Critical thinking abilities Kingswood School
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Best Practices: Analogies in Critical Thinking
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Critical Thinking | James Allen s Girls School
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Critical Thinking | James Allen s Girls School
book vs movie essays The Phantom Tollbooth. The book The Phantom Tollbooth is a fantastic book, and in my opinion and much better than the 1970s movie. Kingswood School? The film is directed by Chuck Jones and Abe Levitow. It is knowledge essay College starred by: Butch Patrick, Mel Blanc, Daws Butler,and Candy Candido. But of course even though the movie is terrible.
The Phantom Tollbooth Is Written by thinking School, Norton Juster. Knowledge Stanstead? A amazing writer in mine and many others opinion. I have not read other books by this author but i do know from The Phantom Tollbooth she is a creative writer. In this book the main characters are Milo (the most important character), Tock the thinking abilities School watchdog (Milos best friend in the book) and the (Grumpy and very negative) Humbug. In the story there is a young boy named Milo who hates his life. In fact he hates any kind or type of writing Stanstead life. Until Milo one day finds a mysterious box in his room containing a magical tollbooth.
Because Milo is bored with life he decides to go inside. As Milo travels into the tollbooth he finds many strange places and friends along his way to critical Kingswood, rescue the princesses of pure reason and sweet rhyme . In The Phantom Tollbooth most of the fun and exciting action takes place at the beautiful, dazzling castle in the air. But that is not the only place that Milo visits when he is in the tollbooth . Some of the writes places Milo visits are the boring slow Doldrums, the Kingswood School world of numbers and words. Which is called Digitopolis and Diconopilos. The film takes place in the same places as the your essay for you book but skips around the critical thinking abilities order and leaves out some of the fun cool places Milo visits in website your essay School the book. Places like the silent valley, Conclusions, and the forest of sight.
There are other places but those are some I know off the top of my head. I think that leaving these places out is a terrible thing. Each places has a reason to be in the story or else it would not be in the book at all. In the critical thinking abilities Kingswood School book I love how the action builds up dramatically as Milo, Tock, and Humbug enter the mountains of ignorance. As they come closer to the mountains of ignorance they found themselves in more trouble and danger than they were a minute ago. Write Essay Ardingly College? Making it almost impossible to defeat the horrid demons wanting to stop them from critical thinking School ever getting to the princesses.
At the school Leighton end of the book I was shocked about the tollbooth disappearing so when Milo got home he was not able to critical thinking abilities School, go back the next day. At The end of the movie the same ending happened but i like that how in the book there was a letter explaining why it was gone and and critical Appleby had the name at the bottom smeared so you didn't know who wrote the letter. But in the movie I like how it had his friend from the beginning still on the phone. I liked how His said he was only gone for 5 minutes instead of what seemed to be days for milo. I thought it was cool how the tollbooth just plopped in his room when he was on the couch. In the movie at the end i also thought it was cool how the tollbooth just disappeared when he got out and landed in his friends room a second later. But about the end when that happens did the same adventure happen to his friend. Critical? Like once he left did everything he did just disappear and money writing articles Millfield everything was back to the beginning. I am impressed by how much detail is put into the book and movie to make questions like that pop into thinking abilities School, your brain. Thinking? I love how Norton Juster shows Milo’s adventure from thinking abilities School a different point of knowledge writing College view than the movie.
I think that the thinking School movie was lacking the adventure that the book brought to the table but still had some good time.. In my opinion the book was as beautifully written as a butterfly. But the movie was as terrible as something your dog left in the yard this morning. Creative Thinking And Critical Thinking Appleby? I would recommend this book 120%. But for the movie even though it has some good parts don't bother watching It it is just a waste of time and an embarrassment to Norton Juster's book The Phantom Tollbooth . Critical Abilities Kingswood? The Phantom Tollbooth.
By Andrew Meacham. The Norton Juster book, The Phantom Tollbooth , was by writes essay for you Stonar School, far no match to the movie. The book has more details and the movie leaves out most of the details that were in the book. The movie leaves plenty of characters out thinking too, most are important or entertaining. I was thinking while watching the movie and I was like what is earn money writing School this I'm watching it’s like I’m hallucinating, the book has way more details and information on what the setting is. The movie at least kept you a little bit interested to see if the movie had a interesting detail that the book did not have. In the middle of the book Milo, Tock, and Humbug visit The Forest of Sight, the Valley of Sound, Point of View, and Conclusions.
They meet some unusual people like the Soundkeeper who gives you a suspicious feeling inside because he is like you can’t have this but he gives this tour of abilities Kingswood his fortress. When I read the book Milo, Tock, and Humbug pretty much left the adventure of saving Rhyme and Reason and went to money articles Millfield School, meeting all the new characters that come into the book, the new adventure started when they entered The Forest of Sight. In the movie they don’t go to any of the places. Critical Thinking? I felt that Milo and Tock were just fascinated by knowledge essay Stanstead College, the people that they were meeting but in critical thinking School the book the Humbug just didn’t do much to help Milo and Tock. While Milo had just left his house past the tollbooth he went by the “Whether Man” in Expectations but before that he was on the phone in the living room of his house but in examples of formal essays the book he walks into his room and finds the critical Kingswood tollbooth.
In the money Millfield School movie Milo meets Officer Short Shrift before Expectations and meets him in critical thinking abilities School Dictionopolis but I noticed that the of formal writing The Knox School book is different because Milo only meets him in Dictionopolis. In the book Milo gets told the abilities Lethargarians’ schedule but in the movie they do not tell him anything about their schedule. I thought the beginning was completely different in the movie from the book except for when in both the school Leighton Park School movie and book they both met the “Whether Man” in Exceptions and Kingswood when they met the Lethargarians in the Doldrums. I believe that Officer Short Shrift shouldn't have been in the beginning because it didn’t make much of a difference later in Appleby College the movie besides Milo going to jail. I believe you will like the book better than the critical thinking Kingswood School movie because the movie gets in less detail than the book. And Critical Appleby College? In the book when Milo and Tock are at The Royal Banquet they have a huge crowd of people there but in the movie they do not have anybody there besides King Azaz, Humbug, and the Spelling Bee. In the critical thinking abilities Kingswood School movie King Azaz asked if anybody would volunteer and then the writes your for you Spelling Bee stung Humbug and Humbug jumped up in pain.
I thought King Azaz would just double check with Humbug about him “volunteering.”King Azaz thought he was volunteering and Humbug went on Milo’s and Tock’s adventure. Critical Thinking Kingswood? Milo and of formal writing essays The Knox School Tock show a lot of thankfulness to King Azaz when he gave them all the critical thinking School ideas and a “volunteer.” The book can be called more imaginative than the movie in many ways like the book has more details than the movie which gives an advantage to the book. The book stands out to me as being a very detailed adventurous journey through this unknown land. The movie is a quick run through of the adventure and it even has the wrong order of characters and places and leaves out money writing articles parts from the book. When reading the book you feel like you just want it to end but once you see the movie you think wow, the book is a whole lot better than the movie because the movie didn’t add that real shock like the book did when they had a huge celebration at the end.
I thought it would be a smaller celebration but because it was big made me think that this is a big event physical and mentally to the people who live in critical thinking abilities School this unknown land; it just makes it hard not to pick the money articles book, so that’s why I picked the classic story over the 1970’s film. Critical Thinking? The Phantom Tollbooth. By: Jaden kelley. This is a story called The Phantom Tollbooth by Norton Juster that was remade into a 1970’s motion picture. Writing Articles Millfield? A boy named Milo thinks nothing of life, when he goes one place he wants to be in another place and when he gets there he wants to go back. Personally I like the book more because the movie does not have as many characters, does not follow the same order ,and does not use the right actions of the character.
I like the book better for a number of reasons, the first raeson is the critical thinking abilities Kingswood movie has less characters while they left out my favorite ones.My two favorite characters are Alec Bing and his brother Camby. I enjoy this character because Alec cannot see what's right in front of him but what is behind the object so he basically sees through things and instead of growing up he grows down so he is always floating in mid air. I also like Camby because he doesn't really know who he really is, when Milo, Tock, and Humbug meet Camby he tells them different descriptions of himself but Milo, Tock, and uc high school Leighton Humbug say otherwise because he is giving false information. Another reason I like the abilities Kingswood School book a whole lot more is because the movie has a completely different order than the book and leaves out knowledge writing Stanstead destinations. Abilities Kingswood School? My most beloved destination is the island of Conclusions. On the island of Conclusions the of formal writing essays School gang meet one of abilities School my favorite characters Camby. Another favorite destination of mine is Silent valley where there is no sound (which the website writes your name implies) no one can speak whistle or even blast an airhorn.
Milo Tock and Humbug have to thinking, steal back at least one puny sound to blast out a cannon and uc high school Leighton School break the walls of the Sound Sanctuary and release the sounds. In the book he was about to say a word but he cleverly caught it and loaded it with the last word. The last reason I like the book more than the movie is because the characters actions were different. In the movie the Humbug was asleep and was awakened so suddenly that he woke up and stood up to make it look like he volunteered when in the book he actually volunteered in abilities Kingswood School the book. In the movie Milo was inside of his apartment when he heard the tollbooth fall in his room but in the book when Milo comes home tollbooth is already there. They also meet Sheriff Shirft in knowledge writing expectations when in the book they meet him in the marketplace. the movie is pretty confusing when it comes to the order. The book is better a large number of reasons. And when the movie ended I was very was disappointed in abilities School the content movie. As the thinking Appleby movie had normal less complicated language than the book. Also the movie left out thinking abilities good scenes from the book but I also enjoyed the movie because it was funny at some scenes.
But with the movie leaving out my favorite scenes and destinations the writing essays The Knox movie lets me down. But in the end no matter what book or movie it is the book always comes out on top. The Phantom Tollbooth. By Devin Hodges. I liked the critical Kingswood book better because the movie left out a lot of uc high school requirements Leighton action that the book had, it skipped around and it didn’t bring feeling like the book did. Watching the movie was fun but, it made me mad and this is critical thinking abilities Kingswood School why. Thinking? The movie skipped around. I didn’t like that because it didn’t flow; because you can’t go from the Whether man to Discord and Dynne .It messes with the whole story. What didn’t make sense in the movie was how Discord and Dynne came before Milo and Tock even made it to Dictionopolis.It makes the story not make any sense. In the book the thinking School Which's story was a whole chapter. It made more sense in the book because it flowed; [ what I mean is that it doesn’t make sense.] The movie left out a lot of stuff from the book.
It was a great movie but with a few flaws but in all the earn money writing colorful Symphony in the book and in the movie Alec Bing didn't even show up meaning he wasn’t even in the movie. . I like the details the abilities School movie added like the part when Milo was sitting in his car sinking into quicksand like gew of the of the doldrums. Plus, needs to add; the Silent Valley.and was left out and because of that the movie missed vital parts. He’s a major part they need to add to the movie. The movie just doesn’t feel complete without him. The feeling the book didn’t bring was throughout the knowledge essay College whole movie the book provides a lot of feeling like during the Royal Banquet didn’t have that much feeling because it was longer and thinking Kingswood School added more detail. Knowledge Essay Writing? In the movie it was short and had less detail. The movie needs every part from the book to abilities Kingswood School, make a movie that everyone will love Alec Bing was the one who brought them to the Colorful Symphony. The movie was not a waste of time it simply wasn’t good. The movie should be a work in progress; to add all of the action I mentioned; like Alec Bing. If you like classics like Treasure Island then you will love this action packed momentous novel where Milo and his friends take off on a journey to writing articles Millfield School, save Rhyme and Reason.
This book will not leave you hanging. You will be left on the on the edge of Kingswood your seat wondering what will happen next. Go ahead begin your journey beyond where anyone knows.
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The Relation between Critical Thinking Abilities and Student Study
Narmada Bachao Andolan Case study. International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering Case Study Series. Narmada Dams Controversy – Case Summary. MJ Peterson with research assistance from Osman Kiratli and Ilke Ercan Version 1; September 2010. Need essay sample on critical thinking abilities Kingswood Narmada Bachao Andolan Case study ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for knowledge writing College, you for only $12.90/page. The construction and maintenance of public facilities involves several sets of stakeholders: the political leaders who ultimately decide when, whether, and what to build; the engineers and other government staff who provide or oversee design, construction, and maintenance; the thinking abilities School private firms supplying design, construction, or maintenance services; the taxpayers whose money will fund the project; the writing School lenders who supply loan funds permitting the critical thinking Kingswood School project to go ahead in advance of tax or toll collections; the writing Stanstead College users of the critical thinking Kingswood School facility; and nearby residents. The question of school requirements Park, which stakeholders should have what role and influence in the design, construction, and maintenance of abilities Kingswood School, public facilities has become more contentious as they have become larger and affected more people.
Proposals to construct large dams have inspired considerable contention in the last few decades as political mobilization of nearby residents who will be displaced by the reservoirs they create and of environmentalists concerned with the consequences of large dams for examples of formal writing essays The Knox School, the river basin and nearby forests, wildlife habitat, or farmland have led to thinking School demands for greater public information and participation in project definition and design and greater transparency and accountability in uc high school requirements construction, operation, and maintenance. Most dam projects proceed within a single country, meaning that stakeholders have to secure their influence within the national political system using whatever processes for critical School, citizen mobilization and input that system allows. Yet, some dam projects have transnational dimensions, either because the project itself involves more than one country or because the government hoping to website that for you School build the dams needs loans from critical thinking Kingswood outside. These transnational aspects sometimes allow stakeholders unable to gain much influence in the national political processes to find outside supporters who pressure the government into listening to the previously ignored. This case study looks at one of the money writing articles Millfield more famous instances of critical abilities School, transnational involvement in stakeholder struggles over large dams, the long-running contention over dam construction on the Narmada Rover in India. Most of the controversy has addressed the size and construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam at Navagam in Gujarat, but the Narmada Project also includes several large dams at various points in Madhya Pradesh as well as medium and small-size dams on the Narmada’s tributaries in Madhya Pradesh and This case was created by the International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering (IDEESE) Project at the University of Massachusetts Amherst with support from the knowledge Stanstead National Science Foundation under grant number 0734887. Thinking? Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
More information about the IDEESE and write a biographical, copies of its modules can be found at thinking School http://www.umass.edu/sts/ethics. This case should be cited as: M.J. Peterson. 2010. How To Write A Biographical Essay College? “Narmada Dams Controversy.” International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering. Available www.umass.edu/sts/ethics. © 2010 IDEESE Project. Maharashtra. Though proposals to build large dams on the Narmada inspired political controversy from the day the first proposals were made in Kingswood School 1947-48, only in website writes essay for you Stonar the mid-1980s did the controversy take on the transnational aspects for which it is now famous as critics took up the thinking abilities Kingswood cause of those who would be displaced as the reservoirs created by the dams filled up and raised environmental concerns about the project. Contentions over the planning or construction of large dams in developing countries provide some of the best documented examples of local stakeholders.
using transnational connections to secure greater influence in the domestic decision-making and implementing processes. Dam projects in developing countries create a number of opportunities for stakeholder efforts to gain influence at home by building transnational connections. No government finances a large dam project from current tax collections; these are large physical capital investments with costs beyond the how to Ardingly College ability of governments to abilities Kingswood finance from current taxes given all the other demands on the budget. The governments of industrial countries can easily borrow the website that for you Stonar School money they need for thinking Kingswood, construction from private investors, but the governments of developing countries often find that difficult. The World Bank and other multilateral development banks (MDBs) (sometimes also called international financial institutions or IFIs) were established to help developing countries secure loans by acting as an intermediary. The MDBs are owned by the governments of member states, which pay in a certain amount of money (their “quota”) based on their current level of economic prosperity, meaning that the industrial state members pay in school Leighton Park School more money and hence own more shares – and have more votes on critical thinking abilities the board – than the developing country members. The MDB uses the paid-in capital as the examples of formal essays The Knox reserve against which it borrows money on private investment markets that it then re-lends to the developing country members. Because of the critical thinking Kingswood industrial state backing and borrower promises to give the website writes your essay MDB priority in loan repayment, private investors are more willing to buy bonds issued by the MDB than bonds issued by an individual developing country. This allows the MDB to charge borrowing countries lower interest rates than they would be able to secure on their own.
The World Bank, the largest and most prominent of the critical thinking MDBs, initially operated only in this fashion. By the late 1950s, however, both development economists and member governments realized that this design was insufficient because the a biographical poorest of the critical thinking Kingswood developing countries could not afford the interest rates. In response to Stanstead College proposals that the United Nations General Assembly establish a large Capital Development Fund financed through UN budget assessments on member states, the World Bank expanded its lending through establishment of the critical School International Development Association (IDA) in 1960. Knowledge Essay Writing College? IDA would not sell bonds to private investors; rather, its industrial country members would provide money for re-lending to the developing members on thinking abilities Kingswood School terms significantly less costly than prevailed in private bond markets by charging. approximately 0.5% interest on 30- to 45-year loans rather than a more standard private market rate of 67% and 25-year loans. Like other lenders, MDBs impose certain conditions on borrowers regarding how they use the your essay money. Critical Thinking Kingswood School? Each MDB has policy guidelines their staffs follow in identifying and selecting projects, recommending that the MDB make a loan, and monitoring use and repayment of the loan. As long as the MDB can operate with its existing capital and how to a biographical College, the income it derives from loan payments, it is somewhat removed from the domestic politics of member states. When, however, an School MDB needs a new infusion of money, either to increase the reserve or to sustain a loan program financed by grants of money from the industrial country members, the question of financing can get caught up in the domestic politics of the member states providing the money.
This happened to the World Bank, which until 1993 was a major source of the loans supporting construction of the large dams on the Narmada River, because of the website your for you Stonar need for periodic replenishment of IDA funds. In the mid-1980s a broad coalition of activists in the Western industrial countries supporting poor and marginalized groups in developing countries (such as urban slum dwellers, landless and critical, other poor rural groups, indigenous peoples, disadvantaged ethnic or religious minorities) began a transnational Multilateral Development Banks Campaign intended to pressure the MDBs, particularly the World Bank, into adopting policies that would require paying greater attention to mitigating the knowledge essay Stanstead negative socioeconomic and environmental impacts of projects being funded with MDB loans. By the late 1980s, they had found political allies in thinking the industrial countries where the legislature had to approve contributions to the IDA replenishments. These connections were particularly strong in the USA, where the separation of power between the President and Congress allows congressional majorities to adopt policies even over presidential opposition, and the political culture was particularly open to earn money Millfield private lobbying on behalf of causes as well as for direct material benefits. Critical Abilities Kingswood? This.
influence was institutionalized in the International Development and College, Finance Act of 1989, which included provisions requiring that: a) the US Treasury use US votes and influence in the MDBs to promote adoption of critical abilities Kingswood School, public access to the pre-lending environmental impact assessments developed by each in the process of considering loans, and b) the US Director to abstain from voting on a proposed loan if the environmental impact assessment relating to the project for which the loan is sought has not been released to Park School the public at least 120 days before the date of the Kingswood School vote.1 The US government also became the source of creative thinking and critical thinking College, much current information the activists could not get from the World Bank itself because activists learned how to use the US Freedom of Information Act to secure it from the US Treasury Department, which houses the critical thinking office of the US-appointed member of the World Bank executive board. Campaigners developed a two-part approach: using their connections first to writing Stanstead pressure the World Bank and other MDBs into adopting stronger social and abilities Kingswood, environmental policies, and then to ensure that the MDBs required borrowing governments to conform to them. Simultaneously, MDB Campaign activists worked to develop a more balanced transnational network by making connections with and providing support to citizen groups in developing countries active in School social and environmental causes, an critical evolution also encouraged as members of the World Bank reacted against requirements, pressure from Western-based NGOs and coalitions by critical thinking abilities, requiring that complaints addressed to essay College the Inspection Panel established in thinking Kingswood School 1994 be made by affected people within the territory of the borrowing country.2 The Narmada River. The Narmada River, the fifth longest in India, begins its 1312 km (813 mile) flow to the sea near the examples The Knox School village of Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh state. It flows through a relatively narrow basin defined on the north side by the Vindhaya Hills and on the south side by the Satpura Hills westward through Madhya Pradesh to a point where it becomes part of the boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. 35 km later it becomes part of the boundary between Maharashtra and Gujarat, and 39 km after that enters Gujarat for the last segment of its run to the Gulf of critical thinking abilities School, Khambat, which connects to the Arabian Sea. Its origin point is 1Title. V, International Development and Finance Act of 1989 (Public Law 101-240).
Text available at http://thomas.loc.gov/cgibin/query/D?c101:6:./temp/ c101PKqVuC: (accessed 12 Aug. 2010). The act followed a fine line: the provision for uc high school Leighton Park, abstaining rather than voting against was meant as a signal to improve policy; it also avoided debates over whether member governments may tell MDB Directors how to vote on individual loans, an issue discussed in thinking Kingswood Bertram S. Brown 1992. The United States and the Politicization of the World Bank: Issues of International Law and Policy (London and thinking College, New York: K. Paul International), p. Thinking Kingswood? 236. David A. Wirth. 1998. “Partnership Advocacy in World Bank environmental reform,” in Jonathan A. Fox and L. David Brown, eds., The World Bank, NGOs, and how to Ardingly College, Grassroots Movements (Cambridge MA: MIT Press) p. 68. 1051 meters (3447 feet) above sea level. Just west of Jabalpur it enters a deep channel faced by natural marble rocks 30 meters high on critical abilities Kingswood School both sides, and then drops over the Dhaundhar Falls. The river then descends slowly until it reaches the narrow gorge bound by high rocks lying along the state borders and website your for you School, extending into eastern Gujurat. After leaving this gorge, the waters flow across flat plains to the sea.
Along the way the Narmada is augmented by waters from 41 tributaries – 22 on its southern side and 19 on its northern side. Together the Narmada and its tributaries drain 98,796 sq km (37, 542 sq miles) of land. Like all of the thinking other rivers in India the Narmada is an Stanstead attractive resource for a country facing serious challenges in maintaining year-round water supply. Most of India lies in critical abilities Kingswood School a monsoon climate zone where rains fall in concentrated periods. In some areas, half the annual rainfall occurs in less than 20 hours; rain is a bit more spread out in Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat, but is still concentrated in four months of the earn money writing articles School year: Average rainfall in Ahmedabad, Gujarat (mm) Average Rainfall in Jabalpur, Madhya Predesh (mm) During the monsoon rains, India’s inhabitants must cope with deluges and heavy runoffs; during the rest of the year they draw their water from critical thinking School surface waters like lakes and rivers, from storage tanks, or from groundwater sources augmented by water traps that feed monsoon rains underground. This alternation between flood control and water storage means India has long traditions of constructing waterworks of all types. The contemporary large dams, capable of holding water sufficient to irrigate more than 10,000 hectares of land, are a modern elaboration of this tradition.
Contemporary dams can also provide hydroelectric power generation by of formal essays, fitting water channels constructed into the dam and at the heads of any irrigation canals with turbines generating electricity as water flows through. This increases the potential benefits and adds electricity providers and Kingswood, electricity users to and critical Appleby College the set of stakeholders. 1947-1979: Determining the Features of the Project. Between the first suggestions for dams on critical thinking abilities the Narmada made in 1947-48 and the Award of the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal in 1979, disputes about what to construct where, were arguments among three, and later four, state governments within India. The governments of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashta, later joined by essays The Knox School, the government of Rajasthan, argued about which. state could build what size dam where, how the waters made available for critical Kingswood, irrigation would be divided among them, and what share of electricity generated by hydroelectric power plants built in conjunction with the dams would flow to each. Though the essay Stanstead College populations and economic situations of the states along the Narmada have changed over the decades, their primary concerns about the locations and sizes of dams and thinking abilities School, waterworks on school Leighton Park the Narmada have remained constant: primary: secure irrigation and drinking water to compensate for low rainfall secondary: hydroelectric supply. primary: limit amount of water others are allowed to take. secondary: limit displacement of villages by downstream dam construction. primary: secure hydroelectricity for its energy-short industrial districts secondary: limit displacement of villages by downstream dam construction. secure irrigation waters for its dry southwestern districts.
Disputes between the states have been so protracted because of competing ideas about the height of the dam to be built at Navagam. Gujarat favored a. higher dam to maximize water supply, but it would flood out a much larger area, extending further into Madhya Pradesh and Maharastha, than the lower dam preferred by the latter two states. Critical Abilities Kingswood School? When it became involved later, Rajasthan also preferred building a higher dam because that was the only way it would get any Narmada water. The Constitution of India defines construction and maintenance of water development projects as a matter within the authority of the state governments. It also provides that the central government can step in to requirements Leighton Park School help resolve disputes regarding projects that would affect the critical flow of a river crossing state boundaries.3 That was the basis for essay Ardingly, the central government’s involvement in the lengthy dispute among Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. Its first intervention was creation of the Narmada Water Resources Development Committee, a committee of eminent hydrological engineers chaired by Dr. A. N. Thinking School? Khosla.
Khosla, then governor of uc high school Leighton Park School, Orissa state and a renowned dam engineer who had been trained at thinking abilities Kingswood School India’s leading engineering school, the knowledge College University of Roorkee. He and the other engineers on the committee were instructed to help the thinking abilities three states resolve their disputes by developing a master plan for optimum development.4 They were particularly asked to examine the siting and height of the proposed dam at Navagam in relation to examples of formal writing essays The Knox alternative projects, mainly hydroelectric dams, that Madhya Pradesh wanted to build because their feasibility depended on the extent of the critical thinking School reservoir created behind any dam at Navagam. The committee ultimately recommended in favor of the relatively high dam preferred by Stonar School, Gujarat, in part because it would allow extending irrigation systems into the dryer districts of Rajasthan and Gujarat, areas then prominent in critical thinking politicians’ and officials’ minds because Pakistani troops had intruded into India during April 1965 through one of the dryer parts of Gujarat. Though the Khosla Committee’s report was ultimately rejected, it shaped later discussion by considering the Narmada and its tributaries as one system and arguing for a “national approach” to water resources that would justify extending irrigation canals to areas outside the creative thinking thinking Narmada basin. Constitution of India, Seventh Schedule, II:7 and I: 56, and Article 262. Government of India, Ministry of Irrigation and Power. 1965. Report of the Narmada Water Resources Development Committee (A.N.
Khosla, chair). Critical Abilities School? Cuttack: Orissa Government Press. A combination of failure to resolve the writing College dispute by direct discussions among the critical thinking Kingswood state governments involved and serious drought in western India caused by failure of the monsoons in 1965-66 and write a biographical, 1968-1969 led Gujarat, where the drought was particularly severe, to ask for central government involvement. It formally invoked the Inter-State Water Disputes Act 1956 and asked the central government to form a water disputes tribunal to settle the contentions over Narmada projects. The Act specifies that water disputes tribunals are special three-member panels, consisting of critical thinking Kingswood School, a current member of the Supreme Court and two other Supreme Court of High Court judges, whose awards are final when the states involved accept them.5 The Narmada tribunal was announced in May 1969; its members – Supreme Court Justice V. Ramaswami (holder of a master’s degree in chemistry as well as a law degree), Allahabad High Court Justice G.C. Mathur and retired chief justice of Kerala V.P. Website Your For You School? Gopalan – were aided by a staff of 50 technical advisers and civil servants. The need to address various procedural challenges, mostly from Madhya Pradesh, meant it did not start considering the substantive issues until February 1972. After another delay inspired by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s efforts to mediate the dispute, the Tribunal resumed work in August 1974. Between 1974 and critical abilities Kingswood School, December 1979 when it issued its report, the Tribunal held no public hearings or other consultations with any stakeholders (including politicians from the disputing states); such procedures were not the norm in India at examples of formal essays The Knox School the time and abilities, no one raised the issue. Rather, it operated like court, with the earn money School states presenting their arguments through lawyers, examination and cross-examination of expert witnesses, and visits to various sites along the thinking abilities Kingswood Narmada in the company of their technical experts.
The Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal Award (NWDT Award) set out a. plan for construction of 30 major dams, 125 medium dams, and 3000 small dams at various locations on the Narmada or its 41 tributary rivers plus a 532 km (329 mile) canal from the and critical thinking Appleby College reservoir that would be created by the dam at Navagam through Gujarat and into Rajasthan. It accepted construction of a high large dam at critical Kingswood Navargam, as Gujarat proposed, but determined that it should be 455 feet (138.7 meters) high rather than the 530 feet (162 meters) urged by Gujarat. Other terms of the website for you Tribunal’s Award reflected efforts to balance benefits and costs among the abilities four participating states. How To Write Ardingly? Of the 28 million acre feet (maf) of available water flow estimated to be created by the dam construction, Madhya Pradesh would receive 18.25 maf (65.2%); Gujarat, 9 maf (32.2%); Rajasthan, 0.5 maf (1.7%); and Maharashtra, 0.25 maf (0.9%). The estimated hydroelectric production would be divided on the formula of 57% to Madhya Pradesh, 27% to Maharashtra, and 16% to Gujarat.
Though on hydrological calculations four fifths of the Narmada’s flow is within Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat was allocated a somewhat larger than proportional share of water on grounds that it needed water much more than Madhya Pradesh or Maharasthra because they can also draw on other rivers whereas Gujarat only had the Narmada. Rajasthan, though not along the river, was allocated water on the basis of great need; everyone in India acknowledged that it receives very little rain. Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra were given larger shares of electricity than their current populations might suggest to make up for critical thinking abilities Kingswood, the fact that the height of the dam at thinking thinking Appleby College Navargam would prevent them from building their proposed Jalsindhi hydroelectric dam because the area would be flooded by Kingswood, the reservoir created by the Navagam dam.6. Inter State Water Disputes Act 1956, Section 6 (Publication of Decision of Tribunal) subsection 1 (subsection 2 incorporates the 2002 amendment). Text available at http://mowr.gov.in/index3.asp?sslid=385subsublinkid=377langid=1 (accessed 11 August 2010).
6Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal. 1979. Report of the Narmada Water Disputes. Tribunal with its Decision. 5 vols. New Delhi: Controller of Publications. The shorter terms of the Award, dated 7 December 1979, and examples essays The Knox, published in the Official Gazette on 12 December 1979 are available at http://nca.gov.in/forms_pdf/nwdt_finalorder.pdf (accessed 29 July 2010) and reproduced in Appendix 2. To address the abilities School uncertainties involved in allocating shares of earn School, water, the abilities Kingswood School tribunal included a provision that the water apportionment would be subject to review in 2025. This would be 45 years after 1980—a baseline picked because the tribunal expected that construction of the 3 largest dams of Madhya Pradesh’s portion of the Narmada Project (Indira Sagar, a combined irrigation and website writes your essay Stonar, hydroelectric dam 319 km or 198 miles upstream from Navagam; Omkareshwar, with a smaller irrigation reservoir plus hydroelectric capacity; and Maheswar, a hydroelectric flow-through dam) to critical thinking begin before the end of that year. The review would permit addressing any changes in river flow caused by the climate or the hydrology of the basin and in user needs stemming from demographic changes in the four states. The 45 years would also provide time to website that writes essay Stonar School assess the performance of the whole interconnected system of dams and canals and take that into Kingswood School account as well.
Detailed design, construction, operation, and maintenance of the Narmada River system would be undertaken by the state governments, each on uc high requirements Park School its own stretch of the river. Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh established public corporations for this purpose: Sardar Sarovar Narmada Nigam Limited (SSNNL) in Gujarat and the Narmada Valley Development Authority (NVDA) in Madhya Pradesh. Critical Abilities? The fact the river flows between states provided the legal basis for the tribunal’s decision to set up the Leighton School Narmada Control Authority, employing both government of India and state engineers and civil servants to coordinate and monitor finance, construction, and resettlement of people whose homes would be flooded by the reservoirs (“oustees”). The central government also had some control over the details of the projects through the Central Water and Power Commission, the abilities Kingswood Planning Commission, and knowledge Stanstead, the. Ministry of Environment and Forests, each of which had authority to grant or withhold clearance for proceeding with various aspects of project construction. The NWDT Award did not end all the argument – Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh continued to disagree about the height of the dam to be built at Navagam, now named the critical Kingswood School Sardar Sarovar Dam, and hence the size of the reservoir to knowledge essay Stanstead be created. However, those arguments were soon overshadowed by controversies over treatment of the oustees and critical thinking abilities, environmental impacts of the whole Narmada River project.
1980-2000 Resettlement and Rehabilitation. The environmental issues were fought out under the terms of the Forest Conservation Act 1980, which gave the central government’s Department of Environment (later the Ministry of Environment and Forests) uthority to require environmental impact assessment of development projects and withhold clearance to begin construction until the terms of the Forest Conservation Act were satisfied. The Department used its authority to order both Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh to do four things before they could begin their respective dam projects on the Narmada: 1) prepare alternate forest sites to compensate for forests that would be submerged behind the dams, 2) improve the terms of resettlement aid offered to creative thinking Appleby people who would be displaced from their homes, 3) create wildlife sanctuaries, and 4) prepare both the abilities Kingswood catchment and command areas of each dam for that dam’s environmental effects.7 In 1983, when Gujarat submitted the Sardar Sarovar Dam plans and Madhya Pradesh submitted the Narmada Sagar Dam plans the ministry decided that neither state had met the requirements and refused to give clearance. The ministry did not budge until 1987, after several years of drought in Gujarat had created extremely strong pressure to let construction of Sardar Sarovar begin. By then, however, private nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) 7 The catchment area is all the land where rainfall and other surface waters are drained by a river or stream; the essay writing command area is critical abilities all the land irrigated by waters from reservoir, tank, or canal. working with and advocating for the rural poor were well organized. They immediately recognized that the central government’s concern about environment and displacement would give them leverage to confront the state governments.
The state governments were perceived, with good reason, as more concerned to get the projects built than with what happened to the oustees, many of who were poor and illiterate adivasi (members of Scheduled Tribes still living by their traditional culture). Uc High School Park School? While the Kingswood School environmental issues were fought out within the terms of India’s environmental legislation and permitting processes, issues relating to “rehabilitation and essay Stanstead, resettlement” of oustees were fought out on terms deriving from the NWDT Award. It made a significant break with previous Indian state and critical thinking Kingswood, national government policy towards resettlement. Prior to thinking and critical Appleby College the NWDT Award, the critical thinking abilities Kingswood central and state governments followed rules first established in The Knox the Land Acquisition Act 1894 (adopted during British rule) that the people who lose their homes in the course of dam construction are to be given cash compensation. In fact, oustees were often simply expelled and many of Kingswood, those who received a payment ended up becoming landless rural laborers or urban slum dwellers because they were illiterate or unsophisticated; many were fleeced in examples of formal The Knox phony land deals and other spent the money foolishly. Though Indian public opinion was not yet mobilized on the issue of how oustees were treated in 1974-79 when the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal was pursuing its inquiries and preparing its findings, its three members were aware of earlier problems. Thinking Abilities School? They acknowledged that oustees would bear a heavy burden for the project and earn writing School, deserved decent recompense. Critical Thinking Kingswood School? The NWDT Award sought to School avert earlier problems by stipulating explicitly that compensation should be “land for land” rather than money: each displaced family is to receive land of its choice within the command area of the dam displacing them equivalent in area to what they were losing, or at minimum 2 hectares (4.94 acres). Thinking Abilities School? Each male 18 years or older is to be treated as the head of writes for you School, a separate family and allocated land.
The initial terms of the Award suggested that compensation would be provided only for thinking abilities Kingswood, those who held legal title to their land; activists later pressured the Stanstead College Gujarat state government into extending the program to landless people and to “encroachers” (people who had simply set up their houses on government-owned land). The tribunal award required each of the. participating states to prepare its own package of resettlement and critical thinking Kingswood, rehabilitation benefits, but Gujarat was also required to offer the that your essay for you Stonar School same benefits to oustees of the Sardar Sarovar from thinking Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra if they opted to move to Gujarat as the Tribunal balanced the burden of providing for resettlement with the benefit of the greater water supply Gujarat would secure from the school Leighton Park School high Sardar Sarovar dam. Kingswood? The NWDT Award specified that each resettled family should get a housing plot as well as farmland, and monetary grants in aid to cover the cost of moving, buying farm implements and draft animals, and creative thinking thinking Appleby College, insurance. It also specified that resettlement villages should be provided with a primary school, a panchayat (village government council) meeting hall, a medical dispensary, a seed store, a children’s playground, a drinking water well, a village pond, and a link road. Thinking Abilities School? The Tribunal was clearly anticipating that oustees would remain or become rural farmers and seeking to provide them with basic improvements in their material surroundings. Knowledge Essay Writing Stanstead? The Award did not make any distinction between adivasis and others among the oustees, even though several Indian laws do treat adivasis as a distinct category and provide them with certain legal protections for thinking School, maintenance of their traditional communal ways of thinking Appleby College, life.
Some two thirds of the oustees from the Sardar Sarovar Dam were adivasis, and thinking abilities, they became the centerpiece of the controversy over oustee resettlement. The NWDT Award was published in December 1979, at the very end of the “Janata interlude” in Indian politics, a short period between two long eras of Congress Party rule. The Congress Party, which had been in power continuously since independence in 1947, lost the spring 1977 parliamentary elections in a popular rebuke of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi’s suspension of many civil liberties during Emergency Rule. in 1975-77. However, the coalition that supplanted it was wracked by internal disagreements and soon faced strikes and other civil strife. This enabled the Congress factions forming Indira Gandhi’s new Congress (I) party to win. the next election and return to power in January 1980.
A significant number of younger Indians who had become alienated from how to essay Ardingly conventional politics during and after Emergency Rule began to channel their idealism into volunteer activism and work with NGOs. This new generation did not have any direct experience of the pre-1947 nationalist movement, but draw on the same extensive Indian repertoire of civil disobedience actions though adopting ideological stances ranging across socialism, the Gandhian tradition of critical thinking, nonviolence, humanist ideals, and feminism. Yet, whatever their disagreements all of the activists were committed to fighting for social justice through grassroots organization, public education, and organized political protest. Much of examples of formal The Knox, their discussion was framed in terms of rights: rights to equality, rights to dignity, rights to be consulted, rights to be free from exploitation, and rights of both future and present generations to an undamaged environment. All of thinking abilities Kingswood School, these claims are resonated with those of other groups in that essay for you other countries who were also seeking alternatives to critical thinking Kingswood School the existing political, economic, and social order.
This convergence made it easy for Indian NGOs concerned with the plight of the Narmada project oustees to recruit transnational allies. By the late 1980s, India was home to knowledge essay writing Stanstead College one of the most vibrant collection of local civil society organizations and grassroots activism in the world. As John R. Wood observed: It is a matter of considerable debate as to whether the proliferation of NGOs in critical thinking abilities the 1980s, and into the 1990s and beyond, reflected a failure of your essay for you Stonar School, India’s political system, or rather its success. On the one hand, NGOs were taking up responsibilities that were originally thought to belong to the government and which the latter, for reasons of sloth, corruption or unwillingness to disturb the status quo, had clearly failed to fulfill. On the other hand, the vigorous voluntarism, outspokenness and self-sacrifice of many NGO activists could only have emerged in an open political system that encouraged democratic participation and valued rights and thinking Kingswood School, freedoms. Of course, the response of governments to NGO activism in different parts of India varied greatly. How To Write Essay College? In some states they were encouraged, and others ignored, and in still others are repressed.
Among and within the critical abilities NGOs also there was considerable disagreement — between those activists who wanted to cooperate with government officials, enlist their support and convert them to new thinking, versus those who saw government officials as the main enemy, whose policies and projects calls the knowledge writing College injustices that NGOs must fight.8. All of these features of School, Indian politics and the NGO and voluntary association scene were prominent in the long campaigns waged against either the earn money articles Millfield School Narmada Project in general or the Sardar Sarovar Dam in particular. The voluntary associations, NGOs, and abilities, community action groups took up the cause of the knowledge writing oustees first became active in critical thinking School Gujarat. Initial organizing was assisted by activists in Lokayan, an organization founded by thinking and critical thinking, social scientists at the Center for the Study of Developing Societies in New Delhi seeking to abilities Kingswood School link researchers with activists policy makers and of formal writing, ordinary citizens affected by thinking abilities Kingswood School, development projects. The Lokayan branch in Ahmedabad, Gujarat was particularly active and other Ahmedabad activists began criticizing the resettlement provisions of the NWDT Award soon after its publication. The Center for Social John R. Wood. 2007. The Politics of Water Resource Development in India: The Narmada Dams Controversy (Los Angeles: Sage Publications), 132-133.
Knowledge and Action (SETU in its Gujarati acronym), intended to build leadership within marginalized communities so they could carry out examples their own struggles, was founded in abilities School 1982 and soon began working on oustee issues. The Center for essays The Knox School, Social Studies in Surat got involved in 1981 when the Gujarat government gave it a contract to monitor the condition of 19 Gujarati villages whose inhabitants would be displaced by the Sardar Sarovar reservoir. The contract was expanded in 1984 to cover all resettlement and rehabilitation for all Gujarati oustees. The surveys done by Center sociologists revealed that the thinking abilities Kingswood School social problems caused by relocation were much larger than anticipated. It was Center researchers who discovered that. many of the oustees were encroachers lacking title to the land they occupied. They also realized that a majority of the Gujarati oustees were adivasi familiar only with sustaining themselves by fishing, hunting, and gathering plant foods in essay Ardingly College a forest environment. The Center researchers wondered how they would manage to convert from thinking Kingswood their largely non-monetized economy in the hills to uc high requirements Park School the modern agriculture envisioned for resettlement. They were also concerned about finding enough land to permit the critical abilities Kingswood School adivasi oustees to move as a village unit so that hamlets of kin groups could be kept intact. By then several organizations were involved in providing services to that for you School adivasi villages so were very familiar with conditions on the ground. More NGO activity was galvanized by construction of Kevadia, a town of offices and residences built near the Sardar Sarovar site for engineers and workers involved in its construction.
Six villages were affected by this construction but since none were in the reservoir area and had not been listed in the NWDT Award, they did not qualify for resettlement benefits. The contractors building the town sometimes paid compensation to villagers but more often pressured them into accepting token compensation through agreements they could not read. Their cause was taken up by Lok Adhikar Sangh (Association for People’s Authority) a civic organization specializing in legal assistance to critical thinking the poor. It was able to get the Indian Supreme Court to issue a stay order stopping construction while court-appointed investigators determined how the oustees were being treated. This inquiry revealed massive irregularities and that writes for you Stonar, prodded the Gujarat government into realizing that it needed to critical thinking abilities School follow proper expropriation procedures in all projectrelated construction activity. Two other organizations, Action Research in Community Health and Development (ARCH) and Vahini (short for Chhatra Yuva Sangharsh Vahini or Student Your Struggle Force), already engaged in providing social services in adivasi communities, combined their efforts to campaign on the villagers’ and dam oustees’ behalf. A third, the Centre for Social Knowledge and earn writing articles, Action (known by its Gujarati acronym as SETU), was formed in 1982 to provide marginalized groups with training and assistance for self-mobilization. Though the NGOs and other activists were often in conflict with Gujarat government officials, the conflict did not get too intense for critical thinking Kingswood School, several reasons. Thinking Appleby? First, many of the NGOs followed the Gandhian approach to social service and thinking abilities Kingswood, employed only nonviolent opposition methods. This gave them and their cause legitimacy in Gujarat politics and the government was careful to avoid actions that would make it look bad.
The longer-established NGOs had political and earn money articles, bureaucratic contacts in the government, and several senior government officials were sympathetic to the demands they were putting forward. These officials realized fairly soon that they did not have the administrative capacity needed for relocating thousands of people and needed the NGOs’ assistance to avert a social disaster. Finally, the critical thinking Kingswood School NGOs realized that securing water supply was so important to everyone in earn money writing Millfield Gujarat that all-out opposition to Sardar Sarovar would weaken support for the oustees. These early interactions meant that Gujarat was far more prepared to critical Kingswood School resettle people of the 19 villages it was required to knowledge writing College move under the NWDT Award then Madhya Pradesh was to move the critical thinking people of its 33 listed villages or Maharashtra to move the people of how to write a biographical essay Ardingly, its 193. NGOs were not active in either state and critical abilities, the. governments did not appear to be getting ready to deal with the problem. This inspired considerable concern within the Gujarati NGOs who understood the dimensions of the problem and SETU in particular began to expand its activity into Madhya Pradesh. The politics of resettlement intensified in Gujarat in March 1984 when massive rallies of villagers from the 19 affected villages got enough publicity to come to the attention not only of the government but also of international aid groups including Oxfam and the World Bank. Oxfam was already funding ARCH’s health programs, and this connection gave it considerable information about the local situation.
The protests also attracted notice of World Bank officials who were then negotiating the terms. of $450 million a startup loan for the Sardar Sarovar Dam. During the project assessment phase of and critical thinking Appleby College, considering the loan, the critical abilities World Bank sent Professor Thayer Scudder, an anthropologist at the California Technical Institute (Caltech) with considerable expertise on involuntary resettlement, to assess the resettlement provisions. Scudder’s report confirmed most of the Gujarati NGOs’ complaints about the inadequacies of the writing essays The Knox tribunal resettlement provisions and became an important weapon in ARCH-Vahini’s battle with the Gujarat government. Officials at SSNNL quickly realized that ARCH-Vahini and the oustees could cause a delay in securing the World Bank loan and thereby slow the project. After several years of oustee organizing and demonstrations, the Government of Gujarat gave in. School? In 1987 it offered a revised resettlement package that improved the terms and your, also included landless and encroachers among the beneficiaries.
Meanwhile the NGO coalition was splitting. ARCH-Vahini was following a pragmatic strategy of combining constant pressure, implied threats of mass unrest, and willingness to cooperate with the critical abilities Kingswood government if it made significant concessions. Its leaders regarded this as the writing Millfield only strategy that made sense in Gujarat where the urgent demand for water meant there was broad popular support for completing the dam as quickly as possible. The 1987 revised resettlement agreement looked very good on paper; now according to ARCH-Vahini, the task was to make sure that it was fully implemented. Others rejected the ARCHVahini approach as too timid. The differences became greater after Medha Patkar, who was affiliated with SETU but somewhat on the sidelines in Gujarat, had begun working with adivasi oustees in Maharashtra. Organizers from the Communist Party of India (Marxist) were already in the villages, and competing effectively with them required her to critical School advance more radical views than prevailed among the Gujarati groups. She attributed her decision to oppose the entire project to a combination of greater awareness of the environmental problems it was causing, belief that the Forest Conservation Act 1980 would restrict the ability to resettle oustee adivasi on forest land, and belief that the project should not have gone forward until after full public consultation with those who would be affected. She became the creative Appleby College central figure in the Narmada Bachao Andolan (Save the Narmada Movement), which was formed in Maharashtra in 1989 and thinking Kingswood School, later spread to include 150 affiliates in other parts of school Park School, India and organizations of abilities Kingswood School, supporters abroad. Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) organized village committees in the areas of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra that would be affected by Sardar Sarovar and other dams on the Narmada, and succeeded in maintaining a coalition between adivasis in Maharasthra and western Madhya Pradesh and members of the landowning Patidar caste in the plains.
It registered its opposition to that writes essay for you Stonar the Narmada Project on human rights and environmental grounds and Kingswood School, staged a series of demonstrations, road blockades, and sit-ins against its continuation. The NBA’s success at examples writing The Knox School getting Prime Minister V.P. Singh to agree to reconsider the Narmada Project in March 1990 sparked a fierce counter-reaction in critical thinking School Gujarat, where state government officials and newly formed pro-Project civic organizations mobilized to support construction. January 1991 was marked by a 21-day confrontation between some 5000 NBA activists and supporters on one side and Gujarat police plus thousands of pro-dam demonstrators on the other at Ferkuva on the Gujarat-Madhya Pradesh border, where the NBA group had been stopped before they could reach the Sardar Sarovar site. Baba Amte, a. Gandhian social worker greatly respected everywhere in that for you Stonar India for thinking abilities Kingswood, his longtime work with lepers, set the stage for an extended confrontation by announcing a “dharna (fasting sit-in) unto death” on the 5th.
Medha Patkar and money articles Millfield, six other NBA activists started their own fasts on the 7th. Standoff ensued until NBA leaders called off their protest and left the area 21 days later. NBA then began a noncooperation campaign in the Narmada Valley involving refusal to critical thinking abilities Kingswood pay taxes and blocking entry to all government officials except teachers and doctors. As Narmada waters backed up behind the partly constructed Sardar Sarovar Dam and how to, threatened Manibeli village in Maharashtra, NBA also organized a confrontation between villagers who did not want to move and police sent to clear the village. NBA initially refused to accept foreign funding, because doing so would open it to one of the most common charges in Indian politics: that it is the critical thinking abilities School agent of outside powers.9 However, it did garner international media. attention, an invitation to testify at a US Congressional hearing,10 and the Right Livelihood Award from the Swedish Right Livelihood Foundation. In the early 1990s, it also had tacit support from the Madhya Pradesh and Maharasthra governments because its opposition to dam construction dovetailed with their concerns about the ultimate height of the Sardar Sarovar Dam and succeeded in triggering debate all around India about the social and environmental impacts of the Narmada River Project and The Knox School, large dams more generally. The broader transnational struggle over dams forming part of the MDB campaign began focusing on the Narmada in the late 1980s. By 1989, campaigners were demanding that the World Bank, which was considering additional loans for the Sardar Sarovar Project — $350 million for canal construction and $90 million for environmental measures – either force modification of or refuse to support the project.
Transnational environmentalist and human rights NGO campaigning led several Western governments to indicate doubts about the loans. In response, the critical thinking School World Bank commissioned an Independent Review of Indian and state government implementation of the resettlement and environmental mitigation aspects of the earn Sardar Sarovar Project. To placate the NGOs, it consulted them about composition of the review team, a decision that later inspired additional negative reaction from the Indian government and Sardar Sarovar supporters. The review team was led by Bradford Morse, a former US Congressman and critical abilities Kingswood School, UN Development Programme Administrator, and Thomas Berger, a Canadian lawyer who had chaired the Canadian inquiry into the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline Project and given strong support to indigenous peoples’ rights, and included a group of mainly Canadian engineers, environmental planners and indigenous rights experts. In June 1992 after 10 months of inquiry, it issued a 363-page report criticizing the project for failure to: a) include adequate assessment of the human impact of Sardar Sarovar Dam, involve any consultation with those who would be affected, consider the character of that writes essay for you Stonar, adivasi culture in working out resettlement plans, provide adequate additional resettlement when the height of the dam was increased, pay sufficient attention to environmental factors in the initial project design, and comply with the stipulations included in the conditional clearance issued by thinking Kingswood School, the Indian Ministry of uc high school requirements, Environment and Forests in 1987.11. Such charges are frequently raised against others in a debate, regardless of their place on the left-right ideological spectrum, as exemplified below in discussion of the controversy over abilities School, World Bank funding. 9. US House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, and School, Technology. 1989.
Sardar Sarovar Dam Project: Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources, Agricultural Research, and abilities, the Environment. 101st Congress, 1st Session. Sardar Sarovar: Report of the Independent Review. 1992. Ottawa: Resource Futures International. The Independent Review Report recommended that the World Bank suspend the loans until the Governments of India and of the states involved complied with the writing College standards for resettlement and environmental protection that they had themselves adopted or accepted. However, it did not offer any recommendations regarding how the project could be fixed or how the governments of India and the states should proceed. The Independent Review’s report was shaped by the terms of reference given to the review team.
It was asked to assess resettlement and environmental issues, not to offer alternative project designs. However, lack of comment about how the project might be modified intensified the political controversy that arose in India after the report was released. The Gujarat and Indian governments both reacted angrily to what they regarded as a “partisan” and unfair report, and were additionally perturbed that NGO activists were able to get copies faxed to them by foreign supporters before the government received its copy from the World Bank.12 Some project supporters even suggested that the Independent Review was part of a conspiracy to block India’s development.13 Official government remarks were more restrained, but did criticize the Report for an incomplete survey of the situation, ignoring several Indian studies, and critical thinking abilities, failing to take account of creative and critical thinking Appleby College, conditions in India rather than subconsciously applying North American standards. ARCH-Vahini, which regarded the report as too heavily influenced by NBA views, produced a point-by-point critique and lamented that Review Commission had not provided an objective review but had been biased against abilities, the project.14 The report simultaneously buoyed the anti-dam campaign in India and knowledge Stanstead, around the world. NBA increased its pressure against the whole Narmada Project by demanding that the World Bank withhold the loans and that India stop construction of Sardar Sarovar, calling on supporters to undertake “direct action” if the Bank did not announce a withholding by July 15th, and condemning the World Bank for promoting neocolonialism through its financing of the Project.15 The World Bank Initially reacted by School, indicating continued support for the loans and sending a staff team to India to reappraise the how to Ardingly College resettlement program and environmental concerns and report directly to the World Bank’s Executive Board. Its report, released by the Bank in September, rejected several of the Independent Review’s conclusions but did agree with the Independent Review on the need to improve resettlement provisions and said that Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra should offer the same resettlement aid as Gujarat.16. The World Bank faced strong pressures on both sides. There were several reasons to approve the loans: the project was underway, it was clear that the governments of India and the states involved wanted it to happen, and.
some Gujarat officials were saying openly that the loans amounted to only 10% of the total. See “Morse Commission Report Condemned,” Times of India (Ahmedabad), 20 June 1992. “Morse Commission report condemned,” Hindustan Times, 24 June 1992. Anil Patel and Ambrish Mehta. 1997.
The Independent Review: Was it a search for truth?” in thinking School William Fisher, ed., Toward Sustainable Development: Struggling over essay, the Narmada River (Jaipur and New Delhi: Rawat Publications), 381-417. Critical Kingswood School? 14. by NBA leader Mehda Patkar, as reported in essays The Knox School “3 CMs to thinking Kingswood School meet on Narmada,” Times of uc high Park, India (Ahmedabad) 2 July 1992. 16Terms summarized in World Bank. 1995. Project Completion Report P009829, India – Narmada River Development – Gujarat, pars. 6.11 (p. 27) and 7.39 (p.
45). Available at http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1995/03/29/000009265_3980625173028/Rendered/PDF/multi _page.pdf (accessed 11 August 2010). cost and the state would proceed with construction no matter what the World Bank did. In addition, Bank management realized that refusing the thinking abilities School loans would mean losing all leverage India or the states. Creative Thinking Appleby? Yet, there were reasons. to deny.
Local groups were campaigning stridently for the World Bank to withdraw the loans and appeared to have considerable local as well as transnational support. Bank management was aware that the Bank’s own record on thinking abilities Kingswood School the project was fodder for NGO efforts to cast it as a proponent and encourager of projects violating human rights and harming the environment, and that these campaigns were intensifying because of the upcoming replenishment of IDA funds. Website Essay School? European campaigners persuaded the Swedish and European Parliaments to critical thinking abilities Kingswood recommend that European Community (now European Union) member governments use their votes in the Bank Executive Board to stop the loans. Japanese groups organized an International Narmada Symposium in thinking thinking Appleby Tokyo, which inspired 20 members of the Japanese Diet (parliament) to demand the World Bank and Kingswood School, the Japanese government (which was a co-financier) to cancel their loans.17 27 transnational NGOs organized a “Stop Sardar Sarovar” campaign in the USA18 and threatened to campaign actively against of formal School, the 10th IDA replenishment. Critical Thinking School? World Bank President Lewis Preston told the knowledge essay writing Stanstead Executive Board that most of the Independent Review objections were being addressed and the project should continue. Morse and Berger countered with a letter to Board members saying Preston was ignoring most of the Independent Review findings. The Board split along industrial country-developing country lines, then patched up a compromise giving India six months to comply with certain conditions. However, this was not much of a compromise because it would have been very difficult to meet them all within six months. Critical Thinking Kingswood? The political embarrassment of having to website that writes essay accept such publicly stated and critical thinking abilities Kingswood, detailed outside conditions was more than the Indian government was willing to accept. It was also aware that the school requirements Leighton Park School loans were a small part of the finance needed and that only $250 million was coming on the IDA terms of 0.5% a year with repayment over 45 years; the other $170 million would carry more standard terms of 7 percent with repayment over thinking Kingswood, 25 years.19 The governments of India and of the three states resolved to move ahead without World Bank loans.20 This affected the school political balance in a number of ways.
ARCH-Vahini lost influence among adivasi, now fired up by NBA. Abilities Kingswood School? It also lost leverage over writes your for you Stonar School, the government of Gujarat because it would not be able to use the critical School World Bank as a prod. NBA built on website your School the prestige gained by having “chased away” the School World Bank to expand its work and found a new organization, National Alliance of People’s Movements, to amalgamate all opponents of the. project into one group. It also upped its political demands by calling for complete removal of the existing 61- meter high Sardar Sarovar Dam and urging all supporters to engage in jal samarpan (“self-sacrifice by earn writing articles Millfield, water”) by refusing to move as flood waters covered their dwellings during the monsoon season already underway. Critical Kingswood? Indian Prime Minister Narashima Rao, leading a factionalized Congress Party (I) after Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated during the 1991 election campaign, was facing greater opposition from the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), which was actively stoking Hindu nationalism. This helped Gujarat, Wirth 1998, p. 63. See full page ads in the New York Times, 21 September 1992, the Financial Times 21 September 1992, p. 6, and the Washington Post, 21 September 1992,. terms noted in “World Bank and write Ardingly College, Narmada Project,” India Abroad, 16 April 1993.
20 Stefan Wagstyl 1993. “India to drop World Bank Dam Loans: Government refuses to meet Stiff Conditions on $3 billion Project,” Financial Times, 20 March 1993, p. Thinking Kingswood? 6. where the BJP mobilization was threatening to cut into Congress Party support. And Critical Thinking College? The Indian government ignored BNA demands and assured Gujarat of funding while looking for a way to address anti-dam opinion by convening another review, by what became known as the Five Member Group. However, its terms of reference were limited to “reappraising the project, and the state government of Gujarat further limited its activities by refusing to allow it. to visit sites within the state. Continued disagreements, including a call by the new first minister in Madhya Pradesh for lowering the critical thinking abilities School final dam height from 455 to 463 feet to exclude 67 villages and 38,000 people from the reservoir area,21 created further uncertainty. In May 1994, Narmada Bachao Andolan sued in the Indian Supreme Court to prevent further construction, technically by asking the question of whether the terms of the NWDT Award and related agreements regarding resettlement were being carried out.22 It responded in creative and critical thinking Appleby College January 1995 with a stay order restricting construction of the Sardar Sarovar Dam to the already-attained 80.5 meter (263.3 feet) height for five years to provide additional time for resettling oustees. During this period work did continue on the hydroelectric powerhouse, located – meters downstream of the critical thinking dam, and the irrigation canal that would supply water to dry parts of Gujarat and Rajasthan.
At the same time, discussions about dam projects in India and creative thinking College, around the world were redefining the contention. Debates about Technology Choice. As political instability swept the center, and politics in the states was also affected by the strong CongressBJP competition that led to 4 parliamentary elections between 1996 and critical thinking Kingswood, 1999 when a BJP-led coalition was able to write essay secure a comfortable majority. Indian courts, particularly the Supreme Court, became more active on social and economic justice by encouraging class action suits on social and economic questions. In the 1980s, the Supreme Court’s rulings on social issues were admired by social and critical thinking Kingswood, economic justice advocates tired of seeing the politicians ignore them but criticized by others who thought the courts were being overambitious, litigation delays lengthening, and some courts losing the reputation for impartiality and integrity on which their authority rested. Globally, the concerns about website your for you School dams were reframed by adoption of the notion of critical thinking abilities School, “sustainable development.” Though vague and attracting detractors, the concept was used to organize discussions where proponents and opponents of creative thinking and critical, large infrastructure projects found ways to talk despite their often diametrically opposed preferences.
The most notable change at the international level was expressed in the meetings and report of the World Commission on Dams. It originated at an April 1997 workshop on Large Dams in Switzerland organized by the World Bank and the International Union or the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) where participants drawn from 18 countries and having opinions across the spectrum attempted to develop consensus on “whether dams have a role to play in land, water, and energy development and how particular dams should be designed, constructed, and operated.”23 The workshop led to critical thinking abilities Kingswood appointment of a World Commission on. The Madhya Pradesh government acknowledged that this would lower the hydroelectric potential, and agreed to forego its share of the electric power, while arguing that Gujarat could still meet its water needs with the lower dam. How To Write A Biographical? 21. Narmada Bachao Andolan v. School? Union of India and Others, Writ Petition (C) No. 319 of 1994. IUCN-The World Conservation Union and the World Bank Group. That Your Essay School? 1997. Critical Thinking Kingswood School? Large Dams: Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future: Workshop Proceedings.
Gland Switzerland: IUCN and Washington: The World Bank Group. 22. Dams, which produced a report circulated on the Internet and on CD-ROM.24 Indian participants were prominently involved. Thinking And Critical? NBA leader Medha Patkar and former India Planning Commission member L.C. Thinking Abilities School? Jain were 2 of the 12 members of the Commission, and the government of writes your for you School, India was invited to contribute a country report about its experiences with large dam projects. The Commission concluded that many large dam projects undertaken in critical abilities School the past were not viable but that dam building could be improved to cause less suffering by people living in river valleys and minimize negative environmental impacts.
Thus, the Commission came into line with emerging development thinking placing greater stress on sustainability, choice of technology attuned to. local conditions, and the need for greater consultation and reliance on that writes your for you Stonar “bottom-up” processes of project definition. Contentions over dams spread to Madhya Pradesh in 1997 when that state began work on critical School the dams at Bargi, Mann, and Maheshwar. When the uc high school requirements School private Indian firm S. Kumars Ltd. began work on the dam at Maheshwar, local residents opposing the dam and NBA activists pressured the critical Madhra Pradesh government into suspending construction and uc high requirements School, undertaking an additional investigation of the abilities Kingswood dam’s likely impact. In early 1998, before the investigating team could report, Kumars indicated that some “safety work” needed to knowledge essay writing College be done to protect the already-built portion of the foundation. Abilities School? The government accepted the argument and allowed Kumars to go ahead. The NBA saw the move as a way to re-start construction and mobilized members to demonstrate at the site. The Madhya Pradesh government invoked Section 144 of the Indian Penal Code to issue orders banning assembly of more than four persons at any place and begin arresting the protesters. NBA believed that 76% of the project costs would be covered by foreign investors in the project and was able to use its transnational supporters to how to write essay College deter a number of critical thinking abilities, foreign corporations from becoming involved. However, NBA’s continuing resistance to any dam construction was beginning to thinking Appleby College get out of phase with Indian opinion.
This became more obvious in the summer of 1999 when novelist Arundhati Roy, well known after her The God of Small Things won the Booker Prize in the UK, wrote a series of critical thinking abilities Kingswood School, essays on that writes for you School the Sardar Sarovar Project. These emphasized the thinking suffering of the oustees in eloquent terms but paid no attention to essay for you Stonar School the water management issues. Their publication coincided with the second year of failed monsoons and critical abilities, severe drought in Gujarat, and they became the target of criticism by others – and even of public burning during pro-dam demonstrations in Ahmedabad.25 Opinion shifted even more as the state governments involved improved services for oustees. Gujarat offered to creative provide the same financial aid to Sardar Sarovar oustees in Madhya Pradesh and thinking Kingswood School, Maharashtra who wanted to settle near their original homes rather than move to Gujarat. Gujarat also established a special Grievance Redressal Authority (GRA) for Sardar Sarovar Affected Persons giving oustees who had moved to new homes in Gujarat a place to go. to get complaints resolved as the resettlement process moved forward. For You School? Its head, former High Court Judge P.D. Desai, secured strong guarantees of autonomy from the Gujarat government and instituted processes through which the GRA simplified procedures and worked mainly through roving investigation teams who went to the oustee’s new villages.
NBA praised its work, and Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra created their own Grievance Redressal Authorities modeled on it in 2000. World Commission on Dams. 2000. Dams and Development: A New Framework for Decision-Making (London: Earthscan. 25 Wood. 2007, p. 175. This inspired an additional commentary from her.
See “My argument is abilities not anti-Gujarat: Roy,” The Indian Express 31 July 1999. The impact of all these changes was foreshadowed in the Indian Supreme Court’s February 1999 decision to permit raising the writing Stanstead College Sardar Sarovar Dam from 80.3 to 85 meters (278.8 feet). Critical Abilities Kingswood? NBA was unhappy to see the project given new life, pro-dam opinion was unhappy to see that the height was short of the 110 meters (360.8 feet) needed to create a reservoir high enough to fill the canal. It became clearer in October 2000 when a three-member bench26 of the essay Stanstead Indian Supreme Court ruled on the case Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India and Others. 27 In a two-to-one decision, it invoked the critical abilities common law doctrine of latches to rule that the NBA had failed to raise its objections in a timely manner, that the Court was not going to review issues related to design of the dam itself but only the fundamental rights of the oustees guaranteed by Article 21 of the Constitution, and reminded the parties that the decision of a Water Disputes Tribunal could not be challenged by private parties once it became binding on the states involved. Of Formal The Knox? The decision rejected NBA claims that the Ministry of Environment and Forests decision to grant conditional clearance of the project in 1987 was itself a violation of. Article 21 because it was taken on political grounds rather than after taking full account of the environmental impacts. Rather, the establishment of a Narmada Management Authority with an environmental sub-group having authority to critical School recommend stopping work to address negative environmental impacts and knowledge writing Stanstead College, imposition of the pari passu condition that resettlement must precede successive raisings of the dam height, indicated to the majority that the thinking Kingswood decision was based on serious consideration of the writes essay environmental and social impacts.
The majority made extensive reference to the need to balance benefits and School, burdens and to India’s growing need for reliable water supplies in concluding that Sardar Sarovar and other dams in the Narmada Project should be built. The minority dissent argued that the 1987 clearance had been contrary to then-existing Indian law because it was based on a woefully inadequate set of data about Stonar School environmental impact. It suggested that the Government of India should be required to do a full environmental impact assessment before further work on the Sardar Sarovar Dam.28. The majority decision left the control institutions established by the NWDT – the Narmada Control Authority and the 6-member NCA Review Committee consisting of the chief ministers of Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Rajasthan plus the Kingswood School India ministers of Water Resources and of Environment and Forests – in write a biographical essay Ardingly College place. It concluded the ruling with these directions: 1) Construction of the dam will continue as per the Award of the critical thinking abilities Tribunal. 2) As the Relief and essay, Rehabilitation Sub-group have cleared the construction up to 90 meters, the same can be undertaken immediately. Further raising of the height will be only critical thinking abilities Kingswood, pari passu with the thinking implementation of the relief and rehabilitation and on the clearance by the Relief and critical abilities, Rehabilitation Sub-group.
The Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-Group will give clearance of uc high Leighton Park School, further construction after consulting the three Grievances Redressal Authorities. 26 The Indian Supreme Court consists of abilities Kingswood School, a Chief Justice and 26 Justices; particular cases are heard by Benches of three, five, seven, nine, or eleven Justices depending on the subject matter. See Supreme Court of India. 2010. Practice and Procedure: A Handbook of Information.
3rd ed. Thinking Appleby? New Delhi: Supreme Court of India. Available at http://www.supremecourtofindia.nic.in/handbook3rdedition.pdf (accessed 28 July 2010). 272000 AIR 3751; 2000(4) Suppl.SCR 94. Also available through the Supreme Court website using the search utility at http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp (accessed 28 July 2010). 28. The dissent does not appear on the Supreme Court website. Its terms are summarized from abilities Kingswood Wood 2007 187-188. 3) The Environment Sub-group under the Secretary, Ministry of knowledge essay writing, Environment Forests, Government of India will consider and give, at each stage of the thinking Kingswood School construction of the dam, environment clearance before further construction beyond 90 meters can be undertaken. 4) The permission to raise the dam height beyond 90 meters will be given by School, the Narmada Control Authority, from time to time, after it obtains the above-mentioned clearances from the critical Kingswood Relief and Rehabilitation Sub-group and the Environment Sub-group.
5) The reports of the knowledge writing College Grievances Redressal Authorities, and of Madhya Pradesh in particular, shows that there is a considerable slackness in the work of identification of land, acquisition of critical thinking Kingswood, suitable land and the consequent steps necessary to be taken to rehabilitate the project oustees. We direct the examples of formal essays The Knox States of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Gujarat to implement the Award and critical Kingswood, give relief and rehabilitation to the oustees in writing Stanstead terms of the thinking abilities School packages offered by them and these States shall comply with any direction in this regard which is given either by the NCA or the Review Committee or the Grievances Redressal Authorities. 6) Even though there has been substantial compliance with the conditions imposed under the environment clearance the Ardingly College NCA and critical thinking abilities Kingswood, the Environment Sub-group will continue to monitor and ensure that all steps are taken not only to protect but to restore and improve the environment. 7) The NCA will within four weeks from today draw up an Action Plan in relation to further. construction and the relief and rehabilitation work to be undertaken. Such an Action Plan will fix a time frame so as to ensure relief and website, rehabilitation pari passu with the increase in the height of the dam. Critical Thinking Abilities Kingswood? Each State shall abide by the terms of the how to a biographical essay action plan so prepared by the NCA and in critical thinking Kingswood School the event of any dispute or difficulty arising, representation may be made to examples of formal the Review Committee. However, each State shall be bound to comply with the abilities Kingswood directions of the school Park NCA with regard to the acquisition of land for the purpose of relief and rehabilitation to the extent and within the period specified by the NCA.
8) The Review Committee shall meet whenever required to do so in critical Kingswood School the event of there being any unresolved dispute on an issue which is requirements Leighton Park School before the NCA. In any event the critical thinking Kingswood Review Committee shall meet at least once in three months so as to oversee the progress of construction of the uc high school Park School dam and implementation of the RR programmes. If for any reason serious differences in implementation of the Award arise and the same cannot be resolved in abilities Kingswood School the Review Committee, the Committee may refer the same to creative and critical Appleby the Prime Minister whose decision, in respect thereof, shall be final and binding on all concerned. 9) The Grievances Redressal Authorities will be at liberty, in case the need arises, to issue appropriate directions to the respective States for thinking abilities, due implementation of the creative thinking thinking College RR programmes and in case of nonimplementation of Kingswood, its directions, the GRAs will be at liberty to approach the that essay for you School Review Committee for appropriate orders. 10) Every endeavor shall be made to see that the project is completed as expeditiously as possible.29.
As the dam builders resumed work, the value of such large projects had come. under intense scrutiny in India and elsewhere. Reevaluation had begun before the World Commission on Dams first met, but was strongly reinforced by its report and by the growing global interest in finding more ecologically sensitive ways of building physical infrastructure. In India, reconsideration was greatly advanced by advocates of “human scale” development who looked to both traditional Indian practices and new ideas from thinking around the world.30 The Centre for how to write a biographical essay Ardingly, Science and Environment, an “alternative development” think tank, issued a very comprehensive study of traditional technologies in different parts of thinking School, India that highlighted their small-scale, relatively low cost, and reliance on local management.31 Growing awareness that the groundwater resources being tapped by drilled wells were declining revived interest in finding ways to conserve water, improve capturing of monsoon water, and increase recharging of groundwaters. The Government of India issued a new National Water Policy in 2002, and write a biographical Ardingly College, combined two preexisting programs – the National Watershed Development Project for Rainfed Areas and the Watershed Development Project – plus other water-related projects into one set of water development activities under a common set of Hariyali (“Greening”) Guidelines in 2003. These replaced the previous practice of promoting water project work in villages through central government programs providing food in return for work, which quite important in the 1960s when frequent drought meant India often depended on food imports including large amount of food aid from the USA under its Public Law 480 program. The Guidelines specified that village water projects would be run by School, the Panchayati Raj (council rule) institutions of local government, which had been given new, more open, rules and expanded tasks in 1992.32 The village, block, or district panchayat (council) would serve as the coordinating body, and earn money writing, initiate projects after the thinking Kingswood School people in the village, block, or district had been consulted about and agreed to the proposed project. Uc High School Park? This put project design, management, and critical abilities Kingswood School, maintenance at the local level. This ran across longstanding efforts by many Indian NGOs using a participatory development approach emphasizing the promotion of local leadership and activity that had been working on rural water projects.33 Feared that the change would inhibit their ability to run truly bottom-up projects even though the Guidelines do allow a local council to essay writing College select an abilities Kingswood School NGO as the “Project Implementation Agency” coordinating.
construction and maintenance of the particular flood control and water retention facilities the villagers select. In parallel with the uc high school requirements Leighton School new projects to construct water-control and storage facilities in villages, there was also a significant revision to management of irrigation systems in India. Critical Kingswood? By the mid-1990s, both the Union government in New Delhi and most state governments recognized that many of the state-run irrigation systems were failing. Farmers were complaining that many of them were inefficient, poorly maintained, and write essay Ardingly, often failed to abilities School deliver expected water to farms at any distance from the canal because farmers closer to the canal would tap the pipes to of formal writing essays School get extra. At the same time, water management officials complained that water rates were too low to cover the costs of managing and maintaining current irrigation systems, much 30 Such as Vandana Shiva.
1990. Abilities Kingswood School? Ecology and the Politics of Survival: Conflicts over Natural Resources in India. New Delhi: Sage Publications and Tokyo: United Nations University Press or Alka Srivastava and Janaki Chundi. Stanstead? 1999. Critical Thinking Abilities School? Watershed Management: Key to Sustainable Development. New Delhi: Indian Social Institute.
Anil Agarwal and Sunita Narain. 1997. Writing Essays School? Dying Wisdom: Rise, Fall, and Potential of India’s Traditional Water Harvesting Systems. Critical Thinking Abilities? New Delhi: Centre for examples of formal School, Science and Environment. Constitution of India, Amendment 73. 33 A significant literature on participatory development indicating best practices existed by critical Kingswood, the mid 1990s. E.g., Robert Chambers.
1997. Whose Reality? Putting the website writes essay for you First Last (London: Intermediate Technology Publications); less add to them. In some parts of the critical School country, including Gujarat, the. farmers poorly served by irrigation systems were so desperate to get water in time to grow their crops that private suppliers emerged to fill the demand. An individual farmer with his own tube well could sell surplus water to neighbors, supplying it through plastic tubes extending as far as 5 km (3.1 miles) away from the well. Though the private water sellers tend to charge high rates, and some farmers had to pay for their irrigation water before they received any,34 farmers, worried that their whole investment in a crop may be lost because they will not get the irrigation water in examples of formal writing essays The Knox School time, will pay extra for the certainty of supply from the well. Gujarat was heavily affected by abilities Kingswood School, these problems. The extent of the situation is indicated by a study done in Gujarat that determined that water rates were covering about 8% of the cost of actually delivering water to farmers.35 The government realized, however, that increasing water prices would be very difficult. Senior officials in the Gujarat Water Resources Department decided in thinking and critical Appleby College 1995 to address the problem with a new program of Participatory Irrigation and Management. Water Users Associations consisting of farmers using a particular set of irrigation pipes were given responsibility for planning, managing, and maintaining them.
The canals and water distribution pipes would continue to be owned by the government, which would also continue to provide technical and financial assistance. Critical Abilities School? Participatory Irrigation Management was extended to College all parts of India after 2002, though it had been suggested in abilities the 1987 National Water Policy references to involving farmers in managing and maintaining irrigation systems. Because water is examples writing essays School a state level responsibility, each state has discretion to develop its own version of abilities Kingswood, Participatory Irrigation Management; the Ministry of Water Resources in New Delhi has been active in encouraging the sharing of best practices and comparing actual progress in essay Ardingly the various systems. The World Bank and the Ford Foundation have also provided the thinking Kingswood School Government of India with money to send state irrigation officials and staff from NGOs working on water works or other village programs to other countries where participatory irrigation is more established, including the Philippines, Mexico, Sri Lanka, and Turkey, to learn about projects there.36 The resulting state Participatory Irrigation Management schemes vary considerably. In 1997 the government of Andhra Pradesh introduced a version of PIM in all parts of the state simultaneously. Other states have used more. incremental approaches, starting pilot projects in a few villages and then extending the more successful schemes to others. John R. Wood, a Canadian water expert, suggests that these efforts to establish participatory irrigation project design and management have had mixed success. In most areas they have led to better maintenance of the system, but their impact on social relations and distribution of resources within villages has often been small. He does note, however, that the requirement to The Knox establish a Water Users Association means that farmers with large landholdings have to critical thinking abilities Kingswood School work together with their less-prosperous neighbors having small landholdings, and that all farmers are moved towards thinking on your for you Stonar a village rather than an critical thinking abilities Kingswood individual scale. However, the overall social effects of participatory irrigation depend on the extent to which the poor and traditionally marginalized groups like dalits (untouchables; “scheduled castes” in the language.
Wood 2007, p. 205 notes that pre-payment was the and critical thinking College rule in Gujarat except in critical thinking abilities School drought years. Ecotech Services. 1996. The Policy Review of the Land and Water Sector in Gujarat (New Delhi: Royal Netherlands Embassy), p. 32. 36 For instance, Nirmal Sengupta. 1991. Managing Common Property: Irrigation in how to College India and the Philippines. Indo-Dutch Studies on Development Alternatives. New Delhi: Sage Publications. of Indian law) are included in village activity.
In areas where traditional hierarchies remain strong, they remain outside.37. The small-scale technologies being used in the projects will allow villages receiving enough rain during the monsoons to move towards self-sufficiency in water. However, those solutions do not address all the needs of drier areas of the country, of cities, or of industry. Thus, the small-scale village water projects will always coexist in national water plans with larger-scale projects. This is foreseen in the Narmada River Project, with its connected network of small, medium, and critical thinking abilities School, large dams coordinated by computer to provide both hydroelectric generation and water supply. These local projects will coexist with large projects supplying water and hydroelectric power to India’s urban and industrial areas simply because those areas are growing. As India’s economy has developed, there is greater appreciation of the multiple purposes to how to which large dams can be put.
The lesson came to thinking abilities School Madhya Pradesh in a different way, when it lost a considerable portion of creative thinking thinking Appleby, its potential electricity supply as 16 districts in the southeast, where much of Madhya Pradesh’s coal and thermal power generation capacity was located, were split off to thinking Kingswood form the new state of Chhattisgarh. With power blackouts increasing in Bhopal, its largest city, the College state government began to regard building Sardar Sarovar Dam to the full height of 138.68 meters (455 feet) as essential to meeting electricity demand. Madhya Pradesh also became more anxious to speed up construction of the dams and hydroelectric power houses along its stretch of the Narmada, so anxious that it agreed to have construction work taken over by the central government’s National Hydro-electric Power Corporation when the private contractors hired initially ran into critical thinking financial difficulties. Speeding up a dam construction also required speeding up the process of resettling people. Knowledge Essay Writing Stanstead? This was complicated in thinking abilities School some places by the seasonal pattern of river flow. That Writes For You Stonar School? Significant additional areas of “drawdown” land — land that is underwater for part of the year but reemerges in the dry season as the reservoir empties and can be used to grow a vegetable or watermelon crop in that season – made it harder to define who should be counted as an oustee because owners of thinking abilities School, that land often wanted to hold on to it.38 The continuing severity of demand for water in Gujarat meant that as soon as the Supreme Court handed down its judgment in 2000 construction of the write College Sardar Sarovar Dam resumed. It quickly reached the authorized 90 meters; and permission was sought to raise it further. It stood 95m high by the end of 2002 and 100. meters high in 2003.
The 100-meter height created a reservoir high and thinking, long enough to fill the irrigation canal. By the of formal writing School end of Kingswood, 2005 that canal was complete almost to the Gujarat border, with construction of the extension into Rajasthan under way. As construction of Sardar Sarovar’s additional height and of upriver dams in Madhya Pradesh proceeded, more disputes broke out about treatment of oustees from website writes your essay for you Stonar those projects arose. Allegations that Madhya Pradesh was failing to provide “land for land” were rife; the state government claimed that many oustees preferred money to land. Villagers from thinking abilities School Jalsindhi petitioned the Supreme Court for a review, and its March. Wood 2007, Chapter 9. The question of how many people are affected has been controversial from the start, with BNA and others citing higher numbers and the state governments lower ones. Even the knowledge writing World Bank acknowledged numbers varying from 67,340 to abilities 127,446 for Sardar Sarovar alone between 1985 and 1994. Jonathan A. Fox.
1998. “When does reform policy influence practice?” in Jonathan A. Fox and L. Earn Articles? David Brown, eds., The World Bank, NGOs, and Grassroots Movements (Cambridge MA: MIT Press), Table 9.1, p. 324. 2005 ruling reaffirmed the “land for land” requirement.39 However, later reports suggested that the state was still offering monetary compensation.40 In 2006, NBA complained that Madhya Pradesh was persisting in ignoring the land for land principle and failing to thinking Kingswood provide resettlement in advance of knowledge essay writing Stanstead College, construction. Madhya Pradesh officials contended in return that most of the oustees wanted money rather than land. Abilities? The same issue that had triggered the. initial NBA activism — fair treatment for those whose homes would be lost to rising waters — was still very much alive despite all the changes in Indian politics and in Indian policy regarding water management over the more than 20 years of contention. School Requirements Leighton? Similar contentions swirl around construction of the other large Narmada dams.41.
Lessons for critical thinking, scientists and engineers. The Narmada Dams controversy provides apt demonstration of the ways that large physical infrastructure projects can generate strong contentions among their many stakeholders. It also demonstrates how changing political culture can have severe impacts on project design and execution. The idea of how to write essay, building a dam at Navagam on the Narmada River inspired controversy from the beginning, even when the only stakeholders included in the discussions were the governments of the three states through which the river flows: Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra. Critical Thinking Kingswood? All three wanted to tap the river’s potential as a source of drinking and irrigation water and of hydroelectric power, but they disagreed about the most effective way to harness the river with dams. Though India is a federal country in which states’ governments rather than the Union government deal with water-related infrastructure, the fact the river was shared allowed the central government ministries, agencies, and ultimately the Indian Prime Minister to play roles in defining the project.
In 1947-65, when early versions of the knowledge writing Stanstead College Narmada Project were being considered, it was commonplace in its ambitions though Gujarat’s proposals would make the Sardar Sarovar Dam one of the largest concrete gravity dams in the world.42 The project was designed to rely on centralized, large-scale infrastructure to meet the challenges of supplying water and electricity to thinking abilities Kingswood School a large area of a biographical College, a country with facing stiff challenges in water management because it receives its annual rainfall in two highly concentrated periods and possessing few fossil fuel resources. The procedures for critical abilities Kingswood School, defining and designing the project followed the earn writing School usual path of such projects in democratic countries: elected officials defined the broad parameters of the project; civil servants and government-employed experts in Kingswood hydrology, dam design, canal design, and construction of such projects worked out the details. The. broad needs of users were considered, as were Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India and Ors, Writ Petition (Civil) 328 of website that, 2002, decided March 2003. 2005 AIR 2994, 2005(2) SCR 840. Also available through the Supreme Court website using the search utility at http://judis.nic.in/supremecourt/chejudis.asp (accessed 28 July 2010). 39. “Cash not land on offer for oustees,” The Hindu 1 December 2005. E.g., Eric Yep, “The Maheshwar Dam – A short-lived victory?” India Real Time, Wall Street Journal Digital Network, 10 May 2010 at http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2010/05/10/the-maheshwar-dam-a-short-lived-victory/ (accessed 4 August 2010); Suchandana Gupta, “Maheshwar Dam: PMO lifts ban on work,” Times of India, 9 May 2010 at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/5908453.cms (accessed 4 Ag. Kingswood School? 2010).
41. 42 Central Water Commission. 2004. Water and Related Statistics. Write A Biographical Essay Ardingly College? (New Delhi: Central Water Commission, May 2004), p. 60 says that Sardar Sarovar is the thinking abilities Kingswood third largest such dam, after the Soufengyng Dam in China and how to a biographical Ardingly, the Grand Coulee Dam in the USA. those of persons whose homes would be flooded in the course of the project were considered. That those whose homes would be flooded received brief consideration is School not surprising. They were politically immobilized populations having relatively small numbers (in a country the school requirements Leighton Park School size of India or in comparison to the number who would benefit from the water and electricity to be supplied) of critical abilities School, low social status living in remote areas. Before the essay writing Stanstead College 1980s, they had no influential advocates whereas the people who would benefit from the water and the electricity did have such advocates. Yet, it is important to remember that the oustees were not entirely ignored.
The basic notion of monetary compensation for land had been institutionalized in 1894 under British rule and carried forward at independence. Individual project managers, civil servants, and members of the political elite did realize that the system of thinking, payment for land often failed oustees, particularly unsophisticated and often illiterate rural dwellers. The judges named to the Narmada Water Disputes Tribunal were cognizant of creative thinking and critical College, that history, and critical abilities Kingswood, determined to and critical thinking College do better by ordering that oustees be compensated with land somewhere else in the area to abilities School be irrigated by waters of the reservoir that would inundate their original homes. Yet, unlike later advocates of indigenous peoples, who would take up the cause of adivasi oustees in the 1980s, members of the tribunal made no provision for adivasi to website move as villages and re-create their traditional modes of living; they believed that everyone displaced would be better off in the modern farming villages to be created. Though the environmental and thinking, social impact criticisms of the Sardar Sarovar Dam, and write a biographical College, the Narmada Project as a whole were raised simultaneously in the late 1980s, resettlement was the primary basis of local challenge and transnational advocacy coalition activity. The most active Indian advocates for the oustees, the Narmada Bachao Andolan, raised three issues: compliance with the NWDT Award requirement of “land for land,” making provision for critical thinking abilities Kingswood School, adivasi to continue their traditional ways, and of formal writing essays, lack of consultation with all stakeholders, including those who would be displaced, during initial consideration of the project. The first was a demand that government authorities do as they had been ordered by a special tribunal.
It refers to the Indian government’s own standards and failure of the governments involved to follow through in ways the advocacy groups desire has inspired continued mobilization and contention. Thinking Kingswood School? The second and third issues involved demands to apply newly emerged standards to an already begun activity. Here, the advocacy groups encounter greater opposition because a lot of money has been spent and the larger numbers of stakeholders anticipating benefits from water use and/or hydropower generation are growing impatient with the long delays stemming from the controversies. Writing Articles Millfield? The term “indigenous peoples” denoting distinct populations living in traditional ways who should have. their right to maintain those ways protected was initially applied to native peoples living in an area colonized by Europeans – like Aboriginals in critical Kingswood School Australia, Maoris in New Zealand, and requirements Park School, the many groups variously called “Indians,” “First Nations,” and “Native Americans” in the Western Hemisphere. In the 1990s, it was expanded to include any relatively isolated group, somehow ethnically distinct from the rest of the population of a country that continues to live in its traditional ways. Critical Thinking School? This expanded definition included the adivasi and similar groups in Africa and other parts of Asia.43 Though Indian legislation has provided certain legal protections for uc high requirements Leighton, adivasi, the Government of India has resisted the notion that they should be regarded as “indigenous” and covered by UN definitions of distinct indigenous rights. There is less opposition to the demand that discussions broaden to include all stakeholders.
Since the critical Kingswood School efflorescence of NGOs and advocacy groups in the 1980s, the creative thinking notion of Kingswood, “bottom up” project planning emerging in examples essays School development and public policy literatures and 43Notd. in J. K. Das. 2001. Human Rights and critical thinking abilities Kingswood, Indigenous Peoples (New Delhi: APH). practice around the essay world has won a wider following in thinking School India. Yet, this sentiment often coexists with support for large projects when it can be shown that operating only at a small local scale will not fully address some particular need. The environmental challenges to Sardar Sarovar and school requirements School, the whole Narmada Project were strengthened in the 1990s as concepts of ecological sustainability and thinking abilities Kingswood School, sustainable development became more widely accepted. The World Commission on Dams marked the transition from old to new visions of write a biographical essay, water management at the international level, but its work drew on and helped reinforce reconsiderations already underway in abilities Kingswood many countries, including India. These challenges did not affect the basic design of how to write a biographical Ardingly, Sardar Sarovar Dam, which was set by 1980, or the basic parameters of the School Narmada project. However, they did inform project management techniques, and the organization of the.
irrigation systems tied to how to a biographical essay the canal supplying Narmada waters to Gujarat and Rajasthan. Transnational advocacy had three intertwined but distinct effects on the Narmada Dams: adding to the weight of oustee advocates in India, encouraging new visions of water management in all of India, and persuading major shareholders of the World Bank to stop Bank involvement in lending for Sardar Sarovar Dam. The broad coalition of oustee advocates ranging from the moderate ARCH-Vahini to the increasingly radical SETU, were able to use transnational contacts with development organizations like Oxfam and with environmentalist groups to mount a transnational challenge. Rather than focus on critical the Indian government or the state governments involved, this coalition focused on what it thought was a weak point in creative thinking the project: dependence on World Bank financing. The World Bank and other MDBs were already being criticized for failure to pay sufficient attention to the social and ecological impacts of their projects; it was easy to add the Kingswood School Narmada Project as another example. This transnational advocacy did raise the issue internationally and helped build support for the oustees, but was not enough to settle the issue in India. The pari passu requirement that oustees must be resettled before the next increment of height is added to Sardar Sarovar had several effects: 1) it spread the project costs over a longer period, 2) it gave mostly unprepared state governments longer to essay writing College muster their capacities or join efforts with NGOs already working in villages, and 3) kept the issue alive longer. Narmada Bachao Andolan is still campaigning, using the full repertoire of Gandhian civil resistance techniques, on oustees’ behalf. It still has a network of strong supporters at home and abroad, but does not command as wide respect today as it did in the early 1990s.44 Its continuing campaigns for the oustees, the most recent in spring 2010,45 have held the Indian and critical, state governments more closely to the terms of the NWDT Award, but have not realized the greater ambition of stopping the project altogether. Even if elites were inclined to give in to NBA’s continuing sit-ins and fasting protests, the user groups are too large for the project to be abandoned.
They are more numerous, have more votes, and at various. times have mounted effective counter-mobilizations. Today, the agricultural and urban users are confident that the whole Narmada Project will be built, but are now worrying that a new set. comments in, e.g., Tavleen Singh, “Luddite sisters.” India Today, 22 June 1998; Kirk Leech, “The Narmada Dambusters are Wrong” The Guardian 3 March 2009. Bachao Abndolan protests against resettlement program failures regarding Maheshwar Dam in Madhya Pradesh,” available at http://blog.taragana.com/law/2010/02/16/environment-ministry-promises-action-against-narmada-dam-builder-20233/ (accessed 2 Aug. 2010).
of users – industry – now wants a share of Narmada waters. Farmers and households are mobilizing to limit allocations to industry on grounds the earn NWDT Award gave priority to irrigation and drinking water.46 Transnational networking on issues of thinking School, water management, dam design, and sustainable development provided opportunities for professionals concerned with the environment to advocate new models of water infrastructure – smaller in scale, lower in cost, more attuned to natural cycles. The World Commission on Dams made these discussions more visible to the general public, but they would have proceeded as new generations of technical experts trained to pay more attention to the environmental and social impacts of projects rose in their professions. How these new ideas play out depends very much on conditions in each area: small projects can help villages, individual farms, and households with enough land to build their own storage tanks. Cities and industrial complexes will still need larger-scale water infrastructure, though both can do more to uc high school requirements Leighton School use water more efficiently and lose less of it to leaky pipes, contamination by human or animal wastes, or pollution from. Pressuring major member governments to critical abilities block World Bank loans in essay 1992 did not work out quite as the transnational advocacy coalition hoped. The campaign did call attention to severe problems with World Bank lending and lead to changes in critical abilities its policies and practices.
It did not lead to stopping or significantly scaling back Sardar Sarovar Dam or the requirements Leighton Park School larger Narmada Project. The Indian and state governments remained sufficiently committed to fund the project out of critical, their own resources, resources that have become more plentiful as the pace of school Leighton Park School, India’s economic development picked up in the 1990s and 2000s. The broader effort to limit MDB lending for large dam projects has not stopped all of them. School? Countries able to finance them through their own resources or by securing loans from private lenders are still going ahead. Contemporary dam projects can benefit from writing articles Millfield lessons provided by the Narmada Project experience, but the extent they do will depend primarily on the orientations of the critical thinking abilities national actors involved.
Transnational contacts can help spread new ideas, but will only have effect on writing essays the politics of dam projects in countries where national institutions permit a wide range of stakeholders to participate effectively in decisions.
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Albert Einstein: a short biography. Abilities Kingswood? 9:43PM BST 22 Sep 2011. Albert Einstein 's name has become synonymous with genius but his contributions to science might have been cut short had he stayed in Germany , where he was born on March 14, 1879. It was 1933 and a charismatic politician called Adolf Hitler had just become Chancellor. Einstein, a Jew, learned that his name was on a Nazi list of people earmarked for assassination and thinking Appleby College, a bounty had been put on his head. One German magazine even included him on a list of enemies of the state under the abilities Kingswood, phrase: #x201c;Not yet hanged.#x201d; He had already been used to being something of a migrant as, by the age of 17, his parents had already taken him to live in Italy and Switzerland , where he began training to be a physics and maths teacher in 1896.
Einstein qualified and writing essays The Knox School, became a Swiss citizen but couldn#x2019;t find a teaching job so began work as an assistant in thinking abilities School the Swiss Patent Office in 1901, where he was passed over for promotion because he had not got to grips with #x201c;machine technology#x201d;. However, much of his work was linked to the synchronising of time by mechanical and electrical means, which sowed the how to write, seeds that would later transform the critical Kingswood, understanding of the universe. His first theoretical paper #x2013; on the capillary forces of a straw #x2013; was published in a respected journal that same year and by 1905 he was awarded his doctorate by the University of Zurich . The scientist#x2019;s work began to school requirements School pour out of him #x2013; by the end of that year, he published no less than four revolutionary papers on matter and energy; the photoelectric effect; Brownian motion; and abilities, the idea that perhaps defined him most of all #x2013; special relativity. Despite the writing School, acclaim that he began to accrue, he continued working at the patent office until 1909. Two years later his work on relativity made him world famous when he concluded that the trajectory of critical thinking abilities Kingswood School, light arriving on earn writing Earth from a star would be bent by the gravity of the Sun . His conclusions ripped up the ideas of Newtonian mechanics which had stood since the thinking abilities, 17th century. They are modest, intelligent, considerate and have a feel for art. [Einstein on the Japanese] He returned to earn money writing School Germany where he held several prestigious positions, including president of the German Physical Society . By 1921, his groundbreaking theories had transformed the Kingswood, basics of modern physics and he was awarded the money writing School, Nobel Prize . However, it was not given for thinking his most famous work, that of relativity, because it remained too controversial. Instead, the judges used his explanation of the Leighton School, photoelectric effect to critical thinking abilities School explain the award.
The famous scientist began to lecture worldwide and knowledge writing, travelled to Singapore , Sri Lanka , Palestine and Japan , where he spoke before the emperor and declared: #x201c;Of all the people I have met, I like the thinking, Japanese most, as they are modest, intelligent, considerate and have a feel for art.#x201d; Wherever he went by this stage he was greeted like a head of state or a rock star, with crowds thronging to hear him and cannons fired to requirements School salute his arrival. The rise of Hitler and Nazism persuaded him to move to the US, where he later shed his avowal of pacifism and wrote to President Roosevelt urging him to critical abilities School press ahead with construction of a nuclear bomb to of formal writing essays The Knox School ensure the Germans did not get there first. There was always with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn. [Robert Oppenheimer on Einstein] He later said this letter was his life#x2019;s biggest regret because nuclear weapons had such a fierce capacity for destruction. He began work at Princeton University and became a US citizen in 1940 (his third passport) where he was a strident critic of racism, calling it America#x2019;s #x201c;worst disease#x201d;. Albert Einstein died of internal bleeding on April 17, 1955, aged 76, which was marked with headlines around the world. But his story did not end there - his brain was removed by the pathologist to try to understand what made him so intelligent.
At his memorial, Robert Oppenheimer , the developer of the atomic bomb which Einstein had backed, said: #x201c;He was almost wholly without sophistication and wholly without worldliness. Abilities Kingswood? #x201c;There was always with him a wonderful purity at once childlike and profoundly stubborn.#x201d; In Science News. That Writes Stonar? The remote economy of the Svalbard archipelago. Top news galleries. Martin Chilton selects 30 great one-liners from the comedian and film star Woody Allen. The best British political insults. A hilarious history of political insults and putdowns, from critical Kingswood School, Churchill to Corbyn. We celebrate and remember the website writes your for you Stonar School, culture stars who have passed away in 2016.
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Don#039;t Write Comics: How To Write Comics Part 1. Don't Write Comics is a multi-part essay about writing comics, understanding what your options are, finding the right artist, and everything you need to do to get a strong comic book pitch package together. If you’re interested in comics solely because you think it might be easy or that it might be a shortcut to another end (like having a movie made of your comic) let me just stop you right here and point you towards the exit. While it's true that some screenplays get reverse engineered into comics, and then after being successful comics are turned into successful films (30 Days of Night springs to mind), there's nothing quick and easy about making comics. Thinking Abilities! In fact, if you’re not well connected to artists (and possibly some publishers) and/or willing to lay out your own money upfront in some cases, then it can be the Stanstead College very opposite of quick and easy. Critical Thinking Abilities Kingswood! In order to creative thinking Appleby, make good comics, I truly believe you have to already love comics. It’s the love that’s going to critical abilities Kingswood School, get you through.
So you’ve made it this farwhich means you either do have a love of comics, or you’ve decided to ignore my advice - in which case I’m not sure why you’re reading on, but whatever, you’re here! First and foremost, I would suggest identifying what kind of book best fits your idea. And Critical Appleby College! Because we are assuming you are not already a well-established comics professional, we’re going to assume that you’re not pitching an ongoing series (i.e. Thinking Abilities! a comic series that has no definitive end). In fact, let’s just list out what your options are and we’ll go from there. One-Shot: A one-shot is website essay Stonar School, simply that, it’s one comic book (generally between 20 and critical Kingswood School, 22 pages depending on the publisher) that tells a complete story. This is probably not the venue for you as one-shots are not only very difficult to do successfully, they are also not a great jumping in point unless you’ve been commissioned to website writes Stonar School, do one.
Anthologies : Anthologies are collections of short comic stories. And it's one of the best ways to critical thinking abilities School, get your foot in the door -- creating a solid short piece and getting it accepted to an anthology, or banding together with talented similarly motivated friends to create an anthology of your own. Short comic stories, just like prose, take a very particular set of skills, but getting a publisher to take a chance on you for one short piece (a short story could range anywhere from knowledge Stanstead College, one page to more than a dozen) can be easier since they're risking less page space (and money) on abilities Kingswood an unknown. Mini-Series: A mini-series is also exactly what it sounds like. It’s a small series of single issue comics most mini-series run from 4 to 6 issues in length (so if you figure 22 pages per issue you’re looking at between 88 and 132 pages total). There are some 3-issue minis out there as well as the rare 7 or 8-issue series. Anything at school requirements Leighton, 9-issues or above likely falls into critical abilities Kingswood School a “Maxi-series” category, these are less common and generally run between 9 and 12 issues. Ongoing: An ongoing comic is a comic that has no intended end. Knowledge Essay Writing Stanstead College! While it will likely end at some point, it is critical thinking abilities, not designed that way. It is open-ended and school Leighton Park, continuing. Like a one-shot, this is usually not the kind of book you want to pitch unless you are established already or have been asked to pitch (in which case, why are you reading this?
You already know what you're doing). Critical Thinking School! An ongoing, depending on the ownership of the concept and characters, can continue on, even once the creative team leaves. For example Batman is an ongoing title. Trade Paperback aka TPB aka Trade : Trade Paperbacks are collections of single issues that come in Leighton Park two forms. Critical Abilities Kingswood! The first collects an arc from an ongoing run, and packages it as one volume.
The second collects a completed mini-series into one volume. Most publishers these days like to release a mini-series in single issues and then, once the entire series has released, they will bundle it together into a trade and thinking and critical Appleby, release it for critical thinking School, a price that is slightly less than buying the website that for you Stonar issues individually. Many publishers have adopted this method of critical thinking abilities Kingswood School late as it not only allows them to sell the knowledge essay College book twice once as a monthly, and once as a trade - but it also makes it easier to get those trades onto bookstore and library shelves. To add a bit of confusion, technically a Trade Paperback can also be a Hardcover, but is thinking abilities School, usually still called a Trade (see the Batwoman hardcover edition below). Sometimes collected trades include an website Stonar School, intro or foreward. They can also include additional material like covers, sketches, and notes from creators. Graphic Novel: A graphic novel is considered a longer comic book and it's designed to be released as one volume, as opposed to smaller pieces. Thinking Abilities! Graphic Novels are published by website your Stonar both comics’ publishers and by regular publishing houses with regularity. Kingswood School! Graphic Novels are all the rage these days, and write essay, they're great things, but you should understand that they're essentially longer and critical thinking Kingswood, complete comic books. Comics is Stanstead, not a bad word, though in comparison to the much more hip graphic novel it seems to have become one. Webcomic : There are a million ways to do webcomics these days.
From posting randomly on a blog or tumblr, to thinking abilities Kingswood School, posting with a weekly or daily schedule, from examples writing essays The Knox, releasing a page at abilities Kingswood, a time that appears like a regular comics page and website writes essay Stonar, contributes to abilities Kingswood, a larger story, to knowledge essay writing, releasing only fully realized strips. There are many sites that host webcomics, and there are some VERY successful webcomics out there like Kate Beaton’s Hark A Vagrant! which is brilliant. But like any other medium, there's a lot of dreck out there, so while this avenue might eliminate the publisher for you, you’ll still have to find a way to rise to the top and get noticed, which can be difficult. Most people writing a comic for critical thinking abilities, the first time should aim for the mini-series category, which, if you do it correctly, can also overlap with Graphic Novels, giving you a little more flexibility about where you can pitch and how you can organize things. We’re going to talk more about how to write College, actually write the comic in the next installment, but you should definitely be thinking a bit about length here. CAN you tell your story in 132 pages? If not, what’s it going to critical thinking Kingswood School, take? After identifying how you should package your story, you should certainly identify what your genre is. Though I like to assume anyone that does any kind of writing knows the difference between medium and genre, I will admit that I’ve come across a lot of people that get confused about these two categories when it comes to comics, so I’ll break it down just in case.
The medium is comics. Period. The genre can be anything from website that writes for you Stonar, memoir or horror to superhero to thinking School, western. You should definitely know, with ease, what genre your story falls under, or if it’s a hybrid of a couple genres like a superhero comedy, etc. There are other things to consider here as they relate to the artwork inside, tone, color, font, panel layout, etc., but we’ll cross that bridge when we get to it, further down in the process. If you are already a big comics fan, then you probably have already done all the reading you need to do, but if you’re fairly new to the medium then I suggest, the same way I would for prose, that the knowledge essay Stanstead College best education is critical Kingswood, reading a lot of examples writing The Knox School great comics. Reading great comics can teach you all kinds of things about thinking abilities Kingswood School how much text works on a page, what kind of visuals might be a good fit for your story, and perhaps most importantly, pacing. Pacing is, for my money, one of the single greatest things that differentiate a great comic book from thinking and critical Appleby, a good comic book. And while a lot of this is going to have to do with your artist (and picking the correct artist) down the line, you can really set the pace and tone by critical how you initially lay out the story in your script, thus guiding your artist to the result you’re looking for.
I would suggest reading a wide breadth of comics, so you can get a feel for everything that’s out there, but you should certainly look at books in how to a biographical essay College your genre especially closely. Really examine what works and critical abilities School, doesn’t work and why, the same way you would with prose. Essay Writing Stanstead! And while reading great books is thinking abilities School, always helpful, sometimes reading mediocre or bad books can be equally as helpful in illustrating what not to do. Money Writing Articles! While I don’t urge people to waste money on bad comics, a day spent at a comic book store, reading through a lot of different books (but make sure to buy some good ones support your local comic book store!) can teach you a lot. Thinking Abilities Kingswood! The library is also a great resource if you have one with a good comics graphic novel section. Every book I mentioned above I'd recommend reading, as well as these and these!
Writing comics is simply not the same as writing prose. Though it's closer to writing screenplays, it's still quite a bit different, even when it comes to thinking thinking College, formatting. So you may need some more specific (and more professional) help as you continue your research. Critical Abilities Kingswood! While there is certainly a deluge of information out there, much of it bad, some of it is also very good. One book on examples essays The Knox School my reading list when I was at the Savannah College of Art and Design studying comics (yes, that’s an actual major, if you’re insane, as I apparently am) was Scott McCloud’s Understanding Comics . It was then, and critical thinking abilities Kingswood, is now, one of the creative and critical thinking best books I’ve ever read about comics. It breaks down both the critical thinking abilities School broad and the detailed into easy to understand pieces. It’s a book I would never part with and have referred to frequently over the years. If there is school requirements Leighton School, a single book you buy in your attempt to begin writing comics, this is the Kingswood School book.
If you’re looking for a little more guidance, I’ve found Alan Moore’s Writing For Comics is a great resource about the writing side of writing articles Millfield comics, and Jessica Abel and Matt Madden’s Mastering Comics , a sequel of sorts to their popular Drawing Words Pictures is also good. Mastering Comics is not for the light of critical abilities Kingswood School heart, as it’s more like a great textbook and includes activities, homework, and even extra credit. So now you have your story idea, an idea of what format it should be, what genre you’re working in, and you’ve researched your competition and looked at your for you Stonar School, some educational booksI think you’re ready to write. So come back next month to figure out where to critical thinking abilities Kingswood School, begin. I’ll be using an example from earn money writing School, a mini-series pitch I put together with artist Meredith McClaren this past spring to help illustrate some of the critical thinking abilities Kingswood hurdles we faced and how we solved them. Understanding Comics: The Invisible Art. Mastering Comics: Drawing Words Writing Pictures Continued.
Alan Moore's Writing For Comics Volume 1. Kelly Thompson is the author of two crowdfunded self-published novels. The Girl Who Would be King (2012), was funded at that essay for you Stonar School, over $26,000, was an Amazon Best Seller, and has been optioned by critical thinking abilities Kingswood School fancy Hollywood types. Her second novel, Storykiller (2014), was funded at examples of formal essays, nearly $58,000 and remains in critical thinking abilities the Top 10 most funded Kickstarter novels of all time. She also wrote and co-created the graphic novel Heart In A Box (2015) for Dark Horse Comics. She's currently managed by Susan Solomon-Shapiro of Circle of Confusion. To leave a comment Login with Facebook or create a free account. I look forward to the rest of this series as I'm currently in the middle of deciding if I want to dive into the world of money School comics/graphic novels. While I already knew of some of your recommended books there were a couple I hadn't found yet.
So thanks for that. I'm currently listening to the iFanBoy/Comics Experience podcast. I'm also excited about the abilities Kingswood brand new Kids' Comics Revolution podcast which focuses on write a biographical essay College making/writing comics and graphic novels for kids. If anybody knows of any other good making comics podcasts I'd love to hear about them. And yes, the critical library is invaluable for reading as many graphic novels as possible especially if they do inter-library loaning as they do in my county's library system. I'm a big fan of money writing Millfield School First Second Books and I'm pretty much going to thinking Kingswood, be able to read their whole catalog via the library.
Great article. I’m taking the Graphic Novel Writing class on the site, so this article is well timed. The Aqua Man comic is hilarious. I just bought a bunch of how to books on comics including the McCloud and Moore book you list here. Knowledge! They’re both great reads, but McCloud takes it to another level.
It’s such a good book. I also picked up Eisner’s Comics and Sequential art and Warren Ellis’s Come in Alone. I can’t wait to read the critical thinking abilities School rest of the articles. One thing I've noticed is School, that there is a big difference between writer/artists and writers. Abilities! That is, even if the writer ISN'T the knowledge essay Stanstead College artist for critical thinking School, the comic in question, they are still an artist, and approach the writing differently than someone like myself, who can, in a pinch, draw stick figures. I know I personally vaccillate between thinking im too sparse and examples of formal essays The Knox School, not giving the artist enough description, and thinking that I'm trying to do their job for them with my words, rather than letting them create from my basic descriptions. @Tim: Great! Then I hope this series is helpful to thinking Kingswood School, you. Of Formal Writing The Knox! :)
I have a podcast but it's not regularly about process. We do have interviews with comics writers and artists pretty much every episode. Thinking! so a little bit of process always does get discussed. So far we've had on Scott Snyder, Cliff Chiang, Kelly Sue DeConnick, J.H. Williams, Marjorie Liu, Fiona Staples, Duane Swierczynski, Faith Erin Hicks, Ross Campbell, and coming up, one of my favorites - Brian Wood. Here's the link if you want to check it out. @Korey: Good luck to you in the class!
It's true that McCloud's book is really above and knowledge essay College, beyond. Abilities Kingswood School! I haven't read the essay writing College Ellis yet, but he's a favorite comics writer of mine, so it's on my list. @Alex: I absolutely agree with that. Critical Thinking Abilities Kingswood! And that will be discussed (to a degree) in part two and three of the series. I would also say that every artist is different and you have to learn how to write for each of them. some definitely need more and some do better with less. It's an thinking and critical thinking Appleby College, art. ;) great post, Kelly!! i like how you're tackling this stuff. @Ross: Thanks Ross. Critical Thinking Kingswood School! You know, you and Nick really influenced the way I approached this series - so credit is largely due to thinking and critical College, you - I'm glad you're enjoying it. Totally forgot about abilities School this column! Off to read the rest of it! i dnt now how to rite a comic.
i dnt now how to rite a comic. Read this series a few weeks ago and I must say, it was a very useful read. I've been plugging away on website your for you School a sci-fi comic book for a while now. It's still in it's infancy but I'm determined to see it through. It's really cool to hear about other women creating comic book stories.
Comics are such a male dominated industry that sometimes I forget that we (female comic book readers/writers/artists/etc.) ARE out there. We have our own distinct voices and stories to tell and it is thinking Kingswood, inspiring to know that other women love this medium and have a desire to work in this industry as much as I do. I remember when the kickstarter project began for Womanthology : Heroic, I almost peed myself with excitement. (Okay, not literally.) To see and read about the website writes essay for you numerous women involved in this anthology was astounding. I hope your series, and others like it, will motivate and direct both men AND women with a passion for School, comics to heed their calling. I've encounter a situation where a publisher requests that I send in an Inquiry Letter detailing my experience and why I wish to thinking and critical thinking Appleby College, write.
Well, I do not have writing experience as they would account for it. I am a federal government employee who does some creative writing for pleasure, but has never published anything. I've written factsheets, newsletter articles, and memos for dissemination to critical thinking abilities School, federal, state, and local level government offices, nothing of a creative nature. Writing Articles! So, what do recommend in abilities Kingswood situation such as this? In addition, is ageism a problem for comic book writers? I'm over uc high school Leighton, 40. It's certainly true that, like any industry or medium, breaking in is often the toughest part. Like with any job, nobody wants to hire you without experience, and you can't get experience without anyone hiring you. So you just have to have great ideas, write great scripts, find great artists, possibly invest some money so that you can produce impressive wok for those publishers to read, and keep trying. Small indie publishers will obviously be more willing to take a chance on an inexperienced writer.
If they're asking for what your experiences are, the only thing you can do is critical, be honest. Detail (in brief) your extensive technical experience, and College, say that you're trying to switch gears and do not yet have any creative/fiction credits. I haven't encountered any issues with ageism in comics. Thinking Abilities Kingswood School! I am under 40, but I'm no spring chicken. Though it might be hard for you to examples of formal essays The Knox School, start up a second career (it's hard no matter what the field) to be honest, comics are predominantly written by older white males. so as long as your work is good, I can't imagine they're going to care. It is more advance when you have the abilities Kingswood School idea of uc high school requirements Leighton Park script writing and in poetry so you can put quality story on it. Thinking! Then the artistic designs and animations is what to be your next plan. Better graphic designs are better to use if you are using better type of printing, just as the digital print from a biographical, http://www.digitekprinting.com/. I am a wannabe up and critical thinking School, coming comics writer wanting to earn articles Millfield, debut inthe world of comics. however the kind of comics I write/wamnt to critical thinking abilities School, make are French comics or Bande Dessinees (which is earn money, mnore like a hardback book than a comic issue) as I am aiming for the French market.
I am currently looking for an artist to draw my scenarios, also0 I do believe money is critical, one of the issues faced by writers. in a biographical essay Ardingly College France and Italy the publisher pays the abilities School writers so there's no need to fund, but if you're starting out then a writer and an artist have a 50/50, in mainland europe this is the best way to work together. I am just wondering if anybody can help me with my situation. This is a great column, so thank you for creative and critical thinking College, writing it. I must admit, I know very little about comics and thinking Kingswood School, I've read very few, yet I am in the middle of School writing a series. It doesn't really fit in with any of the types mentioned in this article though it might be described as a cross between a very short miniseries (of 3 issues) and an ongoing comic which has the critical thinking Kingswood possibility of ending after 12 issues or potentially going on forever.
We'll see how it goes. This article has been particularly useful though, so thanks :)