 5. Instead, it includes an executive summary. Replace your fluffy statement with an how to pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University executive summary, which should be like a 30-second elevator pitch where you explain who you are and what you're looking for . In approximately three to five sentences, explain what youЂ™re great at, most interested in, and how you can provide value to a prospective employer, Augustine says. 6. It uses reverse chronological order. This is the how to write college essay most helpful for recruiters because they're able to see what you've been doing in recent years immediately, says Augustine. The only time you shouldn't do this is if you're trying to transition to another career altogether, but then again, in write University, this situation, you'll probably be relying more on networks, than your resume, she says. 7. It uses keywords like forecasting and strategic planning. Many companies use some kind of screening process to how to a rhetorical College, identify the right candidates.

You should include the keywords mentioned in the job posting throughout your resume. How To Write Jiaotong-Liverpool. Identify the common keywords, terminology, and how to essay Mercersburg Academy, key phrases that routinely pop up in the job descriptions of your target role and incorporate them into your resume (assuming you have those skills), advises Augustine. Write Pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool. This will help you make it past the write essay Preparatory School initial screenings and on to the recruiter or hiring manager. 8. It provides company descriptions. It's helpful for an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool recruiters to know the size of the company you used to work for, advises Augustine. Being a director of a winning college Haileybury a huge company means something very different than a director at a small company, she says. You can go to the company's About Us section and rewrite one or two lines of the description. This should be included right underneath the name of the company. While the company size is helpful information, including the company description will also let the hiring manager know what industries you've worked in.

For example, being an accountant in an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, tech may be very different than being an accountant in the hospitality industry. Les Roches Marbella Management. As with most things on a resume, the company description should be tailored based on how to pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, the professional's goals. If you're looking to switch industries, your focus may be on the company size Ђ” assuming it's similar to your goals Ђ” and write essay pdf St. Clair College, less on discussing the various products your company sells. 9. It does not list achievements in dense blocks of text. Recruiters receive so many resumes to scan through at a time, so make it as easy as possible for them to write University, understand why you're perfect for the job. Dense blocks of text are too difficult to read, says Augustine..

10. Instead, achievements are listed in two to five bullet points per job. How To College Essay Haileybury. Under each job or experience you've had, explain how you contributed to write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool, or supported your teamЂ™s projects and initiatives. As you build up your experience, save the bullets for your bragging points, says Augustine. Quantify your major accomplishments and contributions for how to in an Mercersburg each role, Augustine tells us. This can include the money you saved or brought in for your employer, deals closed, and projects delivered on time or under budget.

Do not use any more than three to five bullet points. 12. Accomplishments are formatted as result-and-then-cause. How To Write. A good rule is to use the online University College London (UCL) result BY action sentence structure whenever possible. For example: Generated approximately $452,000 in annual savings by employing a new procedure which streamlined the write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University business's vendor relationships. 13. White space draws the reader's eyes to important points. Recruiters do not spend a lot of time scanning resumes, so avoid dense blocks of text. The key is to format the information in a way that makes it easy to online essay University London, scan and recognize your job goals and write an article, relevant qualifications, Augustine tells us.

14. It doesn't use crazy fonts or colors. Stick to black and white color, says Augustine. As for how to essay Preparatory School font, it's best to stick with the an article Jiaotong-Liverpool basics, such as Arial, Tahoma, or Calibri. Augustine says you should never write your resume in third person because everyone knows you're the one writing it (unless you go through a professional resume writing service). Write A Winning Haileybury. Instead, you should write it in first person, and do not include pronouns. It's weird [to include pronouns], and it's an extra word you don't need, she says.

You need to streamline your resume because you have limited real estate. Avoid adding any embedded tables, pictures, or other images in your resume, as this can confuse the applicant-tracking software and jumble your resume in the system, says Augustine. 17. It doesn't use headers or footers. It may look neat and write Jiaotong-Liverpool, concise to how to write numbers Academy, display your contact information in the header, but for t he same reason with embedded tables and charts, it often gets scrambled in an applicant tracking system, says Augustine. 18. Education is listed at the bottom. Unless you're a recent graduate, you should highlight your work experience and how to write an article, move your education information to the bottom of your resume, says Augustine.

Never include anything about how to college essay Haileybury, your high-school years. 19. It doesn't say references upon request. Every recruiter knows you're going to an article pdf Xi’an University, provide references if they request it so there's no reason for essay Clair College you to include this line. Again, remember that space on how to write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, your resume is crucial so don't waste it on a meaningless line, Augustine tells us. Now watch how to ace an interview: SEE ALSO: What Recruiters Look At During The 6 Seconds They Spend On Your Resume. Numbers In An Essay Mercersburg. NOW WATCH: The 9 Worst Mistakes You Can Make On Your Resume. Recommended For You Powered by how to write Sailthru. How To Write Pdf St.. 19 Reasons Why This Is An Excellent Resume.

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essays etc This page is full of essays that I wrote at University and how to write pdf Xi’an, College. I didn't get 'A's on write a winning all of them - just most of them - so steal at pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University your own risk.This format is -of course - just temporary. History 339 Primary Documents Review Robert Jago 20015294 Document One: Debates on the Passage of the essay writing College (UCL), Quebec Act, House of Commons, 1774: Each party in pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, the debate accepts that it is writing (UCL), right and just that the newly conquered subjects of Canada should be assimilated with regards to religion and language. Where the parties differ is in the 'law-form' of the country and the rights of English colonists and tradesmen therein.

The Attorney General, Lord Thurlow, proposes that it is unwise to create a democratic system of government in the new colony. Write. He states that, 'humanity, justice, and wisdom equally conspire to write analysis essay advise you to leave them [institutions] to the people just as they were'. With regard to the Englishman's right to carry his laws with him over to the new colony, the Attorney General considers this to be as absurd an expectation as if a Londoner expected the laws of how to Jiaotong-Liverpool his city to follow him to the Isle of Guernsey. On this latter point, the Solicitor General, Alexander Wedderburn, claims that the rights of Englishmen should be withheld from Canada so as to 'keep alive in their breasts this attachment to their native soil'. Write Marianapolis School. The contrary argument comes from Colonel Barre and Mr. Charles Fox, and Mr. Edmund Burke. The former argued from write an article pdf Xi’an a jingoistic position, that the Attorney General should be more concerned with his English countrymen in Canada - who emigrated to the country in the expectation of University enjoying the same rights and privileges as they had in their motherland. Furthermore, Colonel Barre claims that the imposition of the English constitution is not a punishment, but, due to its liberal nature, it is a reward. Mr.

Fox expands upon the latter argument and suggests that whatever elements of English law that the how to pdf Xi’an, local inhabitants may find disagreeable may be easily adjusted to Marbella of Hotel Management better fit their temperament. Finally, Mr. Fox, foreshadowing the argument by Mr. Burke in the years to come, states that his opposition to the authoritarian constitution to be continued in Canada is based in how to write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, his belief that, 'America is not to be governed by in an force, but by affection and interest'. Mr. Burke partially digresses from the particular topic at hand and in stead makes the 'slippery slope' argument, that a tyrannical government in Canada will be used by unnamed forces at home as an example to show that 'stronger measures' are better suited for governing.

Finally, in an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, another tangential argument, Lord North proclaims his support for the bill in order to how to write Marianapolis Preparatory prevent the establishment of a free assembly composed entirely of how to Jiaotong-Liverpool University Roman Catholics. Document Two: Edmund Burke, Speech on write essay College Conciliation with America: In this document Mr. Edmund Burke seems to how to pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University echo Mr. Fox's argument from the write a business, previous essay. Write. Edmund Burke argues that America's bond to the British Empire rests solely on the feeling amongst the Americans that English Liberty and English rule are one and how to write a business Preparatory, indivisible. He argues that if Americans were shown that Liberty and English government were separable then the bond would be broken, because Americans could find 'tyranny anywhere'. Document Three: Edmund Burke, Speech on Fox's East India Bill: In this document Edmund Burke draws a distinction between a classical Charter, which may help enumerate some of the Jiaotong-Liverpool University, natural rights of online essay writing men, and the East India Company's Charter, which illuminates the Company's rights over men. Mr.

Burke claims that all such political arrangements are artificial and are part of a social contract. While the East India Company has fairly, legally, and justly acquired its dominion in India for money, it must not disregard that in write an article, doing so it formed a social contract with the Indians and how to pdf St., therefore it must run its lawful administration to their eventual benefit. Document Four: William Cobbett, Political Register: This document has a surprisingly twenty-first century view of the how to an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Raj . William Cobbett argues that the conquest of write a rhetorical analysis essay Abbey College India is the greatest crime in how to write pdf Xi’an, the history of the world, it is without justification, and the unceasing wars which accompany it are a waste of English lives, and a slander of English honor and glory. Document Five: William Wilberforce, Speech on the East India Company's Charter Bill: William Wilberforce fears that Britain is too easily sitting on its laurels with regards to India. He fears that the impressive edifice that is the British Raj has blinded England to how tenuous their rule is. The reason for this is how to essay, that Britain has failed to win the affection of the Indians.

William Wilberforce's solution to the lack of affection the Indians may feel towards Britain is to recreate the Indians, as an Asian race of Englishmen. An Article Jiaotong-Liverpool. Document Number 6, Thomas Munro on the Employment of online London Natives in how to pdf Xi’an University, the Public Service: Thomas Munro proposes that the British are courting disaster if they continue to practical School Management exclude Indians from high public office in India. He writes that the Empire's hold over them should be one of affection, and that that affection is won by an article University allowing the Indians into the highest offices of the how to write college essay, Empire. He writes that excluding Indians from high office would remove the incentive for Indians to educate themselves along British standards. Without such an write an article education their civilization would sink still further. He concludes that British rule should be maintained permanently in India so that the process of Anglicisation and civilisation may continue until Britain 'shall in how to write analysis College, time so far improve the character of write Jiaotong-Liverpool University our Indian subjects as to how to write essay Haileybury enable them to Jiaotong-Liverpool University govern and protect themselves'. Document Number 7, Thomas Babington MacCaulay Sppech on the Government of write a rhetorical analysis Abbey Cambridge India: Thomas MacCaulay reiterates Thomas Munro's earlier argument that Indians should be admitted to all of the high offices of India so that this incentive might help raise the general character of the Indians. MacCaulay draws on divine providence in his explanation of the British object in India. He writes: 'we shall never consent to . stupify and paralyse a great people who God has committed to our charge '. MacCaulay considers that the civilizing mission in India can only add to Britain's honour. he concludes by epitomizing his and Thomas Munro's argument that the how to an article Jiaotong-Liverpool, 'empire is the imperishable empire of our arts and our morals, our literature and our laws'.

Document 8, William Huskisson Speech on moving for a select committee on the civil government if Canada: William Huskisson attacks the feeling in practical thinking Marbella International School of Hotel, Parliament that the empire must pay its own way and bring some material benefit to write an article the Home Islands. He argues that Britain has a duty to her subjects and not the other way around; that Britain has formed numerous colonies in her own image and that abandoning these colonies of Englishmen [indistinguishable from themselves] would be 'an indelible disgrace'. He attacks these men as 'Little Englanders' and appeals to their patriotism by invoking Britain's civlizing mission to the world. Document 9, Edward Gibbon Wakefield: In this document, Mr. Numbers Essay Mercersburg Academy. Wakefiled describes the how to pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, anarchic British settlement of New Zealand and the problem of dis-honourable settlers run riot over the natives. His solution is to send the islands a Bishop in order to supervise the settlers. Document Ten: Sir Thomas Foxwell Buxton, Report of the Parliamentary Select Committee on Aborigines (British Settlements): Sir Thomas first accepts that it is how to write a winning essay Haileybury, right and just for Britain to find new outlets for the surplus population of the Home Islands. However with this right comes the write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, duty to supervise that colonisation in order to check an evil as great as slavery - the oppression of the natives of 'barbarous countries'.

The chief reason for their oppression is the distance between the settlers that commit the crimes and how to write essay, the English courts fit to how to an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University punish them. Document Eleven: John George Lambton, Earl of how to Clair Durham, Report on the Affairs of British North America: In this document the Earl of Durham proposes the union of British America into write, a new nation which would allow the local population to have some say in the government. The proximity of the United States has daily shown the British Americans that enjoy a poorer material life than their southern cousins and this creates a move for separation from the Empire. The only way that this can be countered is through the fostering of national feeling which would give the British Americans 'a country which they would be unwilling to see absorbed even into one more powerful'. The Earl of Durham also finds that many people in the metropole are too ready to how to write a winning college essay leave the security of the how to an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, British dominion over America to the common ties of affection. Document Twelve: Lord Edward Godffrey Smith Stanley, Speech in the House of Commons: Lord Edward Godffrey Smith Stanley, states that while Canada is a military liability to Britain, its commercial and political importance far outweigh this problem. He also writes that if certain Canadian parochials would wish to separate their country from Britain's nominal control, they must consider that while Britain does gain much from Canada, Canada gains far more materially from practical Marbella of Hotel Management Britain and the Imperial connection. Document Thirteen: John Stuart Mill, Principles of how to write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University Political Economy: John Stuart Mill writes that nations have a duty to colonize the world in order open the resources of the under developed nations to the world and to the benefit of all mankind. He notes that while the write a business essay Marianapolis School, principle of comparative advantage is generally accepted, a similar principle, applying to University labour is rarely considered, 'the exportation of how to a winning college labourers and capital from a place where their productive power is an article, less to a place where it is greater, increases . the aggregate produce of the practical Marbella International Management, labour and how to write, capital of the world'.

Document Fourteen: Richard Cobden, Speech at Manchester: Richard Cobden opposes the military expenditures related to maintaining an empire. He writes that surely the how to, English do not intend to how to write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool maintain the empire by this force of arms, and online essay writing College, if as some argue, arms are needed to defend trade, then why is a similar expenditure of the machines of how to an article pdf Xi’an war not needed to ensure the security of the transatlantic trade with the United States. He also argues that the solution to the frequent insurrections by the natives throughout the college essay, Empire is for how to an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, 'civilised men [to] treat savages like men'. Document Fifteen: Richard Cobden, Letters on India: Richard Cobden expresses the fear that like Greece and Rome before her, Britain may be 'corrupted and write pdf St. Clair College, demoralized' by University her Asian Empire. He appears to want to hasten the how to write essay pdf St. Clair, end of the Raj by removing the 'screen' of the British East India Company from the administration of write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University India, so that Parliament could meditate on the awesome responsibility of governing and civilising more than one hundred million people. Document Sixteen: Earl of Rosebery, Speech to the Leeds Chamber of essay Academy Commerce: The Earl of Rosebery introduces the how to an article, term 'Imperial Federation'. The purpose of such a community is to ensure the continued connection between Britain and her dominions. University London (UCL). The previous claims that Britain must shoulder the burden of Empire, and that the colonies are a drain on her materially and spiritually have given way to the Earl's claim that it is write an article pdf Xi’an, solely because of the Empire that the trade with the colonies is so high.

He notes that trade with Australia and its three million inhabitants is the same in real numbers as trade with the write, United States (a liberated colony) and its sixty million inhabitants. Document Seventeen: Benjamin Disraeli, Speech at the Crystal Palace: Disraeli attacks the how to write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, 'Little Englanders' and how to a winning, the liberals for their attempts to undermine the write pdf Xi’an, Empire. Disraeli claims that if not for the devotion and how to pdf St. College, loyalty of the colonies to England, the imperial ties would have been severed. Disraeli finds that the time is right for the consolidation of the Empire into how to write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool, a federation with an Imperial Tariff, military, and parliament. Document Eighteen: W.E. Gladstone, England's Mission: Gladstone undermines the cause of Imperial federation by how to write a rhetorical analysis Abbey Cambridge calling it a 'superstition equally gross and how to write pdf Xi’an, mischevious'. He again appeals to divine providence and 'England's mission' which appears to be to practical thinking Les Roches School create outlets for her surplus population.

The glory of founding these repositories of pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool men is that they are also repositories of English liberty and online essay University College London (UCL), culture and therefore are bound to her by 'moral and social sympathies' as opposed to the writ and fiat of Downing Street. How To Pdf Xi’an. Document Nineteen: John Bright, Speech on India: John Bright renews the call to administer to India with an eye for its eventual independence along a British model. However he does not appeal to a sense of future glory or 'England's mission' as justification, but instead writes that Britain should 'make amends for the original crime upon which much of our power in India is founded'. Document Twenty: John Robert Steeley, The Expansion of England: India for the moment excepted, John Robert Steeley finds that unique aspect of 'Greater Britain' is its shared nationality. He draws the distinction between the British Empire and this greater British nation which is an enormous agrandisement of the national estate and allows for an Englishmen to travel anywhere on earth and still find himself at home. Write A Winning College. On a separate point, Steeley writes that the how to write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, Raj has removed from the Indians the native Official class which is necessary for them to have self government. If Britain were to remove herself from India, she would be abandoning it to chaos; therefore, for the good of the Indians (and not for the honour of those Englishmen that conquered them) the write essay Marianapolis School, Raj must continue until the eventual goal of an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University self-government is at hand. Britain should not delude herself about write Marianapolis Preparatory School having won the love of the Indians, because unlike the civilising mission of write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool Rome in Iberia, Britain can offer the how to Preparatory, Indians only an austere 'cold daylight' to their previous 'warm gorgeous twilight'. Document Twenty-one: Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury, Speech in the House of Lords: The Marquess of Salisbury admonishes his fellow Lords for how to write an article pdf Xi’an University, failing to take the initiative in the expansion of the colonies.

He writes that the in an Mercersburg Academy, rising walls of an article Jiaotong-Liverpool protectionism and the advancing colonial frontiers of online writing University (UCL) her competitors are putting Britain at a grave disadvantage. Write An Article Jiaotong-Liverpool. She must therefore act immediately at any chance to win a legacy for practical thinking School of Hotel Management, her grandchildren in fertile places such as Uganda lest such places become part of a German or French legacy. Document Twenty-two: Lord Curzon of Kedleston, Speech at Farewell Dinner, Byculla Club, Bombay: Lord Curzon describes the British civil servant in India as someone of the highest moral principles. He writes that these moral principles alone are the justification for the British presence in how to write an article pdf Xi’an University, India. Document Twenty-three: Lord Milner, Speech to the Manchester Conservative Club: Lord Milner describes the innumerable benefits bestowed upon Britain by write Clair College her dominions. These dominions alone will ensure that Britain will remain a great power, just as their absence will ensure her material impoverishment. His slogan, 'One throne, one flag, one citizenship' summarizes his position. Document Twenty-four: Sir Frederick Dealtry Lugard, The Dual Mandate in how to write, British Tropical Africa: The author enumerates the responsibility of British rulers to the native inhabitants of her colonies. How To Write Numbers In An. This is the first part of the dual mandate in the tropics. As part of that mandate the British must raise the moral stature of the natives and country that they rule; in order to do so the British themselves must maintain the highest of moral standards in order to University ensure their prestige and authority. The second part of the mandate is the development of the tropical economy so that its resources may be available to all of mankind.

Document Twenty-five: George Bernard Shaw, The Man of Destiny: George Bernard Shaw, speaking through Napoleon expounds upon English hypocrisy. He writes that 'an Englishman does every thing on principle'. GB Shaw writes that an practical thinking International Management English man's morals are interpreted so as to justify his nation's necessity. Document Twenty-six: J.A. Hobson, Imperialism: A Study: Hobson's is how to pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, a socialist interpretation of the support and expansion of the British Empire. The author quotes Cecil Rhodes when he said 'Her Majesty's Flag [is] the greatest commercial asset in the world'. Document Twenty-seven: J. How To Write In An Essay Mercersburg Academy. Ramsay MacDonald, Labor and the Empire: Ramsay MacDonald derides the character of the men of the colonial service. He complains that they have done their duty in the colonies with the narrowest of minds and have refused to understand the minds of the natives. He lays the blame at a national pride which has degraded into racial chauvanism.

Document Twenty-eight: General Jan Christian Smuts, Speech at Banquet given in his honor by member of both Houses of Parliament: General Smuts describes the Empire as a world in itself, or a 'Commonwealth of an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University Nations' rather than an Empire. He writes that while there may be Empires such as India and Egypt within this commonwealth, the bonds within it are not those of a traditional empire such as Russia or Rome, but rather ties of affection. Write Essay Abbey. For General Smuts, the British Empire, with its foundation in the Hereditary Monarchy, stands for 'a fuller, a richer, and more various life among all the nations that compose it'. Document Twenty-nine: Clement R. Atlee, The Labour Party in Perspective: Clement Atlee states that the two pillars of the Labour party's policy for the Empire are 'self government' and 'socialisation'. Write Pdf Xi’an. The first pillar involves allowing for self-government where it is possible, and write Preparatory School, where it is how to write Jiaotong-Liverpool, not possible, formally recognizing the colonies as mandates within the League of nations structure. By opening the colonies for inspection by how to write Marianapolis Preparatory School the League of Nations, the Labour Party intended to ensure that the League accepted some of the responsibility for defending the colonies, thus taking some of the pressure off of the write University, British military. The second pillar is less defined. How To Numbers In An Academy. The only concrete proposal of Atlee's is to turn over the control of the 'means of production' in the colonies to the League of pdf Xi’an University Nations.

Criminology 135 Assignment Three Robert Jago 200015294 In his book, Multicultural Citizenship, Will Kymlicka expounds upon how to write a rhetorical analysis essay Abbey College the basis of the collective rights of the several types of an article Jiaotong-Liverpool groups that make up Canada. He claims that there are first and foremost the Les Roches Marbella International School, two founding nations; This primary grouping is composed of the descendants of the colonizers who created the state in how to an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, their image. This primary group founded the state with their conceptions of rights and privileges in mind. Kymlicka states that these two founding groups are rightfully afforded every chance at self-government. Together with the founders there are immigrants, or 'New Canadians'. Immigrants and other non-primary (or non-founding) groups do not share in the primary groups' rights. These non-primary groups have no legitimate or just claims to have separate self-governing institutions. Most importantly, these non-primary groups have no moral right whatsoever to have their cultures or languages recognized in an official capacity. The reason that the non-primary groups do not hold the same types of nationality rights as the primary groups is because they voluntarily surrendered their rights as a distinct people by emigrating to an established state and society. The duty of New Canadians is to assimilate themselves into the dominant society.

The hundreds of Aboriginal peoples that inhabit Canada poses a different sort of rights than either the founders or the immigrants do. Because aboriginal or 'native' Canadians are part of in how to write analysis essay Abbey, Canada because of force, they continue to possess the same nationality rights that any other sovereign people posses. Native rights were never surrendered voluntarily, therefore they continue to how to an article exist. It is should be noted that all individuals, regardless of their group affiliation [or lack thereof], have certain 'natural rights' such as the freedom of speech and assembly and of life, liberty and property. How To Write A Rhetorical Analysis Essay Abbey College Cambridge. As sovereign peoples, aboriginals continue to have the how to an article pdf Xi’an University, right to their own justice system. They have a right to College conscript people, they have a right to execute people and so on and so forth. They also have a right to be un-democratic; the rights of peoples and pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, nations have long been recognized as entirely separate from the natural rights of individuals. With it decided that aboriginal nations continue to posses a broad range of nationality rights, the main question at hand is whether or not they should exercise any of how to a rhetorical College Cambridge these rights. A further question is what is the duty of the Canadian state, if any, to aboriginal individuals, who have a legal status as native and, Canadian citizens. A further question is, should non-status natives, who in many respects are similar to new Canadians, be considered part of this equation. To begin to answer these questions there needs first to be a summary of the state of affairs for natives in write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, the criminal justice system.

It is commonly agreed that the central problem behind much native crime is substance abuse , whether that be heroin on the streets of Vancouver, Alcohol in the reserves of Saskatchewan, or gasoline and glue in the shanties of in an Mercersburg Labrador. On some reserves, alcohol is responsible for 95% of crime, with nearly 100% of the adult population involved in some way or other. Furthermore, this alcohol abuse leads to a disproportionate amount of violent crime including spousal and child abuse - both of how to write an article pdf Xi’an which may lead to practical thinking International School Management further cycles of an article University family violence. Outside of reserves, natives are disproportionately represented in Clair College, violent crime and drug related crime as well as domestic violence. Natives comprise between 8 and 68 percent of the provincial prison populations, well beyond their share of the write an article University, population. There are numerous reasons why natives come into constant conflict with the law. One such reason for how to Clair College, native conflict with the how to University, law is what can be termed, 'a problem of policing'. Several studies have shown that white police officers are more likely to deal with a complaint involving white people without recourse to arrest. When these same white police officers come into similar conflicts with native or black individuals they are more likely to resort to arrest. One response to how to Preparatory this problem of policing is to hire native police officers to serve in how to write University, areas with large native populations.

However, by enlisting natives to thinking Les Roches police natives one can be said to how to an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University be pandering to racial biases; it is not dissimilar from enlisting whites to police whites, blacks to police blacks, and so forth - it is at best an unsettling proposal. How To College Haileybury. Furthermore, besides the task of making such a proposal socially acceptable there is a growing body of evidence which shows that the racial biases that native police officers would have may not necessarily benefit natives. In a study regarding the how to Jiaotong-Liverpool, use of deadly force in the United States, it was found that black officers were just as likely to shoot black suspects as were white officers. It was hypothesized that there was both an a winning college essay institutional and meta-cultural bias against black men and many police officers had this bias, regardless of their own colour. This may also hold true for natives. Natives have traditionally been under valued in white society and this view may have been internalized by write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool natives. The internalization of colonialism and the affectations of it is apparent in Verdun-Jones and Griffiths' text.

They imply that there is a single native society with traditional communal values and how to write essay Cambridge, that is based on consensus. Each of those assertions is absurd. Native societies are extremely diverse and any unifying aspects are the how to write Jiaotong-Liverpool, product of colonialism- something that the authors blame for the high rates of criminality amongst natives. Traditional native society in British Columbia was not based on communal property in how to Mercersburg, the current sense, but was based on clan or familial property that was viciously guarded. There was no peace amongst the first nations of British Columbia. Crime fighting in pre-contact societies more often involved physical violence than consensus and 'community healing'. As for communities as they exist today, they are the direct products of colonialism.

Natives never had an egalitarian society with equal justice for all as each type of criminal reform listed in the text holds as an axiom. Traditional native society in British Columbia was supported upon a superstructure of slavery, violence and the absolute rights of private and family property. In order to solve the problems of native communities there must be a whole hearted acceptance of some aspects of Jiaotong-Liverpool European culture. There must be a recognition of the pillars of common law. There must be a recognition of the formal, legal equality of how to write essay Clair College men ,women, and foreigners.

There must be a recognition of the how to pdf Xi’an University, right to confront accused, there must be a statute of College limitations, a right of appeal, and all of the basic rights regarding the use of an article evidence. Before any major reforms can be undertaken there needs to be a recognition that each level of government has some specific responsibilities with regard to thinking Les Roches Marbella International natives. The native governments themselves have a responsibility first and how to write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, foremost for preserving native culture and how to essay College Cambridge, civilization [the term is here used loosely]. The federal governments under their fiduciary responsibility [held by the crown under section 22] have a duty to write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University native individuals. These dual roles are enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. What these roles mean for justice reform is that each government holds a separate interest and must guard this interest in any decision regarding reforms. This does impinge upon the inherent and practical thinking Les Roches School of Hotel, moral right of sovereignty that the various native nations hold, but there are some political realities that supercede these rights and one of them is that native Canadians are - in the least - the bearers of dual loyalties , national or ethnic and political. The first loyalty is to their own racial government, and the second is to the civil government in Ottawa. With regard to justice reforms, these separate roles do come into conflict. There has been at least one case brought before the courts on Vancouver Island regarding the excesses of community justice. One man who had become known for drinking and behaving irresponsibly while living in Victoria, was kidnapped under the order of his community's native elders, and with the consent of his family, conscripted into how to an article pdf Xi’an, a traditional native healing ceremony.

If the interests of the community had prevailed we would have heard little of this case. However, the man in question exercised his rights as a Canadian citizen and invoked the charter against the community that unlawfully attacked him. The men that took him on how to a winning college essay community orders and beat him into sobriety were charged with kidnapping and assault, much to the consternation of his family and community. The federal government also has a duty to protect the community at write an article University large - that is to how to in an essay say, white Canada from dangerous individuals regardless of race or nationality. How To An Article Pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University. Certain offenses such as forcible rape have recently been treated differently if they had been committed by a native. Write College Haileybury. Because of the harsh realities of the residential schools, many natives were sexually abused and have begun to act this out on other people, through forcible rape, or child abuse et. al.. Any federal actions in how to pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, justice reform must therefore take these many factors into consideration. First and foremost is the right of how to write a rhetorical analysis essay Abbey College natives to have their own justice system. Write An Article Jiaotong-Liverpool University. Second is the general issue of online essay writing University College accountability and democracy enshrined in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Third, their is the fiduciary responsibility to how to an article University native individuals, coupled with the Peace Order and Good Government related duties of the government to write a rhetorical analysis essay Abbey Cambridge ensure public safety and the general welfare of the non-native populace.

The various native governments have one sole concern on this issue and that is write Jiaotong-Liverpool, advancing their national self interest. It is an affront to College London (UCL) the dignity of a sovereign nation to have their nationals arrested, tried and how to write Jiaotong-Liverpool, imprisoned in a foreign justice system. How To Numbers Essay Mercersburg Academy. The most powerful regular exercise of state power is the ability of the state to arrest, try , and detain its wayward citizens. How To Jiaotong-Liverpool. The native governments, if they are to act as real nations do, need this 'big stick' in order to survive and rebuild. The nationalization of the justice system by the Native governments is imperative if they are to legitimately exercise authority over their citizens.. The decision on whether or not there should be a native justice system lay entirely with the federal government. How To Write Pdf St. College. The question before the federal government is, should it devolve, delegate, or maintain its current responsibilities for the administration of an article Jiaotong-Liverpool justice on the native reserves. How To Essay. One option for the federal government is to create a parallel federal government of natives with the accompanying institutions such as a court and police system. This was proposed in the Royal Commission on Native Peoples. This option is the most contentious.

The rest of Canada is likely to how to pdf Xi’an balk at online essay London any form of write Jiaotong-Liverpool University consociational government between the races. Any new political arrangements with natives should be on a territorial basis, because of Canadian's familiarity with this form of governmental responsibility. Another reason for the devolution of write essay Marianapolis justice on a territorial basis is the how to write an article pdf Xi’an University, sheer diversity of how to native nations. Some native peoples may not wish to accept responsibility for write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, the administration of their own justice system for online writing University College (UCL), one reason or another. Perhaps they do not trust the write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, factions within their nations to be able to impartially administer a court and police system. The record to date of native government and policing has shown that impartiality and practical Marbella International School Management, the independence of the Jiaotong-Liverpool University, police are far from guaranteed. The purpose for constructing a separate native justice system is to mitigate the harmful effects of colonialism which are responsible for the heightened criminality of natives. How To Essay. While the proposition that colonialism has hurt natives more than it has helped them is open to question, what must be dealt with here is whether or not a separate court and policing system for each native nation will 'heal the wounds' of a century or two of colonial rule. The answer is, yes and no. On some reserves or tribes with large enough populations and with the basic tenets of western-liberal justice and democracy established, a justice system would be a welcome step on the road to becoming full partners in the federation. On reserves here nepotism and ancient class and racial bigotry reign, the addition of the police would be half way towards creation of a police state.

The devolution of justice to some native nations would allow for the racialization or nationalization of many high paid and professional jobs. This would immediately give a boost to the native societies. Beyond that, native civilians would benefit from having full access to people of their own race who share their cultural prejudices and traits. Write Pdf Xi’an. However, it is unclear if these utopian reserves of rights and democracy and brotherhood exist. The most likely and most beneficial choice the federal government could make for natives is to delegate the responsibility for the court system to them. This would mean the stationing of federal officers on the basis of write Preparatory School their race and national origin [presumably native - or more specifically Salish, Tsipsian or whatever] to reserves. How To An Article Jiaotong-Liverpool University. Furthermore it would mean the creation of a separate system of circuit or county courts for the reserves that would remain part of the provincial or federal court system. Perhaps this new system could be adjunct to the federal court. How To Write Essay Haileybury. A separate layer of the federal or provincial courts that would serve justice on reserves only would be halfway between an autonomous paralell native federation, and a native archipelago of four or five hundred justice systems. This final option would have the added benefit of maintaining control of the how to write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, courts in the Department of Indian Affairs and or justice. The judges would be federally appointed from a separate native court bar [just as there is Clair College, a Supreme Court bar].

Furthermore the separate level of courts would be acceptable to many non-native Canadians. The court would have a specific territorial entity as its jurisdiction and this entity is not composed exclusively of the people of one race. The court would administer justice on the territory of the reserves. Just as the an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, supreme court of the online writing University, united states refers to the laws of the states of how to an article pdf Xi’an University a cases origin when rendering their decisions, the new federal court could refer to the numerous reserve or national laws when rendering its decisions. A native court, a native bar, and native judges, administering local native laws do not necessarily prevent a native man for getting drunk and beating his wife.

The sense of pride at having his own court system is likely to do little as well. What is wrong with the reserves is a lack of economic opportunity and a lack of order. Economic opportunity is not within the scope of this paper, but order is. If there cannot be a separate federal police force for natives, and if policing cannot be devolved to native governments for fear if giving too much power to too many corrupt regimes, then what is to be done with the how to analysis essay Abbey, police? A separate police division of the how to write an article University, RCMP has been tried and how to write essay Academy, has failed. What could work is a piece meal response that would have capable reserves with their own police forces and lesser reserves with a force of specially trained RCMP subject to local police boards. This would be coupled with a native court sensitive to coerced evidence, police prejudices and differential use of the arresting power. The separate layers of policing may cut down on many of the unnecessary arrest of University natives as well as allow people to have more confidence in the police and call them before a domestic disturbance turns violent. This would likely take care of many of the problems of order on the reserves. The courts would both serve as a support for the new policing system and how to Abbey Cambridge, act as a booster of national pride. With the question of law and order on the reserves out of the way, there is the question of extra-territoriality and the Metis and non-status natives .The key component of how to an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University any separate system of justice should be that it is based on territorial distinctions.

That is the only practical way of administering justice and selling justice to a population of fair weather egalitarians like the Canadians . The Metis where they have their own territories should be allowed to be part of the native court and how to college Haileybury, policing systems. University. Status natives living off reserve should have no recourse to the native courts if their crime was not committed on reserve. Because the court are founded on a territorial basis they have a limited exclusive jurisdiction. Non-status natives have voted with their feet in the same way that all immigrants have, and they have opted out of native national life, the reserve police and court system should not apply to them. While natives should have no access to the reserve court system if they are not physically on a reserve they still will have problems with criminality. The only feasible solution for urban natives is to write essay pdf St. College have regular police officers of native ancestry in areas with large native populations. Besides that, all that can be done is mandatory awareness campaigns for the police, crown counsel and judges. Such training would focus on the rules of evidence and the differential use of the discretionary power by police and by how to write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University prosecutors which has resulted in discrimination against natives. The presence of native police officers on the 'native beat' might allow people of native ancestry to feel more comfortable with the officers and to how to write numbers Mercersburg Academy come to them with problems earlier.

Native police officers may treat people of their own race better than people of an other race and deal with the former's problems out of court. While this beneficial racial is both unsettling and less than a certainty ,the presence of how to Jiaotong-Liverpool University native police officers in disturbances amongst natives could in the least diffuse the situation and turn it from a racial confrontation to Preparatory one merely of the an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, police and a criminal. It is an uncomfortable conclusion to come to, however, it has been arrived at practical Marbella School of Hotel here. A separate Native court system, based on write Jiaotong-Liverpool University territory is the best means possible to correct the ill effects of the colonial experience. Because white-Canada has shown that it is unlikely to accept any system based solely on race and numbers in an essay Mercersburg Academy, nationality - a separate native court system that would be open to all the natives of Canada is not politically feasible. A territorial division of write an article pdf Xi’an University power is common in Canada, and the extension of this division of powers to natives -while contentious- is write pdf St., not an impossibility. If such a court was kept as an adjunct to write Jiaotong-Liverpool University the federal court, and had a narrow jurisdiction over write essay Preparatory, the reserves only, it could correct some of the ill effects of the colonial legacy - at least on write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool the reserves.

However many Natives do not live on reserve, though they do share in the stigma of being native. Because white police officers, prosecutors, and judges, have been shown to discriminate against natives. The evidence shows that native police officers may be as likely to discriminate against natives as are white police. How To Write In An. The best possible solution is the recruitment of how to pdf Xi’an University native police officers for areas with high native populations in the hope that they would in the least encourage natives to report crime amongst themselves more readily than they do with white officers. In order to how to Clair deal with some of the discrimination, there also needs to be a sensitivity program to include the an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, police, judges, and prosecutors. While these solutions fall far short of what is needed to solve the how to write a winning college, problem of native criminality, it is the farthest one can politically go in Canada toward a solution. Crim201: Canada?s sexual assault laws were, until recently, based in the customary tradition of the how to an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, United Kingdom. That tradition in itself is based on more ancient traditions. A Rhetorical Essay Abbey. The common thread to most if not all sexual assault laws throughout history has been their exclusion of the martial relationship as a possible venue for sexual assault.

The first proposed laws on sexual assault in this study originate in classical Athens. This law was not specifically a rape law, but rather dealt with justifiable homicide. How To Write Pdf Xi’an. Drafted by Plato, it stated that: The man who forcibly violates a free woman or boy shall be slain with impunity by the person thus violently outraged, or by his father, or brother and sons . Write A Winning Essay Haileybury. And should a man discover his wedded wife being violated, he shall be guiltless if he kills the violator (Cohen 1993, p.8). This law protects both men and write pdf Xi’an University, women from sexual assault ? which is something that Canadian law did not achieve until 1983. This law still does not protect a spouse from rape by his or her partner. It is also important to draw attention to whom the how to write essay Clair College, offense is being committed against.

It is stated that if a man discovers ?his? wife being raped, he may respond with deadly force. The act itself is not committed against the wife but against the husband?s possession. The next law comes from the Roman Empire. Unlike Athenian and Canadian law, this law provides for the possibility of a woman committing rape. Also, unlike Athenian and early American law, rape or ?lewd advances? could be committed against an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool a slave(Russell 1975, p.13). If anyone makes lewd advances, be it a man or a woman, freeborn or freed, he will be liable for the outrage and even if an attempt is made on the chastity of a slave, this too is deemed to be an practical thinking Marbella International outrage (Justinian ca 550, p. 166). This law is how to an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, a codification of earlier Roman law. Among the key points to note about the law is that it falls within the realm of tort. Sexual assault at this early stage was only a concern for the state if it was committed by a slave.

It is Les Roches Marbella International School of Hotel, also important to note that the terms used in how to an article pdf Xi’an University, this law are not specifically inclusive of husbands and wives. No provision existed for the prosecution of rape within marriage. Marriage in the middle ages was, until 1180, an object of contention. While in how to pdf St. College, Rome there were several ways in Jiaotong-Liverpool University, which one could be married, with different social and legal ramifications (Kolbert 1979, pp.54-57), in Europe Pope Alexander III decreed that there should be but one (Brundage 1993, pp.247-248). The Pope ruled that marriage began after an agreement to marry had been consummated (Ibid. Write College Essay. p.248). In several cases involving leprosy, the Pope ruled that because the marriage had been consummated, one spouse had a duty to how to write an article University go with the stricken spouse to the leposarium where he will ?give her sexual solace on demand? or where she will provide him with ?marital affection? (Ibid. p.249). An emphasis should be put on the term ?consummated?. By the 13th century it had been generally agreed that two sorts of rights existed in marriage(Ibid. p.251). The first set were created with the agreement to marry, and those involved the marital rights such as property. The second set of write pdf St. Clair rights were sexual rights or ?implied consent?.

These second rights were created when the couple consummated their marriage. A 14th century court ruling shows that, while the marital rights could be dissolved by separation, these sexual rights were permanent: We hold the defendant bound to pay the conjugal debt to the plaintiff in her father?s house one night each week and to keep this obligation faithfully, until we shall order otherwise (Brundage, p.252). The marital debt was a very real and enforceable debt throughout the middle ages. Pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool. By most definitions (positivists excepted), what the court ordered in that case was a weekly, scheduled rape. Online Essay University College. This practice continued throughout the middle ages. Write Jiaotong-Liverpool University. Rape could only how to write a rhetorical analysis Abbey College Cambridge be committed by a man against a free woman(Wemple 1993, p.229). Punishments usually involved a fine which varied depending on the amount of force used (5 solidi for abduction and rape, 8 more solidi if he used a sword). A common punishment for a man who committed rape was that he must pay the offended family the how to write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, bride-price. If she consented to sex, the price was reduced by one third. Write In An. Consent was the property of the father or brothers, and sexual assault was an offence against their property (Ibid.).

Other punishments for rape included enslavement to the offended family (if the how to write an article pdf Xi’an University, offender was a servant or only half free), and death if the offender had the audacity to flee to a church (Ibid.). Rape in the United Kingdom is a more puzzling affair. Write Marianapolis Preparatory. While it is commonly accepted that these mediaeval laws persisted, there is some evidence to the contrary. The doctrine on common law and marital rape was stated explicitly in the 1275 and 1285 Statutes of Westminster Johnson and Sigler 1997, p11). This was reiterated by pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool the 17th century judge Sir Mathew Hale. He stated that ?the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract? (Hall 1984, p.xvi).

He based his judgement on practical thinking Marbella International of Hotel ?ancient common law doctrine?. While the Athenian, Roman, and Papal law cited above does suggest that Sir Mathew was factually accurate, he may not have been technically correct. Common law is an organic law which changes with each judicial ruling. These rulings are able to overturn legal doctrines such as the kind described in this paper so far. In 1631 a man was convicted in England of raping his wife (Hall, p.xvi). This suggests that perhaps, ?ancient common law doctrine? had long since been overturned by the time that Sir Mathew got to it. Nevertheless it persisted unchanged until it was transferred to Canada in the 18th century. In 1800, the laws of England such as they were on how to an article pdf Xi’an University September 17th, 1792, became Canadian laws. This was accomplished with the Act for the Further Introduction of English Criminal Law into Upper Canada (Garley 1989, p.26).

These laws were ineffective. Between 1840 and 1892, in Ontario, there were 228 rape prosecutions and 49 convictions (Ibid. pp. How To Write Clair. 29-30). By the late 1800?s the absurdity inherent in write an article, Sir Mathew Hale?s proclamation became evident. In R. v. Clarence, the courts decided that while a husband had the right to sexual intercourse with his wife, he could not enforce that right by using force(anon. 2000). The implied consent or the ?sexual rights? were no longer considered to be absolute: Subsequent decisions restricted Hale's proposition to situations where husband and wife enjoyed ordinary relations between them, thus exposing abusive husbands to write a rhetorical analysis essay prosecution for rape where they were judicially separated or where the wife had initiated divorce proceedings and had been granted a decree nisi (Ibid.). The law continued to crumble throughout the 20th century. In 1935, Southern Australia allowed for the conviction (albeit under exceptionally violent circumstances) of a husband for raping his wife.

In 1965, New Zealand permitted for the prosecution of husbands for raping their wives when a decree nisi was in place. Scotland barred spousal rape altogether in 1989, and England followed suit in 1991 (Ibid.). Canadian rape law throughout this period changed only once. While the absolute sexual rights that were referred to in the mediaeval period and how to pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, reinforced by Sir Mathew Hale did not survive the start of the twentieth century, the formal law still remained in online writing University London, place. It was not until 1983 that the law shielding a husband from a rape prosecution by his wife passed into history. Write Pdf Xi’an University. The law as it stood in 1927, and titled ?Unlawful Carnal Knowledge? reads as follows: 298. Rape is the act of a man having carnal knowledge of a woman who is how to a rhetorical analysis Cambridge, not his wife without her consent, or with consent which has been extorted by threats or fear of bodily harm, or obtained by write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University personating the woman?s husband, or by College (UCL) false and fraudulent representations as to the nature and quality of the how to Jiaotong-Liverpool, act. [emphasis mine] (R.S., 1927, 289, p.87) By 1980, this law remained unchanged(Tremeear?s 1980 Criminal Code 143, p.61). A rape by definition could not be committed by a husband against his wife. While the absolute sexual right in perpetuity had ceased to exist, the right was maintained in existing marriages though it was grounds for divorce. The result of these laws was the gross under reporting of rape. It was not simply because many women believed that their attackers would not be punished, but it is that many women did not believe that an attack had taken place (Russell, p.134).

Furthermore, because the state had for so long assumed that a husband had a right to his wife?s body, many wives had accepted and adapted to the situation. How To Preparatory. For a woman to see her husband as a rapist and to continue to live with him is often too difficult. Many are too dependent on their husbands for pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, economic, social, and psychological reasons to leave. One solution for these women is not to see forcible intercourse as rape. Another more common adaptation is to give up the right to say no, to write a business essay Marianapolis Preparatory School be always sexually available, regardless of her wishes (Rusell 1975, p.71). Women?s poor economic and social status had allowed for their continued use as sexual objects. The law reflected this.

It is a truism to how to pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University state that Canada is a patriarchal society. There are reasons why this is how to Haileybury, so easily said, and the law prior to 1983 is one of them. However, the law did change. How To An Article Pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool. With bill c-127 (1983) the law expanded to include spousal sexual assaults as part of its jurisdiction (Boritch, pp.234-235). How To College. Possibly because of this and reforms to the rules of evidence, the number of reported sexual assaults rose dramatically.

However, while half of all women in Canada will be the victims of sexual assault in their lives (Ontario Woman?s Directorate 2000) only 6 percent of these women will report that assault to the authorities (Boritch 1997, p.213 and p.224). R. v. Write Jiaotong-Liverpool University. White (1-24 C.C.C. 3d,) is an example of a crime that would not have been prosecuted prior to the 1983 reforms. R. v. Write Essay. White is a 1986 case, brought before the British Columbia Court of Appeal. How To Pdf Xi’an. The accused (White) was married to the victim, but they were estranged (Ibid., p.1).

The victim returned home one night to thinking International find the accused wearing surgical gloves and holding a pillow. She screamed, at which point he put the pillow over her face, and then covered her mouth with a bandage that wrapped around her head. He then beat her, threatened to murder her, and write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, then after a long discussion, she went into the bedroom, where she was raped (Ibid., p.1). Write. Before I continue, I should add that the actions described were perfectly legal until very recently. The accused claimed that the an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, discussion led him to believe that his wife had consented to sex. He stated that he believed that sex was an attempt at reconciliation. The issue at write essay hand in R. v. White is whether his mistaken belief that his wife consented is a valid defense. How To Jiaotong-Liverpool. While the appeal of his conviction was dismissed, the fact that it went to trial is significant. If he had engaged in the identical activity three years earlier, he would have committed no crime. The signal difference between the law as it stands today and the law is it stood prior to 1983, was the Marbella School of Hotel Management, fact that wives are no longer considered to be the possession of write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University their husbands.

Sexual assault by a business Marianapolis intimates including spouses comprises 38 percent of all sexual assaults in Canada (Ontario Women?s Directorate). However, while 6 percent of the total number of sexual assaults are reported to police, only 1 percent of these sexual assaults by intimates are reported (Ibid.). Several reasons for this lack of an article University reporting are provided in surveys. One major reason for not reporting sexual assaults by intimates is that the nature of the relationship may lead authorities to suspect that there really was consent. How To Write Abbey College. Furthermore, many women may not view a sexual assault by a husband or boyfriend as such. They may internalize the blame and say such things as, ?what did you think he wanted,? ?you drank with him didn't you,? or ?you should have expected something like this to happen.?(Ibid.).

In a search through fifty editions of Canadian Criminal Cases, I found only one case of write pdf Xi’an University spousal rape that was prosecuted. The vast majority of sexual assault prosecutions continue to be for how to write in an essay Mercersburg Academy, assaults by strangers, on young women. Prior rape and sexual assault laws sought to protect the chastity of the same class of young women from how to an article pdf Xi’an sexual predator. The purpose was to defend men?s property. A look at essay College London (UCL) which rapes are prosecuted shows that this is still the an article pdf Xi’an, case. Sexual assault law has existed since the online, time of Plato. How To An Article Jiaotong-Liverpool University. The point of (UCL) that law, and nearly every law that succeeded it was, in the case of women, not to protect them as victims, but to protect their husbands, brothers, or fathers as guardians. Sexual assault law developed slowly through the mediaeval period, and followed the development of marriage and spousal property. While in the Roman Empire, a woman was a free citizen with the rights to an article pdf Xi’an University dispose of her property, and enter into how to write analysis Abbey Cambridge, free contracts, in the mediaeval period, she was a possession to be transferred for a price from father to husband.

The mediaeval period saw the write pdf Xi’an University, development of the principle of pdf St. Clair a ?sexual right? that comes into existence with the consummation of a marriage. This right was so absolute as to allow the authorities to order a former wife to submit to a weekly scheduled rape. As this law came to how to pdf Xi’an University England it was formalized in the 1275 and 1285 Statutes of Westminster. These confirmed a husband?s right to have sex with his wife, whenever he chose. In 1800, these laws came to Canada. For more than a century , the absolute and unbreakable sexual rights remained unchallenged. By the start of the a business Preparatory School, 20th century, they were slowly chipped away at. A husband lost the absolute right to rape his wife even after they divorced. This right was confined to a marriage where ?ordinary relations? persisted. How To Pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool. This law stood until 1983.

With bill c-127, the practical thinking Les Roches Marbella School, sexual assault laws were finally expanded to include violence within a marriage. However, regardless of the how to write an article pdf Xi’an, new law, few reports of spousal rapes are made. The reasons for this are numerous, but the most troubling is the belief by many wives, that what happened was not an assault. It is not until this last problem of internalized blame is dealt with that two millennia of reforms can have any real deterrent value. Bibliography Annonymous (2000). The Historical Development of the how to pdf St., Offense of Rape. Pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool. http:canadiancrimanallaw.com/articles/srticles/rape.htm.

Boritch, Helen. Fallen Women: Female Crime and Criminal Justice in Canada, ITP Nelson (Toronto: 1997). Essay Writing University London (UCL). Brundage, James A. Implied Consent to Intercourse pp. 245-256, Consent and how to write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, Coercion to essay Mercersburg Academy Sex and Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993). Cohen, David. Consent and Sexual Relations in Classical Athens pp. 5-16, Consent and Coercion to Sex and Marriage in Ancient and how to write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993).

The Criminal Code and Other Selected Statutes of Canada, Edmond Cloutier (Ottawa: 1948). Garley, Kenneth David William. A Trust Betrayed: Sexual Assault in Dating/Courtship Relations and the Response of the Canadian Criminal Justice System. Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.:1989). Hall, Ruth and Selma James and Judit Kertesz, The Rapist Who Pays the Rent, Falling Wall Press (Bristol : 1984). Johnson, Ida M. and Robert Sigler, Forced Sexual Intercourse in Intimate Relationships, Ashgate-Dartmouth (Aldershot:1997). How To A Rhetorical Essay Abbey College. Justinian (trans.) (circa 550) The Digest of Roman Law: Theft, Rapine, Dammage and an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, Insult, C.F. Kolbert ed..Penguin Books (Middlesex, England: 1979) Ontario Women?s Directorate (2000). Sexual Assault Dispelling the Myths. http:www.womanabuseprevention.com/html/sexual_assault.html. R. How To Write Marianapolis Preparatory. v. White (1986), Canadian Criminal Cases, 1-24 C.C.C. Write An Article. (3d) Russell, Diana E.H., The Politics of Rape:The Victim?s Perspective, Stein and Day Publishers (New York: 1975).

Treemar?s 1980 Criminal Code and Miscellaneous Statutes, The Carswell Company ltd. (Toronto: 1980). Wemple, Suzanne F. Consent and how to write numbers in an Mercersburg Academy, Dissent to Sexual Intercourse in Germanic Societies from the Fifth to how to write pdf Xi’an the Tenth Century pp. 227-244, Consent and Coercion to Sex and essay Clair, Marriage in Ancient and Medieval Societies, Angelika E. Laiou ed., Dumbarton Oaks Research Library Collection, (Washington, D.C.: 1993). Feminist Crim. When the how to pdf Xi’an, words ?women? and ?crime? are spoken, the thinking Marbella International, first two words to come to how to an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University many minds are ?sexual assault?. According to most statistics, more than half of all women in essay, Canada will be the victims of sexual assault in their lives (Ontario Woman?s Directorate 2000). In some segments of the population that number rises to 83 percent (Ibid.). While these numbers are high, the numbers of convictions for sexual assault are not.

According to information presented by Helen Boritch, 10 percent of how to write an article women can expect to be sexually assaulted in any given year, while only 6 percent of these women will report that assault to the authorities (Boritch 1997, p.213 and p.224) . There is a very large discrepency of numbers. The vast majority of sexual assaults go unreported. The vast majority of sexual assaults are committed by someone the victim knows (Ibid. pp.212-213). Perhaps the reason that so many sexual assaults go unreported is because of this overriding fact (Ontario Woman?s Directorate). Sexual assault within families was until recently legal in Canada.

The thinking went as such: The husband cannot be guilty of rape committed by how to write analysis essay Cambridge himself upon his lawful wife, for by their mutual matrimonial consent and contract the wife hath given up herself in this kind unto her husband which she cannot retract (Hall, James and Kertesz 1984, p.20). An Article Jiaotong-Liverpool University. The authorities believed that common law provided for Les Roches Marbella International of Hotel, the lawful rape of a wife by her husband. While this is a patently false proposition, by the 18th century, it had become the official line (Ibid. p.xvi). I didn?t feel that I had been raped. I felt more that I was stupid because I went out with a white fraternity guy. ..so I blamed myself for going out with him. Also I didn?t think of it as rape because I knew him and because I consented to go. At the how to write, time I thought rape was a man coming out of the bushes and how to write College, attacking you, so somebody you knew couldn?t rape you (Russell 1975, p.134). For a woman to see her husband as a rapist and to continue to an article pdf Xi’an live with him is often too difficult. Many are too dependent on their husbands for economic, social, and psychological reasons to how to write a business Preparatory leave. Write An Article Pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University. One solution for write essay pdf St. College, these women is not to see forcible intercourse as rape. Another more common adaptation is to give up the right to say no, to be always sexually available, regardless of her wishes (Rusell 1975, p.71).

Crim (Deviancy) : Is there a point in my life when I considered myself to how to Jiaotong-Liverpool University be deviant, or others considered me to be deviant? If so, how was the situation resolved? People are always telling me that I am ?weird?. I disagree with them. I believe that I am one of the how to write essay pdf St. Clair, least deviant people I know. I am very old fashioned though, so maybe that?s why I get the weird label. Nevertheless, there are few times in my life when I consider myself to be a ?deviant?. My self-concept appears to follow a dialectical pattern. How To Write Jiaotong-Liverpool University. I consider myself to how to write numbers in an Mercersburg Academy be part of a group, and identify with that group and its values. I increasingly find myself uncomfortable with some of the things which that group does or talks about.

At some point an incident occurs, and I become isolated from the group. I then identify with a new group, and the process starts over. In other words, my membership in the first group can be considered a thesis. The thesis consists of that group?s world-view, which I share in. The crisis is the antithesis, it is the stage at which the cognitive dissonance that occurred within the thesis comes out into the open. Finally the new group is the synthesis.

In the synthesis, the world-view that I held in the thesis group is largely gone, as are the troubles of the antithesis. The most memorable dialectical shift in my life occurred in 1990-1991. In 1990, I was part of the dominant white clique at my junior high school, in suburban Richmond. While everyone had got along in elementary school, we all divided along racial lines when we got to how to write Jiaotong-Liverpool University high school. The Chinese kids all went and spent time together, and even the Chinese kids that could not speak Chinese, went. The East-Indian kids did as the Chinese did, and a rhetorical essay, the white kids followed suit. There was not anything malicious about any of it. Well, that is not entirely true.

Much of write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool our time in the white group was spent making fun of kids in how to essay pdf St. Clair, the East Indian and Chinese groups. How To Write An Article Jiaotong-Liverpool University. However, we were not entirely racist, all the black kids in our school were part of our group. Our group had their own ?territory?, drama and the arts were ours, as well as physical education, while we gave the East-Indian kids shop class, and the Chinese kids, computer science. The rest of the write college Haileybury, classes were required, so we could not split them up as easily, though we did manage some how. By 1990, I was firmly ensconced in how to write an article pdf Xi’an University, this group. Write College Essay Haileybury. I had few complaints about it, I am quite good at making fun of people, so I was a valuable asset to the collective. In the summer of 1990, an incident happened which upset my place within the group. On July 11th of that year, a group of armed Mohawks got into a shooting war with the Quebec provincial police.

My group hated French immersion kids, so it seemed obvious to me which side we would come down on. I did not worry. Much to my surprise, the general attitude among the white kids was that the government should send in tanks, and get rid of the ?Indians?. It had not occurred to write pdf Xi’an me until that point that I am half-?Indian?. My family came down firmly on the side of the Mohawks. Most of my male cousins who were old enough went off to join one blockade or another, and at least one got himself sent to prison for his troubles. We went out to write a winning essay Haileybury the reserve more often. Previously we had gone there for the winter ceremonies, or for birthday parties. This time we were going out there to how to Jiaotong-Liverpool University ?plan things?. Back at home amongst my friends, I found myself increasingly isolated. I got into more and more fights, both verbal and physical.

People that had been part of my group ? though not friends per se, walked past me like they did not know me. I started spending time with the black kids and the girls, and while they were not as overtly racist as the white boys, they were still racist. Young boys tend not to hide things, while young girls ? at least in that group- seem to believe that in order to be ?nice? it is their duty to writing University College (UCL) hide their opinions. By the end of the summer I found myself completely shut out of the white group. I was the one of only two native kids at my school, so there was no chance of joining the write an article pdf Xi’an, native clique. The other native kid had lighter skin, so he began to how to write essay Haileybury pretend that he was Italian. I would say that ?I can?t blame him? but in reality I hated him and consider him to be a two-faced traitor. I spent more time on the reserve and with my younger cousins. How To An Article Pdf Xi’an. With them, all the how to in an Mercersburg, anger that had developed from how to write pdf Xi’an University being isolated could be vented destructively. It was o.k. in that group to hate the police and the government.

It was o.k. to through rocks at police cars and buildings as well as other things that can not be mentioned here. A Rhetorical Analysis Essay Cambridge. In fact, not only was it o.k. amongst the new clique, but it was accepted and approved of by the adults around us. The point at which I switched allegiances entirely from white society to native society was at a family barbecue. The barbecue was at an article University an uncle?s house. He was on the white side of my family. Everyone at write in an essay the barbecue was white but me. Most of them were family, though there were a few family friends there. My parents stayed at home. That day happened to be the same day that the army advanced on native positions around Montreal.

Raw footage of the attack was broadcast on live television. I was glued to write pdf Xi’an the news, and online essay writing College London (UCL), was very upset. I asked everyone else to come see what was happening. Because they were family I assumed that they would take my side. The group became very upset too, but at the natives.

One of my uncles friends went on a rant and started saying that all those ?Indians? want out of the how to pdf Xi’an University, crisis is essay writing University London (UCL), money to buy liquor. That is University, amongst the more polite things that he said. I noticed that several of my aunts and uncles agreed with him. My grandparents refused to say a word in my defense. When I did open my mouth to yell at him and give him the usual ?shpeel? about oppression et. al., I was hushed up. I got up, and left. Write A Rhetorical Abbey College. I walked home from there and told my parents. My father (he is very white) got into a loud argument over the phone with my uncle and my grandparents.

My mother yelled at me for going to the barbecue in the first place. It was after the barbecue that I decided that I would completely abandon ?white? culture in favor of native (Salish) culture, and religion. In a pique of melodrama I went to the living room and threw my bible and little plastic Canadian flag into the fireplace. I have since changed since then, I know have a European wife, and white friends, and while I am no Christian, I certainly would not burn a perfectly good bible today. However, I still align myself with the native cause, and have abandoned any pretenses of Canadian citizenship. It is difficult to understand which theory of deviancy applied to me in that situation. Perhaps demonology applied to me, I did become a heathen, though that was after the fact (Gomme, p.41). If I was not possessed by the dark forces of the ?fallen one?, maybe I was the product of my environment (Ibid., p.43). However, my environment was a townhouse complex which was at write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool least one quarter Jewish, and was smack in the center of University College (UCL) suburban Vancouver. If environment played any role in my formation, I would have joined the Lion?s Club, or become a Freemason.

Two theories of deviance hold the most possibility for explaining my situation. The first is containment theory. Containment theory is the theory of inner and outer forces pushing and pulling someone toward deviance (Ibid., p.81). Gomme writes that: Social forces that push and pull people toward deviant behavior include?membership in write Jiaotong-Liverpool, an ethnic minority, restricted access to legitimate opportunities (Gomme, p.81). These external social forces included my peers and my extended family. On the one hand, the white side of family, and my white friends ostracized me, and openly attacked me, while on the other hand, the native part of my family, allowed me to vent my frustrations, and provided friends, and a ready target for teenage anger. I would also consider that my access to ?legitimate opportunities? was hampered by the activities of the how to write a rhetorical analysis essay Cambridge, whites around me. How To Write Pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University. By ostracizing me, and making school unpleasant, the whites prevented me from achieving the how to pdf St. Clair College, scholastic success that was due. They also prevented me from pursuing the social relationships that I had established over four or more years. This legitimate frustration sought me to seek success in the native community and to attempt to form social bonds with natives.

Internal forces that constrain an pdf Xi’an University individual from deviancy include, ?a positive self-concept, a strong ego, an intense sense of how to write a business essay Marianapolis personal responsibility, and a high frustration threshold? (Gomme, p.81). I know for write University, a fact that I had none of these qualities. More often than not, a poor self-concept, and weak ego, led me to follow the crowd, and go along with whatever the group told me to a rhetorical analysis essay College Cambridge do. As for personal responsibility and the ability to be frustrated, I was suspect that I was an average teenager, and therefore, both of these things were absent. Containment theory appears to how to write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University be a perfect fit. I was pushed into deviancy by the people around me. Marbella International Management. There are other theories that may be a better fit.

I will discount social control theory, because of its reliance on the concept of deterrence (Ibid., p.89). I do not believe that there was either a general or a specific deterrence factor to how to write pdf Xi’an University being native. Up until 1990, being native was an curiosity, like being double jointed; it could be trotted out at parties to impress and entertain people. At that time, there was almost an incentive to write a winning Haileybury be exotic. Incentive does not apply in my case though. Labeling theory has some interesting possibilities. The Oka crisis was an act of primary deviance (Gomme, p.100). If the how to an article pdf Xi’an, Canadian State was to defend a burial ground in ? say, France ? from conversion into a golf course, it would be considered to be legitimate. However, because the Mohawks lacked many of the legitimate venues that a Country would have in lobbying another on the international stage, they were forced into an act of violence ? a blockade. Practical Marbella International Management. Afterwards they were attacked, and how to write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, used force to defend themselves ? something that any country would do. However because the Mohawk country is not recognized, what they did was considered to how to numbers Mercersburg Academy be an act of terrorism, and write an article University, they were punished for how to write essay pdf St., it in those terms.

As for me, the primary act of deviance was defending the Mohawks in the Oka crisis. While the majority of my peers were attacking the Mohawks, I came to their defense. My first act of defense was primary deviance because it was isolated, and write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool, did not result in ?continuous negative social reaction? (Ibid.). Because I did not consider that act of essay pdf St. Clair primary deviance to be deviant, I would not be self-identified as a deviant. Gomme writes about what happened next: The application of how to write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool derogatory labels and the severing of connections to conventional sphere intensify the construction of a deviant identity by forcing the devalued person to seek out others in College, similar situations who can provide more favorable reflections of the an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, self. (Gomme, p.101). This description matches my situation to a tee. I was labeled as an ?Indian? (trust me, as a native, that is an insult), and my social connections were severed.

I sought out new social situations in which I would be accepted and write in an essay, my anger approved of. As I wrote at the start of write Jiaotong-Liverpool University this paper, I do not consider myself to be a deviant ? in any sense of the term. Labeling theory requires that I identify with my deviance. I do not, and did not. My main goal in how to pdf St. College, life is to modernize native society, and help guide it toward independence.

If I accepted native society as it is, I suppose that I could be considered deviant in the labeling theory sense. However, my allegiance to native society, is a biological one, that recognizes my membership in it as a fact of biology. My formal association with native life began because I was pushed into it. When that force was removed I formed new friendships with whites. It is because of Jiaotong-Liverpool this that I suspect that the online essay (UCL), best explanation for my period of deviance is contained in containment theory. Jiaotong-Liverpool. I would draw a comparison between my situation and that of people described in ?Normalcy and how to write in an essay Mercersburg Academy, Visibility?.

While I am not often mistaken as Anglo-Saxon white, I do have a passing resemblance to pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool a straight-haired version of a Jewish stereotype; I have also passed as Catalonian, Mexican, and a rhetorical analysis essay College Cambridge, Greek. People do not know that I am native until I tell them; I am racially ambiguous. The article gives one major relevant factor to living with an invisible disability. The first was that people had the how to write Jiaotong-Liverpool, option of maintaining a ?semblance of normalcy? (Thorne 1993, p.9). I my case, I have the option of passing as white. This is disturbingly important in this country. For example , until recently I worked in a West Side grocery store. This store had an up market clientele. Among the items the store sold were bags and cards with native designs on them. After a while began to essay pdf St. Clair College notice that in spite of this native friendly image that the store had, even middle-class natives could not enter the store without being considered to be a shoplifter by the management. My co-workers also occasionally told stories in which natives were attacked or demeaned.

If I were to reveal my identity, I would face being excluded from these conversations. If I was excluded from these conversations, I would face being excluded from their social circle in how to pdf Xi’an University, general, and any future options for how to pdf St., advancement that arise from being a part of the ?in? group. I decided to keep my mouth shut, and how to an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, get a raise instead. If I was visibly more native that option would not have been open to me. Deviance in my case is not really deviance on practical thinking of Hotel my part. When I did have a spell of deviant activity, it was caused by how to write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University external forces. When those external forces were removed, the deviancy ended. Pdf St. Clair. This deviancy is in some ways voluntary, because I can hide it. However, I do not believe that by engaging in a profound act of self-denial can be a reasonable choice, so the voluntary choice is write Jiaotong-Liverpool University, somewhat less real. I have found many other people in similar situations. There are quite a few natives that can pass in white society, and pdf St. Clair, do so, however, they maintain a true allegiance to how to write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University their nation.

I have found this common thread among many other natives: they had a lot more white friends, until opinions hardened against our peoples. While we hold the same western liberal views that we have always had, we no longer see Canada, or our white liberal peers, as friends but enemies, and dangerous ones at that; and it is not something that we chose. Les Roches Of Hotel. Bibliography Gomme, Ian. The Shadow Line: Deviance and Crime in Canada, Harcourt Brace Jovonovich (Tornto: 1993). Thorne, S.E. (1993).

Normalcy and Visibility. In Social Explanations of Criminal and Deviant Behaviour, Brian Burtch Ed., Simon Fraser University (Burnaby, B.C.: 2000). Crim 135: Essay 2 The major argument in favour of curtailing judicial independence and prosecutorial discretion is that the justice system needs to be more accountable, more consistent, and more predictable. Each of these counts against the justice system is based on the mistaken assumption that the justice system needs to be a rational and efficient corporate body. That is to say, that the justice system must act as a single entity with the rasion d?etre of fighting, controlling, and deterring crime. How To Write An Article Pdf Xi’an. The advocates of how to a winning college Haileybury legal straightjackets have failed to prove their prima facie case. The justice system has no need to be a single solid structure with automated systems of judges, lawyers and parole officers. In the write pdf Xi’an University, strictly constructed systems of our less-democratic cousins, lawyers, judges and their ilk serve only to diagnose the criminal for the sole purpose of placing them in a category of offender, prisoner, and parolee.

The primary fault of the argument in favour of judicial and prosecutorial constraints is that it carries in itself the tacit assumption of write Clair guilt. An Article. By merely categorizing a citizen as an offender under the criminal code, the pdf St., most authoritarian and unaccountable element of the justice system, the police, has effectively acted as judge jury and executioner. The citizen, who becomes labeled as an offender under the how to an article University, criminal code is shunted off to a holding cell, where, another police official determines if they are to be released. How To Pdf St. Clair. This police official would, at this stage in the current system use subjective criteria to an article pdf Xi’an University determine if the practical Marbella International School, offender was a significant risk and should be released; in a constrained system, the crime would determine the availability of write pdf Xi’an University release automatically. Online Essay. In the constrained system, the belligerent, and indigent, flasher would go free; while the tenured professor whose failing student wrongfully accused him of rape would be sent before a judge. Write An Article Pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University. Upon reaching the judge, the charges wold determine the bail-after all, consistency is the practical Les Roches of Hotel Management, modus vivendi of the constrained system.

Griffiths and Verdun-Jones note that those people that have been denied bail and appear at their trial in how to write an article University, state custody are more likely to be found guilty, and, when found so, they are more likely than other convicted citizens to receive a harsh sentence. Beside the clear difficulty encountered by imprisoned people in mounting a defense against Les Roches International School the state's accusations, there is a secondary problem of facing a jury of write an article pdf Xi’an University their peers while in custody. To the average citizen, the essay writing University London, appearance of one of how to an article their wayward neighbours in write analysis Abbey College Cambridge, chains is write Jiaotong-Liverpool, likely to prejudice them against essay University him or her. In a future system of 'consistent' justice it is likely that those offences where the punishment is most severe, the indictable offences, that the citizen is how to write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, likely to be held in custody; and, it is those same indictable offences, to how to be tried before a jury, where the accussed's status as a prisoner is most likely to be held against them. While the accussed's status as a prisoner is not a de jure proclamation of their guilt, to the average citizen of a western liberal democracy, the presence of some person that has been forcibly removed from society is a de facto statement that they are dangerous. In the model state of how to write consistency that certain legal reformers foresee, the police, the justices, prosecutors, and writing University College London (UCL), judges would 'apply' the law according to a strict set of rules. The state's agents will act with no prejudice, no leeway, no derogation and write an article, no derivation and no mercy. The police would presumably lay every applicable charge against essay pdf St. College every accused person that is brought to their attention. Not only would a person be brought to justice for forcible rape, but also for equally abhorrent crimes such as assault and battery, littering, loitering in a public park, attempted murder, reckless endangerment, unlawful confinement, jaywalking, speeding, creating a disturbance, resisting arrest, and any other possible offence related to the crime and the flight from justice.

Griffiths and Verdun-Jones have noted that in the recently more open atmosphere of plea-bargaining, police have become more consistent appliers of each and every conceivable law. Not only has a person been charged with one crime, but also of every other alternative charge available. In the process of plea bargaining, a great deal of trust is needed between the defense counsel and the crown. This trust often resembles collusion. In the an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, process of plea bargaining the multiple -though mutually exclusive- charges against an offender are often reduced to a single charge in exchange for a guilty plea and how to essay pdf St. Clair, reciprocal sentencing recommendation. In reality, the accused are bargaining away irrelevant charges for the single charge that they would have faced anyway, in short, the accused gains nothing from a system of bargaining based on consistent policing. There is, however, nothing consistent about how to write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University plea-bargaining. Plea-bargaining is at how to write numbers essay the heart of prosecutorial discretion. Prosecutorial discretion would go the way of inconsistent policing and it would be abolished. How To Write. Consistency in prosecution requires that each and every accused be treated identically.

In order for each accused to be seen to be treated identically, they must have each and every charge dealt with in an open court of how to write essay pdf St. Clair College record. Inconsistency is not a problem with the police, prosecutors, or parole board members. Inconsistency is what enables the police, prosecutors, and parole board members to consider the human factor of the crime. I f police were to 'throw the write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, book' at every criminal, the system what bog down with minor crimes. Furthermore, while some acts may technically be crimes, they may not have been enforced in twenty or thirty years. A possible problem of inconsistency is with judges. Practical Thinking School Of Hotel Management. Sentencing may vary across the country - though there is very little evidence to how to pdf Xi’an University say if it does or does not. There are sentencing guidelines, but there are no uniform statistics on sentencing which would allow the public to determine if these sentencing guidelines are being followed. When sentencing is brought to the public's attention, it is only in the most extreme cases where a particularly lenient sentence has been given out. Therefore the best solution for how to college, inconsistent sentencing is to an article University produce and publish uniform statistics on sentencing in order to determine of sentencing guidelines are being followed. Any other reform of the judicial sentencing process before these statistics were produced and before their impact was observed on the judicial branch would be premature.

It is possible that many judges that have handed out lenient or severe sentences did not realize that they were significantly out of line with the Canadian mainstream. Conclusion Discretion is not a problem, perception is. The police need discretion in order to enforce laws commensurate with the changes in community values. Police also need the ability to exercise their discretion in order to enforce laws as they are best able to essay writing University College do and to not get swamped with petty crimes, while resources are needed to deal with serious offences. Prosecutors need the ability to exercise discretion in order to plea bargain. Without the ability to plea bargain, prosecutors may find that they send far too much time prosecuting ancillary legal offences while the main crime is not given their full attention.

The only reform necessary, is not technically a reform, but is instead a fine-tuning of the current system to allow it to function better, and that is the production and how to an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, publication of uniform statistics on sentencing. Communications 131 Review: Neil Postman?s Amusing Ourselves to Death Robert Jago 200015294 Neil Postman's Amusing Ourselves to Death focuses on the change from what he calls a 'typographic' society to a televisual society. This change involves the decline of rational, linear thought which is based on the book, to disjointed, a-historical, and non-inferential thought which is based on the standards of television. Postman's prima facie argument is that the medium of communications affects forms of thought. His first argument is based entirely on conjecture (though later in the book Postman does cite a study by Gavriel Solomon, p.152 footnote 4). Write College Essay Haileybury. Postman argues that television and its predecessors (the telegraph, the photograph) changed people's modes of thought through operant conditioning. Television and electronic communications in how to write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, general force people to understand only the immediate and to forget the past. Several of Postman's axioms are questionable, and his data is open to competing interpretations. Most importantly, Postman's study of the write numbers in an essay Academy, electronic society focused on it in an immature stage of development. Modern electronic culture is quite different from the write an article pdf Xi’an, one that Postman studied. Neil Postman's stated purpose for his book is to, show that a great media-metaphor shift has taken place in America, with the result that the how to Marianapolis School, content of much of how to Jiaotong-Liverpool University our public discourse has become dangerous nonsense(p.16).

To that end, his book opens with a glimpse at the United States of the early nineteen-eighties and an explanation of his use of the word metaphor. For Postman the media metaphor is a metaphor that draws analogies between aspects of the media and aspects of society. Postman states that in the literate age, metaphors abounded. Alice in wonderland, became a metaphor for a person wandering in 'a world of semantic nonsense' and trying to make sense out of write essay pdf St. it; Athens became a metaphor for intellectual excellence and so on. In the twentieth century, the printed word added very little in terms of metaphor. Terms such as Orwellian, thought police, but very little else transferred over from the printed page into middle class speech. The metaphor of the later twentieth century was to an article Jiaotong-Liverpool be dictated by College television. Modes of thought mimicked television production standards.

Postman charts the how to an article pdf Xi’an, transition from the typographic mind, through the 'peek - a - boo' world and into online essay University College, the 'now. this' world of television. The larger scale of the medium metaphor is what Postman refers to pdf Xi’an University as resonance. Postman states that resonance is metaphor writ large. What Postman appears to mean here is that resonance is the stuff of Les Roches International School Management myths, when social customs and norms, and idiosyncrasies become confused with nature. Just as one is seen as peculiar to write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool question the effects of the construction of mountains, one is practical Marbella International of Hotel Management, seen as equally peculiar to question such social constructs as [Noam Chomsky notwithstanding] contemporary English word usage and grammar.

After first explaining his proposition on how to write pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool how the dominant medium of communications affects forms of thought, Postman uses the remainder of the first part of (UCL) his book to describe decline of the printed word in America. He begins with describing 'typographic' America at its peak. Postman describes a country -though not a nation- where the ability to read was nearly universal among men, and, where foreign reading materials were abundant (P. 34). The way in which he describes the empowerment that the average person may have felt is interesting for my third argument [that Postman contrasted typographic America with the wrong era of the how to pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, electronic age].

By 1772, Jacob Duche could write: 'The poorest labourer upon the shore of the Delaware thinks himself entitled to deliver his sentiment in matters of religion or politics with as much freedom as the gentleman or scholar. How To Write A Business Preparatory School. ' (P. 33) The printing press dominated the minds of typographic Americans. Their modes of thought mirrored the construction of an article Jiaotong-Liverpool books and pamphlets. Books were linear, impersonal, rational, and historical. The written word was never read 'live'. People's minds functioned in essay writing University London, these same ways. People were rational and thought historically and therefore linearly. Public discourse in typographic America was fundamentally rational and intelligent. Advertising and politics were based on how to write University reasoned argument [for the most part]. How To Abbey. According to Postman, the change in public discourse occurred because of the change in an article, the media available to the public.

The first major change that Postman notes is the invention of the telegraph. While it is interesting to note that the industrial revolution, and the rise of the urban centres occurred at roughly the same time as the invention of the telegraph, it is the later event that most effected the way that people think and behave. Following the telegraph came the photograph. The telegraph changed the meaning of intelligence and information. In preliterate days, intelligence was synonymous with memory. In the typographic age, intelligence became synonymous with rationality. With the electronic age heralded in by the telegraph, intelligence became the ability to sift through large amounts of data. News in typographic society consisted of useful facts and information. How To Write Academy. Postman describes a type of apathy ratio, what he calls an 'information-action ratio' (P.69).

In typographic America, efficacy as seen through individual responses to 'news' was significantly higher than it is in modern televisual America. The telegraph made trivia in place of an article Jiaotong-Liverpool news. Surely people in Finland could finally know the day to day events that occurred in Lorado Texas, but, why would they want to? According to Postman, the telegraph made the United States one nation [this was also coincident with the Civil War and the United States' great era of wars of conquest]. The telegraph allowed people on the Pacific and School, the Atlantic shores to know the minutiae of write pdf Xi’an University each others every day lives. While the telegraph trivialized the public space with useless information and 'factoids' the photograph came along to act as a magnifying glass for online essay University, these details. The photograph increased the impact of the proliferating factoids, by giving them a face and write Jiaotong-Liverpool University, a presence greater than a thousand words. By the time the photograph and the telegraph had become ascendant, the public discourse had irrevocably changed. Advertising became irrelevant, irrational, and the first slogans were developed [following shortly after such election slogans 'fifty-four forty or fight' or 'Tippacannoe and Tyler too' or the Democratic Party's anti-Republican song 'Nigger Doodle Dandy'].The era of the photograph and the telegraph are what Postman calls 'the peek-a-boo world'. Part two of the book focuses on how to write a rhetorical Abbey the particular ills of the how to Jiaotong-Liverpool University, televisual age.

The greatest ill, and one that Neil Postman had focused on how to essay pdf St. Clair in the past, is the decline in education in how to write University, favour of entertainment. A prime example for how to a business Marianapolis School, Postman is 'The Voyage of the Mimi' series. This series is how to write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, a study that involves a great deal of time on behalf of write college essay Haileybury children in order to how to Jiaotong-Liverpool University study whales and navigation among other things. None of these things are relevant to education in Marbella International School of Hotel, any traditional sense of the word. Postman's analysis of that particular series is that it is an write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University example of the education changing in order to meet the needs of television. How To Write Numbers Academy. While there are more books in how to pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool, print in the television age, they do not have the impact of how to write essay Academy their fewer but more serious predecessors.

As was the case with the Voyage of the Mimi series, books seem to have become 'audio-visual aids'. Books have lost their seriousness. Books in the modern context no longer command the attention that they once did. The printed word in the modern context is a visual aid, it celebrates the dominant medium and is constructed around television's conventions. For example, a glance at an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University any of the Fin de Siecle 'best 100 [or 1'000 et al.] lists that currently proliferate, would show what books are considered to be of substance to write essay Marianapolis School this society. In the Globe and Mail's list of the best history books are, a picture book, Atlas of how to pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University World History, and ESPN Sport Century.

Among the best seller lists are a book of lists, a book by a television writer, a book by a faded hockey star, a book by a movie writer, a book of trivia. Numbers Academy. While there are more books in print today than ever before, it is likely that they are to be gems such as ESPN Sport Century, as opposed to Walden or the Native Son. Write An Article University. Postman concludes his book by how to write analyzing this 'dangerous' lack of substance brought on by the conventions of the television age. Postman uses two of major metaphors of the decline of western society. the first is the Orwellian. Today the write an article pdf Xi’an University, totalitarian state is how to write Marianapolis School, confined to only a few fourth rate and declining states such as Myanmar and Belarus and so its position as primary threat to Western Liberty has given way. In the place of the Orwellian thought police and how to write an article, big brother is Aldous Huxley's 'Brave New World'. The brave new world of Postman's interpretation is one where television has taken the place of Huxley's 'Soma' [an ecstacy like drug]. People have forsaken their liberty and democracy in favour of simple and constant pleasures. Postman concludes that television has created a Brave New World where the statescraftsmen are given free hand by a public more interested in their leader's private affairs than their economic policies. Write Numbers Academy. This new world where seriousness is mocked, and how to an article pdf Xi’an University, where depth of imagination, and attention span have gone into steep decline is one that has put democracy and freedom in grave danger.

Postman proposes that the numbers, solution to the current state of affairs is to inoculate the populous through education. People would be educated to understand the how to an article Jiaotong-Liverpool, television epistemology, and to how to write college essay Haileybury not just become media savvy, but to become aware of the myths that surround the dominant medium. The current dominant medium in Jiaotong-Liverpool, the United States and Canada is television. Other media, such as radio, and print are complementary to television and have very little independent sway over how to write analysis, societal mores. Postman's analysis could only take into account society up to the mid 1980's. That society lacked the internet, and such venues as digital cable and inexpensive satellite dishes. Postman derides libertarians for attacking government censorship but failing to take on the oligarchy of the big-three networks. In his discussion of the typographic age, Postman describes the empowerment of the common man by his ability to converse and understand every subject of write an article pdf Xi’an University importance.

Postman takes especial note of Marianapolis Preparatory Benjamin Franklin's views on the importance of the pamphlet. How To Write An Article Pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University. Each of these points noted by Postman can lead to how to college Haileybury a different final conclusion if extrapolated into write an article pdf Xi’an, the internet age. To begin with, the modern era of between seventy and five-hundred television channels should have been easily foreseen by Postman. He noted the lack of attention by how to write a business the general public, and write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, how that brief attention span was created by write Abbey television. The television of write an article pdf Xi’an University Postman's study was, by current standards, conservative, and for lack of a better word, 'deep'. The oligarchy of the three networks is gone, replaced by a constellation of write College specialty television networks [though production is now owned by a few industrial concerns].

Attention spans are even briefer, and every whim under the sun can be served by its own television network. An Article Jiaotong-Liverpool. Contrary to Postman's original argument that the product of a populace obsessed by entertainment is political apathy, entertainment can create political involvement. Essay Haileybury. While Postman described the efficacy felt by the people of the how to write an article Jiaotong-Liverpool University, typographic age, he failed to note that part of the efficacy was inspired by such public proceedings as the public hanging. Postman failed to realize that a public raised on scripted spectacle, would be enraptured by live reality. In a world of instant communications, there is how to write Academy, enough live spectacle to keep every audience entertained. Write An Article Pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool. This entertainment can be translated into efficacy through such means as instant television poll, something that Postman only briefly touched on. Postman's description of the transition from literate to televised worlds and the coincident transformation of society from literate and how to write Mercersburg Academy, rational to an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool base and a rhetorical Abbey Cambridge, excitable is not entirely accurate. He fails to take into consideration other factors such as the second industrial revolution and the expansion of liberty within countries which may explain the general decline in the public discourse.

Postman places the blame for the decline in rationality solely on the dominant medium of how to write an article pdf Xi’an Jiaotong-Liverpool University communications. Furthermore, Postman writes that people have lost the sense of efficacy vis a vis the state. A Rhetorical Essay Abbey. While people may be voting less, they may be participating more. Protest groups, lobby groups, special interest groups, petitions, and the like have proliferated in post-industrial society. Write An Article Jiaotong-Liverpool. People may have transferred their trust from the state to the epistemic community and they may have done this because of a new involving medium.

Bibliography Postman, Neil, Amusing Ourselves to how to write essay pdf St. Clair Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Buisness, Penguin Books (Toronto: 1986).