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Be objective about your resume career objective. by K B , updated on myself University Cyprus, April 20, 2016. How to create a great resume career objective. As a recruiter some of the resume career objectives I read left me scratching my head. The reason I#8217;ve scratched my head, is that from reading the resume and the career objective, I have had no idea what that candidate has wanted to articles to critique Zugerberg do. I also had no idea about the value could bring to the role or the organization. That means I need to start to think and translate this person#8217;s experience to essay Cyprus see whether it matches the role at hand. While my role as a recruiter is to travel articles School do that, the person who#8217;s most likely to get a look in, is the person who can quickly explain the value they can add, starting with a clearly expressed career objective on their resume. Why should you read this blog post.
In this blog post I#8221;ll cover 5 things. 1. Why you should create a resume career objective. Essay Myself University! 2. Bad examples of a resume career objective and on essay writing Washington, why the example is bad. 3. Good examples of a resume career objective, and essay writing, what works about the example. These are career objectives that have helped my clients win interviews. 4. Rules to help you create a powerful resume career objective. 5. How you can use our myPitch app to create a forward looking career objective for your resume and for interviews. 1. Why you should create a resume career objective.
Skip this bit if you just want to find out an argument of Southampton how to write one. A resume without a career objective is like a movie without a title, or a trailer. Essay European Cyprus! I’m not really going to understand why I should watch the movie, if I can’t at least get an idea about what I am about to see, and in fact I probably won’t watch it. A resume career objective invites the reader in. It makes a big difference to the way the recruiter reads your resume.
An career objective does not need to be an essay, you do need to St. John's-Ravenscourt let the rest of the essay European University resume do it#8217;s work, but a succinct and well written objective means when the recruiter reads the resume, they read it with what you want in mind. Even more important, the to critique Institut Montana recruiter can quickly understand the value you can potentially add. When I was a recruiter, I would see so many resumes. I really needed candidates to be bold and spell out essay writing European what they wanted. So a clearly written career objective on and essay NABA, Nuova Arti, a resume shows not only that you have given this application some detailed thought (always good), but that you have the confidence to announce your ambitions and myself Cyprus, what you can deliver to an employer. 2. Examples of essays Lime House bad resume career objectives. Here#8217;s an myself, example of a badly written career objective. #8220;To obtain a role in business, which will enable me to utilise my strong skills and expansive knowledge to make a contribution.#8221; This just sounds like wishy washy theory. The career objective does not state specifically which strong skills and expansive knowledge the applicant would like to use.
These are wasted words on a resume, where you do need to Institut Montana be careful about every word you choose. Here#8217;s another example of a bad resume career objective. #8220;An outstanding Manager with extensive global experience expertise. John’s communication and influencing skills have united stakeholders on business critical projects, leading to successful project completion. His strong management capability and essay writing European Cyprus, project management skills have also been pivotal in successfully managing a company and transforming teams with over 50 staff to House School deliver engagement rates of 80% plus. John has managed diverse team members in essay writing European Cyprus, different locations. At present, he wants to utilise his leadership, influencing, thought leadership and marketing expertise in either business, government, academic or charity sectors.#8221; At first glance this may sound reasonable, but apart from the repeated words and waffle, the issue with this career objective is that it#8217;s waaaaay too general. You are more likely to books writing University get an interview if you understand the University role you are applying for, and explain the writing and essay NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano value you can add to that particular role. Writing Cyprus! So saying #8220;business, government, academic or charity sectors#8221; is not convincing. Also in this career objective, there#8217;s information that would be better placed in other areas of the resume, such as achievements (#8220;80% + engagement rates#8221;) and expertise (stakeholder engagement). 3. Examples of good resume career objectives.
This is an example of an effective resume career objective explaining a career change. #8220;Having recently achieved Distinctions in HR studies, along with winning award nominations through demonstrating dedication to consistently providing exemplary levels of customer service interpreting complex and detailed travel policies in fast-paced corporate support and sales environments; ideally positioned to Leighton Park School add value as a Coordinator effectively managing internal policy inquiries in an internal corporate HR service centre.#8221; This career objective helped this person secure an myself European, interview for a number of reasons. An Argument University Of Southampton! This person had thought specifically about what they could bring from European University Cyprus their past into their new career choice in HR. They had articulated what that next role might be including the ideal environment they could work in. This person had a career objective and coursework essays Leighton Park, resume that was built around the University advertised role. Here#8217;s another example that worked for a global CFO. #8220; Global CFO with 15 + years’ success delivering growth in diverse operations across international markets for new projects and Greenfield sites; a record of NABA, Nuova di Belle challenging the essay myself European status-quo, recognizing and executing innovative solutions; strategic and hands-on financial management skills; ideally positioned to build markets and deliver growth for organisations at the start of a global expansion or transformation.#8221; This resume career objective succeeded because this person demonstrated a high degree of coursework Leighton Park self awareness, specifically around which part of the myself business cycle they could add the most value in. Each and every word in the career objective were important skills to highlight for someone who was able to drive global expansion. University! Another reason that it is better to be more specific than general is that when you have a track record at a senior level and are looking for a role, a recruiter sees it as a given that you can deliver.
The choice to hire you is more about your fit with the organisation and therefore how quickly you can deliver. Writing Myself European University Cyprus! A tailored career objective is one way to show your cultural fit with an organisation and the stage where you are at your most effective. Washington State (INTO)! Here#8217;s an example of a graduate#8217;s career objective. #8220;With an writing myself, honours degree in Accounting, skills gained in previous career investigating immigration applications requiring attention to detail and an ability to understand complex law and individuals’ circumstances; plus a work ethic demonstrated by extensive extra-curricular activities; career ambitions are to investigate problems and coursework Leighton, highlight issues with risk, commencing as an Audit Graduate with a professional services firm.#8221; 4. Rules around resume career objectives. Rule 1. Writing Myself University Cyprus! Keep it short, you want people to read it. Rule 2. Read rule 1 again, and if your career objective is longer than 4-5 lines, get your red pen out. Rule 3. Think about what how you#8217;ve done in Leighton School, the past will allow you to add value in the future. Rule 5. Your objective is essay writing myself European University Cyprus, much more about other people than you. Rule 6. Make sure your career objective matches the role you are applying for. This means you need to forming University be serious about each and every application you send. Rule 7. Don#8217;t copy other people#8217;s objectives off the internet, you won#8217;t sound like you and that#8217;s a charisma killer.
5. Still stuck? Try our new app myPitch for some career objective examples. When we talk about a career objective, essentially the recruiter is asking you the question #8220;tell me about yourself.#8221; We#8217;ve created a tool that will help you sell yourself within 30 seconds. Essay Myself University! One aim of an argument University this app is to keep you concise, and so you can come up with a pitch as compelling as the writing one in this video below. So if you have an articles to critique, iPhone click this link to download myPitch if you have an essay, Android click this link to writing and essay NABA, Nuova Accademia download myPitch and take a look at the videos we#8217;ve filmed for myself Cyprus, each stage in your career. This will show you a forward focused way to introduce yourself in School, life and on essay writing Cyprus, your resume. Try it out and feel free to come back and tell me what you think. Get prepared for your next interview! Download our free e-book . Deborah Barit wrote this book.
She is one of Australia#8217;s leading interview coaches. It is to critique Institut Zugerberg, packed full of easily actionable interview tips. To get your free e-book and writing myself European Cyprus, some of our best interview tips direct to your inbox, simply click on this link and answer a couple of quick survey questions. And Essay NABA,! Easy as, hey! Here’s what happy readers said about the e-book and interview tips: “Deborah Barit is a very smart lady#8230;She is University Cyprus, good at figuring out what an on essay State University, employer is looking for. It’s like she has ESP — with her help in preparing, I found no surprises in a recent interview and I was prepared for every question#8230;.#8221; Cathy, Leichhardt. “Because I read so many of your posts, I feel as if you were my personal employment coach. I start my new position in myself European Cyprus, two weeks. I had so many obstacles to overcome and each day you posted a solution to my dilemma and how to improve my search.
Thank you so much for your input and PLEASE continue to do what you do!” Click here to get access to the e-book. Do you make one of these top 5 insanely dumb mistakes on LinkedIn? Click on coursework essays Leighton School, this link , and we’ll send you our FREE report, PLUS some awesome tips to help you lure recruiters and employers to essay myself Cyprus your LinkedIn profile.
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European University Cyprus - Accounting
nietzsche essay 2 On the Genealogy of Morals. A Polemical Tract. [This document, which has been prepared by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC, is in the public domain and may be used by anyone, in whole or in part, without permission and without charge, provided the source is essay European University Cyprus acknowledged. Editorial comments and translations in square brackets and italics are by Ian Johnston; comments in normal brackets are from Nietzsche's text] Guilt, Bad Conscience and Related Matters. To breed an animal that is entitled to make promises—surely that is the essence of the paradoxical task nature has set itself where human beings are concerned? Isn't that the real problem of human beings? The fact that this problem has largely been resolved must seem all the more astonishing to a person who knows how to appreciate fully the power which works against paid essays Lime House this promise-making, namely forgetfulness. Essay European University Cyprus. Forgetfulness is travel St. John's-Ravenscourt School not merely a vis interiae [a force of inertia] , as superficial people think.
Is it much rather an active capability to repress, something positive in the strongest sense. We can ascribe to forgetfulness the fact what while we are digesting what we live through and experience and then absorb (we might call the process mental ingestion [Einverseeling] ), we are conscious of what is going on as little as we are with the thousand-fold process which our bodily nourishment goes through (so-called physical ingestion [Einverleibung] ). The doors and windows of consciousness are shut from time to time, so that it stays undisturbed from the noise and struggle with which the underworld of our functional organs keeps them working for writing myself Cyprus, and against University of Southampton one another—a small quiet place, a little tabula rasa [blank slate] of the consciousness, so that there will again be room for myself European Cyprus, something new, above all, for the nobler functions and officials, for ruling, thinking ahead, determining what to do (our organism is arranged as an oligarchy)—that is, as I said, the use of active forgetfulness, like some porter at the door, a maintainer of psychic order, quiet, and etiquette. From that we can see at once how, if forgetfulness were not present, there could be no happiness, no cheerfulness, no hoping, no pride, no present. The man in whom this repression apparatus is harmed and not working properly we can compare to to critique Zugerberg, a dyspeptic (and not just compare)—he is finished with nothing. Now this necessarily forgetful animal in which forgetfulness is present as a force, as a form of strong health, has had an opposing capability bred into it, a memory, with the help of which, in certain cases, its forgetfulness will cease to function—that is, for myself University, those cases where promises are to be made. This is in no way a merely passive inability ever to be rid of an and essay Accademia, impression once it's been etched into European the mind, nor is it merely indigestion over a word one has pledged at a particular time.
No, it's an coursework Leighton Park School, active wish not to be free of the matter, a continuing desire for what one willed at essay myself European University, a particular time, a real memory of one's will, so that between the original I will or I will do and the actual discharge of the will, its real action, without thinking about coursework essays Park, it, a world of strange new things, circumstances, even acts of the will can intervene, without breaking this long chain of the will. But consider what that presupposes! In order to organize the future in this manner, human beings must have first learned to separate necessary events from writing University chance events, to think in terms of cause and effect, to see distant events as if they were present, to essays Leighton, anticipate them, to set goals and the means to reach them safely, to myself European Cyprus, develop a capability for figures and calculations in general—and for that to writing Accademia di Belle Milano, occur, a human being must necessarily have first become something one could predict, something bound by writing European Cyprus regular rules, even in the way he imagined himself to himself, so that finally he is paid essays able to act like someone who makes promises—who makes himself into a pledge for writing myself, the future! Precisely that development is the history of the origin of responsibility. Forming Of Southampton. The task of breeding an animal with a right to make promises contains within it, as we have already grasped, as a condition and prerequisite, the more urgent prior task of essay writing myself European University Cyprus, making a human being necessarily uniform to some extent, one among many other like him, regular and consequently predictable. The immense task in what I have called the morality of custom (cf. Paid To Write Essays Lime House School. Daybreak , p. 7, 13, 16), the essential work of a man on his own self in the longest-lasting age of the human race, his entire pre-historical work, derives its meaning, its grand justification, from the following point, no matter how much hardship, tyranny, monotony and idiocy it also manifested: with the help of the morality of essay writing myself European Cyprus, custom and the social strait jacket, the human being was rendered truly predictable. Now, let's position ourselves, by contrast, at the end of this immense process, in the place where the tree finally yields its fruit, where society and the morality of articles to critique Zugerberg, custom finally bring to light the end for which they were simply the means. We find—as the ripest fruit on essay writing myself European University, that tree—the sovereign individual, something which resembles only itself, which has broken loose again from the morality of custom—the autonomous individual beyond morality (for autonomous and moral are mutually exclusive terms)—in short, the human being who possesses his own independent and writing NABA, Accademia Milano, enduring will, who is entitled to make promises—and in him a proud consciousness, quivering in writing myself European University Cyprus every muscle, of what has finally been achieved and given living embodiment in him: a real consciousness of power and freedom, a feeling of completion for human beings generally. This man who has become free, who really has the right to make promises, this master of free will, this sovereign—how can he not realize the articles Institut, superiority he enjoys over essay University Cyprus everyone who does not have the right to make a promise and make pledges on his own behalf, knowing how much trust, how much fear, and how much respect he creates (he is worthy of all three) and how, with this mastery over himself, he has necessarily been given in addition mastery over his circumstances, over nature, and over House all creatures with a shorter and less reliable will?
The free man, the owner of an enduring unbreakable will, by possessing this, also acquires his own standard of value: he looks out from himself at writing myself European Cyprus, others and confers respect or withholds it. And just as it will be necessary for him to honour those like him, the strong and dependable (who are entitled to make promises), in other words everyone who makes promises like a sovereign, seriously, rarely, and coursework essays Leighton School, slowly, who is sparing with his trust, who honours another when he does trust, who gives his word as something reliable, because he knows he is essay writing myself European University strong enough to remain upright when opposed by misfortune, even when opposed by fate, so it will be necessary for him to keep his foot ready to coursework Leighton Park School, kick the scrawny unreliable men, who make promises without being entitled to, and hold his cane ready to punish the liar who breaks his word in the very moment it comes out of his mouth. The proud knowledge of the extraordinary privilege of responsibility, the essay writing European University Cyprus, consciousness of this rare freedom, this power over oneself and destiny have become internalized into the deepest parts of him and grown instinctual, have now become a dominating instinct. What will he call it, this dominating instinct, given that he finds he needs a word for it? There's no doubt about this question: this sovereign man calls this instinct his conscience. His conscience? To being with, we can conjecture that the idea of conscience, which we are encountering here in its highest, almost perplexing form, already had a long history and developmental process behind it.
To be entitled to pledge one's word, to do it with pride, and also to say yes to oneself—that right is a ripe fruit, as I have mentioned, but it is also a late fruit. Travel Writing Articles St. John's-Ravenscourt School. For what a long stretch of time this fruit must have hung tart and sour on the tree! And for essay writing European University Cyprus, an even longer time it was impossible to see any such fruit. It would appear that no one would have been entitled to make promises, even if everything about the tree was getting ready for it and was growing right in that direction. How does one create a memory for the human animal? How does one stamp something like that into his partly dull, partly idiotic momentary understanding, this living embodiment of forgetfulness, so that it stays there? This ancient problem, as you can imagine, was not resolved right away with tender answers and methods. Perhaps there is and essay Accademia Arti Milano nothing more fearful and more terrible in the entire pre-history of European University Cyprus, human beings than the technique for developing his memory.
We burn something in articles to critique Institut Montana Zugerberg so that it remains in the memory. Essay Writing. Only something which never ceases to cause pain stays in articles to critique Montana Zugerberg the memory—that is a leading principle of the most ancient (and unfortunately the most recent) psychology on earth. We might even say that everywhere on earth nowadays where there is still solemnity, seriousness, mystery, gloomy colours in the lives of men and people, something of that terror is essay writing University Cyprus still at work, the fear with which in earlier times on earth people made promises, pledged their word, or praised something. The past, the longest, deepest, most severe past, breathes on us and articles Institut Montana, surfaces in us when we become solemn. When the human being considered it necessary to essay myself European University, make a memory for himself, it never happened without blood, martyrs, and sacrifices—the most terrible sacrifices and essays Lime, pledges (among them the sacrifice of the first born), the most repulsive self-mutilations (for example castration), the cruellest forms of ritual in all the religious cults (and all religions are at bottom systems of essay writing myself University Cyprus, cruelty)—all that originates in NABA, di Belle Arti that instinct which discovered that pain was the most powerful means of helping to develop the writing European, memory. In a certain sense all asceticism belongs here: a couple of ideas need to be made indissoluble, omnipresent, unforgettable, fixed, in order to hypnotize the books Washington State University, entire nervous and writing myself Cyprus, intellectual system through these fixed ideas—and the ascetic procedures and forms of life are the means whereby these ideas are freed from jostling around with all the other ideas, in order to make them unforgettable. The worse the human's memory was, the more terrible his customs have always appeared.
The harshness of the laws of punishment provide a special standard for writing and essay NABA, Accademia Milano, measuring how much trouble people went to in order to essay writing myself University, triumph over forgetfulness and to maintain the awareness of to critique, a few primitive demands of social living together for this slave of essay myself Cyprus, momentary feelings and desires. We Germans certainly do not think of ourselves as a particularly cruel and hard-hearted people, even less as particularly careless people who live only in the present. But have a look at our old penal code in paid essays School order to understand how much trouble it took on myself European Cyprus, this earth to breed a People of paid to write Lime House, Thinkers (by that I mean the writing University, peoples of Europe, among whom today we still find a maximum of trust, seriousness, tastelessness, and practicality, and who with these characteristics have a right to breed all sorts of European mandarins). Paid To Write Lime House School. These Germans have used terrible means to make themselves a memory in order to attain mastery over writing European Cyprus their vulgar and brutally crude basic instincts. Think of the old German punishments, for example, stoning (even the forming an argument of Southampton, legend lets the mill stone fall on the head of the guilty person), breaking on the wheel (the unique invention and specialty of the German genius in the area of punishment!), impaling on a stake, ripping people apart or stamping them to death with horses (quartering), boiling the myself European University, criminal in oil or wine (still done in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries), the to critique Zugerberg, well-loved practice of flaying (cutting flesh off in strips), carving flesh out of the chest, along with, of essay writing European University Cyprus, course, covering the offender with honey and leaving him to the flies in the burning sun.
With the help of such images and procedures people finally retained five or six I will not's in their memory, and so far as these precepts were concerned they gave their word in and essay NABA, di Belle Milano order to live with the University Cyprus, advantages of society—and that was that! With the assistance of this sort of memory people finally came to reason! Ah, reason, seriousness, mastery over emotions, the whole gloomy business called reflection, all these privileges and ceremonies of human beings—how expensive they were! How much blood and horror is the basis for all good things. But then how did that other gloomy business, the consciousness of guilt, the whole bad conscience come into the world? With this we turn back to our genealogists of morality. I'll say it once more—or perhaps I haven't said it at all yet—they are useless. With their own purely modern experience extending only travel, through five periods, with no knowledge of or any desire to know the past, and even less historical insight, a second perspective—something so necessary at this point—they nonetheless pursue the history of essay writing myself Cyprus, morality. That must inevitably produce results which have a less than tenuous relationship to the truth. Have these genealogists of morality up to this point allowed themselves to dream, even remotely, that, for instance, the major moral principle guilt [Schuld] derives its origin from the very materialistic idea debt [Schulden] or that punishment developed entirely as repayment, without reference to and essay NABA, di Belle Arti, any assumption about the freedom or lack of freedom of the essay writing myself University Cyprus, will—and did so to the point where it first required a high degree of human development [Vermenschlichung] so that the animal man began to make those much more primitive distinctions between intentional, negligent, accidental, of sound mind, and their opposites and bring them to bear when handing out punishment?
That unavoidable idea, nowadays so trite and apparently natural, which has really had to serve as the articles Zugerberg, explanation how the feeling of justice in general came into existence on essay writing University, earth—The criminal deserves punishment because he could have acted otherwise—this idea, in fact, is an extremely late achievement, indeed, a sophisticated form of human judgment and decision making. Anyone who moves this idea back to the very beginnings is sticking his coarse fingers inappropriately into the psychology of primitive humanity. For the most extensive period of human history punishment was not meted out because people held the instigator of evil responsible for his actions, nor was it assumed that only the guilty party should be punished. It was much more the case, as it still is now when parents punish their children, of anger over some harm which people have suffered, anger vented on the perpetrator. But this anger was restrained and modified through the writing State, idea that every injury had some equivalent and essay European University Cyprus, that compensation for travel articles St. John's-Ravenscourt, it could, in Cyprus fact, be paid out, even if that was through the pain of the perpetrator. Where did this primitive, deeply rooted, and perhaps by essays Leighton now ineradicable idea derive its power, the idea of an equivalence between punishment and pain?
I have already given away the answer: in the contractual relationship between creditor and myself European Cyprus, debtor, which is as ancient as the forming an argument University of Southampton, idea of someone subject to law and which, in itself, refers back to essay writing myself Cyprus, the basic forms of buying, selling, bartering, trading, and on essay writing University (INTO), exchanging goods. It's true that recalling this contractual relationship arouses, as we might expect from essay writing myself University Cyprus what I have observed above, all sorts of suspicion of and writing School, opposition to primitive humanity which established or allowed it. It's precisely at this point that people make promises. Here the pertinent issue is European University Cyprus that the person who makes a promise has to have a memory created for forming an argument, him, so that precisely at this point, we can surmise, there exists a site for essay myself European University Cyprus, what is hard, cruel, and articles to critique Institut, painful. In order to inspire trust in his promise to pay back, in order to give his promise a guarantee of its seriousness and sanctity, in order to essay University Cyprus, impress on his own conscience the idea of paying back as a duty, an obligation, the debtor, by virtue of the contract, pledges to the creditor, in and essay the event that he does not pay, something that he still owns, something over which he still exercises power, for example, his body or his wife or his freedom or even his life (or, under certain religious conditions, even his blessedness, the salvation of his soul, or finally his peace in the grave, as was the case in Egypt, where the dead body of the European Cyprus, debtor even in the grave found no peace from the creditor—and it's certain that with the Egyptians such peace was particularly important). That means that the creditor could inflict all kinds of ignominy and torture on travel articles, the body of the writing Cyprus, debtor—for instance, slicing off the body as much as seemed appropriate for the size of the debt. Coursework School. And this point of view early on and everywhere gave rise to precise, horrific estimates going into finer and finer details, legally established estimates, about individual limbs and body parts. I consider it already a step forward, as evidence of a freer conception of the law, something which calculates more grandly, something more Roman, when Rome's Twelve Tables of Laws decreed it was all the European University, same, no matter how much or how little the creditor cut off in such cases: si plus minusve secuerunt, ne fraude esto [let it not be thought a crime if they cut off more or less].
Let's clarify the Milano, logic of this whole method of compensation—it is weird enough. The equivalency is Cyprus given in this way: instead of an advantage making up directly for St. John's-Ravenscourt, the harm (hence, instead of compensation in gold, land, possessions of some sort or another), the creditor is given a kind of pleasure as repayment and compensation—the pleasure of being allowed to discharge his power on a powerless person without having to European Cyprus, think about it, the delight in articles to critique Institut Zugerberg de fair le mal pour le plaisir de le faire [doing wrong for the pleasure of doing it] , the enjoyment of writing myself University Cyprus, violation. This enjoyment is more highly prized the lower and baser the debtor stands in the social order, and writing and essay Nuova Milano, it can easily seem to writing myself, the creditor a delicious mouthful, even a foretaste of writing School, a higher rank. Cyprus. By means of the punishment of the debtor, the creditor participates in a right belonging to the masters. Finally he himself for once comes to NABA, Nuova di Belle Milano, the lofty feeling of despising a being as someone below himself, as someone he is entitled to mistreat—or at least, in the event that the real force of punishment, of inflicting punishment, has already been transferred to the authorities, the University Cyprus, feeling of seeing the debtor despised and mistreated. The compensation thus consist of a permission for and right to cruelty. In this area, that is, in the laws of obligation, the paid to write, world of moral concepts guilt, conscience, and sanctity of obligations was conceived. Its beginnings, just like the beginnings of everything great on earth, were watered thoroughly and for a long time with blood. And can we not add that this world deep down has never again been completely free of a certain smell of blood and torture—(not even with old Kant whose categorical imperative stinks of cruelty . European. . . University. ). In addition, here the weird knot linking the ideas of guilt and essay writing University, suffering, which perhaps has become impossible to coursework Park School, undo, was first knit together. Let me pose the question once more: to what extent can suffering be a compensation for debts? To the extent that making someone suffer provides the highest degree of Cyprus, pleasure, to the extent that the person hurt by the debt, in exchange for the injury and for the distress caused by the injury, got an offsetting pleasure—making someone suffer—a real feast, something that, as I've said, was valued all the more, the greater the difference between him and the rank and writing NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle, social position of the creditor.
I have been speculating here, for it's difficult to essay writing European, see such subterranean things from the surface, quite apart from the fact that it's an embarrassing subject. Anyone who crudely throws into the middle of all this the idea of travel writing articles St. John's-Ravenscourt School, revenge has merely buried and dimmed his insights rather than illuminated them (revenge itself takes us back to the very same problem How can making someone suffer give us a feeling of satisfaction?). It seems to writing myself Cyprus, me that the delicacy and even more the hypocrisy of tame house pets (I mean modern man, I mean us) resist a really powerful understanding of just how much cruelty contributes to the great celebratory joy of primitive humanity, as an ingredient mixed into almost all their enjoyments and, from another perspective, how nave and innocent their need for cruelty appears, how they basically accept disinterested malice (or to use Spinoza's words, the sympathia malevolens [malevolent sympathy] ) as a normal human characteristic, and hence as something to which their conscience says a heartfelt Yes! A more deeply penetrating eye might still notice, even today, enough of on essay writing State University, this most ancient and most basic celebratory human joy. In Beyond Good and Evil , p. Essay Writing European University. 117 ff. (even earlier in Daybreak , p. 17, 68, 102), I pointed a cautious finger at the constantly growing spiritualization and deification of cruelty, which runs through the entire history of higher culture (and, in a significant sense, even constitutes that culture). In any case, it's not so long ago that people wouldn't think of an aristocratic wedding and folk festival in a grand style without executions, tortures, or something like an auto-da-f [ burning at the stake ], and on essay Washington, no noble household lacked creatures on whom people could vent their malice and cruel taunts without a second thought (remember Don Quixote at the court of the duchess). Today we read all of Don Quixote with a bitter taste on essay myself Cyprus, the tongue—it's almost an ordeal. To Critique Montana. In so doing, we become very foreign, very obscure to the author and his contemporaries. They read it with a fully clear conscience as the most cheerful of essay writing, books. Institut Montana Zugerberg. They almost died laughing at essay myself European University, it.
Watching suffering makes people feel good, making someone suffer makes them feel even better—that is a harsh principle, but an old, powerful, and human, all-too-human major principle, which, by the way, even the apes might agree with. For people say that, in St. John's-Ravenscourt thinking up bizarre cruelties, the apes already anticipate a great many human actions and, as it were, act them out. Without cruelty there is no celebration: that's what the oldest and longest era of human history teaches us—and with punishment, too, there is so much celebration!— With these ideas, by the way, I have no desire whatsoever to give our pessimists grist for their discordant mills grating with the weariness of writing European University, life. On the contrary, I want to writing NABA, Nuova Accademia Arti, state very clearly that in essay European Cyprus that period when human beings had not yet become ashamed of their cruelty, life on earth was happier than it is now, now that we have our pessimists. The darkening of heaven over men's heads always increased quickly in proportion to the growth of human beings' shame at human beings. The tired pessimistic look, the mistrust of the riddle of life, the icy denial stemming from disgust with life—these are not the signs of the paid to write essays, wickedest eras in the history of human beings. It's more the case that they first come to light as the swamp plants they are when the swamp to which they belong is there—I mean the sickly mollycoddling and moralizing, thanks to which the animal man finally learns to feel shame about all his instincts. On his way to becoming an angel (not to writing European University Cyprus, use a harsher word here), man developed an upset stomach and a furry tongue which made him not only fight against the joy and innocence of the animal but even lose his taste for writing Nuova Accademia di Belle Milano, life, so that now and then he stands there, holds his nose, and essay University Cyprus, with Pope Innocent III disapproves of himself and makes a catalogue of his nastiness (conceived in filth, disgustingly nourished in his mother's body, developed out of evil material stuff, stinking horribly, discharging spit, urine, and excrement). Now, when suffering always has to march out as the articles Montana Zugerberg, first argument against essay existence, as its most serious question mark, it's good for us to remember the times when people saw things the other way around, because they couldn't do without making people suffer and saw a first-class magic in it, a really tempting enticement for living.
Perhaps, let me say this as a consolation for the delicate, at that time pain didn't hurt as much as it does nowadays. At least that could be the conclusion of a doctor who had treated a Negro (taking the latter as a representative of paid essays Lime School, pre-historical man) for a bad case of inner inflammation, which drives the European with the best constitution to despair but which doesn't have the same effect on the Negro. (The graph of the human capacity for pain seems in myself University Cyprus fact to sink down remarkably and writing and essay, almost immediately after the first ten thousand or ten million of the top members of the higher culture. And I personally have no doubt that, in comparison with one painful night of a single hysterical well-educated female, the total suffering of all animals which up to now have been interrogated by the knife of science is really insignificant). Perhaps it is even permissible to concede the writing myself, possibility that the pleasure in cruelty does not really need to die out. Coursework Leighton School. Since today pain does more harm, the relevant pleasure needed only to be sublimated and made more subtle—in other words, it had to essay writing European University, appear translated into Park School the imaginative and spiritual and embellished with nothing but names so unobjectionable that they arouse no suspicion in even the most delicate hypocritical conscience (tragic pity is one such name; another is les nostalgies de la croix [nostalgia for the cross] ). What really enrages people about suffering is not the suffering itself, but the meaninglessness of suffering. But neither for the Christian, who sees in suffering an entire secret machinery for salvation, nor for the nave men of Cyprus, older times, who understood how to interpret all suffering in relation to the spectator or to writing and essay Accademia Milano, the person inflicting the suffering, was there generally any such meaningless suffering. In order for the hidden, undiscovered, unwitnessed suffering to be removed from the world and for people to be able to deny it honestly, they were then almost compelled to essay writing Cyprus, invent gods and Lime, intermediate beings at all levels, high and low—briefly put, something that also roamed in hidden places, that also looked into the darkness, and that would not readily permit an interesting painful spectacle to escape its attention.
Hence, with the help of such inventions life then understood and essay, has always understood how to justify itself by a trick, how to justify its evil. Nowadays perhaps it requires other helpful inventions (for example, life as riddle, life as a problem of knowledge). Every evil which is uplifting in the eyes of books writing Washington State, God is essay writing University Cyprus justified: that's how the pre-historical logic of feeling rang out—and was that really confined to pre-history? The gods conceived of as friends of books writing State University (INTO), cruel spectacle—oh, how far this primitive idea rises up over essay myself University the development of our European humanity! We might well seek advice from Calvin and Luther on paid to write essays School, this point. At any rate it is certain that even the Greeks knew of no more acceptable snack to offer their gods for their happiness that the joys of cruelty. With what sort of expression, do you think, did Homer allow his gods to look down on the fate of men?
What final sense was there essentially in the Trojan War and similar frightful tragedies? We cannot entertain the slightest doubts about this: they were intended as celebrations for essay writing, the gods—and, to the extent that the poet is in these matters more godlike than other men, as festivals for the poets as well. Later the Greek moral philosophers in the same way imagined the articles, eyes of god looking down on the moral struggles, on heroism and the self-mutilation of the essay myself European University, virtuous: the articles, Hercules of European University Cyprus, duty was on stage, and he knew he was there. Without someone watching, virtue for this race of actors was something entirely inconceivable. Surely that daring and fateful philosophical invention, first made for Europe at that time, the free will, the coursework Leighton, absolutely spontaneous nature of human beings in matters of good and evil, was created above all to justify the idea that the interest of gods in men and in human virtue could never run out? On this earthly stage there was never to be any lack of really new things, really unheard of suspense, complication, catastrophe. A world conceived of as perfectly deterministic would have been predictable and therefore also soon boring for the gods. That was reason enough for these friends of the gods, the philosophers, not to ascribe such a deterministic world to essay European, their gods! All of ancient humanity is full of sensitive consideration for the spectator, for a truly public, truly visible world, which did not know how to to write essays Lime School, imagine happiness without dramatic performances and writing University Cyprus, festivals.
And, as I have already said, in the great punishments there is also so much celebration! To resume the State University (INTO), path of our enquiry, the feeling of guilt, of personal obligation has, as we saw, its origin in the oldest and most primitive personal relationship there is and has been—in the relationship between seller and buyer, creditor and debtor. Here for the first time one person encountered another person and measured himself against him. We have not yet found a civilization at such a low level that something of this relationship is not already perceptible. To set prices, measure values, think up equivalencies, to exchange things—that preoccupied man's very first thinking to such a degree that in a certain sense it's what thinking is. The very oldest form of astuteness was bred here—here, too, we can assume are the first beginnings of human pride, his feeling of myself European Cyprus, pre-eminence in relation to other animals. Perhaps our word man [ Mensch ] ( manas ) continues to express directly something of this feeling of the self: the human being describes himself as a being which assesses values, which values and measures, as the calculating animal as such. Paid Lime House School. Selling and buying, together with their psychological attributes, are even older than the beginnings of any form of social organization and grouping. It is much rather the case that out of the most rudimentary form of personal legal right the budding feeling of exchange, contract, guilt, law, duty, compensation were first transferred to myself University, the crudest and earliest social structures (in their relationships with similar social structures), along with the habit of comparing power with power, of measuring, of calculating. The eye was now at any rate adjusted to Institut, this perspective, and with that awkward consistency characteristic of the European University Cyprus, thinking in ancient human beings, hard to get started but then inexorably moving forward in the same direction, people soon reached the coursework essays Leighton Park, great generalization Everything has its price, everything can be paid off—the oldest and most nave moral principle of justice, the beginning of European University, all good nature, all fairness, all good will, all objectivity on earth. Books On Essay Writing State (INTO). Justice at this first stage is essay myself European good will among those approximately equal in power to come to writing NABA, Nuova Milano, terms with each other, to understand each other again by compensation—and in relation to those less powerful, to compel them to essay writing, arrive at some settlement among themselves.
Still measuring by the standard of pre-history (a pre-history which, by the way, is coursework essays School present at all times or is capable of returning), the essay myself European University, community also stands in relation to its members in books on essay writing State that important basic relationship of the creditor to his debtors. People live in essay writing European University a community. They enjoy the advantages of a community (and what fine advantages they are! Nowadays we sometimes underestimate them)—they live protected, cared for, in peace and trust, without worries concerning certain injuries and essays Leighton, enmities from which the man outside the community, the man without peace, is excluded—a German understands what misery [ Elend ] or lend [ other country ] originally meant—and how people pledge themselves to and enter into essay myself University obligations with the an argument of Southampton, community bearing in mind precisely these injuries and enmities. What will happen with an exception to this case? The community, the defrauded creditor, will see that it gets paid as well as it can—on that people can rely. The issue here is least of all the immediate damage which the offender has caused.
Setting this to one side, the lawbreaker [ Verbrecher ] is above all a breaker [ Brecher ]—a breaker of European, contracts and a breaker of his word against the totality, with respect to all the good features and advantages of the communal life in which, up to that point, he has had a share. On Essay State (INTO). The lawbreaker is a debtor who does not merely not pay back for the benefits and advances given to him, but who even attacks his creditor. So from this point on not only does he lose, as is reasonable, all these good things and benefits, but he is also more pertinently reminded what these good things are all about. The anger of the essay writing myself European, injured creditor, the community, gives him back the wild condition, as free as a bird, from which he was earlier protected. It pushes him away from it, and now every form of to write Lime School, hostility can vent itself on him. At this stage of writing myself European University, cultural behaviour punishment is simply the copy, the mimus , of the normal conduct towards the hated, disarmed enemy who has been thrown down, who has lost not only all rights and protection but also all mercy—hence it is a case of the rights of war and the victory celebration of vae victis [ woe to the conquered ] in all its ruthlessness and coursework essays Leighton Park, cruelty, which accounts for the fact that war itself (including the warlike cult of sacrifice) has given us all the ways in which punishment has appeared in essay writing myself European history. As it acquires more power, a community considers the crimes of a single individual less serious, because they no longer make him as dangerous and unsettling for the existence of the community as much as they did before. The wrong doer is no longer left without peace and thrown out, and the common anger can no longer vent itself on him without restraint to the same extent it did before. It is rather the case that the wrong doer from now on is carefully protected by the community against this anger, particularly from that of the injured person, and is taken into protective custody.
The compromise with the anger of those most immediately affected by the wrong doing, and thus the coursework Leighton, effort to localize the European, case and to avert a wider or even a general participation and unrest, attempts to find equivalents and to settle the whole business (the compositio ), above all the desire, appearing with ever-increasing clarity, to consider every crime as, in some sense or other, capable of being paid off, and thus, at least to some extent, to separate the criminal and his crime from each other—those are the essays, characteristics stamped more and more clearly on the further development of criminal law. If the power and the self-confidence of a community keeps growing, the criminal law grows constantly milder. Every weakening and profound jeopardizing of the writing myself European Cyprus, community brings the harsher forms of criminal law to light once more. The creditor always became proportionally more human as he became richer. Finally the amount of his wealth itself establishes how much damage he can sustain without suffering from it. Articles. It would not be impossible to imagine a society with a consciousness of its own power which allowed itself the essay Cyprus, most privileged luxury which it can have—letting its criminals go free without punishment. House. Why should I really bother about my parasites, it would then say. Essay Writing European University. May they live and prosper—for that I am still sufficiently strong! . . . Montana Zugerberg. Justice, which started by European University Cyprus stating Everything is capable of being paid for, everything must be paid off ends at essays School, that point, by myself University Cyprus covering its eyes and letting the paid to write essays Lime, person incapable of payment go free—it ends, as every good thing on earth ends, by essay writing myself European doing away with itself.
This self-negation of justice—we know what a beautiful name it call itself—mercy. It goes without saying that mercy remains the an argument University, privilege of the most powerful man, or even better, his movement beyond the law. Now a critical word about a recently published attempt to find the origin of justice in quite a different place—that is, in resentment. But first let me speak a word in the ear of the psychologists, provided that they have any desire to essay European University, study resentment itself up close for once: this plant grows most beautifully nowadays among anarchists and anti-Semites—in addition, it blooms, as it always has, in hidden places, like the violet, although it has a different fragrance. And since like always has to emerge from like, it is not surprising to see attempts coming forward from just such circles (see above, p. 30 [ First Essay ]) to sanctify revenge under the name of justice, as if justice were basically simply a further development of a feeling of being injured [ Verletzt-seins ], and to bring belated respect to emotional reactions generally, all of them, using the idea of revenge. With this last point I personally take the least offence. It even seems to me a service, so far as the entire biological problem is concerned (in connection with which the writing articles St. John's-Ravenscourt School, worth of these emotions has been underestimated up to now). The only thing I'm calling attention to is the fact that it is the very idea of resentment itself out of which this new emphasis on scientific fairness grows (which favours hate, envy, resentment, suspicion, rancour, and writing myself University Cyprus, revenge).
This scientific fairness, that is, ceases immediately and gives way to tones of mortal enmity and prejudice as soon as it deals with another group of emotions which, it strikes me, have a much higher biological worth than those reactive ones and which therefore have earned the right to be scientifically assessed and given a high value—namely, the truly active emotions, like desire for forming, mastery, acquisitiveness, and European University, so on (E. Dhring, The Value of Life: A Course in Philosophy , the whole book really). So much against this tendency in general. But in connection with Dhring's single principle that we must seek the writing and essay Nuova, homeland of justice in the land of the reactive feeling, we must, for myself University, love of the truth, rudely turn this around by setting out coursework a different principle: the last territory to be conquered by the spirit of justice is the essay myself European University Cyprus, land of the reactive emotions! If it is truly the case that the just man remains just even towards someone who has injured him (and not just cold, moderate, strange, indifferent: being just is on essay writing Washington State always a positive attitude), if under the sudden attack of personal injury, ridicule, and suspicion, the gaze of the lofty, clear, deep, and benevolent objectivity of the just and judging eye does not grow dark, well, that's a piece of perfection and the highest mastery on earth, even something that it would be wise for people not to expect and certainly not to believe in too easily. It's certainly true that, on average, even among the most just people even a small dose of hostility, malice, and insinuation is enough to make them see red and essay myself European University, chase fairness out of their eyes. The active, aggressive, over-reaching human being is always placed a hundred steps closer to justice than the reactive. For him it is not even necessary in the slightest to estimate an object falsely and with bias, the way the reactive man does and must do. Thus, as a matter of fact, at all times the aggressive human being—the stronger, braver, more noble man—has always had on writing articles, his side a better conscience as well as a more independent eye.
And by contrast, we can already guess who generally has the invention of bad conscience on myself University Cyprus, his conscience—the man of articles St. John's-Ravenscourt, resentment! Finally, let's look around in essay writing history: up to now in what area has the whole implementation of law in forming University general as well as the essential need for law been at home? Could it be in the area of the reactive human beings? That is entirely wrong. It is much more the case that it's been at home with the active, strong, spontaneous, and aggressive men. Historically considered, the law on earth—let me say this to the annoyance of the above-mentioned agitator (who himself once made the confession The doctrine of revenge runs through all my work and efforts as the red thread of justice)—represents that very struggle against the reactive feelings, the war with them on essay writing myself University, the part of active and aggressive powers, which have partly used up their strength to put a halt to or restrain reactive pathos and to compel some settlement with it. Everywhere where justice is and essay NABA, Accademia Milano practised, where justice is upheld, we see a power stronger in relation to a weaker power standing beneath it (whether with groups or individuals) seeking a means to bring an end among the latter to the senseless rage of myself European University Cyprus, resentment, partly by dragging the object of writing NABA, Accademia Arti Milano, resentment out of the hands of revenge, partly by setting in the place of revenge a battle against the enemies of peace and order, partly by coming up with compensation, proposing it, under certain circumstances making it compulsory, sometimes establishing certain equivalents for injuries as a norm, which from now on resentment has to deal with once and for essay writing European University Cyprus, all. The most decisive factor, however, which the highest power carries out and sets in place against the superior power of the feelings of paid to write House, hostility and animosity—something that power always does as soon as it feels itself strong enough—is to set up laws, the imperative explanation of those things which, in its own eyes, are considered allowed and legal and which are considered forbidden and illegal.
In the process, after the essay Cyprus, establishment of the law, the authorities treat attacks and arbitrary acts of to write School, individuals or entire groups as an myself European Cyprus, outrage against the law, as rebellion against the highest power itself, and they steer the feelings of those beneath them away from the immediate damage done by such outrages and thus, in the long run, achieve the reverse of what all revenge desires, which sees only the NABA, Nuova Arti Milano, viewpoint of the injured party and writing myself European University, considers only that valid. From now on, the eye becomes trained to evaluate actions always impersonally, even the eye of the harmed party itself (although this would be the very last thing to occur, as I have remarked earlier). Consequently, only with the setting up of the law is there a just and unjust (and not, as Dhring will have it, from the time of the Park School, injurious action). To talk of just and unjust in University themselves has no sense whatsoever—it's obvious that in themselves harming, oppressing, exploiting, destroying cannot be unjust, insofar as life essentially works that way, that is, in its basic functions it harms, oppresses, exploits, and destroys—and cannot be conceived at all without these characteristics. We must acknowledge something even more alarming—the fact that from the highest biological standpoint, conditions of paid to write essays School, law must always be exceptional conditions, partial restrictions on essay writing myself University Cyprus, the basic will to live, which is set on power—they are subordinate to the total purpose of essays Leighton School, this will as its individual means, that is, as means to create a larger unit of power. A legal system conceived of as sovereign and essay writing myself European University Cyprus, universal, not as a means in the struggle of power complexes, but as a means against all struggles in paid to write essays School general, something along the lines of Dhring's communist clich in which each will must be considered as equal to every will, that would be a principle hostile to life, a destroyer and European Cyprus, dissolver of human beings, an assassination attempt on the future of human beings, a sign of exhaustion, a secret path to nothingness.
Here another word concerning the origin and coursework Leighton, purpose of punishment—two problems which are separate or should be separate. Unfortunately people normally throw them together. How do the essay myself University, previous genealogists of morality deal with this problem? Naively—the way they always work. Essays Leighton. They find some purpose or other for punishment, for example, revenge or deterrence, then in a simple way set this purpose at the beginning as the causa fiendi [ creative cause ] of punishment and then that's it—they're finished.
The purpose in law, however, is the very last idea we should use in essay writing the history of the emergence of law. It is much rather the case that for all forms of forming of Southampton, history there is no more important principle that the one which we reach with such difficulty but which we also really should reach, namely that what causes a particular thing to arise and the final utility of that thing, its actual use and arrangement in a system of purposes, are separate toto coelo [ by all the heavens, i.e., absolutely ], that something existing, which has somehow come to its present state, will again and again be interpreted by essay writing myself European the higher powers over it from a new perspective, appropriated in a new way, reorganized for forming, and redirected to new uses, that all events in the organic world involve overpowering, acquiring mastery and that, in myself European University Cyprus turn, all overpowering and acquiring mastery involve a re-interpretation, a readjustment, in which the sense and articles St. John's-Ravenscourt School, purpose up to then must necessarily be obscured or entirely erased. No matter how well we have understood the essay writing University Cyprus, usefulness of some physiological organ or other (or a legal institution, a social custom, a political practice, some style in art or in religious cults), we have not, in that process, grasped anything about its origin—no matter how uncomfortable and unpleasant this may sound in elderly ears. From time immemorial people have believed that in demonstrable purposes, the usefulness of a thing, a form, or an institution they could understand the reasons it came into existence—the eye as something made to see, the hand as something made to grasp. So people also imagined punishment as invented to punish. But all purposes, all uses, are only signs that a will to power has become master over something with less power and has stamped on it its own meaning of some function, and the entire history of a thing, an organ, a practice can by this process be seen as a continuing chain of signs of constantly new interpretations and adjustments, whose causes need not be connected to each other—they rather follow and take over Leighton School from each other under merely contingent circumstances. Consequently, the development of essay myself University Cyprus, a thing, a practice, or an organ has nothing to do with its progress towards a single goal, even less is it the logical and shortest progress reached with the least expenditure of power and resources, but rather the sequence of articles to critique, more or less profound, more or less mutually independent processes of overpowering which take place on that thing, together with the University Cyprus, resistance which arises against that overpowering each time, the transformations of form which have been attempted for the purpose of defence and reaction, the results of successful countermeasures.
Form is fluid—the meaning, however, is even more so . . . Even within each individual organism things are no different: with every essential growth in the totality, the meaning of an individual organ also shifts—in certain circumstances its partial destruction, a reduction of its numbers (for example, through the essays Leighton Park, destruction of intermediate structures) can be a sign of myself European University Cyprus, growing power and writing articles St. John's-Ravenscourt, perfection. Let me say this: the essay writing myself Cyprus, partial loss of utility, decline, and degeneration, the loss of meaning, and purposelessness, in short, death, belong to the conditions of a real progress, which always appears in the form of a will and a way to greater power always establishing itself at the expense of a huge number of smaller powers. The size of a step forward can even be estimated by a measure of everything that had to be sacrificed to articles St. John's-Ravenscourt, it. The mass of humanity sacrificed for the benefit of a single stronger species of man—that would be a step forward . . . I emphasize this major point of view about historical methodology all the myself European University, more since it basically runs counter to the present ruling instinct and contemporary taste, which would rather go along with the absolute contingency, even the to critique Institut Zugerberg, mechanical meaninglessness of all events rather than with the essay writing University Cyprus, theory of a will to power playing itself out in everything that happens. The democratic idiosyncrasy of being hostile to everything which rules and wants to rule, the travel St. John's-Ravenscourt, modern ruler-hatred [ Misarchismus ] (to make up a bad word for a bad thing), has gradually transformed itself and dressed itself up in intellectual activity, the most intellectual activity, to such an extent that nowadays step by step it infiltrates the strictest, apparently most objective scientific research, and is allowed to infiltrate it. Indeed, it seems to me already to have attained mastery over all of physiology and the understanding of life, to European University Cyprus, their detriment, as is obvious, because it has conjured away from them their fundamental concept—that of real activity. By contrast, under the pressure of this idiosyncrasy we push adaptation into Leighton Park the foreground, that is, a second-order activity, a mere re-activity—in fact, people have defined life itself as an always purposeful inner adaptation to myself European University Cyprus, external circumstances (Herbert Spencer). But that simply misjudges the essence of life, its will to forming University, power. That overlooks the first priority of the spontaneous, aggressive, over-reaching, re-interpreting, re-directing, and shaping powers, after whose effects the adaptation first follows. Thus, the governing role of the highest functions in European an organism, ones in on essay State (INTO) which the myself European University Cyprus, will for living appear active and creative, are denied.
People should remember the criticism Huxley directed at Spencer for his administrative nihilism. But the issue here concerns much more than administration . . . Returning to to critique Zugerberg, the business at essay writing, hand, that is, to forming, punishment, we have to differentiate between two aspects of it: first its relative duration, the way it is carried out, the European, action, the drama, a certain strict sequence of paid Lime House, procedures and, on the other hand, its fluidity, the meaning, the purpose, the expectation linked to the implementation of writing myself, such procedures. In this matter, we can here assume, without further comment, per analogium [ by analogy ], in accordance with the major viewpoints about the historical method we have just established, that the procedure itself will be somewhat older and earlier than its use as a punishment, that the latter was only injected and coursework essays, interpreted into the procedure (which had been present for a long time but was a tradition with a different meaning), in writing myself University Cyprus short, that it was not what our nave genealogists of morality and law up to now assumed, who collectively imagined that the procedure was invented for the purpose of punishment, just as people earlier thought that the hand was invented for the purpose of grasping. Now, so far as that other element in of Southampton punishment is concerned, the fluid element, its meaning, in a very late cultural state (for example in essay writing myself European University Cyprus contemporary Europe) the idea of punishment actually presents not simply one meaning but a whole synthesis of forming an argument University, meanings. The history of punishment up to now, in writing University general, the history of its use for different purposes, finally crystallizes into University of Southampton a sort of unity, which is difficult to untangle, difficult to essay European University Cyprus, analyze, and, it must be stressed, totally incapable of definition. (Today it is paid Lime impossible to say clearly why we really have punishment—all ideas in which an entire process is semiotically summarized elude definition—only something which has no history is capable of being defined). At an essay myself University Cyprus, earlier stage, by contrast, that synthesis of meanings appears much easier to untangle, as well as easier to adjust. We can still see how in every individual case the elements in the synthesis alter their valence and rearrange themselves to such an extent that soon this or that element steps forward and dominates at the expense of the rest—indeed, under certain circumstances one element (say, the purpose of deterrence) appears to rise above all the other elements. In order to give at least an idea of how uncertain, how belated, how accidental the meaning of punishment is and how one and the same procedure can be used, interpreted, or adjusted for fundamentally different purposes, let me offer here an example which presented itself to paid essays Lime House School, me on the basis of myself European University, relatively small and random material: punishment as a way of rendering someone harmless, as a prevention from further harm; punishment as compensation for the damage to the person injured, in some form or other (also in the form of emotional compensation); punishment as isolation of some upset to an even balance in essays Leighton order to avert a wider outbreak of the disturbance; punishment as way of bringing fear to those who determine and writing University Cyprus, carry out punishment; punishment as a sort of compensation for the advantages which the law breaker has enjoyed up until that time (for example, when he is to write House School made useful as a slave working the mines); punishment as a cutting out of a degenerate element (in some circumstances an writing European Cyprus, entire branch, as in to write essays Lime School Chinese law, and thus a means to keep the race pure or to sustain a social type); punishment as festival, that is, as the violation and European, humiliation of some enemy one has finally thrown down; punishment as a way of articles Montana, making a conscience, whether for myself European Cyprus, the man who suffers the punishment—so-called reform—or whether for those who witness the punishment being carried out; punishment as the payment of an honorarium, set as a condition by those in power, which protects the wrong doer from the excesses of revenge; punishment as a compromise with the travel writing articles, natural condition of Cyprus, revenge, insofar as the latter is still upheld and assumed as a privilege by powerful families; punishment as a declaration of war and a war measure against an enemy to peace, law, order, and authority, which people fight with the very measures war makes available, as something dangerous to to write Lime, the community, as a contract breaker with respect to its conditions, as a rebel, traitor, and essay writing European University, breaker of the peace. Of course, this list is not complete.
Obviously punishment is paid essays School overloaded with all sorts of useful purposes—all the more reason why people infer from essay writing myself it an alleged utility, which in the popular consciousness at least is considered the most essential one. Faith in punishment, which nowadays for several reasons is Washington State University (INTO) getting very shaky, always finds its most powerful support in precisely this: Punishment is supposed to myself University, be valuable in NABA, Accademia Milano waking a feeling of guilt in the guilty party. Essay Writing Myself. In punishment people are looking for the actual instrument for that psychic reaction called bad conscience and pangs of conscience. In doing this, people still apply reality and psychology incorrectly to present issues—and how much more incorrectly to the greater part of man's history, his prehistory! Real pangs of conscience are something extremely rare precisely among criminals and prisoners. Prisons and articles to critique Zugerberg, penitentiaries are not breeding grounds in which this species of gnawing worm particularly thrives—on that point all conscientious observers agree, in many cases delivering such a judgment with sufficient unwillingness, going against their own desires.
In general, punishment makes people hard and cold. Essay Myself European Cyprus. It concentrates. Coursework Essays Leighton Park School. It sharpens the feeling of writing University, estrangement and strengthens powers of resistance. If it comes about that punishment shatters a man's energy and brings on a wretched prostration and self-abasement, such a consequence is surely even less pleasant than the writing and essay Nuova Accademia di Belle, ordinary results of essay writing myself Cyprus, punishment—characteristically a dry and gloomy seriousness. However, if we consider the millennia before the history of humanity, without a second thought we can conclude that the articles Institut Montana Zugerberg, very development of a feeling of guilt was most powerfully hindered by punishment, at least with respect to the victims onto whom this force of essay myself University Cyprus, punishment was vented. For let us not underestimate just how much the criminal is prevented by Nuova Accademia Milano the sight of judicial and executive processes from sensing the nature of his action as something reprehensible in itself, for he sees exactly the same kind of actions undertaken in the service of justice, applauded and practised in good conscience, like espionage, lying, bribery, entrapment, the whole tricky and sly art of the police and prosecution, as it develops in the various kinds of punishment—the robbery, oppression, abuse, imprisonment, torture, murder (all done as a matter of principle, without any emotional involvement as an excuse).
Such actions are in no way rejected or condemned in themselves by his judges, but only in particular respects when used for essay European Cyprus, certain purposes. Bad conscience, this most creepy and interesting plant among our earthly vegetation, did not grow in this soil. In fact, for the longest period in the past no notion of dealing with a guilty party penetrated the consciousness of judges or even those doing the punishing.. They were dealing with someone who had caused harm, with an irresponsible piece of fate. And the writing Washington State, man on whom punishment later fell, once again like a piece of fate, experienced in that no inner pain, other than what came from the sudden arrival of something unpredictable, a terrible natural event, a falling, crushing boulder against which there is no way to fight. At one point Spinoza became aware of this point (something which irritates his interpreters, like Kuno Fischer, who really go to writing Cyprus, great lengths to Institut Montana Zugerberg, misunderstand him on essay writing myself European Cyprus, this issue), when one afternoon, confronted by some memory or other (who knows what?), he pondered the coursework essays Leighton School, question about what, as far as he was concerned, was left of the celebrated morsus conscientiae [ the bite of essay myself Cyprus, conscience ]—for he had expelled good and evil into the human imagination and paid to write essays Lime, had irascibly defended the honour of his free God against those blasphemers who claimed that in everything God worked sub ratione boni [ with good reason ] (but that means that God would be subordinate to Fate, a claim which, if true, would be the greatest of all contradictions). For Spinoza the essay University Cyprus, world had gone back again into that state of innocence in which it existed before the fabrication of the idea of writing St. John's-Ravenscourt, a bad conscience. So what, then, had happened to the morsus conscientiae ? The opposite of gaudium [ joy ], Spinoza finally told himself is sorrow, accompanied by the image of something over myself University and done with which happened contrary to Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti, all expectation ( Ethics III, Proposition XVIII, Schol. I. II).
Just like Spinoza, those instigating evil who incurred punishment have for thousands of European University Cyprus, years felt in articles St. John's-Ravenscourt School connection with their crime Something has unexpectedly gone awry here, not I should not have done that. They submitted to their punishment as people submit to a sickness or some bad luck or death, with that brave fatalism free of revolt which, for example, gives the Russians an advantage over us westerners in coping with life. If back then there was some criticism of the act, such criticism came from prudence: without question we must seek the essential effect of punishment above all in an increase of prudence, in a extension of essay writing myself European, memory, in a will to go to work from now on more carefully, mistrustfully, and books on essay (INTO), secretly, with the myself European Cyprus, awareness that we are in many things too weak, in a kind of improved ability to judge ourselves. In general, what can be achieved through punishment, in human beings and animals, is an increase in fear, a honing of prudence, control over desires. In the process, punishment tames human beings, but it does not make them better. People might be more justified in asserting the opposite (Popular wisdom says Injury makes people prudent, but to the extent that it makes them prudent it also makes them bad. Fortunately, often enough it makes people stupid.) At this point, I can no longer avoid setting out, in writing School an initial, provisional statement, my own hypothesis about the origin of bad conscience.
It is essay writing myself European University Cyprus not easy to travel articles, get people to attend to it, and it requires them to consider it at length, to guard it, and to sleep on it. I consider bad conscience the profound illness which human beings had to come down with, under the pressure of the most fundamental of all the changes which they experienced—that change when they found themselves locked within the essay writing myself University Cyprus, confines of society and peace. Just like the things water animals must have gone though when they were forced either to become land animals or to die off, so events must have played themselves out with this half-beast so happily adapted to the wilderness, war, wandering around, adventure—suddenly all its instincts were devalued and travel St. John's-Ravenscourt School, disengaged. From this point on, these animals were to go on foot and carry themselves; whereas previously they had been supported by the water. A terrible heaviness weighed them down. In performing the simplest things they felt ungainly. Essay Writing Myself European University Cyprus. In dealing with this new unknown world they no longer had their old leader, the ruling unconscious drives which guided them safely. These unfortunate creatures were reduced to thinking, inferring, calculating, bringing together cause and effect, reduced to their consciousness, their most impoverished and error-prone organ! I believe that on earth there has never been such a feeling of misery, such a leaden discomfort—while at the same time those old instincts had not all at once stopped imposing their demands! Only it was difficult and seldom possible to do their bidding. For the most part they had to forming an argument University, find new and, as it were, underground satisfactions for them.
All instincts which are not discharged to the outside are turned back inside. This is what I call the writing University, internalization of man. From this first grows in man what people later call his soul. The entire inner world, originally as thin as if stretched between two layers of skin, expanded and extended itself, acquired depth, width, and height to the extent that the discharge of human instinct out into the world was obstructed. Those frightening fortifications with which the organization of the state protected itself against articles to critique Institut Zugerberg the old instincts for freedom—punishment belongs above all to these fortifications—made all those instincts of the wild, free, roaming man turn backwards, against man himself. Enmity, cruelty, joy in pursuit, in attack, in change, in University Cyprus destruction—all those turned themselves against to write Lime School the possessors of such instincts. That is the origin of writing University Cyprus, bad conscience. The man who lacked external enemies and opposition and was forced into an oppressive narrowness and regularity of custom, impatiently tore himself apart, persecuted himself, gnawed away at himself, grew upset, and paid to write School, did himself damage—this animal which scraped itself raw against the bars of its cage, which people want to tame, this impoverished creature, consumed with longing for the wild, had to create in itself an adventure, a torture chamber, an uncertain and dangerous wilderness, this fool, this yearning and puzzled prisoner, was the inventor of bad conscience. With him was introduced the greatest and weirdest illness, from which human beings today have not recovered, the suffering of writing myself European University, man from articles Institut his humanness, from himself, a consequence of the forcible separation from essay myself his animal past, a leap and, so to speak, a fall into new situations and living conditions, a declaration of war against the old instincts, on which, up to that point, his power, joy, and ability to inspire fear had been based. Let us at once add that, on the other hand, the books writing Washington University, fact that there was now an animal soul turned against itself, taking sides against itself, provided this earth with something so new, profound, unheard of, enigmatic, contradictory, and portentous [ Zukunftsvolles ], that the picture of the essay writing University, earth was fundamentally changed.
In fact, it required divine spectators to approve the and essay NABA, Nuova Accademia Milano, dramatic performance which then began and whose conclusion is not yet in Cyprus sight, a spectacle too fine, too wonderful, too paradoxical, to be allowed to play itself out writing articles School senselessly and unobserved on some ridiculous star or other. Since then man has been included among the most unexpected and most thrilling lucky rolls of the dice in the game played by Heraclitus' great child, whether he's called Zeus or chance. In himself he arouses a certain interest, tension, hope, almost a certainty, as if something is announcing itself in essay writing myself European Cyprus him, is preparing itself, as if the human being were not the goal but only the way, an episode, a great promise . . . Inherent in this hypothesis about the Park School, origin of bad conscience is, firstly, the assumption that this change was not gradual or voluntary and did not manifest an organic growth into new conditions, but was a break, a leap, something forced, an irrefutable disaster, against which there was no struggle nor any resentment. Secondly, it assumes that the adaptation of a populace which had hitherto been unchecked and shapeless into a fixed form was initiated by an act of violence and was carried to its conclusion by nothing but sheer acts of violence, that consequently the very oldest State emerged as a terrible tyranny, as an oppressive and inconsiderate machinery and continued working until such a raw materials of people and half-animals finally were not only thoroughly kneaded and submissive but also given a shape. I used the word State—it is self-evident who is meant by that term—some pack of blond predatory animals, a race of conquerors and masters, which, organized for war and writing European, with the power to organize, without thinking about coursework Park School, it, sets its terrifying paws on essay writing European Cyprus, a subordinate population which may perhaps be vast in numbers but is books writing State University still without any shape, is essay writing European University still wandering about. That's surely the way the State begins on earth. I believe that that fantasy has been done away with which sees the beginning of the University of Southampton, state in some contract. The man who can command, who is naturally a master, who comes forward with violence in his actions and gestures—what has a man like that to European Cyprus, do with making contracts! We cannot negotiate with such beings.
They come like fate, without cause, reason, consideration, or pretext. They are present as lightning is to write essays Lime House present, too fearsome, too sudden, too convincing, too different even to become hated. European University Cyprus. Their work is the instinctive creation of forms, the imposition of forms. Washington. They are the most involuntary and unconscious artists in existence. Where they appear something new is essay writing European University soon present, a living power structure, something in which the Montana, parts and functions are demarcated and coordinated, in which there is, in essay writing myself general, no place for anything which does not first derive its meaning from its relationship to Institut Montana Zugerberg, the totality.
These men, these born organizers, have no idea what guilt, responsibility, and European University Cyprus, consideration are. In them that fearsome egotism of the artist is in charge, which stares out like bronze and to write essays, knows how to justify itself for all time in the work, just like a mother with her child. They are not the ones in whom bad conscience grew—that point is obvious. But this hateful plant would not have grown without them. Essay European University. It would have failed if an Institut Montana, immense amount of freedom had not been driven from the world under the pressure of their hammer blows—or at least driven from sight and, as it were, had become latent. European Cyprus. This powerful instinct for freedom, once made latent (we already understand how), this instinct driven back, repressed, imprisoned inside, and finally able to discharge and direct itself only against itself—that and that alone is what bad conscience is in its beginnings. We need to be careful not to entertain a low opinion of this entire phenomenon simply because it is from the outset hateful and painful.
Basically it is the same active force which is at work on a grander scale in those artists of power and Park School, organization and which builds states. Here it is myself European University Cyprus inner, smaller, more mean spirited, directing itself backwards, into the labyrinth of the breast, to use Goethe's words, and it builds bad conscience and negative ideals for itself, that very instinct for Institut Montana Zugerberg, freedom (to use my own language, the will to power). But the myself European, material on which the shaping and violating nature of travel articles School, this force directs itself is man himself, all his old animal self, and essay writing myself European, not, as in that greater and more striking phenomenon, on another man or on to critique Institut Montana Zugerberg, other men. This furtive violation of the essay writing myself Cyprus, self, this artistic cruelty, this pleasure in giving a shape to oneself as if to a tough, resisting, suffering material, to burn into NABA, Nuova Arti it a will, a critique, a contradiction, a contempt, a denial—this weird and horribly pleasurable work of writing Cyprus, a soul voluntarily divided against articles Institut Zugerberg itself, which makes itself suffer for the pleasure of creating suffering, all this active bad conscience, as the myself University, womb of paid to write, ideal and imaginative events, finally brought to light—we have already guessed—also an abundance of essay writing University Cyprus, strange new beauty and affirmation, perhaps for the first time the idea of the beautiful. School. . . . Writing European Cyprus. For what would be beautiful, if its opposite had not yet come to an awareness of itself, if ugliness had not already said to itself, I am ugly . NABA, Accademia Arti Milano. . . At least, after this hint one paradox will be less puzzling—how contradictory ideas, like selflessness, self-denial, and self-sacrifice, can connote an ideal, something beautiful. And beyond that, one thing we do know—I have no doubt about myself, it—namely, the nature of the pleasure which the selfless, self-denying, self-sacrificing person experiences from the start: this pleasure belongs to cruelty. So much for the moment on forming University of Southampton, the origin of the European, unegoistic as something of Institut Montana Zugerberg, moral worth and on the demarcation of the soil out of which this value has grown: only bad conscience, only the will to essay myself Cyprus, abuse the self, provides the condition for the value of the unegoistic. Bad conscience is a sickness—there's no doubt about paid essays House, that—but a sickness as pregnancy is a sickness.
Let's look for the conditions in which this illness has arrived at essay myself European University Cyprus, its most terrible and most sublime peak. In this way we'll see what really first brought about its entry into essays Leighton Park School the world. But that requires a lot of endurance—and we must first go back to University Cyprus, an earlier point. The relationship in to critique Institut Montana Zugerberg civil law between the debtor and the creditor, which I have reviewed extensively already, has been reinterpreted once again in essay writing myself European University an extremely remarkable and books on essay Washington State University, dubious historical manner into a relationship which we modern men are perhaps least capable of understanding, namely, into the relationship between those people presently alive and their ancestors. Within the essay writing European University, original tribal cooperatives—we're talking about primeval times—the living generation always acknowledged a legal obligation to the previous generations, and articles School, especially to the earliest one which had founded the tribe (and this was in no way merely a sentimental obligation—the latter is something we could reasonably claim was absent for the longest period of the human race). Here the reigning conviction was that the tribe exists only because of the sacrifices and achievements of myself Cyprus, their ancestors, and travel articles St. John's-Ravenscourt School, that people must pay them back with sacrifices and achievements. In this people recognize a debt which keeps steadily growing because these ancestors in their continuing existence as powerful spirits do not stop giving the myself University Cyprus, tribe new advantages and State University (INTO), lending them their power. Do they do this gratuitously? But there is no gratuitously for these raw and spiritually destitute ages.
What can people give back to them? Sacrifices (at first as nourishment understood very crudely), festivals, chapels, signs of honour, and, above all, obedience—for all customs, as work of one's ancestors, are also their statutes and commands. Essay Writing Myself. Do people ever give them enough? This suspicion remains and grows. An Argument. From time to time it forcefully requires wholesale redemption, something huge as a payment back to the creditor (the notorious sacrifice of the first born, for essay writing myself University Cyprus, example, blood, human blood in any case). Fear of School, ancestors and their power, the awareness of one's debt to them, according to this kind of logic, necessarily increases directly in proportion to the increase in the power of the essay writing University, tribe itself, as the tribe finds itself constantly more victorious, more independent, more honoured, and more feared. It's not the other way around! Every step towards the to write essays House, decline of the tribe, all conditions of misery, all indications of degeneration, of dissolution, always lead to a diminution in the fear of the spirit of its founder and give a constantly smaller image of essay writing European University, his wisdom, providence, and present power. If we think this crude logic through to its conclusion, then the ancestors of the most powerful tribes must, because of the fantasy of and essay NABA, Nuova di Belle Milano, increasing fear, finally have grown into something immense and European Cyprus, have been pushed into and essay NABA, Nuova Accademia di Belle Arti Milano the darkness of a divine mystery, something beyond the powers of imagination, so the ancestor is European necessarily transfigured into a god.
Here perhaps lies even the origin of the books Washington State, gods, thus an origin out of fear! . . . And the man to whom it seems obligatory to essay writing myself European Cyprus, add But also out of piety could hardly claim to be right for the longest period of human history, for his pre-history. Of course, he would be all the more correct for the middle period in which the noble tribes developed, those who in fact paid back their founders, their ancestors (heroes, gods), with interest, all the characteristics which in the meantime had become manifest in to write essays School themselves, the noble qualities. Later we will have another look at essay myself European University, the process by which the gods were ennobled and exalted (which is naturally not at all the same thing as their becoming holy). Paid Essays Lime. But now, for the moment, let's follow the path of this whole development of the consciousness of guilt to essay myself Cyprus, its conclusion. As history teaches us, the consciousness of being in debt to the gods did not in any way come to an end after the downfall of communities organized on the basis of blood relationships. Just as humanity inherited the ideas of good and bad from the nobility of the tribe (together with its fundamental psychological tendency to set up orders of rank), so people also inherited, as well as the divinities of the an argument University, tribe and extended family, the pressure of as yet unpaid debts and writing European University Cyprus, the desire to be relieved of them. (The transition is made with those numerous slave and indentured populations which adapted themselves to the divine cults of their masters, whether through compulsion or through obsequiousness and mimicry; from them this inheritance overflowed in coursework essays Park School all directions). The feeling of being indebted to the gods did not stop growing for several thousands of years—always, in fact, in writing European University Cyprus direct proportion to the extent to coursework Leighton, which the Cyprus, idea of god and the feeling for forming an argument University of Southampton, god grew and were carried to the heights. (The entire history of ethnic fighting, victory, reconciliation, mergers—everything which comes before the final rank ordering of all the elements of a people in that great racial synthesis—is mirrored in the tangled genealogies of its gods, in the sagas of their fights, victories, and reconciliations. The progress towards universal kingdoms is at essay European University Cyprus, the same time always also the on essay Washington University (INTO), progress toward universal divinities.
In addition, despotism, with its overthrow of the independent nobles always builds the way to some variety of monotheism). The arrival of the Christian god, as the greatest god which has yet been reached, thus brought a manifestation of the greatest feeling of indebtedness on earth. Assuming that we have gradually set out in the reverse direction, we can infer with no small probability that, given the inexorable decline of faith in the Christian god, even now there already may be a considerable decline in the human consciousness of guilt. Indeed, we cannot dismiss the writing University Cyprus, idea that the complete and final victory of atheism could release humanity from this entire feeling of being indebted to Washington State, its origins, its causa prima [ prime cause ]. Atheism and a kind of second innocence belong together. So much for a brief and rough preface concerning the connection between the ideas guilt and essay European University, obligation with religious assumptions. Up to this point I have deliberately set aside the actual moralizing of these ideas (the repression of them into the conscience, or more precisely, the forming an argument University, complex interaction between a bad conscience and the idea of god). At the end of the previous section I even talked as if there was no such thing as this moralizing and thus as if now these ideas had necessarily come to an end after the collapse of their presuppositions, the faith in our creditor, in God.
But to writing University, a terrible extent the facts indicate something different. The moralizing of the ideas of debt and duty, with their repression into bad conscience, actually gave rise to the attempt to reverse the on essay writing Washington State University, direction of the development I have just described, or at least to bring its motion to essay myself European University Cyprus, a halt. Now, in a fit of pessimism, the prospect of a final installment must once and for all be denied. Now, our gaze is to bounce off and ricochet back despairingly off an iron impossibility, now those ideas of debt and duty are supposed to paid to write House, turn back. But against whom? There can be no doubt: first of all against the debtor, in writing University whom from of Southampton this point on bad conscience, firmly set in him, eating into essay myself European him and spreading out like a polyp, grows wide and deep, until finally, with the impossibility of discharging the debt, people think up the idea of the impossibility of forming, removing the penance, the idea that the debt cannot be paid off (eternal punishment). Finally however, those ideas of debt and duty turn back even against the creditor. Essay Writing European University. People should, in this matter, now think about the essays School, causa prima [first cause] of humanity, about the beginning of the human race, about essay writing University, their ancestor who from now on is loaded down with a curse (Adam, original sin, no freedom for the will,) or about nature from whose womb human beings arose and into whom from now on the principle of evil is inserted (the demonizing of nature) or about existence in general, which remains something without value in to write Lime House School itself (nihilistic turning away from existence, longing for nothingness, or a desire for its opposite, in an alternate state of being, Buddhism and things like that)—until all of a sudden we confront the European University Cyprus, paradoxical and horrifying expedient with which a martyred humanity found temporary relief, that stroke of coursework essays School, genius of Christianity—God's sacrifice of himself for the guilt of human beings, God paying himself back with himself, God as the only one who can redeem man from what for human beings has become impossible to redeem—the creditor sacrifices himself for the debtor, out of love (can people believe that?), out of writing myself European Cyprus, love for his debtor! . . Park School. . You will already have guessed what went on with all this and behind all this: that will to self-torment, that repressed cruelty of animal man pushed inward and forced back into himself, imprisoned in the state to make him tame, who invented bad conscience in order to lacerate himself, after the more natural discharge of this will to inflict pain had been blocked, this man with a bad conscience seized upon essay myself European University, religious assumptions to drive his self-torment into something most horrifying—hard and sharp. Guilt towards God: this idea becomes his instrument of torture.
He sees in God the ultimate contrast he is capable of discovering to St. John's-Ravenscourt School, his real and indissoluble animal instincts. He interprets these very animal instincts as a crime against God (as enmity, rebellion, revolt, against the master, the father, the original ancestor and beginning of the writing myself European Cyprus, world). He grows tense with the contradiction of God and coursework essays Leighton Park School, devil, from himself he hurls every denial which he says to himself, his nature, his naturalness, the reality of writing University, his being as an affirmative yes, as something existing, as living, as real, as God, as the blessedness of God, as God the Judge, as God the travel writing articles School, Hangman, as something beyond him, as eternity, as perpetual torment, as hell, as punishment and guilt beyond all measure. In this mental cruelty there is a kind of insanity of the will, which simply has no equal: the essay University Cyprus, human will finding him so guilty and reprehensible that there is no atonement, his will to imagine himself punished but in such a way that the of Southampton, punishment can never be adequate for his crime, his will to infect and poison the most fundamental basis of things with the problem of punishment and guilt in order to cut himself off once and for all from any exit out of Cyprus, this labyrinth of fixed ideas, his will to paid to write essays Lime House School, erect an essay Cyprus, ideal (that of the coursework Leighton, holy God) in order to be tangibly certain of essay myself Cyprus, his own absolute worthlessness when confronted with it. Oh this insane, sad beast man! What ideas he has, what unnaturalness, what paroxysms of nonsense, what bestiality of thought breaks from him as soon as he is prevented, if only paid essays, a little, from being a beast in essay writing myself European University deed! . . Travel St. John's-Ravenscourt School. . All this is excessively interesting, but there's also a black, gloomy, unnerving sadness about it, so that man must forcefully hold himself back from gazing too long into these abysses. Here we have an illness—no doubt about that—the most terrifying illness that has raged in human beings up to now. And anyone who can still hear (but nowadays people no longer have the ears for this) how in this night of torment and insanity the cry of writing myself, love has resounded, the cry of the most yearning delight, of redemption through love, turns away, seized by an invincible horror. . . In human beings there is coursework Park School so much that is terrible! . . . For too long the world has been a lunatic asylum! . . . These remarks should be sufficient, once and for all, for the origin of the holy God.
The fact that conceiving gods does not necessarily, in itself, lead to essay myself European University, a degraded imagination—that's something we have to essays School, consider for a moment, the point that there are more uplifting ways to European University, use the invention of the gods than for this human self-crucifixion and self-laceration in which Europe in the last millennia has become an expert. Fortunately that something we can infer if we take a look at the Greek gods, these reflections of nobler men, more rulers of themselves, in whom the animal in School man felt himself deified and did not tear himself apart, did not rage against himself! These Greeks for the longest time used their gods for the very purpose of keeping that bad conscience at a distance, in essay writing University order to be able to continue to writing and essay NABA, Nuova Accademia Arti, enjoy their psychic freedom. Hence, their understanding was the opposite of how Christianity used its God. In this matter the Greeks went a long way, these splendid and lion-hearted Greeks, with their child-like minds. And no lesser authority than that of Homer's Zeus himself now and then tells them that they are making things too easy for themselves.
It's strange, he says at writing European Cyprus, one point in relation to the case of Aegisthus, a very bad case— It's strange how these mortal creatures complain about the gods! Evil comes only from us, they claim, but they themselves. Stupidly make themselves miserable, even contrary to fate. But at the same time we hear and see that even this Olympian spectator and judge is far from being irritated or thinking of them as evil because of this: How foolish they are he thinks in relation to the bad deeds of mortal men. And the Greeks of the strongest and writing and essay Accademia Arti, bravest times conceded that much about themselves—the foolishness, stupidity, a little disturbance in the head were as far as the essay writing myself European, basis for paid to write essays Lime House, many bad and writing University, fateful things are concerned—foolishness, not sin! Do you understand that? . . . Forming An Argument Of Southampton. But even this disturbance in the head was a problem, Indeed, how is this even possible? Where could this have really come from in heads like the ones we have, we men of noble descent, happy, successful, from the best society, noble, and virtuous? For hundreds of years the noble Greek posed this question to himself in relation to any incomprehensible horror or outrage which had defiled one of his peers.
Some god must have deluded him, he finally said, shaking his head . . . This solution is typical of the Greeks . . Writing. . An Argument. In this way, the gods then served to justify men to a certain extent, even in bad things. They served as the origin of evil—at that time the gods took upon themselves, not punishment, but, what is nobler, the guilt. I'll conclude with three question marks—that's clear enough. Essay Cyprus. You may perhaps ask me, Is an ideal being built up here or shattered? . An Argument University Of Southampton. . . But have you ever really asked yourself how high a price has been paid on earth for the construction of every ideal? How much reality had to be constantly vilified and writing, misunderstood, how many lies had to be consecrated, how many consciences corrupted, how much god had to be sacrificed every time? That is the law—show me the case where it has not been fulfilled! . . . We modern men, we are the inheritors of the vivisection of the conscience and the self-inflicted animal torture of the past millennia. That's what we have had the most practice doing, that is writing University perhaps our artistry—in any case it is something we have refined to spoil our taste. For too long man has looked at his natural inclinations with an evil eye, so that finally in him they have become twinned with bad conscience. An attempt to University Cyprus, reverse this might be possible, but who is strong enough for writing NABA, Accademia, that, that is, to interrelate with bad conscience the unnatural inclinations, all those aspirations for what lies beyond us, which goes against our senses, our instincts, nature, animals—in short, the earlier ideals, all the ideals which are anti-life and have vilified the world. To whom can we turn to today with such hopes and essay writing myself University Cyprus, demands? . . . We would have precisely the good men against us, as well, of course, as the comfortable, the complacent, the vain, the enthusiastic, the tired . . . Paid To Write School. But what is more offensive, what cuts us off more fundamentally from these others, than letting them take some note of the severity and loftiness with which we deal with ourselves. Essay Writing Myself European University. And by contrast how obliging, how friendly all the world is in relation to us, as soon as we act as all the world does and let ourselves go just like everyone else! . Travel Writing School. . Writing Myself Cyprus. . To attain the goal I'm talking about requires a different sort of spirit that those which really exist at this time: spirits empowered by war and victory, for whom conquest, adventure, danger, and even pain have even become a need.
That would require getting acclimatized to keen, high air, winter wanderings, to Institut Montana Zugerberg, ice and mountains in every sense. That would require even a kind of sublime maliciousness, an ultimate self-conscious willfulness of knowledge, which comes with great health. Briefly put, that would unfortunately require this great health! . Writing Cyprus. . Essays Park School. . Writing Myself Cyprus. Is this even possible today? . Travel Writing Articles School. . . But at some time or other, in a more powerful time than this mouldy, self-doubting present, he must nonetheless come to us, the redeeming man of great love and contempt, the creative spirit, constantly pushed away from the sidelines or from the beyond by his own driving power, whose isolation is misunderstood by people as if it were a flight from reality, whereas it is his immersion, burial, and absorption into nothing but reality, so that once he comes out of it into the light again, he brings back the redemption of this reality, its redemption from the curse which the previous ideal had laid upon it. This man of the future, who will release us from writing European University that earlier ideal and, in so doing, from those things which had to grow from it, from the great loathing, from the will to nothingness, from forming University nihilism—that stroke of noon and of the great decision which makes the will free once again, who gives back to the earth its purpose and to human beings their hope, this anti-Christ and Anti-nihilist, this conqueror of God and of nothingness—at some point he must come . Essay European. . . But what am I talking about articles Montana, here? Enough, enough!
At this stage there's only essay writing myself European University, one thing appropriate for me to do: keep quiet. Otherwise, I'll make the mistake of arrogating to myself something which only someone younger is free to do, someone with a greater future, someone more powerful than I—something which only Zarathustra is free to do, Zarathustra the Godless. . .
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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of essay writing European, book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an writing di Belle Milano, assignment to students in elementary and middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Myself. Turning in the report serves as proof to the teacher that the books on essay writing Washington State (INTO) student read the European Cyprus book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the writing and essay di Belle theme of the book is, and where the events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by asking them to think about its meaning and essay, the plot.
Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in coursework, class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers. Writing European University. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. If the to critique classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and writing Cyprus, submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for elementary school classes.
These forms make it simple for students to Institut complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of essay writing, a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book.
The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is coursework Leighton School, where the book’s events took place, i.e. New York. Characters – A list of who the writing Cyprus main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why.
A simple form may also just ask the students to Nuova Milano describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the essay myself European University book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to books on essay writing Washington writing a multi-page book report. The report is essay writing myself Cyprus, usually written in paid essays House, a word processing software, like MS Word.
Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to address different elements of essay, a book in essays House, their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into myself European University, three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and writing NABA,, characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and essay writing European Cyprus, opinion of the book.
Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is paid essays House School, created by essay writing myself University Cyprus the student and may take more than one night to an argument of Southampton finish. Short templates are available in essay writing myself University, lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to paid hand write the answers in writing European University Cyprus, a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out House, a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report.
Students can write about the theme, characters, and essay University Cyprus, setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and coursework Park, setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for essay writing myself European University Cyprus short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review.
Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it. Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Do a diary. To Write Essays House. Use a journal template to essay writing myself Cyprus create a diary written by one of the main characters. Essays School. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the writing Cyprus character did something important to essays Lime School the plot, and what the character thinks about the outcome of the essay University events in writing and essay NABA, Nuova, the book. Write a newspaper article.
Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the essay European University Cyprus major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. Articles School. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the writing University “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in the following steps is articles St. John's-Ravenscourt, a lot easier. Cyprus. Read and mark the report. Read through the book report from paid essays School, beginning to end to get a feel for myself European University it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report.
Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the writing and essay di Belle Milano final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Essay European Cyprus. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and paid to write Lime House School, spelling fixes. Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the essay writing University Cyprus ideas you wrote down for University things to change in the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc.
Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Essay European Cyprus. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an paid, eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time.
Your final draft is ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to myself European University Cyprus be a lot of work for paid House School the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on the effort required in essay University, understanding submitted reports. Pick out a short book report template to and essay di Belle Milano use. There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch. Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form.
Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of European, book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. Writing NABA, Di Belle. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started.
Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the writing myself University books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to Park School write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and Cyprus, teachers can find a lot of templates to use.
Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.
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Collecting relevant data, analysis and drawing conclusions using the data as evidence can test these. The width of a river will increase as you move from the source to the mouth The amount of coursework essays Park, traffic will increase as you move from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD The amount of vegetation will increase as you move inland from the sea (distance = 200metres) The hottest part of the day will be between 1200 and 1400. Whenever you are doing data collection, the aim is to be as objective as possible. Objective means that no bias or personal opinion affects the outcome of your results. The opposite to be objective is being subjective. Being subjective simple means that your own personal views and bias has influenced results. It is up to myself University, date (current) You know how the data has been collected i.e. Books Washington! what technique It only includes data that is relevant to your coursework It only covers your study area It is myself University Cyprus collected in the format that you want. You can study temporal changes e.g. how population has changed over a number of years It can be quicker, especially if the data is on the internet You can study a larger area It may include data that you can not obtain personally e.g. salaries. The data may include some personal bias Data collection can be time consuming It can be expensive to to critique Institut Montana Zugerberg, travel to European University Cyprus, places to collect data It is hard to study temporal changes Some data might be unavailable or too dangerous to collect Only possible to cover a small area. It is coursework Park out of date, especially if it has been printed in a book. Writing! There might more information than you need The information may include a larger area than your study area You may not know how the data was collected and who collected the data The data might be in on essay writing Washington State University, the wrong format e.g. in writing myself European University, a graph and not raw figures.
Quantitative data: This is any data that involves figures. Quantitative data is very easy to Montana, present and analyse. Even though it is easy to present it can be very general and writing European University Cyprus, exclude some data. Because you are following a pattern you will get better coverage of an area or sample group. Even though you pick the technique, once it is an argument of Southampton picked, there is no bias in who gets selected. Writing University Cyprus! It is books State University very simple to understand and carry out. Because you are selecting the systematic technique, there is some bias (subjectivity). You decide how often to essay myself European, take a sample. Even with a systematic sample you may end up with an articles Institut Montana Zugerberg, unrepresentative sample e.g. you ask every 10th person to myself, fill in forming of Southampton, a questionnaire, but every 10th person turns out to be female. Every person or every location/place has a completely equal chance of essay writing European Cyprus, being selected It is quick and simple.
Because it is totally random, results maybe completely random and not representative e.g. when randomly selecting names out of hat to ask questionnaires too, you only pick females. Stratified sampling: Because both systematic and random sampling can give you a unrepresentative sample, if you have some secondary data that allows you to rank your sample group you can then carry out stratified sampling. For example if you are carrying out environmental indexes in a city that has 12 districts, if you randomly or systematically select four, you may pick th efour best or the four worst. However, if you know the average income of those 12 areas (census data) you can them rank them 1 to 12 and then randomly or systematically pick a district from each quartile giving you a more representative sample. Decide on your questions (what do you need to find out and what type of question are you going to ask) Whether to do the writing and essay NABA,, questions orally or give them in writing myself European University Cyprus, written form (you may have to think about translations) How you are going to articles St. John's-Ravenscourt, pilot (test) your questions How you are going to essay writing University, record the answers (record them, write them down, trying to remember is coursework essays Park School unreliable) How you are going to sample (random, systematic, stratified) Remember that you are representing yourself and essay, the school - be polite Remember people don't have to forming of Southampton, answer questions and they may be sensitive about some e.g. age groups and income groups. When actually designing your questions you have two real choice; open or closed: You are getting the respondents personal opinion. They are not limited in their response.
Some responses might not be relevant to your research Respondents may not understand the question and give you an irrelevant response Results are very hard to analyse using graphs or tables. All answers will be relevant to your research The results are easy to analyse using graphs and tables. The results lack personal opinion. They can be very generalised You are nearly always forced to have an other box meaning you don't know what the essay writing myself European University Cyprus, respondent thinks Your personal opinion has been placed on the questions (subjective). Specification: Observation – Examples of using observations as an enquiry skill to collect data include the recording of land-use in an urban area or observations of river or coastal features.
Maps, recording sheets, field sketches and forming an argument of Southampton, annotated photographs may all be used to record candidate observations. It is important to always have an myself European Cyprus, other category, because you always find a land use that you have not thought about. They are more accurate than field sketches They can be good for showing data collection techniques e.g. measuring a river's load They can support data collection findings e.g. they can show an example of a poor environment They can show temporal changes, especially if you can find historical photos. You can annotate and label them. People often include photos that are not relevant e.g. a photo of their friends People forget to writing State University, label, annotate or refer to photos, which then makes them irrelevant. People often only photograph the nice things e.g. pretty view and forget the more ugly areas that are just as important e.g. area of pollution They can often contains too much information e.g. people and vehicles Because they are two dimensional, depth can be deceptive.
Specification: Counts – Pedestrian and traffic counts are two significant examples of this enquiry skill. Appropriate methods for recording the counts should be discussed including the writing myself, layout of recording sheets, instructions and the necessary information required to essays Park School, identify the sheet following the count (i.e. Essay Myself European University! time, date, location and name of recorder). Geography fieldwork equipment can be used to measure virtually anything, but is most commonly used to take measurements along a river or at a beach. Below are photos and descriptions of some of the most common types of geography equipment. Transect: A transect is basically a line a long which you take measurements. You may have a transect that runs from the rural-urban fringe to the CBD or a transect that runs from the writing articles School, sea in land through sand dunes. In a real piece of coursework, you would explain how all your data was collected. In your description you would probably contain the following information: Date, time and location of data collection Group size Description and copy of data collection forms used e.g. questionnaires or counts Explanation of how the forms were used e.g. Writing University Cyprus! sample size, count period, count technique, etc. Description of equipment and on essay Washington University, an explanation of its use.
Instead of writing a methodology in myself University, your exam, you may be asked to write a set of instructions, explaining how data collection should be carried out. Essays Leighton School! For example you might be asked to give a set of instructions for doing a traffic count. You might say: Find a safe location near the road your are counting traffic Count the traffic in both directions for a 10 minute period A tally should be used for counting because this is easy and writing myself Cyprus, quick At the end of 10 minutes count up the to write essays Lime House School, totals for each type of writing myself European Cyprus, vehicle. You may also be asked about how your data collection could be improved. Improvements may be made in some of the following ways: Do counts more regularly e.g. Articles! every one or two hours Do counts, surveys or indexes in writing myself European Cyprus, more locations Do counts, surveys and indexes on writing Nuova di Belle different days of the writing, week (including weekends) Get two groups doing the travel School, same survey, index or count so that an average may be taken. Specification: Data presentation techniques: A knowledge of the illustrative techniques to present data across the topics for Paper 4 is myself University required. This should include, various types of graphs, maps and diagrams for paid Lime House School, example line graphs, bar graphs, divided bar graphs, histograms, flow diagrams, wind rose graphs, isoline maps, scatter graphs, pie graphs, triangular graphs and radial graphs. If you are asked to complete a graph or table, all the data will be there for you so read the data carefully and essay myself European Cyprus, complete the graph/table/diagram carefully.
Shows spatial distribution e.g. dot map Shows variations between regions and countries e.g. choropleth map Visually interesting (interesting colours, symbols) Very bold and clear Easy to understand Clearly shows trends and anomallies. Can disguise intra-region or intra-country variations e.g. Paid To Write Essays School! choropleth map Hard to see trends and anomalies Very complicated to read Symbols take up to much room. Specification: Analysis: Candidates should be able to describe the patterns in data presented in graphs and tables of results. Writing Myself European Cyprus! Reference to relevant geographical knowledge and understanding is often required in Lime House School, the interpretation of the essay myself Cyprus, data. Practice of this skill will improve success in Paper 4 questions. Look for trends and correlations (if there is not a overall trend, look for smaller trends) Look for anomalies (things that don't fit the general trend) When ever you refer to trend and anomalies you must support with evidence e.g. facts and figures from University of Southampton, graph or table. Try and explain trends (refer back to theory or other information that you have discovered in your investigation) Try and explain anomalies. Specification: Formation of writing myself European Cyprus, conclusions: Using the evidence from the data, candidates should be able to make judgements on the validity of the articles to critique Montana, original hypothesis or aims of the assignment.
Reference is essay European also required of the reliability of the collected data and articles to critique Montana Zugerberg, a critical evaluation of the chosen data collection methods. Refer back to original hypothesis Use some data to support your findings Refer to theory (if mentioned in introduction) - do your findings agree or disagree with theory State what you have learnt from your investigation. Evaluation : In an evaluation you state what went well in essay writing myself University Cyprus, your research, but also how it can be improved or extended in the future. Paid Lime School! If you are asked to write an evaluation, think about the European, following: What went well (keep this brief) Any problems with data collection e.g. bad weather, missing data, sampling technique, questions, data collection form Data that could be useful in the future e.g. secondary data from government, more questionnaires (bigger sample) Additional hypothesis that you could have used Problems with time or money that could be changed in St. John's-Ravenscourt, the future.
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