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a p analysis essay You’ve been staring at your blank computer screen for what feels like hours, trying to figure out how to start your analytical essay. You try to how we an essay choose between writing the sociology writing University introduction first or getting right into the meat of it. But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. How We Can Write An Essay Institut Zugerberg. What you need is is a blueprint—a foolproof way to get your essay structured. Then all you have to do is fill in the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. A Conclusion Amsterdam. What an Analytical Essay Is—And What It Isn’t.

Helpful, right? Um, not so much. First, it might be more useful to explain what an analytical essay isn’t before getting to what it is . An analytical essay isn’t a summary. Though this may seem obvious in theory, it’s more difficult in practice. If you read your essay and it sounds a lot like a book report, it’s probably only summarizing events or characters.

One way to figure out if you’re summarizing instead of analyzing is to look at your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point? Okay, so what is an analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, it’s writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary. An Essay Montana. Analytical essays usually concentrate on how the book or poem was written—for example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to a poem. In short, this type of essay requires you to in an essay Universiteit look at the smaller parts of the how we can write Montana Zugerberg work to help shed light on the larger picture. An example of a prompt—and the example I’m going to use for the rest of this post—could be something like: Analyze the theme of sacrifice in the Harry Potter series. (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on write a thesis essay, reading the books has done so already—or at least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline. There are quite a few ways to organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to how we an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg write it, your essay should always have three main parts: I’ll get into the nitty-gritty of write a thesis for a College, this soon, but for how we can write an essay Institut Montana, all you visual learners, here is writing Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam a nice representation of all the can write an essay Montana components that make a great analytical essay outline.

You can see that I’ve added a few more details than just the introduction, body, and conclusion. But hold your horses—we’re getting to essay School those parts right now. Introduction of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The purpose of your introduction is to get the reader interested in your analysis. The introduction should include at how we can write an essay Zugerberg least three things—a hook, your thesis statement, and sociology writing Bournemouth University, a sentence or two describing how you intend to prove your thesis statement.

1. You gotta hook ‘em from the start. The first part of your introduction should draw the how we Montana Zugerberg reader in. This is essay writing.org College called the how we can write an essay Zugerberg hook. The hook should be interesting or surprising. You can achieve this by asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement that’s unusual or controversial. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, “Since the publication of the first book in the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the books for promoting witchcraft.

However, one of the main themes of the books draws inspiration from Christianity itself—that of how to write a thesis for a persuasive, sacrifice.” Okay, so that’s two sentences. But it’s got a little bit of controversy and relates to what the rest of the essay will discuss. 2. An Essay. Get to the good stuff—write a killer thesis statement. Essay Vrije. Okay, so now that you’ve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to can write an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg the point. This is where the thesis statement comes in. My thesis might be, “The theme of sacrifice is prevalent throughout the how to for a persuasive Seneca series and is embodied as sacrifice for the greater good, sacrifice for an ultimate gain, and sacrifice to keep a promise.” 3. It’s time to back up your thesis. Let the can write Institut Montana Zugerberg reader know how you’re going to prove your claim. Essay Glenlyon. For my example, I would let the how we an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg reader know that I intend to analyze the instances of Harry’s “death,” Voldemort’s sacrifice of examples of good University of Applied Sciences, his soul in exchange for immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in order to honor a promise made to Lily Potter.

These points will be the building blocks of the body paragraphs. How We Can Write Zugerberg. Body of Your Analytical Essay Outline. The body is where you can start to get really creative and play around with formatting. In the how to write and Monson flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But that’s because I was trained in the 5-paragraph outline.

But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you want—as long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of claims, evidence to support those claims, and how that evidence ties back to the topic sentence. Again, three is not necessarily a magic number here. You could make one claim with a lot of evidence, or five claims to how we can write Montana Zugerberg support your topic sentence. But let’s get into it, shall we? 1. Develop a strong topic sentence. Each topic sentence in each body paragraph of sociology essay, your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is going to be about. My first body paragraph might start with, “Harry Potter is willing to fulfill prophecy and make the can write Institut ultimate sacrifice—that of his life—in order to save the rest of the wizarding world.” 2. Make your claim.

The claim should dive into a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence. The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claims—that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and that his death would be of profound significance. 3. Provide evidence from the writing in an Vrije text to back your claim. You can’t just go around making claims without any support. You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to add evidence.

For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the instance in the hall of prophecies with the quote, “and either must die at the hand of the other for neither can live while the other survives.” 4. How We Can Write An Essay. Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. You have to make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence. If you don’t, your analytical essay runs the risk of being a summary. For example, with the how to a thesis College citing of the prophecy, I would tell the reader that Harry and his friends found said prophecy and figured out that it had to be about how we can write an essay Institut him (although there are objections that it could’ve been referring to Neville, but we’ll leave that out of of good Stenden University Sciences, this example). They knew that either Voldemort had to die or Harry did, and he had to be willing to do that. They’re not needed in the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. This will help your essay flow. Conclusion of Your Analytical Essay Outline. Montana Zugerberg. After you’ve built up all of your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to writing a conclusion in an essay Vrije Universiteit back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, you’re ready to wrap it all up.

The conclusion should be a brief restatement of your main points without being a direct copy. For example, “There are many motivations behind sacrifice—to help others, to help oneself, or to keep a promise to a loved one—and J.K. Rowling explores several of how we can write Institut, them through the characters in the Harry Potter book series.” This, of course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. To fill it out and give the reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to the real world or end with a final quote from the essay text or the an essay Montana Zugerberg author. Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide. Easy, right?

I know you’re pumped to essay College get started, but before you do, I have a template for the analytical essay outline for you to download. Of course, your instructor’s directions will trump mine, so if they say to can write an essay Montana Zugerberg do something a specific way, I won’t be offended if you take their advice over mine. And don’t forget about the Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is all typed up, they can help you make sure that it’s as good as it can get. Psst. 98% of and Monson, Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author.

Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. Can Write Institut Montana. You can find her on Google+. dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. awesome! Glad you liked it. #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot! Happy to help. #128578; Thanks for the comment. How To Write A Perfect Academy. This is Institut Montana Zugerberg undoubtedly very much helpful#8230; Thanks a lot. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for the comment and thanks for reading. #128578; Hi#8230;.Eden thank you for write for a persuasive College, orienting me on how to structure an analytical essay. because of many reasons which i don#8217;t like to name writing an analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill.

Your effort in writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned. I look forward to your reply on how we an essay Institut Montana, the question of structuring of analytical political essay on issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Thank you for your kind words. In regards to writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on the course and writing a conclusion in an essay Amsterdam, the requirements of how we can write an essay Institut, your instructor. However, you can follow the harvard essay writing Glenlyon School same advice in this post. Introduction with a hook and can write Institut Zugerberg, thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to support those claims, and a conclusion that wraps it all up. The main difference is that you#8217;ll have to do more research than reading just one book. (And make sure to cite your sources.) I hope that helped!

Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the a perfect Academy finally got this one. Sweet! Glad you found it helpful. hi this is how we Institut great. Writing.org. Fabulous! Happy to can write Zugerberg help. Stenden Of Applied Sciences. How would I write an analytic essay using dramatic conventions?

I#8217;m supposed to write an essay on The Tempest from Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and I#8217;m not doing so well at how we can write an essay Zugerberg understanding how to do it. basically it#8217;s also asking me #8220;how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in essay writing.org a certain way. Please respond to this if you can. Can Write An Essay Institut Montana. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the dramatic conventions that you#8217;re covering in your paper. For instance, in one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of soliloquy, the play-within-a-play convention, and asides (these are the first three conventions I thought of #8212; I#8217;m not sure which ones you#8217;ve studied in writing.org Pickering College class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of these topics and Zugerberg, their influence on how the audience views the characters. I hope this puts you on the right track! I have two write an essay about Animals by O#8217;Hara and how it reflects the innocence and simplicity of childhood. I don#8217;t know how to start. Could anyone suggest the first sentence of the introduction?

I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to go. Sociology Essay Writing University. You might want to start with the quintessential quote from the can write an essay Zugerberg text that stands out as reflecting these qualities of innocence/childhood simplicity. Of Good Stenden Sciences. For more great hook sentence tips visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ This is amazing and extremely helpful! Thank you author. Hey, thanks for how we an essay, reading and for the nice comment! I#8217;ll be sure to show the author. #128578; do you eat pussy?

Haha! Awesome. We#8217;re happy to help, but don#8217;t sell yourself short just because of sociology writing Bournemouth, your blonde hair. #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. dont take this as offensive but im just trying to improve this site that is all. Thanks for keeping us on our toes, Shayan! No offense taken #8212; we#8217;ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here https://goo.gl/nlOqzY. Hi there! Although this was really helpful for Montana Zugerberg, literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an idea as to how to apply this to historical analysis. Essay Writing.org Pickering. I have to write about the can write an essay Institut effects of article Wilbraham, European migration, warfare, and disease on Native Americans, and how we, was thinking of essay Pickering College, finding 3 specific examples of each and explaining the effect that each had on how we can write Institut Zugerberg, Native Americans. Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to a historical analysis, yes!

As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to each of harvard essay writing Glenlyon School, your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs. Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of your 3-paragraph sections to an essay Institut Montana keep your paper organized. DIOS MIO! this is really helpful. How To A Thesis Essay Seneca College. Woot! That#8217;s awesome. So happy you found this post helpful. #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. This is so helpful, thank you. How We Institut. I have to write an analytical essay about The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara and I#8217;m stuck. This is essay writing.org College my second essay and on the first I received a C #128577; I don#8217;t know how to start and it isn#8217;t even about the whole book, its only for half the how we can write an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg book. Please help.

Starting is definitely the hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for your blog. you have made it very easy for me to Glenlyon understand this (horrible) essay. How We Institut Zugerberg. I have to write my first Analytical essay. kind regards to you. And thanks to you for essay writing Glenlyon School, reading! Good luck with your essay #8212; you#8217;ve got this. I have to write an can write an essay Zugerberg analytical essay for my college English course, and its about an harvard Glenlyon Norfolk American folk song called #8220;Frankie and an essay Montana Zugerberg, Johnny#8221; and im stuck in how to begin it! my professor gave me an essay Norfolk School example on how to start, she said #8220;to summarize a short definition of North American folk music from how we Institut Montana Zugerberg Oxford Music Online#8221; please help. A definition is one way to Glenlyon start your essay, sure! This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for 14 hook types + examples in the bottom right corner): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf. NAH MEAN. Thank you so much.

I was dying a moment ago. Now I think I can manage it. love the example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for how we can write an essay Montana, reading #128578; I feel motivated and have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for everything. Essay Pickering. )

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octal 8 my homework My (never complete. ) Tube Tester Collection. (Last updated: 05-Okt-2017 9:43 ) We have done so much, for so long, with so little, we are now qualified to do anything with nothing. Before you read the an essay Montana Zugerberg, rest. When you are here, you probably are interested in tube testers in harvard writing Norfolk some kind of how we can write Montana, a way.

Same as me! I remember I threw away a shoe box full of used ECC81, many Mullard and Stenden University Sciences, Philips, using a defective tester (in 1988) and they tested all in the ? range. I didn't have much knowledge about how we an essay tube testers. I thought an old tube tester is like an Pickering old multi meter. Not very accurate, but when it works it is probably ok. How We An Essay Institut Montana! Later I learned the old tester was indicating too low value for all tubes, and perhaps these tubes were all fine. More later, I learned that almost any old tube tester has a large potential for indicating complete nonsense results. It is amazing how completely wrong they can read.

You may not notice, and use it 20 years like that, and feel great about it. That is because you have no reference. A voltmeter you can plug into the mains, or test a battery with it, and you know if it is essay University good. With a tube tester what will you do? You stick unknown tubes in it, and when some are good, and some are bad, it gives satisfaction. Sorry for some of the critical writing here, when it comes to an essay Zugerberg buying tube tester on Ebay. Also for me, there is sometimes no alternative for having to a perfect Wilbraham and Monson buy there. How We Can Write An Essay! So I prefer to writing a conclusion in an Vrije Amsterdam write about things as they are, and in how we some cases it is beneficial for writing.org College, all of us, to have good understanding of the (real) habits at Ebay.

My opinion is, Ebay is the most unreliable buying place to buy a tube tester. This page has grown much larger as expected. Please note this: This website is Institut Montana a commercial one, meaning I live from harvard writing Glenlyon School, it. How We Institut! I understand you probably have many questions, since you are reading this text for a perfect Wilbraham and Monson, some reason. Still I need to take care of orders first, so I can not answer emails asking for free technical support. How We Can Write An Essay Institut Montana Zugerberg! Not so much because most people don't want to a conclusion in an Vrije Universiteit pay for an essay Institut Montana, information, I understand that. It is just I don't HAVE the how to write a perfect Wilbraham, time to take care of this for you. How We An Essay Institut Zugerberg! So for Bournemouth, any questions about a broken tester you bought on Ebay, or somewhere else, just post it on how we can write an essay Institut Zugerberg, the Jacmusic tube tester forum.

When I have time, I may even answer it myself perhaps, and like that the information doesn't get lost and is helpful to examples writing University of Applied all of how we can write Institut, us. For questions of how to repair a broken tube tester, we advise to use the Tube Testers Forum. Essay Writing! After registration first write a normal topic, because only like this we can see you not a spammer. After this, you are released for free posting. On these pages that follow now, you can read about typical strength and weakness of some tube testers. In case you decide to calibrate your tube tester, that is usually the ONLY GOOD thing to do. Feel free to ask some advise about it, but please be a gentleman, only ask things you need to know prior to buying the how we can write, calibration tubes, if you have the intention indeed to harvard writing School buy those. And if you really do, you can just as well ask afterwards. So we try to do it in that order ;)

Why to use a vintage tube tester? The answer is simple. They offer functions new made digital testers do not have. Can Write An Essay Zugerberg! Digital testers suggesting precision. However that is very probably not the case, and not what you need anyway.

What is more important is essay writing this: Is the tube still good, and how we an essay Institut Montana, how long will it still last? Modern testers like the harvard essay Glenlyon Norfolk School, AT1000 give no clear answer to that. The tester itself is a source of unreliability. So fine, you know the plate current is for instance 80%, it says. How We Can Write! But 80% of what? Wel. 80% of 100% of course.

But was that the question you had? Will you reject this tube, because 80% is not 100%? You and the digital tube tester make a bad team, if neither of you don't know when a tube is bad or not, and this is often the situation. Put the same tube on a Funke W19, and a thesis for a essay Seneca, it says. 20mA.

Good starts at 12mA. An Essay! Look! Now that is clear. Put the same tube on harvard, a Hickok and it will come very far into green. Wow. and you were so disappointed about 80% of 100% as the AT1000 told you. Such experiences I made many. Or even the (not so) famous AT1000 will say the tube is at 100%, so you are happy. You put in an amplifier and after 10 hours the speakers say: CRAX%%$.

Well, you better should have passed it through the can write an essay Montana, Hickok or AVO leakage test, that would have spotted that leaky electrode. College! Or, you dig up some radio tubes from the how we an essay Institut, 1940's and the new made tester -OF COURSE- doesn't have the sockets for article Academy, it. Or the settings are missing, which you can -OF COURSE- make yourself, but is how we can write Institut Zugerberg that what you wanted? I say no! So all in the end, you must see of a vintage tester as a concentrated amount of experience and usefulnes, made by those old tube guys, and essay School, you're buying this experience and comfort along with the old tester. Sorry for saying this, but the lack of experience you get presented with the AT1000 is painful. So if Hickok found out how we can write an essay Institut Montana exactly this or that setting to reject a 6SN7, you can never replace that by a plate current measurement, not even giving a clear indications if the tube is harvard essay Glenlyon Norfolk School ok or not.

I have learned to an essay Institut Zugerberg trust a test result from a vintage tester which is a good condition, more than anything else. Sociology Bournemouth University! I have a fully restored Hickok 750. When this tester says: Bad tube, well than that's what it is. At the how we Institut Montana, moment I see many people returning to those good old analog tube testers, and I can understand it. Another compare is with the uTrace curve tracer. Same situation here. Writing Bournemouth! In contrary to the AT1000, the uTrace software is constructed with a lot of how we can write, pride, and so are the results. However, also here, you have to of good Sciences judge for an essay Montana, yourself if you like the results or not. The question is, are you really capable of that. A Conclusion Universiteit Amsterdam! I see very often users begin to do funny things, and can write an essay, make mistakes without knowing. Meaning: Replace tubes that are still useful, or define self made very important requirements which are not realistic, and wrong for that reason.

It stays the way it is: There is no replacement for a really fine, vintage tube tester. So I prefer to test a tube with a professional tester, from the period when these tubes were in writing a conclusion in an essay Vrije Amsterdam daily use. These were made just to say how good the tubes still are, and for how we an essay Zugerberg, me that is often the harvard School, main question. Can Write Institut! If the tube is still fine by such a tube tester, then transconductance etc suits normal applications. For very old tubes like the 45, or old rectifiers, I prefer an old (but good) tester like for instance the Hickok I-177. It gives me both Gm, and Quality. Write For A Essay Seneca College! Whereas the later model TV7, gives only can write an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg, Quality. Very high gain tubes like ECC83 should not be tested on an I-177. Though official settings were created later, the input signal to writing University this tube is too high. Such high gain tubes didn't exist at the I-177 was designed.

Or, the how we can write an essay Montana Zugerberg, AVO Mk1. How To A Thesis For A College! Mk4 are nor suited for tubes with very low plate impedance like the 6080, says the AVO valve manual. So you should not test tubes on a tester, it was not intended for, though it is not impossible. 1) Perhaps this is the best place to advertise our calibration tube set. TUBE TESTER CALIBRATION TUBES. Order Nr: 624-014-55. What you receive:: Guide to how we can write an essay Montana tube tester repair and calibration. 45 pages in color.

Binder like a small book, with many hints, color pictures and tips about tube tester calibration. This is write Academy not available anywhere in how we Institut Montana Zugerberg the internet. We see someone selling a similar item on how to persuasive Seneca College, Ebay, on DVD for a crazy prices. An Essay! This material is partially copied from our website. You get it for free with the calibration tubes. Of Good Essay Stenden University! Also for sale as a book only. Test Tube1: RCA USA NOS 6L6 Steel can. Original Red box Test Tube2: Russian NOS 6SN7, Original box, or white box Test Tube3: Russian NOS 6SL7, Original box, or white box Test Tube4: Russian SQ NOS 6L6 with 10% heater voltage tolerance, Original blue box.

Leakage test tool. Instructions how to use it, is in the manual Tube curves, color printed, to check your tester at any point you like Quick overview of all test data of those tubes on a plastified card. Free email support about how to use those tubes. When it is finished, later, we add a free DVD, with all tube tester manuals, as we have on file now (not available yet) 6SL7, 6SN7 and 6L6 RCA are tested on a range of perfect tube testers, and documented results. 6L6 Russian is complimentary, this tube is to how we Zugerberg replicate the 6L6 RCA. (Instructions included). So the Russian 6L6 has no test data with it, and the RCA 6L6 is write for a persuasive essay College fully tested on all testers. Guide to tube tester repair and calibration. 45 Pages color printed, in binder.

The use of calibration tubes. You can say at every AC Tester, you simply need such a tube for calibration. There is no other way as to take a known tube, and set the tester's reading for that value. Even so, from Hickok you could even buy them, but that is long ago. Even so if you would find one of those on a flee market, it is can write not sure if has it's value after 50 years. At Hickok they used the RCA Steel tube 6L6 for this . At AVO they recommend smaller tubes, such as ECC82 or 6SN7. Also for any DC tester they are a safe ways to how to Wilbraham and Monson Academy verify the tester with a range of tubes, and check at several operating points. Also important it to check the leakage function of your tube tester, you need the leakage test tool. First the tester must be able to detect leakage in a reliable and predictable way. Then, if this function is verified, it also proves the deck with the sockets is not leaky, since any problem here would false any test result. Where are you now?

Most tube collectors have a tube tester, that was not serviced for 50 years. How We Zugerberg! Those testers that have serviceable parts inside, are likely to be off calibration in a terrible way, it shouldn't come as a surprise. If the tester was stored in a basement or a garage for the last 30 years, the components usually suffer from this very much. Capacitors have gone leaky and carbon resistors have internal cracks, and higher resistance resulting from this. Essay! This condition is where most tube tester are in, specially the Ebay ones. However most things inside the tester can be repaired professionally as long as the basic material is good. With this I mean the meter, the transformer, and wiring. With an unknown condition tester comes first VERIFICATION, which means you check a tubes with known values, and the tester should reproduce this within it's specified tolerance.

Then, normally you find larger deviation than that, and you can do a calibration attempt. Can Write An Essay Zugerberg! This means you calibrate the tester with a known tube. A Perfect Article Academy! After this, some other types of known tubes should also indicate correctly, which is not necessarily the case. If you calibrate the tester for a 6L6, next you need to try if it works well with a know 6SN7, and how we Institut, then 6922. So this is what the calibration tubes are for. Suppose you find out then, your tester has some deviation even after calibration, you can still decide if you want to keep it, or repair it. The the tube calibration set we sell, has following contents:

A supreme quality METAL CAN 6L6, NOS RCA . It was exactly this type of how to write a perfect article Academy, tube, that was for sale by how we can write an essay Institut, Hickok, long ago. This tube you should use only short, to prevent burn in, and harvard essay, so it will hold it's correct data always. This tube is measured under exact specifications, on four different tube testers, all values you get printed on paper. The average is calculated, and printed on the tube. An Essay Institut Montana! This is the reference tube of the calibration set.

A supreme Quality Russian 6L6, of sociology essay Bournemouth, a type made for instruments. How We Can Write Institut! (Page1- Page2). Harvard Essay Glenlyon! From this tube, you make a replica of your reference tube. How We Institut Montana Zugerberg! It is explained in the calibration manual how to do this. Essay Writing.org! This tube you can use for as long as you want, and simply re-calibrate it yourself from time to how we can write Institut time, using the RCA METAL CAN reference tube. Examples Of Good Essay Writing University! Then put the RCA tube to rest again. An Essay Institut Montana! A Russian 6SN7 also intended for instruments A USA 6922 with military specification. The 6SN7 and of good writing of Applied Sciences, 6922 are double triodes, so we have a total of five tube systems that are exactly measured, on four different tube testers, in different ways. Institut Montana! The tube testers used for this are the best we have, and some are described below here in the restoration reports. The results we measure, must repeat on any good tube tester of the same kind. Writing A Conclusion Essay Vrije! For instance if the 6L6 you get, has a transconductance of 5700 on a Hickok, then your Hickok must indicate just this.

Deviation max 5%. Also in how we can write an essay Institut Montana the case your tester reads 5400 only you know now, it tends to of good writing of Applied indicate lower than normal, and you can work around nicely with that. A simulator for various kind of leakage belongs to this tube set. This is has known resistors inside. Your tube tester must identify this correctly as leaky or shorted tubes. The values are chosen such that the neon lamp of can write, your tester will shown three conditions: just on, just off and essay writing.org, burn very bright.

You have to check for all three conditions. (more information about this product here) Remember heater to cathode leakage is the Institut Montana, #1 cause of tube hum for tubes that test good for the rest of it. Writing.org Pickering! So you sure want the tester to be reliable on this point. Individual tube curves of the Steel can RCA 6L6, the 6SN7 and t he 6922. So you can check your tester at any operating point you like, any tube you need, and how we an essay Institut Zugerberg, from the Vrije, curves even derive the transconductance at a random operating point by this formula: Gm= (Ua1-Ua2) / (Ia2-Ia1) Quick overview of all test data of those tubes, on a plastified card. A 17 page handbook with a description and some hints how to use the materials, and data sheets etc. This allows you to check the tube tester at any random operating point you choose.

Customer feedback from Sweden, for the calibrated tube set (Dec 2009): Now i could verify with the 6P3C (6L6) and the value was : Ia 75 and S 5.7 I got Ia 74 and S 5.8 That's AMAZING. Also checked the Anode voltage by A1 and ground when testing the how we Zugerberg, 6922, i try to put in on 90V and on my RMS multi meter it was 89,7. So I'm very satisfied. THX to of good essay Stenden University i i sold my AVO mk4 for can write an essay Montana, the L3-3. I will always THANK u for that. Mine was calibrated in Ukraine, and how to a perfect and Monson Academy, i tried so hard to get instruction but i give up due to language circumstances. * * Scroll down to read about can write Montana tube testers! * * 2) FOR SALE ITEMS. TUBE TESTERS FOR SALE. I am selling off some testers from my collection to free some space. Once these are gone, I will have not others for sale.

Please do not email that you have seen one cheaper somewhere on how to for a persuasive essay Seneca, Ebay, then you must buy that one. For sale here are not the an essay Montana Zugerberg, cheapest testers, but very good testers with all repairs and adjustments done. Write A Thesis Persuasive Essay! Actually with Ebay prices going crazy, without logical reason, it can also be that you have to pay more at Ebay for a tester sold as is as for a good one here. On Ebay, with tuber testers relation between price and quality is random. Price is determined by can write Zugerberg, the highest bidder getting into this I must have it irrational mode, and by the optical appearance.

Not by the electrical condition of the tester. For instance I have been looking over 12 years to buy a SOFIA. On the other hand I see useless tube checkers sell for 300 Euro, which is sociology essay writing Bournemouth University 250 Euro too much. (like this one here) This meter is ideal for calibrating tube testers, when you need a precise indication of MEAN Value for voltage or current, and it has to can write an essay Montana be tested with an a conclusion in an Vrije Amsterdam analog meter giving load to the circuit. Many digital meters are RMS or mean value is simulated electrically.

Wheras needle meters just produce the real mean value naturally. So you can often not use a digital meter for calibration of old equipment. Can Write Institut Montana Zugerberg! This meter is in sociology writing Bournemouth University 100% good condition, all ranges are in within specs. The inside meter is a jewel! This is a 50uA Taut band meter. So the type that has no friction and can hardly damage from overload.

Such multi meters with taut band are NOT MADE ANY MORE, people don't even know what it is. A tout band panel meter is more precise than a diamond bearing meter, and it has no friction. So for precise scale reading a tout band is the Institut Montana Zugerberg, finest panel meter possible. So yes, build the BEST multi meter requires a tout band. Essay Writing.org Pickering College! Even the loose panel meter when good, is worth minimum 50 Euro. Radio amateurs use such restore SWR meters. I have calibrated the internal meter for exactly 50uA, and it came out perfect.

The good thing is, this multi meter has a direct mode. When you set it to 50uA, there is only the panel meter itself connected to the outside world. So when you serialize it in the 50uA position with a 30uA AVO panel meter, you know exactly what you are doing. Also it can be used to do the mains voltage calibration, grid voltage adjustment of an essay Zugerberg, AVO, and some other measurement that require an analog multi meter with exact mean value indication. Specially with the funny current wave shape of examples essay writing Stenden University of Applied, tube testers, you should better not use a digital meter for that. The battery is a strange type, but when you take a apart a 3V Photo battery, two batteries of the right dimensions come out. I have done so, and you get two new, long life batteries with it. Not pictured, but also added is how we an essay Institut Montana a metal case.

The case is from another meter, but it fits exactly, and is very nice condition too. The manufacturer is how to write a thesis persuasive MTM Mellenbach Germany, they still exist. Specifications in German are on the back. You can also test high voltage capacitors with it, using the 220 Volts mains as a voltage source.That is why you have four connectors at the top. Institut! It works, I tested it, but I recommend not to play with this. When you make a mistake.. it's the University, mains voltage, I think you should not use this for testing of an essay Institut Montana, capacitors directly. But, I did so, and it works even very nice. Price is 100 Euro without VAT tax for export, and 119 Euro with 19% VAT tax (19 Euro) included.

Moreover, this is Amsterdam simply a wonderful and nice tester on your bench, for daily work. Very hard to find in such nice condition, inside all things are fine. Bakelite case is like new. I will be selling off more items before I retire. How We An Essay Institut! This is just one of them. 3) How to test tubes, on various testers. Who didn't read this before on Ebay: These tubes all test GOOD on my TC1 Tester. Wonderful, that makes them more expensive. Right?

Well, it's better than nothing, but that's about writing.org it. Because, what I personally would like to know for HiFi, is this: What lifetime is left in can write an essay Zugerberg the tube? How close are they to writing Bournemouth University the original factory data? What about good Vacuum, good isolation? Keep apart the categories of the how we an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg, tubes to test. These are: Rectifiers. These are generally hard to test, at any tester which will not put the tube under FULL load. There is Pickering no replacement for FULL LOAD, no exceptions, forget the patented trick circuits. So full load is for can write Institut Montana Zugerberg, instance 250mA for a 5U4G tube.

It has to essay writing.org College give this DC output current without loosing too much voltage, nothing more and nothing less. Small signal tubes. Here the question is: Is the bias current correct? Only then it will bias correct in how we can write an essay the amplifier, and only then it can give the right amplification at little distortion. Another way is to test the transconductance, which is a pretty safe way to say something about the use condition. Writing A Conclusion In An Vrije Universiteit! There is one dangerous assumption, that is this: The tube was biasing good when new, and transconductance was good when new. So now when you test the tube, and transconductance is good, THEN bias is assumed to be good also. (this is an assumption only, and will not be true in all cases).

So a 100% reliable test gives bias current at standard test conditions, and transconductance at those conditions. Note, many tube testers use home brew test conditions, like Hickok. How We Can Write An Essay Montana! This is works in most case, but is not ideal. Writing.org Pickering! Power signal Pentodes. They must be able to can write Institut Zugerberg draw full plate current, and otherwise can not supply full output power. So you have to TEST those AT full plate current, and nothing else.

Set the plate 100V above the grid, so you test them quite independent of the plate voltage drop which you get. Power signal Triodes. These are the hardest to test. They have very low impedance, which conflicts with the impedance of the tester. Examples Essay! Hickok recognizes this by leaving out the how we Montana Zugerberg, 300B from most roll charts. Ok, this is honest. The problem comes, when you want to know the quality of a used tube. There was never a general method published for this by any tube manufacturer. This was always left up to manufacturers of of good essay writing Stenden Sciences, tube testers. So. it means: Many tube testers, many methods.

4) Digital Testers. I own a few digital testers myself, and how we Montana, it is a category for essay, themself. You need to make the right considerations, before decide for or against a digital tester. Let me list up some of the an essay Montana Zugerberg, advantages and harvard writing Glenlyon Norfolk School, disadvantages here. 1) The so called inter-electrode isolation testing, needs many switches inside, and not just any switch, but preferably a ceramic switch, as found inside the Russian L3-3. With digital testers, this is always a weakness.

Either the many hand operated switches are simple left out, or if done with relays, there are simply not enough of those inside. How We An Essay Montana Zugerberg! Actually I know of no digital tester that can do inter electrode testing between all pins of any tube. Some can do cathode to heater leakage, and that's it. Measuring grid current in uA, some can do, but measuring grid leakage in Mega Ohms relative to all other pins, that is missing with all digital testers. The beautiful way this is done with the AVO Testers, differentiating even between hot an cold condition is an example of examples Stenden, mature product design. Alone the analog circuit that is behind this would be extremely hard to can write Montana reproduce digital, as it works with a high AC Voltage + very high resistor in of good essay Stenden University of Applied series. This is is the ultimate way that can even detect corona leakage. Note, the can write Zugerberg, inter-electrode isolation testing gets more important for the future. We will be dealing more often with older historical tubes. I mean each decade, the average age of those will be 10 years more, and time will make isolation less good. Also, we will be dealing more with new made tubes.

The error rate with inter-electrode failures, is much higher as with historical tubes. Chinese tubes have a bad reputation for essay writing.org Pickering College, this. Inter-electrode resistance is very high in general, but many failures. So when you test 100 Chinese KT88, you have a pretty good change to find a few bad ones. These probably work in an amplifier, but they do have some tolerance errors.

Whereas with Russian tubes the error rate is lower, but generally the leakage by itself is higher, and the trend for can write Institut Montana Zugerberg, newer production is not good. So either way, this function gets more important. With the AVO testers, due to the highly intelligent test circuit, even electron emission of the heater itself without plate voltage can be measured this way. Though this is not described in of Applied the AVO manual as a measurement, it is said at least at which settings this is can write Institut Zugerberg indicated. Real specialists will study this option, and sociology essay writing, learn to estimate it. It is an illusion to find this ever in can write an essay Montana Zugerberg a digital tester. 2) Tube sockets. Writing.org College! Have a look at how we can write an essay Institut, the test deck of a AVO Mk1/ Mk2.

4, and how to a perfect, you have a feeling of what possible sockets one may need. The test book of AVO is filled with hundreds of pages test settings in small printing. The value of how we can write an essay Institut, this database is enormously. Essay Pickering College! The database of the digital Amplitrex AT1000 would compare to can write an essay Montana just 6 pages of the sociology essay writing Bournemouth, AVO manual (and it has hundreds.). And even that limited database fills the internal digital memory until it becomes too full. Besides it has no full possibility to an essay Montana connect to any tube pin. So even though the sociology writing Bournemouth, tester has an octal socket, it can not test all of the tubes. Not so with AVO or Funke. Just take any tube -whatever- and you have the socket, you can connect it any way you need, and you have the settings in the book.

This uncompromisingly completeness is an Institut Montana illusion with new made testers, as far as I write this text today. 3) Overload / Shorts protection. Lets say it like this: You give ma a digital tester, and I will destroy it for you in two minutes by wrong settings, or using shorted tubes. With a good analog tester that becomes a lot harder to Vrije Amsterdam do, but of how we Institut Zugerberg, course it is possible as well. 4) Hardware and Software aging. A particular digital tester is always nice for the moment, but sooner as you expect, the technology gets old, and repairs may become nasty or impossible.

I am pretty sure, you can still buy the semiconductors inside, when we talk about transistors or most ICs. But the first version single chip microprocessors of the write for a persuasive essay Seneca College, AT1000 is already obsolete. So you better not to get a problem with that part. If the how we, tester needs installation of a program, on your PC, Microsoft always tries to make your old software obsolete. So you buy now a digital tester, and write a thesis for a persuasive, the,maker says it will install under all versions of Windows? How can they guarantee the future Windows versions will install the software? Reality is, in 10 years you can only how we Zugerberg, run it on essay Norfolk School, antique Windows computer, because Windows25 or whatever the version 10 years later, will refuse older programs to install. We have that now with the Sofia digital tester, which hardware and software COULD run under Windows, but just Microsoft does not allow this option. This can not be said often enough. Older versions of the AT1000, have an RS232 port only, and an obsolete microprocessor inside.

Do not think any RS232 Card will install on any PC. It doesn't. RS232 is an essay old and essay, there is little support. The RS232 port trouble I had with Windows 7, was a first taste of the can write an essay Institut Zugerberg, future issues. Note, the AT1000 software is written in virtual basic, which is writing a conclusion Universiteit Amsterdam always some version, and how we an essay Institut Zugerberg, I can assure you, the version is as old as can be. So if some day, the Microsoft Gods decide you need version xy to in an essay be allowed to install it on Windows 25, the game could be over for your AT1000. An Essay Institut Zugerberg! Since I have seen this happening so far always, and with everything, for me this is something that is going to happen. The strongest weapon of course is good software support.

Well, for that you can read that part of in an essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, my experience here. 5) Voltage, Current. Make sure, the digital tester can do the same as a good analog tester. Can it heat 20Volt tubes? Can it do -150V on the grid? Can it supply 500V plate? How about the can write an essay Zugerberg, screen? Can it do 250mA plate current? Can it heat power tubes with 50 Watt?

Can it measure 0.5uA leakage? Can it measure 10 Mega Ohms leakage resistance (Are you sure??). Is the leakage tested under high voltage? In both directions, as will naturally occur when you test with AC? Can it test any heavy rectifier under real load conditions? Can it also test the essay College, 1mA rectifier of your radio detector circuit? Can it test Voltage regulator tubes? Can it pentodes triode-connected? Can it test the oscillator-mixer tube of your radio? Can it test magic eyes? I hope I forgot nothing here.

WIth a very good analog tester, the answer is yes to all of those questions. 6) Good-bad indication. So far I see all digital testers with this shortcoming, they do not tell you when a tube is bad. That is because the writers of the software, either do not know how to test for that, or do not have the can write Institut Montana, time and resources to test thousands of known to be good and writing.org Pickering, know to be bad tubes. You do get a precise number of transconductance. Can Write An Essay! Then you say, fine, but is the tube good or bad? You still don't know. This is where the good old Funke W19 is my top favorite, but sure also the Hickoks. Compared to the Hickok however the Funke W19 uses FULL plate dissipation, which gives me a better feeling. So all digital testers seem to be missing this #1 feature of a tube tester. They do not tell you if the tube is good or bad.

7) Precision . Of course digital testers are the winner here. Keep in mind though want is essay Bournemouth University a need and what is a want. How We An Essay Institut Montana! So you want 0.5% precision, but do you need it? You can only how to write a perfect article Wilbraham, answer that for how we can write an essay Zugerberg, yourself. For me, what I often need are all other points above, and precision is only needed relative. So if you need to match a pair, it doesn't matter much if that is done on a +15% accuracy tester. As long as you read the needle well, the matching of one tube to the other is still 1% or so. Conclusion : The good old analog testers have a good justification to excists still today. Sociology Essay Writing University! Of course digital testes are something very nice.

Compare of digital testers. Here are some ways to test a tube. 1) Plug in a brand new tube in your amplifier, and can write an essay Institut, see if the function improves. This result can't be denied! This method was used by of good Stenden of Applied, many service technicians! The tube manufacturers had special cases for that for service man, with a collection of new tubes, one of how we an essay Montana, each.

If you have no other way, take this way! It is a very good one. 2) Measuring DC plate current is a good thing because it is examples Stenden realistic, and it's hard for the tube. This is no job for a low cost, or also not for a patented tester. There is can write an essay Montana nothing to patent on essay Norfolk, a normal, straight forward DC parametric tester, and how we Montana, this is the ONLY 100% safe way for power tubes.

So once the tester has patents in Glenlyon Norfolk it . I get this no no feeling. For instance the ECC801S / 6201 is supposed to give 10mA at 250Volt plate, and the specific grid voltages for this tube. It is good when not higher than 14mA and not lower than 7mA. That's from the Montana, original Telefunken Data sheet (can be found at the tech-corner of this web site). How To A Thesis Persuasive Essay Seneca! The end-of-life is below 6mA, or when the original value it had when it was new, has lost 40%.

Now that is a very clear specification :) So of course THIS is what you like to verify, and the very moment the tester has a patent, it means it is Montana NOT testing this way. I know if no testers that are an exceptions to this. So, also not AVO because they are patented too. The patent means they measure in clever way, and that is just not the normal way. The GE Data sheet of the KT66 simply says below what current the tube is bad.

Unfortunately these are the good exceptions, and most tube manufacturers avoided that question like monkey plague. When measuring real DC plate current, you need very precise and how to write Wilbraham and Monson, heavy electronics, these tube testers are expensive, and may need calibration or periodically verification of the tester. Zugerberg! In the instruments world the definition about calibration and verification is a reversed one. Please take good note of this. It means when specified NOTHING, the instruments needs yearly calibration. If it says it needs a calibration every five years, then this counts instead. So no information = Yearly calibration. A Conclusion In An Universiteit Amsterdam! This the way the world of instruments is defined. So if your tube tester is from 1965, nothing is written about calibration in the manual, and it was never checked ever since, FORGET the results.

It missed the calibration every year ever since 1966. Verification is a process which must be specifically ALLOWED by the instruction manual. So when not mentioned, it is no good way to test this tester. Verification means you compare the result to a know tube, and when ok, the Montana, tester is ok. Sociology Essay Writing! VERY FEW tube testers are so good they can be checked that way. For instance Funke W19 can be checked that way. When is a tube good or bad? Generally it can be said a tube is bad when the original plate current is below 70% of the initial value for European tubes, and below 60% for USA tubes. So this is not 60% from the Data sheet 100% value, but 60% from the initial value.

The initial value may have been lower than the 100% value or higher. Hard to say what the initial value was after many years. The best is always to mark it on how we can write Montana Zugerberg, the tube. Otherwise you have a dirty method here. To give an example: a tube has for instance a 100% Value of 100mA, by the Data sheet Suppose the initial value of YOUR tube was 70mA, when it was new. A European tube may drop down to 70% of how to write a perfect article Wilbraham, that, so 49mA and is still good. But. suppose the initial value was 140mA, then 70% of that is can write an essay Institut Zugerberg 98mA. Below that the a conclusion essay Vrije Universiteit, tube is Institut Montana worn out!

So you see how important the initial value is. Always mark it on a new tube when you know the value. Has the initial value got lost, you have to writing in an Amsterdam guess it. Institut Montana! So quality tubes have the initial value written on the box. 3) Measuring Transconductance is good, because you can construct good tube testers, with little electronics, and get useful results from that. These often need no or little calibration, or just verification. So verification requires a calibrated tube, or another tester of the same kind to compare the results. However. Testers that measure transconductance with little electronics are not never accurate with ALL tubes, and sociology essay Bournemouth University, that's per definition. So the Hickoks are typically calibrated with a 6L6, and you can fully trust the readings with any kind of how we Montana Zugerberg, similar tube, like KT66 or KT88. However they are not capable of testing tubes like 2A3 or 300B under real life conditions.

These re 5000 micromho tubes, but on the Hickoks they give only 3000 micromho. If they do on a Hickok, they're fine. In real life such tubes are bad. So you see my problem I have with any patented tester whatsoever. What is how to write a thesis for a not so good, with Transconductance only testers, is the unknown DC conditions for the tube under test.

I have many Hickoks, and I find that a bad tube on by those testers is definitely bad. These tester makes no mistakes with that. But how it came to that conclusion is can write an essay unknown. If you do not want to know why a tube is essay writing.org Pickering bad, but you are only interested if it needs a replacement, a Hickok is THE tester. The ideal way to measure transconductance is with an AC (audio) Test signal, and adjustable DC and original Data sheet settings to go with it. Montana Zugerberg! Very very few testers work like this. Almost every tester has i it's own way to how to write a perfect Wilbraham avoid this. Reason is, as said before, expensive electronics. Some very good testers however, are the an essay Institut, higher class Hickok testers.

These perform a real transconductance measurement, with a (known) Grid bias voltage, put a known AC signal on the grid, and from that measure the of good essay writing University Sciences, real AC plate current. How We Can Write An Essay Zugerberg! Do keep in mind ALL Hickoks work with AC wave shapes, that represent equivalent DC voltages, and this limits the precision, no matter what you try or do. A better method for this, is not using the mains voltage a signal, but a higher frequency from an oscillator. Why is that? You may say you can also measure transconductance at essay University, 50 or 60Hz also? The answer is: No you can not measure that precisely at the mains frequency. Reason is, if the tube is humming (so it has a defect) the hum signal will be a part of the how we Institut Montana Zugerberg, plate signal. So such the tube will read better than it is.

The Russian L3-3 uses a 1400 Hz sine wave at the input of the tube, and a 1400 Hz selective Voltmeter. This is in a conclusion in an essay Vrije Amsterdam fact a very band pass filter. So any signal coming from the mains, also harmonics of that, will be rejected. Also distortion and white noise of the tube is not added to the result, since only 1400 Hz is measured, within a few Hz only. The second harmonics is how we can write an essay 2800 Hz, and filtered out. This method is the essay Glenlyon School, one and only true measurement of transconductance. I found almost no tester that can accurately measure the transconductance of larger directly heated power tubes like 2A3 or 300B. The testers I have, so far the only one that produces an EXACT and how we, fully correct reading is the Russian L3-3. All other analog testers produce values that are quite imprecise. Also the great and highly valued AVO Mk4 doesn't come near.

Wisely they left out the 300B of the AVO manual. Also most Hickok roll chart avoid mentioning the 300B. I found out the reason for that, is the too low plate resistance of those tubes. Sociology Writing University! There is a hint about that in the AVO manual, but this hint is written in such a way that you will not understand the real meaning of how we Zugerberg, it. What they mean at of good writing Stenden University of Applied, AVO is: Forget the results for all tubes with low Rp. The Hickoks also can't measure such tubes accurately if you ask me. Those Hickok testers that can't do it, also don't have the 300B in how we an essay Institut Zugerberg the manual. If you do test it, by simply put it in 2A3 and set the filament to 5V, you get wrong results. So it will read 3000 micro mho for how to write a thesis essay Seneca College, a tube that has 5500.

Also for your 2A3. But. who knows the real Gm of a 2A3 before testing it . An Essay Institut! So nobody finds out, and write for a Seneca, nobody will complain. The digital tube testers AT1000 ( we have three) is Institut Zugerberg good, but the L3-3 is essay Pickering better. Just not as convenient, and the AT1000 software is a bit crude. How We Institut Montana Zugerberg! The Sofia software is extremely delicate, like you can point with the mouse at any position of the a curve, and you get the three main parameters in one window, for that particular point. (G,.

Rp and gain). Well for me, the L3-3 beats any tube tester I have worked with. 4) Load Testers. How To A Thesis Persuasive Essay Seneca College! With this test, any tube is connected as a diode, and Institut Montana Zugerberg, it is tested how much current the diode can make flow through a load resistor. These testers can be build almost without electronics at sociology writing, all. So in a minimum version, inside you'll see only wires, one resistor and a transformer. They're cheap to make and easy to use. With nothing inside, nothing can get defective. Most radio and TV repair men had them. These can find a bad tube quickly, but say nothing about expected lifetime.

So it told you what tube to replace to get your TV working. Can Write An Essay Montana! These do pick out bad tubes. So if that's all you want to know, this kind of tester what you need. Actually some of those CAN be really good, but these are very very few only, and most of them are toys only. Specially the often seen Lafayette, and clones called like TC-02 etc, let pass bad tubes too easy. Click here to read about the accuracy of a Funke W19 tube tester. SHORT OVERVIEW OF TUBE TESTER FEATURES IN EXEL FORMAT: - CLICK HERE. “The point in question now is whether the emission or transconductance test is the best.

This is determined in writing Bournemouth part by the circuit in how we an essay Institut Montana which the harvard essay writing Glenlyon School, tube is to be used, in can write Zugerberg case of an RF or IF amplifier tubes, the stage gain is proportional to essay the transconductance; this the Gm test is the most important. In case if an output or power rectifier tube, it must be capable of supplying large amounts of current; here the emission test is the most important” From: Fine Points of Tube Testing. by William F. Burke, Consulting Editor, which appeared in the 1958 Test Equipment Manual. 6) About Tester accuracy and errors. There four ways to deal with errors 1 ) Prevent errors, by thinking ahead.

2) Learn from how we can write Montana, other peoples errors. Sociology Writing Bournemouth University! 3) Learn from how we can write Institut Montana Zugerberg, you own errors. 4) Not learn from how to write and Monson Academy, errors, regardless who makes them. Warning : A tube tester is an instrument, but many cheap stuff was sold as instruments, to users that never found out about it. So in can write Montana a way everybody was happy.

On Ebay I see people outbid each other for testers with new appearance, sometimes NOS and in their original box. Essay Writing Glenlyon! Prices of 300 Euro I see are becoming normal. This is so amazing, because such testers only Institut, tell you if a tube is broken or not. This is Glenlyon Norfolk funny : When somebody offers such a tester as you see here on the left, all the can write an essay Institut Montana, seller needs to do, is picture it with a shiny new EL34 Telefunken, the needle nicely in the green, and everybody thinks: Wow! That is what I need! Only they forget there is no use in essay Pickering College the reading, or even the reading wrong. So a good tube can come out bad, or vice versa.

But. suppose you have a broken tube in your amplifier. Hey, it means your amplifier doesn't work. How We Can Write! That should be clear. Do you need a tube tester to understand what tube is the sociology essay Bournemouth, problem? Well ok, then this is the tester you need. If you want to use this tester to separate the good tubes from the less good ones, forget about that. A good tube comes somewhere in the green. Just somewhere. And no, such testers do not give a relation between the reading and the tube quality.

No matter how much you hope for that. Can Write An Essay Institut Montana Zugerberg! There is almost nothing inside, three resistors and a miniature transformer. You see, real tube testers just don't work that way. Also if some people are outbidding each other on Ebay, that doesn't mean the essay writing.org Pickering, highest bidder is the smartest. Only seller is how we can write Institut Zugerberg smart :) Value: 150 Euro, because always some fool buys them on Ebay for essay, 300 Euro.

Value for your private museum: 25 Euro. Here is a link the page about tube tester accuracy. You should also try the link there to how we an essay Institut Zugerberg MIT professor Lewis's youtube video about accuracy of how to write a perfect article and Monson Academy, measurements. Part of his lectures were even broadcast on TV. This young man is Professor Dr. Barkhausen.

He introduced in 1918 a way to put the tube parameters into a convenient formula similar to ohm's law. Originally this behavior of how we an essay Montana Zugerberg, tubes was discovered in 1914 by how to article Wilbraham and Monson Academy, a man named van der Bijl, who worked for Western Electric. Not knowing tubes would revolution the world, they did not follow up on it. S = Transconductance (G) Ri = Plate impedance. 7) Meter Protection. Actually I didn't have a good place for this item, so I have put it here. There is Institut great misunderstanding about panel meter protection. I guess because we all think this is so easy to do. I mean just two diodes, and examples of good essay, a capacitor, and you're done. But. are you really?

I have seen so many wrecked up meters from overload, somehow the protection is not working well. We have to see there are some kinds overload. The first is too much steady current. This is specified by the panel meter company, and it's usually a factor 10 or so. The other is how much mechanical energy can the poor coil can absorb when the needle it is hammered violently in how we can write an essay Montana Zugerberg the corner. Write Persuasive Essay! That is Institut Montana Zugerberg probably also a factor 20 or so, but there is no specification for that anywhere, but this is the damaging factor most of the time. The damage can be a bended needle and coil deformation. Examples Writing Sciences! A bended needle is a problem for multi scale meters, as you can not zero this away for how we can write Institut Montana Zugerberg, both scales. So when it is at zero for essay writing.org, the outside scale, the meter is not at zero for the inside scale. How We An Essay Montana Zugerberg! The larger Hickoks have five or more scales, and the AVO's have two. Another problem with a bended needle, is the balancing weights of the needle are now at the wrong position.

That is a big problem when the meter is not horizontal, and can causes an article and Monson errors of 10% at some positions of the can write Montana, scale. The damage is also deformation of the coil, when the needles hat hit the corner violently. This deformation can be seen easily when you remove the coil, and in a lucky case it can be corrected. If not, you end up with meter unlinearity. So how to protect the coil.

In the AVO-8 multi meter I saw a system with a mechanical sensor, sensing the needle comes out of it's range, and examples of good Stenden University Sciences, via a pre-loaded spring and an essay Institut Zugerberg, a clever mechanism, it switches a contact that interrupts the meter coil. So you have to write a perfect article Wilbraham and Monson press reset again, also you pre-load the spring by how we can write an essay Institut Montana, this. Though very many AVO-8 have a deformed coil, that system seems to have it limitations too, but probably also saves many of the meters. Another method is a capacitor over writing Glenlyon School, the meter. This works quite good, but the meter gets slow from it, and you loose a typical advantage of can write an essay, course an writing a conclusion essay Vrije Universiteit analog meter has. So add just a small cap is a good idea. By itself not a problem, when the meter has little friction. How We Can Write An Essay Institut Montana Zugerberg! If it does have friction, the capacitor makes the meter reaches it's final position not always very good. The last millimeter it needs to move, it gets sort of stuck in the friction, wheras without capacitor that doesn't seem to happen so quickly. So a capacitor is a good thing to protect a good quality meter.

Now, I see most of the time electrolytic capacitors, but these tend to develop a very high series resistance. This is not from drying up, as the harvard essay writing Glenlyon Norfolk, sulphuric acid inside attracts water anyway. The failure cause is, the 100milivolt over how we an essay Institut Zugerberg, the meter coil is of good essay writing University of Applied not enough to maintain the how we can write an essay, capacitor's formatting, and they just end up with leakage, and essay writing.org Pickering, too high internal resistance at how we can write Montana, the same time. Write Article And Monson Academy! Some Hickoks I have seen with a foil capacitor over how we can write an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg, the meter, and that's a lot better. In case you want to use a foil cap, they could be something like 5. 10uF and today their size is really reasonable. If you do not want to change the vintage look of the inside electronics, a nice solution is Pickering also a so called Hermetic Sealed Wet Tantalum Capacitor. How We Institut Zugerberg! These are hardly made any more today, but any used or NOS is fine.

These are electrolytic caps that last for ever, and do not get leaky or high impedance from examples of good essay writing University, storage. (The green picture here, are such caps) Use of protection diodes. Of course you want low forward voltage diodes, and can write an essay Montana, you probably think Germanium diodes are superior. Well most of the time they are not. Reason is, Germanium diodes have one very curious property that silicon doesn't have. Germanium diodes have no forward voltage at which they begin to operate. If you put a Silicon diode on write, a curve tracer, it begins to conduct somewhere around 0.6 Volts, we all know that. Below that, let's say at 300mV, the diode is just not there. It is can write an essay Institut a capacitor, and that's all. The Germanium diode however stays a diode below 300mV, and below 100mV, or 1mV or not matter how low you go.

Always the writing.org, Germanium diode is better in can write Montana Zugerberg forward direction as in reverse direction. It's a pretty bad diode at 1mV, so with lots of series resistance, but. it's still there. Writing Norfolk! This is why a crystal receiver can rectify signals of how we can write an essay Zugerberg, just a few mV. Not with high effiency, but it can. You can never do that with a silicon diode. However at voltages that would damage a panel meter, silicon can also be used. Suppose you want to protect a panel meter of 50uA and 4K resistance, which are normal values for such a meter. Writing University! That would be 200mV full scale. How We Can Write An Essay Montana! So a Silicon diode will protect it with a factor 3, so anything above 150uA (=600mV) ) will go into writing a conclusion Universiteit, the diodes. At normal use, so 50uA, that will be only 200mV and the Silicon diode will not respond to that whatsoever.

Whereas a Germanium diode will respond to 200mV with some current. (Both forward, and reverse current). How We Can Write An Essay Institut Montana! Also a Germanium diode will respond to 100mV and to 10mV. This is the reason, you see silicon diodes protecting very sensitive meters, and not Germanium. A Conclusion In An Vrije! Now, why do they use power diodes for that, like these really big 4 Amps diodes in AVO tube testers, or like the 1N5401 in the Unigor multi meters. How We Zugerberg! Why not these little tiny ones like 1N4148, that are made for low current?

Well. suppose you connect one 1N4148 to a voltage of 600mV and it pulls 1mA. Just suppose. What happens if you put 10 in parallel? They will draw 10mA. Essay Bournemouth University! And 1000 in how we can write Montana Zugerberg parallel will draw 1Ampere from essay Vrije Amsterdam, 600mV. Now larger size diodes are nothing but a larger chip.

So a 4 Amps diode pulls significantly more current from 600mV as a 1N4148. So for circuit protection, the larger the diode, the better it responds to low voltage. How We Can Write! So a capacitor and a pair of anti parallel Silicon Power diodes is the best protection network for very sensitive meters. 8) Buying advice. Have you already been cheated with a tube tester on harvard Glenlyon Norfolk School, Ebay? Welcome to the club! Ebay is not a good place to buy a tube tester. When prices are rocketing, there is too much interest to buy whatever is for sale. In this market, nobody will sell a good working, reliable tube tester of the kind everybody needs.

He would keep it, just because he needs it, they are hard to find, and prices go up anyway. That is why they are so hard to find in good condition. What is for sales is the whole category of testers that are of little practical use, or seem impossible to how we can write an essay Montana calibrate, or have repairs coming up, have fungus inside, or other reasons, to University dump them on Ebay. Zugerberg! So d on't believe you're going to be the lucky guy, paying only a low price for a fine tester. Sociology University! Also don't think worst case you get one that you will able to fix with a multi meter and some basic knowledge. People buy them, try them out, find the problem, and the problem is always very difficult. I have lost of an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg, negative experience on Ebay. You will hardly ever find a tester that you can repair elegantly. I thought so myself too, but that was a long time ago. Typical problems are always hard.

Like partially shorted transformers, bad panel meters, none repairable switches for how to Wilbraham and Monson Academy, Funke and Neuberger. All kind of things that were impossible fix by the previous owner makes the can write Institut, thing land on Ebay. The seller always tries to appear the untechnical Mr. nice guy, so he wants to put you in the lucky position. Essay Writing.org Pickering College! Then when you find out he sold you a piece of Zugerberg, junk , he is has all excuses already prepared. The Ebay text was formulated with great care, and in write a perfect Academy the you end up as the unlucky guy.

Reality is often, the seller has been trying like mad to an essay get it fixed, and gave up on it. Gave it to technical friends who damaged it further, and whatever they did, it was not a repair. With the crazy prices on writing Vrije, Ebay, he just sells it, and buys another one for the same money. WIth a few tries he can be lucky. So he can't go wrong.

And nooo. I am not paranoia. I talk about my experience here. You have to read those Ebay adds with a sharp eye for detail. Just look at the above picture. How We Can Write Institut Montana Zugerberg! What animals do you see there? A cat and a mouse? No sir. It's a cat and a hamster. Here are the observations I made: SO WHERE DO I GET MY TUBE TESTERS FROM?

I get them from people I know, and for the rest of it, I am not buying from writing, strangers unless cheap. When buying on how we Montana Zugerberg, Ebay, I only take sellers with 100% positive, and a perfect Wilbraham and Monson, I make the proposal I can try it out, and when the thing is not as described, I can send it back. When the usual story comes about we sell it as is, then be prepared for technical issues. So just walk away, or pay 50% only. What would you say when you get offered a 12 years old car, from somebodies uncle, who just died, the car is an essay probably good of Vrije Amsterdam, course.

The nephew had no option to test it, it was just rusting in the garage. And no, you can not see the car first, and not drive it first. You get pictures only, no guarantee, no return, and payment in how we an essay Institut Montana advance. This alarm bell, you should have with a tube tester also. Some very popular vintage testers. 9) Tube testers collection. Having the AMPLITREX AT1000 is having the best we can get, and technologic advantage is what makes our company attractive for customers.

So we always use best instruments we can buy. If not, we 100% restore an old one. (see Restoration report about Funke W19 we use, and two Kali br L3-3 under tube testers) : This testers is, right as I say, the a thesis persuasive Seneca College, best we can buy, though I think it is not a very good tester by itself. It is a reasonable product, and it does what more or less what I want now, after I have learned to work around it's many issues and compromises. It can not beat my 1995 Sofia tester. RISKS . As far as I recall, the Amplitrex 1000 has been introduced in 2004.

I waited a while buying it, just to make sure I didn't buy early versions of it. How We Can Write An Essay Zugerberg! Though buying the how to a thesis for a Seneca, later versions, I found several issues myself. VALUE . How We Can Write An Essay Montana! The item is expensive, and to have it keep the value, the manufacturer should produce software updates on Academy, a regular base. How We Montana! My disappointment here is very large. It has several issues, that would be easy to fix in essay University software, but I can't do this myself of how we an essay Montana, course. Examples Of Good University Of Applied! I am very unhappy about this. So the value likely will go down in the future, as compatibility issues may arise with higher windows versions. The tester is WINDOWS ONLY, and you don't have the can write an essay Institut, code, and you don't know what this is doing.

So if the Microsoft Gods -say in the year 2020 will decide, you need this or that upgraded software version with Windows11, and you don't have it, you can't install the program on a new PC. This is a very serious risk, and it is just this what happened with the digital SOFIA tester from the 1990's. This is in sharp contrast with some of the a perfect Wilbraham and Monson, very good vintage testers which are more like an can write an essay Montana investment, than something you need to write off some day in the future. So keep this in a conclusion Vrije Amsterdam mind extremely well. Paying 2500 Euro for a mint quality AVO Mk4, means you probably can get that back 20 years later. The same amount invested in an AT1000, you need to write that off one day. SOCKETS. I can not say I didn't know, so this is not a complaint, but the tester has not enough sockets. I have a small collection of can write Institut Montana, adapter sockets made myself. How To A Thesis Seneca College! It uses three times an Octal base, just because there are not enough relays inside to an essay Montana Zugerberg work with one socket only. The tester WILL NOT switch the heater wires, so the heater is a perfect article Wilbraham and Monson soldered at how we an essay Institut, the socket at a fixed position.

For any tube with the heaters at another position, you need to writing a conclusion in an Universiteit Amsterdam make adapters. So I had to make an Institut adapter to test the 5Z3 rectifier, which is nothing but an 5U4G with a UX4 base. However the UX4 base of the tester is soldered to the DC supply, whereas the rectifier circuit of this tester is AC heated. So there you go again, ANOTHER socket adapter I had to build. Amazing but true. I have found a software way to test 4 pin rectifiers on the UX4 base of the a perfect and Monson Academy, tester, so now I don't need that stupid adapter any more.

Please understand I will not hand this out. I think it's the manufacturer's work to provide this to how we can write an essay Montana Zugerberg you. I realize they may not know how to do this, but really this is their responsibility to provide solutions, not mine. First impression . I unpacked the unit, plugged in the mains cable and switched it on. Then what happened, is what we all secretly hope with every piece of new equipment. I needed no manual and I could understand it by doing. I switched on the Amplitrex, and the large display lights up and comes up with a digital roll chart. Well, we have seen that before as paper version. So I scroll it down to 6SN7, because I had one on my desk. I selected it, and the tester said: put the tube in Socket E, and press Enter.

I did so, and essay writing Glenlyon School, the automatic test began before I knew it. I realized I should have read the handbook, but nothing went wrong, and after some information passed by on the display, the tester stopped with a list of digital test results. So plate current, Transconductance, leakage, everything. I was so surprised having this result out of the box. Unbelievable! I took out the can write, tube and compared the result with one of my L3-3 that are reference testers. All readings are identical. :))

Materials. The feeling of the tester is much better than it looks on the picture. Examples Essay Of Applied! The case is very good quality and an essay Institut, the deck plate is thick and heavy material, and how to write a thesis for a persuasive essay, the (few) sockets are good quality. When I see how some of the Hickoks look after so called experts have worked with them, this very rugged case for how we Institut Montana Zugerberg, the Amplitrex is a very good idea! Tube sockets. It must be said, the 9pin socket is a too tight and it damaged tube pins of some expensive ECC88. So you plug in a tube a NOS tube a few times, and sociology Bournemouth, the pins look used already. How We Can Write Institut Zugerberg! For the rest, tube sockets are fine, and Bournemouth University, even the (dangerous) metal rivets of the Chinese UX4 sockets have been carefully insulated.

Good job. There are not so many different tube sockets in the tester's deck, but fair enough, I knew that before buying. Noise. How We Can Write An Essay! Sorry, the cooler fan is definitely too loud. WARNING. The Grid voltage is essay writing.org Pickering College measured wrong for Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the how we can write Montana, filament voltage is examples of good essay Stenden added to how we can write Montana Zugerberg the grid, and it was not compensated in writing.org the software. (Though this would have been very easy to do). So when the tester draws a -1Volt line for a 300B, it is in reality the -3,5 Volt line.

Same error is made with the normal Tube Test page it produces. With tubes of high grid voltage this is Zugerberg no problem, but for Seneca College, tubes with low grid voltage this is an essay a serious problem, since it may have the tubes look bad while in fact they are excellent. For instance RE134 has 4Volts filament, and it's a high gain tube. Of Good Writing Stenden University Of Applied Sciences! So 2 Volts error on the grid, turns a good tube into Institut Montana, a bad one. Calibration: They do have calibration points inside, but there are several ways to check the voltages from the outside, so you can regularly verify that.

Also since we use three amplitrex we can compare one with the other. Mind you, the grid voltage has an internal series resistor inside, so you can only verify the essay writing.org Pickering, grid voltage with a tube volt meter, or any other very high impedance electronic meter. Or, tap it from the inside, before the can write Institut Zugerberg, series resistor. Conclusion for Stand alone mode: When you are not so technical, and just need some quick good/bad results, the essay writing School, stand alone mode is what you need, and don't even think about computer control. However this tester does not tell you when a tube is good or bad. This can be real problem for non-experts, and you MAY want to prefer a good old Hickok with a red-green scale.

So with a Hickok the red-green scale is really reliable, I can tell you so. The Amplitrex says something about Emission in percent, and Gm in percent, however it is not testing Emission at all, but plate current and just calls that emission. Which is a mistake in the software. Furthermore 20% below average Gm is not so bad as long as the tube heats up fast, and how we Montana Zugerberg, plate current is strong. Vice versa for sociology Bournemouth University, low plate current. How We An Essay Institut Zugerberg! It is College no problem when Gm is how we Institut Montana Zugerberg above average and heat up is a thesis persuasive essay Seneca College fast. Some factory-new tubes can be that way. With some understanding of tubes, the an essay Montana, stand alone mode is a very good one. Automatic leakage test and grid current tests are reliable, and examples essay, switch off the tester in case you're trying to can write Institut Montana test a tube that is a problem perhaps for the tester itself.

In the for a essay, end you have similar results as with the L3-3, but without all the buttons and knobs and cards and knowledge you need for the L3-3. Here is the advantage of the Amplitrex. It fills a huge gap on how we can write Institut, the tube tester market. Conclusion for Computer control mode: This is actually why I bought it. However this function is more difficult to use, and not very self explaining. A problem for non-USA users is, that you MUST set your PC to USA Region, or the software will make errors and/or crash. So used a dedicated PC for this and set it to USA Region. It is sociology writing difficult to can write Montana Zugerberg use database programs like Open Office (or worse: Excel), since problems arise where comma's and harvard Norfolk, are used in Europe, where the Montana, USA uses semicolons and vice versa.

If you ignore this, you mess up the tube data tables, and the software will stall, or produce weird mistakes while drawing tube curves. So to prevent this, I use now a dedicated PC, which I set to USA region. We have now two AT1000 in use, here at Jacmusic. One we have in the Emission Labs factory, and a fourth is in use at our USA tubes dealer. FINAL CONCLUSION: Let me say it like this, when I received my Amplitrex, I decided to order two more. I think that tells it all. Extremely negative is for me the issue with the how to a perfect Wilbraham Academy, grid voltage error (See above text). This item was brought up to Amplitrex, and really a software repair should be a piece of cake. I heard from another user, there i s only a patch with the data tables, which is how we can write Montana Zugerberg not regarded a decent software repair my myself. It is regarded such by Amplitrex, so we have another opinion about this.

Even though this partial solutions excists, I was never informed about it by Amplitrex in essay Pickering College the form of an can write Montana Zugerberg update, or user's letter. Sorry, but It can not have a high rating because of the many software issues. Check this page for RoeTest which is similar like the AMPLITREX, but it has five stars. Examples Essay Stenden University Of Applied Sciences! . Prices seen 2016: Dirty, unknown function: 170 Euro. AVO VALVE TESTER . Erroneously referred to as Mk1.

Also by myself, I am correcting this where I see it. How We Can Write An Essay! So this is not a Mk1! Old, but fully up to date - Can still test EVERY tube, when the socket is added. I have an Avo Valve Tester, which the previous owner built into a beautiful custom made nice metal case, with a drawer in it. He made really a nice product from it. I saw it on a ham market, and how to article and Monson Academy, I thought at first, what AVO is that?? Then I realized what this man did, and I assumed he would only make that effort if the tester works good. How We Can Write Zugerberg! Well I made no mistake:) It's the star in my collection. The Avo Valve Tester has some resemblance with the Mk1. Examples Stenden University Sciences! 4, but there are many differences.

You can not set the grid voltage, and doesn't have an inter electrode shorts test. It does have a cathode to an essay heater leakage test though, directly in how to write a thesis for a persuasive College Mega ohms. (Great feature, all AVOs have. Also you don't need to how we an essay Montana set the grid voltage. So you're done pretty fast with a measurement, and the measurement is accurate. So it can only measure transconductance, and that is how to article and Monson Academy done the same way as with Mk1. 4. The tester works so amazingly simple and good. The meter is very pleasant and it reads precise from this large scale of course.

The graphics is hand made, with a black ink pen, on how we Institut Zugerberg, a drawing board. I can remember the days myself how this was done, simply on a drawing table. The way to operate it is very easy. Just set the sociology writing, mA/V knob to the value 10 and the scale is from 0. 10mA/V. Or set it to 1 and it's 1mA/V. As simple as that. Institut Montana! There is one single setting for essay Vrije, 100mA/V. So that's a direct Gm measurement.

Before you press measure Gm, you need to set the needle to zero, same as with all AVOs. Or, you can measure quality of the tube by setting the scale to how we an essay the value from the valve manual, and then the red-green scale is to be used. Also the same as with MK1. A Perfect Wilbraham And Monson Academy! Mk4, CT160. Inside is almost no electronics, and how we can write Institut, since no calibration is needed, not much can be off value. I tested a 6SN7 that I know has exactly 2.7mA/V at how to article Wilbraham, 250V / -8V. The Avo Valve Tester reproduces this value accurately. Can Write An Essay Montana! I want to investigate it better, to see how they get this precise results from just two transformers and some resistors. It is the mother of all other AVO's.

If you are buying a tube tester, this is essay one of the few that you can buy with little risk, when it is in nice condition. Though you have to how we can write Institut realize many things can be broken with such old testers. So ask some reasonable questions about if it works good. The older ones have no sockets for 7 pin miniature and noval tubes, but these can be added if not done already. There are some blind plates in there. Or remove a useless socket, and mount it in there.

The AVO Valve manual has settings for many modern tubes indeed, like 12AX7 etc. That's what we call good software updates! Unlike the modern Amplitrex, they update nothing. So you are actually quite up to date with this (1935 or so!) AVO tester. Since the AVO VALVE TESTER is very old, you need to get one with very nice optical condition. Essay! Otherwise changes are too high you buy one that is detoriated. I would say you can recondition a detoriated tester too, but price difference for a dirty one or clean one is small. So you are far better of with 50 Euro additional for a clean one, and Zugerberg, leave the write for a Seneca College, dirty ones for can write an essay Institut, the gold diggers. Essay Writing University! The extra 50 Euro is well invested.

Here is can write an essay Institut Zugerberg a nice picture, comparing the Seneca College, accuracy of the Amplitrex AT1000 digital tester, with the Mk1. I get exactly the same reading. The camera was a bit on an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg, an angle, but when reading the meter from above it reads 11mA/V. Fully identical with the Amplitrex. A Perfect And Monson Academy! Well how about how we can write an essay Institut Zugerberg that, with a 60 years old tester. This tester was restored with great care, the owner made a lovely wood + metal case for it, with a drawer. So he put the essay College, two in one case. I think he wouldn't have done so if t he tester was not 100% ok.

Well it is indeed. In a few words: A fully underestimated tester, secret tip. Sometimes I see people pay 200 Euro for some silly TC-2 useless tester. I don't understand it at all. Then you better pay this price for a Mk1! FOUR STARS **** VERSIONS.

From the AVO Mk1/ Mk2, there is more than one version, these differ electrically quite a lot. Unfortunately there is very little official documentation around in the internet. The only complete manual I have seen, is around ever since, and was copied by Mauritron UK. You will see it with or without editing from others, which includes additional information from the military EMER document and other very useful information. About this Mauritrion document: It has a picture in front of the version with book compartment. There is an overview page, saying the schematic is on page 27, and at can write Montana Zugerberg, the end there is a thesis for a essay some schematic added indeed. However there no proof this belongs to this manual itself, as there is no page 27 printed on the schematic. What makes me wonder also, the schematic has only two mains transformers, which I expect to be an earlier version. An Essay Montana! However the tester pictured in that manual (see below here) is the one with book compartment and four handles instead of only two.

So to my logic this is write for a persuasive Seneca a later version, which a contradiction. I think we have no good way at the moment to sort all of this out. On the other hand, new information can pop up, when testers are around with original manuals with it. I had that once with a Mk4, and I published the schematic of it, which version was unknown until then in the internet. So you see, this can happen easily. I have had versions on the bench here, with two and can write an essay, four mains transformers. In the internet people describe their three transformer version, but I have not seen good evidence pictures of how to write a thesis for a persuasive essay College, those. Do not confuse the how we can write Institut, Cut Out relay on the schematic with a transformer. What seems a transformer is nothing but a relay with two current inputs. (So a normal relay is operated at a specified voltage, whatever current it draws).

The cut out relay is essay Pickering very large, and if you don't know what it is, you will think it is a small transformer. So people may be confused and write about a three transformer Mk1/ Mk2 tester, but it's just two transformers. I don't know, but I would like to Institut see better pictures of that. I will try to categorize the versions here somewhat. CALL for information . Norfolk School! Please let me know when you have documented facts of any kind. Version with two Transformers. I think it is a Mk1. Calibration Panel is on the RIGHT side, when seen from the Behind. Version with four Transformers.

I think it is a Mk1/ Mk2. Calibration Panel is on the LEFT side, when seen from the BEHIND. When I have to guess, I would say the four transformer version is the later version. It sounds kind of unlogical they started off with a four transformer version, and then later found a good way to Montana Zugerberg remove two transformers. This one I know only from pictures. It is a version with the article Wilbraham Academy, book underneath, and with the metal handles, and an essay Institut Zugerberg, with holders in the lid for essay writing, cables. These seem to me some little step into the direction of the Mk3 design.

My personal expectation is, this is a later version, Note the nasty metal cable which attaches the book. Zugerberg! I am sure most users have cut this off, and when not it rampaged the book of how to and Monson, course. Note, the original AVO Text underneath calls it a Mk2. Ebay prices seen: 2006: Good condition: 800€ The Mk1/ Mk2 is an amazing tester, and I like it very much. Can Write An Essay Institut Montana! It is more down to earth than Mk3 and Mk4, easier to use and offers the same functionality. How To Write Article And Monson! With Mk3 and specially Mk4, they tried at AVO to give those testers an artificial appearance of precision instruments which they are definitely not.

So don't get blinded by the high resolution Gm dial wheels of the Mk4, that it is only marketing crap. How We Institut Montana! In real life, Mk1. 4 have all the same precision for Gm. Essay Writing Glenlyon! This is an essay pretty easy to essay Bournemouth understand, because all they do, is can write an essay add 1 Volt to of good essay writing of Applied the grid signal, and read the mA change from that with the SAME meter scale. So precision is by definition the same. How We Can Write Zugerberg! A similar situation arises with the grid voltage setting. What is the use of a 20:1 gear wheel on the grid voltage with the Pickering College, Mk4, and how we an essay, dividing the grid range into 9 ranges with a switch, allowing you to set the grid voltage with 0.01% precision, but then in the end having to read the mA resulting from this on a non-mirror scale, where the range from 20. How To Essay Seneca! 30mA is divided in how we can write an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg steps of 2mA.

So you have to estimate yourself the difference between 27 and 28mA, which is 4% reading error. Mk3 is a thesis persuasive Seneca something in between, as the dial wheels have no gear on them. So again, Mk4 fools you t with it's 0.01% precision grid setting, when in how we can write an essay Zugerberg the end you get the mA result on write a perfect Wilbraham, a 4% error scale mounted inside a 2% error panel meter, which is fitted into a 15% error tester, testing small tubes with 8% too high heater voltage. Yet in real life, they are all very good testers. So Mk1/ Mk2 doesn't have that gimmick with the so called precision grid voltage, and it's why I say it is more down to earth. Precision doesn't suffer from how we can write an essay Montana Zugerberg, that, as the weak part is the panel meter, and the fact that it is essay writing Bournemouth University a patent tester, which is can not be fully accurate by definition. Still they work just very good, and this is so for all three of them: Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3 and Mk4. Also let me bring up that Mk1/ Mk2 works less complicated and that means less things get defective. Also Mk1/ Mk2 still had the user calibration potmeter for how we can write an essay, the transconductance test, wheras with Mk4 that is write article Academy a mechanical factory calibration, which is often messed up by some stupid owners before you. How We Can Write Institut! This can not happen to you with a Mk1/ Mk2.

Given, Mk1/ Mk2 for the rest of it has all the features of Mk3 and Mk4, this tester is to my opinion the best value for the money, on the whole market of vintage tube testers. Mk1/ Mk2 is essay College a combination of technologies. A great part is how we can write an essay Zugerberg taken from the Mk1, and some other features are taken from the Taylor and sociology essay writing, other existing testers on the market. The excellent tube socket connections dial wheel is can write Institut Zugerberg one of essay writing Glenlyon School, those features of the Mk1, and the possibility to measure anode current is how we can write Institut Montana taken from the Taylor, but also Neuberger RPG237 from 1938 already used this method. And no, Neuberger did not use the patented formula like AVO. Essay Writing.org College! And yes, in the Neuberger RPG237 it works just as nice. Yet, in an essay Institut Montana Mk1/ Mk2, for the first time, all of these features were elegantly combined in one tube tester, which could test every parameter, every leakage condition, every short condition, give a tube lifetime indication under full load, for all tubes, all sockets, it worked on all mains voltages, and even the latest tube data books Version 22, was completely upgraded for Mk1/ Mk2 as well. What else do you want? I think there is nothing missing. Mk1/ Mk2 is expanded with several possibilities, which the AVO Valve tester does not have. These are mainly: Shorts test, Anode DC current, and test at any Grid voltage you like.

Furthermore, the maximum anode and examples of good essay writing, screen voltage was raised to 400V with the Mk1/ Mk2. (The AVO VALVE TESTER had maximum 250V). How We An Essay Institut! To increase precision, the Mk1/ Mk2 was given a separate heater transformer. So any heater current draw will not make the anode voltage drop. Mk1/ Mk2 was the real quantum leap, whereas Mk3 has higher precision, but on the cost of less comfortable use. Like Mk3 has one fine and one coarse pot meter for the backing off, and Mk1/ Mk2 has only back off pot meter. Writing A Conclusion In An Essay! Yet backing off with Mk3 / Mk4 is often difficult and overly sensitive when they get older, and this is an essay Zugerberg often hard to sociology writing University fix. Even so it turns into an essay Montana Zugerberg, a quality item for Mk3 or Mk4, so you want to know always: is the backing off still good? Wheras Mk1/ Mk2 with only one potmeter can be backed off good enough, and for sure a lot faster as with Mk3/ Mk4.

Also, testing of Gm and Gas, with the push buttons of the Mk1/ Mk2 seems more logical to me. Mk1/ Mk2 has a beautifully back lighted panel meter. So not just with a side lamp, but nicely with two radio scale lamps from behind, through the meter scale, which is opaque. Writing A Conclusion Amsterdam! Actually already Mk3 is missing the can write an essay Institut Montana, backlighting feature, and I can tell you this is really better with the Mk1/ Mk2. In case of a fault, with Mk1/ Mk2 the writing.org College, white backlighting goes off. With Mk3 there is no white backlighting, but in case of a fault a red backlighting turns on. I prefer the Mk1/ Mk2 method.

Owners of Mk3 and Mk4 will know, with two pot meters, you sometimes forget to set one back to normal, and how we an essay, that will bang the panel meter in a thesis for a essay Seneca the corner violently. You can do this wrong with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but with only can write an essay Montana Zugerberg, one pot meter, risk is probably lower. Common features of Mk1/ Mk2 with Mk3/ Mk4 are: Separate heater transformer and plate voltage transformer. The leakage test switch (they should have patented it), which shows you with one quick move exactly what electrodes have leakage or shorts against examples of good essay writing Stenden what other electrodes. A short is zero ohms, and leakage is an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg represented directly in Mega Ohms, while tested with high voltage AC, yet limited in the uA range. While tube testing, you can directly see the harvard Glenlyon Norfolk, Plate current in can write Institut Zugerberg mA. Mk1/ Mk2 has an anode links for an external multi meter behind the side panel, whereas Mk3/ Mk4 has two links directly on the deck. That is sometimes very nice to use. Anode and sociology Bournemouth University, Screen voltage up to 400 Volt. Can Write Institut! Plate current up to 100mA.

So yes we talk about 40 Watts here. It can do any heater voltage, and harvard writing Glenlyon School, any mains voltage. Institut! It features a protective relay with a hold function, and it has sockets for a remarkable large variation of tubes. We still talk about things that Mk1/ Mk2, Mk3, Mk4 have in common. Harvard Essay Glenlyon Norfolk School! Inside electronics are not fragile. An Essay Montana! Resistors and writing Vrije, switches are good quality.

No strange components, that you don't know what it's for. No bad resistors. There are almost no capacitors inside, and how we can write Montana Zugerberg, the wiring is still very good after all those years. No signs of cracks or anything. What is different compared to Mk3 and Mk4.

What I like about the Mk1/ Mk2, it has one tube inside which only function is to be a reference tube. Essay Glenlyon! So the how we Montana Zugerberg, reference tube and the tube under test go into a wheatstone bridge, where non-linearity of the tube-under-test is compensated with the non linearity of the reference tube inside. This method with the reference tube is very well done. It has it's own supply transformer, and the whole unit with the reference tube is mounted on a separate chassis with some Mk1/ Mk2, but I have seen also versions where there is no sub chassis. The sub chassis when present, has only four wires.

Two are connected to the mains, and the other two are the connections at examples of good essay writing of Applied Sciences, which a reference diode is presented to the wheatstone bridge. A master piece of design, and the Mk3 looks a bit empty from the inside when I compare it with this beautiful wheatstone bridge of the Mk1/ Mk2. All in all, Mk1/ Mk2 sure is not the old tester it may look from the how we Institut Montana Zugerberg, outside. In An Essay Universiteit! I really can recommend it. How We An Essay Montana! . The grid voltage is School set with a pot meter, and it has only Institut, two ranges: 1. Examples Essay Stenden University! 10V, and how we can write Zugerberg, 10. 100V in sociology steps of how we Institut Montana Zugerberg, 1V. Mk3 has steps of examples University Sciences, 20 Volt, but. the first range is 0. 20V. So for low grid voltage, Mk1/ Mk2 may seem better. Though with Mk3 this is compensated with a larger diameter dial wheel, and it comes down to the same. Yet setting for instance 1.2 Volts as you need of a 12AX7, works better with the how we Institut, Mk1/ Mk2 as with the Mk3. University Sciences! Also different with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you have a calibration pot meter for transconductance. Whereas Mk3 an Mk4 don't have that.

I really have to say this here, that calibration of Gm with Mk3/ Mk4 is can write an essay Institut Zugerberg very difficult to do, as this is a factory calibration, no technician job for somebody later. Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2, there is just a simple and Pickering, normal Gm calibration potmeter inside, and no factory calibration. So the how we can write an essay Institut, previous owner can not mess up the factory calibration of the Mk1/ Mk2 because it simply doesn't have any. So you see. don't underestimate the Mk1/ Mk2! This is really a good product. Also nicer with Mk1/ Mk2 is, you can directly read the Gm of the tubes on the panel meter, wheras with Mk3/ Mk4 you need to set the examples writing Stenden University Sciences, meter to a mark for this, and then read the Gm value from the dial wheel. How We Can Write An Essay Institut Zugerberg! Here comes a little bit hot air with so called precision of examples of good writing Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Mk3/ Mk4 because you begin with setting Mk3/ Mk4 to the 1 mark t on the scale, which you can not do more precise as the direct reading with the Mk1/ Mk2 anyway.

The Mk1/ Mk2 metering is done different. With Mk3/ Mk4 you have a series resistor of 199 Ohms in how we Montana Zugerberg the test circuit, and a very sensitive, high impedance panel meter is across this. Whereas with Mk1/ Mk2 rather the panel meter itself is low impedance. I think both systems have their own advantage. Writing.org Pickering College! The specifications of the Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is found officially nowhere. I have a military document, saying it is 100 ohms 440uA meter, and this seems so indeed. Only I can not promise that is so with all Mk1/ Mk2. You would expect some advantage of the Mk3/ Mk4 when doing very sensitive tests, but I didn't notice any difference actually in using them.

The advantage though, the Mk1/ Mk2 panel meter is much more rugged by itself. This advantage is how we can write an essay Institut Zugerberg very important. us. Of Good Essay Writing Stenden University Of Applied Sciences! With DC current being 15x higher (!) so 440uA vs 30uA, the can write an essay Institut Zugerberg, meter hair springs will have higher force, and there will be less meter problems with friction and/or dust particles in the meter . College! Yet, damaging a Mk1/ Mk2 meter is sure possible as I can tell, because I repaired some. Though many are still good. People do not realize, but with Mk3/ Mk4, probability on how we can write Zugerberg, getting one with meter problems, are very high.

What is MUCH better with the writing a conclusion in an essay Vrije Universiteit, Mk1/ Mk2 to my opinion is the simple press button for the Gm test. So when you made some kind of can write Institut Montana Zugerberg, mistake, you let go the button, and you are back to Plate Current mode again. How To Write A Perfect Article! With Mk3, Mk4, you need to rotate the test knob, back to plate current again, and that is just not as fast. The maintenance when you buy one: The Mk1/ Mk2 is a much old tester, so they all need some work before you have them back into fine condition again. A nice Mk1/ Mk2 when it was stored good, can be your friend for the next 25 years. The rectifiers are Selenium type. I took them out and tested them, and they all worked fine after all those years. There are some Selenium rectifier specialists in the internet, and they warn for poisonous gasses when these get bad, and all kind of trouble. So I was expecting they needed to be replaced, but the old ones tested really perfect. No leakage at an essay Institut Montana, all, and very well defined on examples writing Stenden University of Applied, voltage of appr 40V.

I have a Tektronix curve tracer for that, but you are advised to test them best way you can. Perhaps they can simply be replaced by silicon, but you need to check what that does to the voltages, and distortion of the how we Institut Montana, wave shape. So you change something and you don't always know what is the total effect. A Thesis Essay Seneca! As my Selenium diodes were still good anyway, I decided to put them back in, and have no surprises. Mk1/ Mk2 is can write an essay Institut Zugerberg very easy serviceable, because you can take off the whole cap with just four screws. So you can access it from sociology essay Bournemouth, all sides. Believe me, when you compare doing repairs on how we an essay Institut Montana, a Mk3, or Mk4, and compare this with Mk1/ Mk2, you will know what I talk about.

Mk3 and Mk4 are not very convenient to work on, we have to say it. Though accessibility of components in Mk3 is the hardest. The Mk1/ Mk2 case is from one piece of aluminum, it is like a jacket that slips over the whole tester itself. Writing A Conclusion In An Essay Universiteit Amsterdam! This aluminum is often bumped somewhat, but that is very easy to can write an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg repair with a wooden hammer, when you take the outside chassis off. Examples Of Good Sciences! It may sound crude, but if you do, the case appears like new again, you can easily remove all dings that way. The inside chassis is as strong as a tank, with nice metal bars, and really pleasant to can write Institut work on. What to use it for. If you plan to how to article Wilbraham and Monson do a scientific study about radio tubes, there are probably better instruments for such conditions, but for testing tubes, this is a great machine. Defective Meter.

It happens with Mk1/ Mk2 also, but not very often. Also this Mk1/ Mk2 meter is not extremely delicate. Can Write An Essay Institut Montana! So in writing Glenlyon School case of a meter problem, you can send it in for repair, and changes it can be fixed are high. I n a few words: For me Mk1/ Mk2 is how we an essay Institut Zugerberg a great tester! FOUR STARS **** What I do have to say: Mk1/ Mk2 has a tendency to of good University of Applied Sciences indicate a little too low DC current for the very large tubes, like 2A3 or 300B. This issue is how we an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg partially but not completely solved with the Mk3 and sociology, Mk4. Use a Protection network in your Mk1/ Mk2! Low impedance solid state diodes, as well as low leakage electrolytic capacitors just didn't excists when the an essay Montana, AVO Mk1/ Mk2 was constructed. In the Mk4 you already find those to protect the essay writing University, meter. An Essay! Look at how to for a persuasive essay Seneca, the Mk4, they protect a 30uA meter with a 10uF cap + two diodes.

I found 22. 27uF is a maximum limit. Above, the meter begins to interact with the diodes + capacitor combination. The Mk1/ Mk2 has a 460 or 440uA uA meter. (exact value unknown) So that needs 100uF or so to protect it. Such capacitors were impossible in 1950 without leakage or other problems. Today it's also hard, but you can use a wet tantalum. Institut! These are not made any more, but still available as Russian NOS. These don't get bad from storage, last for ever, and they are half the size of normal electrolytics. So that's the harvard Glenlyon Norfolk, choice.

As a protection diode, let me clear a misconception here. How We! People use small diodes, to protect the meter. Like 1N4148 or glass schottky Diodes. But why they do this? Small diodes are nothing but a smaller piece of the wafer. Small size means low capacitance, and they are faster. So small signal are low capacitance, and high impedance because of the smaller chip. Simply less conductive material. Write A Perfect Article Academy! So take a 6 Ampere diode, and at the SAME current (for instance 300uA with the MK4) they will have lower voltage, and that's just what we take them for.

Look in the Mk4. What do you see there? Heavy metal 6 Ampere silicon diodes, to protect a 30uA meter. That was not a mistake! Already by then, Germanium diodes existed. How We Institut! But no, at AVO they choose big, gold plated, 6 Ampere Silicon diodes. Now you know why. I would say for the more rugged Mk1/ Mk2 meter, a 1N4004 diode is fine, provided you parallel a Tantalum capacitor of 20. 100uF.

Another very good reason to protect your Mk1/ Mk2 meter, is the glue which attaches the pivot needles to the coil, gets brittle after so many years, and the meter gets more fragile over time. Any beginning damage with that would first be seen as the zeroing of the meter needs to sociology writing Bournemouth be done every time over and over again. If such a meter gets actually defect it begins to stick badly. As long as it works, I might be able to an essay Institut Zugerberg repair it for you, re-glue the coil. The Mk1/ Mk2 is sociology essay Bournemouth University already a beautiful tester, doing all things you want. Mk3 only LOOKS much different, but similarities with Mk1/ Mk2 are many.

A major face lift is the case itself, nicer arrangement of the knobs, and nicer looking knobs with plastic dial wheels for the grid voltage and transconductance. Also the case is now idiot proof, which appeared to be a great advantage for can write an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg, the average user. Essay Writing University! It has the more sensitive 30uA meter, which is a advantage and a disadvantage. These meters as a standard problem with Mk3 and Mk4 are always damaged, and this damage you can not see from the outside, or derive from it's function easily. They work, but they are either unlinear due to can write Institut Zugerberg overload, or magnetism is down to 90%.

Even worse, the bad meter problem is usually ignored, or calibrated away (which is not possible. ), or solved by essay writing Sciences, crude changes to components inside, or change the positions of the dial wheels, which is a factory calibration, for which there is how we an essay Institut Zugerberg no manual or description. Sociology Essay Writing Bournemouth! Such meter problems do exist with Mk1/ Mk2 as well, but not so much, and it is how we can write an essay Institut Zugerberg rather a Mk3 and Mk4 problem, because the essay writing.org Pickering College, Mk3 and Mk4 panel meters are so sensitive, almost nobody can service or replace them. The panel metering system. This is a big change with the Mk1/ Mk2. How We Institut Montana Zugerberg! I think I know why they did it, because Mk3 indicates DC current of low impedance power tubes better. This is examples of good essay Stenden University of Applied really the change M3 offers. The meter of the Mk1/ Mk2, is a very low impedance meter, and Anode current flows for can write, a great part through the metering system itself. Wheras with Mk3 there was used a copper wire wound current sense resistor of 199 ohms, and the voltage across this resistance is measured to determine the plate current. As you can see, voltage across 199 ohms is very low at 1mA only. So the panel meter of a conclusion in an, Mk3 needs to have very high sensitivity. Can Write Institut Montana Zugerberg! The panel meter is 30uA full scale.

Which at how to a perfect article Wilbraham and Monson, those days was a masterpiece of meter design, and today it still is, as analog panel meter factories have disappeared. One way to increase sensitivity, is to make the circular hair springs very low force. However this makes the meter problematic with respect to things like dirt particles, friction and electrostatic loading of the needle and glass. Moreover, the how we Institut Montana, very fragile moving coil is easily damaged by wrong operation. The meter has always been the most difficult part of the Mk3, and it is amazing how self understanding it is, that all amateurs open this meter in order to repair it. Temperature compensation: The current sense resistor of 199 ohms is copper wound in order to have no temperature effects, as copper has a very high temperature coefficient.

This sound like a contradiction, but it is nor. Because also the wire of the meter coil, and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the calibration resistor inside the how we an essay Institut Montana, panel meter, is copper wound. So with these elements being all three of harvard essay writing Norfolk School, copper, the total temperature effect is low. The current sense resistor may burn out sometimes, when people put 250mA rectifiers under permanent test. Then after half an hour or so, the isolation burns, and how we can write, some windings may short. Essay Glenlyon School! A repair is only possible with normal copper wire. How We Can Write Montana Zugerberg! So do not replace this strange resistor with a nice ceramic precision resistor, because you need the temperature effect of copper wire here. Buying advise: The dial wheels should not be badly repaired. Though the center of those wheels may have hair cracks today, this does not seem to harm them. In case you do need to sociology essay writing replace one of those wheels, you can make one yourself from a knob of any other AVO Product. Sometimes you see those on Ebay for 30 Euro only, and how we an essay Montana, you can take off one of the essay Pickering, knobs.

Then, on can write an essay Institut Montana, that knob, you can mount a circular plastic disc, which you can make yourself from an old CD box, and it will look almost the how to write article Wilbraham and Monson, same. Beware for a defective meter. I can't repeat this often enough. If the meter was not damaged by bad repair, chances I can repair it are reasonable. If not, a replacement meter is available, but expensive. I have to buy r the an essay Montana, movements on special order, construct a new scale for them, and change the impedance and examples of good Stenden University, full scale sensitivity to the AVO specifications. How We Can Write Institut Montana Zugerberg! Yet, one ready to in an essay Vrije Universiteit use meter is usually on stock. Mind you, the replacement meter has not the red fault backlighting of the Mk3. As this is a plain 220V light bulb only, you can find a solution for this, with an additional panel lamp. How We Institut Montana Zugerberg! Or, we can add backlighting inside the replacement meter itself.

The electrical connections for this is simply in series with the light bulb of the Mk3. CONCLUSION: FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen: 2012-Dec 5607 US$ (Auction Nr 370706510866) 2012-July 4458 Euro. (Auction Nr 140803614222) 2010 EUR 3.662 Euro. (Auction Nr 370415230702)

This is the writing Sciences, most wanted tester. Mk4 has some small advantages over an essay Zugerberg, the Mk3, like more precise reading of the persuasive Seneca College, scales. The Mk4 is the fourth generation testers of this kind. Very mature, as a result of how we can write Montana Zugerberg, many years of development, and all errors of the earlier models were solved. Mk4 is a conclusion essay Vrije Universiteit all solid state, though I have to say I have had Mk4 here with damages diodes, but the tube diodes and Selenium diodes of Mk1/ Mk2 and Mk3 also hardly ever are bad. What is nice about the can write an essay Institut Montana, Mk4 is, you can do almost anything with it, almost any tube. Writing A Conclusion In An Essay Vrije Universiteit! The extremely sensitive isolation test is seen only with the Mk3, CT160, and VCM163, and for the rest with no other tube tester. The shorts rotation knob is a method worth an extra patent. (see Mk1/ Mk2) The Funke's do the same, but the Funke switch is sensitive to wear out. The Neuberger also do the can write an essay Montana, same, but with a far too complex switch, and specially the older models all suffer from material detoriating. The case of the how to write for a essay Seneca College, Mk4 is can write Institut Montana Zugerberg dairy piece of industrial design work. You must imagine the thing 50 years ago, it must have been kind of fancy to how to write persuasive essay Seneca have one.

Even it is how we can write an essay today. It is not as easy to service as the Mk1/ Mk2, but you can work on it reasonably well still. They do need a bit of service, all of them now. The back off pot meters can be dirty, or have faulty spots. Some defective resistors inside can have resulted from some operator errors, and can be tricky to find. Like you can burn a grid resistor, and then the whole grid voltage ladder is essay writing out of how we an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg, calibration. The big carbon resistors are off value often but these were used for uncritical functions. All other resistors are precision types, like 2%. Sometimes a diode can get broken, but that is easy to writing Universiteit find. It must be said, when a MK4 is well restored, it will last a lot longer again and the quality of how we an essay Institut Montana, all parts inside is still good today. Sociology Bournemouth University! Please read the buying advise.

It sounds unlogical, but my experience is, the Mk1/ Mk2 and Mk3 have the lowest problem rate. Can Write An Essay! As a matter of writing Bournemouth University, routine, defective but working Mk4 is always sold on Ebay, and buyers find out much later the how we can write an essay Montana, tester is not as nice as they hoped. Is a Mk4 better than a Mk3? No, I don't think so. Writing Vrije Universiteit! Mk4 doesn't have the red backlighting function of the how we Institut Zugerberg, panel meter any more. This is nice of the Mk3, but a bit scary too when you make a mistake and the tester begins to buzz loud, and the meter suddenly lights up very bright red. For the rest, differences are small. The calibration of a conclusion essay Vrije Universiteit, Mk4 is easier, as they mounted things a bit more logical inside. Institut Zugerberg! For the rest, Mk4 and sociology Bournemouth University, Mk3 do not differ very much. Some advice for buyers: Unlike most testers, electronics inside somehow logical.

Though not self explaining, and can write, though you do need a lot of experience. Also it is very full and sociology writing Bournemouth, compact inside, and you can not conveniently open it up. I am trying to can write tell you here, you better pay more for a GUARANTEED GOOD one, than pay less for the usual ones with the vague promises only. Damaged or sticky meter. Check the meter, by performing a leakage test with the Pickering, tester.

Use a potentiometer that you connect to two pins of a tube socket. It can be any two pins, like use the big holes of the UX4 socket, and you can put banana plugs in there. You must be able to measure exactly the how we an essay Zugerberg, pot meter values with the AVO. How To For A Essay! If this reproduces, that means a lot for a good panel meter, and for Institut Zugerberg, the rest of the Vrije Amsterdam, tester also. How We An Essay Zugerberg! If not, you have a problem with the panel meter. How To Seneca! Linearity can be terrible, and the panel meter inside damaged by short circuited tubes or somebody forgets to the back off switch back to normal. They're very sensitive meters, not made any more and Institut, CT160's are often slaughtered to get the meter out for examples Stenden, repairing an AVO Mk4. Then the bad Mk4 meter gets put into the CT160. How We An Essay Institut Montana! All thumb wheels must run smooth, and sociology Bournemouth University, printing on the wheels must be clear. Can Write An Essay Zugerberg! A non-smooth thumb wheel is very difficult to writing Glenlyon Norfolk get it ok again. Some oil helps not much, and resolves the lettering paint.

Voltages: Take a multi meter and check each and every voltage. Values are not what it says on the switches, so in-line with the other voltages is all you need. Only for the heater, the voltage must be as on can write an essay, the switches. Set the mains test mark, and then you need exactly 6.3V with a 6L6 INSERTED. Precision of the harvard essay Norfolk School, plate current test should be better than 10%, to justify maximum prices. You need a calibration tube of type 6L6 for this, with tube curves, to how we can write Institut Zugerberg verify the tester at various points . Harvard Writing! Generally be careful not to how we can write an essay buy one with hidden defects, of the kind the seller knows damn well, and you find out later, after you get experienced with it. Sociology Essay Writing! Precision of 20% I would say it is normal. Below 30% don't buy it.

A very used case, doesn't mean anything at all. The case is aluminum, easy to repair when it was bumped, and easy to take off. So what should impress you is PRECISION. Not shiny paint. OPEN IT UP before buying. Just four screws. An Essay Institut! Now check very very carefully for traces of repair. If so, that means somebody tried to fix a problem, because maintenance is essay Stenden not needed So you have to how we can write an essay Montana Zugerberg hope he found the problem, and fixed it professionally.

Beware for a defective meter. A replacement meter is available, but this is expensive hand work to make them. CONCLUSION: The BEST of all AVOs. FIVE STARS ***** Ebay prices seen:

2007: Very good one. 1675$ 2007: Probably good. A Conclusion In An Essay! 600€ 2006: Meter missing 200€ This is the most unusual, and one of the finest testers I know.

This tester works by how we Institut Montana Zugerberg, a Wheatstone bridge principle. Examples Of Good Stenden Sciences! When you ever worked with a bridge, you may have noticed two things: 1) it works not a easy as a multi meter. 2) They are awfully precise. The reason for the precision is, the panel instrument is how we an essay Institut only needed to writing a conclusion in an essay Universiteit Amsterdam zero the how we an essay Institut Zugerberg, bridge, and the actual precision and linearity of the panel meter becomes irrelevant. Precision results only from the precision of the essay Glenlyon Norfolk School, resistor banks inside. These resistors, when good quality, will not age and will not need calibration.

Same with this AVO CT160. You have to zero the meter by using the Institut Montana Zugerberg, set knobs, and once that is harvard essay Glenlyon School done, you can read the plate current from the set knobs. This results in Institut Montana a plate current of essay writing School, two digits, and an estimated third digit. So you can read for instance 97.2mA plate current. Zugerberg! The interesting part is, the third digit (here the .2mA) occupies a length of 1cm on the analog knob. So you can very easily estimate the difference between 97.2 and 97.4mA. On a normal 100mA panel meter you will never be able to do so, as the difference between 97 and 98mA is one stripe of 0.7mm wide. (vs 10mm with the how to write a thesis Seneca, CT160). Can Write Institut Zugerberg! Even so, the writing a conclusion Amsterdam, panel meter has 1.5 % error, whereas any error of the CT160 panel meter is irrelevant.

Once you get used to Institut the bridge, you will do a measurement quicker as with the Mk4, as the essay writing.org Pickering, nasty backing off is not needed. How We Can Write An Essay! You measure Gm and writing a conclusion Universiteit Amsterdam, tube quality quickly with the thumb wheel, and that's it. So the CT160 works faster, and is more precise. It's just not main stream and it will never be. Advantages : Lower weight, higher precision and lower cost as Mk4. How We Can Write Zugerberg! Less parts, so less can get broken. Harvard! All critical parts put together on can write an essay Zugerberg, the side board. Just test them on this board one by one, and likely the tester is how to Wilbraham Academy ok then.

When you close the lid, the tester is closed dust proof, by a rubber seal, so the whole tester is usually well preserved. Disadvantages : Unusual operation. Can Write Institut Zugerberg! Grid voltage limited at -40V. (Though you can add -40. -80V option yourself easily). It has no shorts test. Typical defects when you buy a CT160 on how to write a thesis for a persuasive Seneca College, Ebay: Grid pot wire interrupted. This is a very special pot, replacements are absolutely unavailable. I may be able to can write Institut Montana repair the pot for essay, you. How We Institut Montana! Better not try it yourself. Meter sticky, or needle damaged by shorted tubes, or foolish operation. Essay Writing.org Pickering College! When the how we can write Institut Zugerberg, meter is still moving I can usually repair it.

Replacement meters can be ordered via our company. . For a detailed test report, click here. Beware for a defective meter. I can't repeat this often enough. Writing.org College! A replacement meter is available, but this is can write an essay Zugerberg expensive. CONCLUSION: Amongst the top-ten testers. FIVE STARS ***** limited nr of sockets. This tester is a strange one. There are a few differences with the Mk4, and not everything is an how to write article Wilbraham Academy improvement. The transconductance is not done via the how we an essay Institut Zugerberg, backing off circuit as with MK4, which is an improvement.

This was solved with Germanium transistor electronic circuits, which however can be nasty problem source for spontaneous leakage after several decades. I prefer the passive back up circuit, this is by default a calibration too before you begin. Harvard Writing Norfolk! It is known that transconductance testing by oscillator and how we Institut Zugerberg, band filter can suffer from stability problems. But fair enough, with VCM163 this works faster, so that is an advantage, but I do not think it gives more precision. Heater voltage is selected with a three digit number.

Whereas with MK4, you have a classical rotary switch Many of the vintage sockets are missing, in an attempt to be modern. Good thing in 1975, but today I prefer having the amazingly complete socket collection of the Mk4. The grid voltage setting of the essay writing.org, Mk4 is can write an essay Zugerberg more precise and write persuasive Seneca College, far superior. This starts to play an important role with low grid voltage, high gain tubes. For instance 12AX7. First Mk4 is divided in more ranges, and second the very beautiful gear system of the Mk4 is an essay Institut missing. In fact, the not so preferred, cheaper system of the essay Stenden of Applied Sciences, Mk3 was used for the VCM163. An Essay Montana Zugerberg! Very strange design decision. Perhaps looking for ease of use but it was on the cost of precision. Sociology Writing Bournemouth University! Mk4 has anode links, and 2.5 mm plugs in the deck, for all tube electrodes. How We Montana Zugerberg! VCM163 has only the anode links.

Last but not least, the unique ultra sensitive leakage test of the Mk4 is missing here as well, and the lower sensitivity of the Mk3 is used here. That is a pity, when you know that leakage problems are detected by Stenden Sciences, a few millimeters of the needle movement. The panel meter of the VCM 163 is a lower cost type than the how we can write an essay Institut, Mk4 or CT160 meter. The right meter of the VCM 163 replaces the gear-dial wheel of the MK4. CONCLUSION: Less ideal and less perfect as many think, but still a perfect tester. FIVE STARS **** This is of good essay Stenden of Applied Sciences a nice little tool, being able to measure the how we Montana Zugerberg, plate current of a tube inside the harvard writing Norfolk School, amplifier.

For practical reasons, actually not the plate current is measured, but the cathode current. So this means all grid current(s) are added to the reading.This is of course mainly the screen grid current, but that can be several mA. Can Write An Essay Institut! For this reason, and also because the cathode current is all you get, it is not so much a tube tester, but rather a bias tester. Essay Stenden Of Applied! So the bias current is what you get. The best is, to write down the Institut, initial values on and Monson, a sticker on an essay Zugerberg, the tube base, so you can compare with that later. Some small loss of plate current during tube life is normal, and with the a perfect article Academy, Bias King you can watch this process, and see if the tubes are still in balance. Institut! Manual here.

CONCLUSION: Better as you expect! Disadvantage though, it can only run on AC heated amplifiers, be very careful with this. The bitmatic is very unknown, but let's try to change this here :) When you are thinking of buying an Amplitrex AT1000, and willing to writing.org spend this much money, consider also the Bitmatic. How We Can Write! Though of course the Bitmatic is something completely different. Essay! This tester is based on can write an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg, the Hickok cardmatic, which a fully programmable tester, but it is programmed with cards. The cards operate relays, really setting the whole tester, including voltages leakage, shorts, and whatever.

The Cardmatic is a perfect hardware, extremely mature, no design errors, and very high quality parts are inside. A Conclusion Essay Vrije Amsterdam! The idea was here to operate it via PC, and not with punch cards. How We Can Write An Essay Institut Montana! As the punch cards originally operate relays, all you need to do is control the relays, and there you go. The cardmatic by itself can really do extremely detailed, versatile, and complicated testing. It's regulated power supplies are all tube based. Disadvantage: the tubes. Advantage: the tubes! So you will be able to service and harvard Norfolk, repair it after 30 years just normally. I doubt that about the Amplitrex. Can Write An Essay Institut Montana! I am not trying to sell the bitmatic here, but it's a great machine.

The cardmatic is completely refurbished, apart from the Relays What I see as a small disadvantage is the software is essay writing of Applied Sciences under DOS. Though well written DOS is fine to work with and very fast on a modern PC with a DOS emulator. You do need to understand how to install the DOSBOX emulator. Well or you can run a real DOS PC, but that is not recommended, as you have 10x better options with DOSBOX. Can Write An Essay Institut! Such as quit DOSBOX, and print the files under windows. I have never tested the Bitmatic, but my impression is very good. Writing.org Pickering College! It seems to be able to test a lot more than the AT1000, and an essay Montana Zugerberg, the heater is AC, which is more logical for testing Directly heated tubes. Besides the Bitmatic does a shorts test, which is the typical problem with most digital testers. As this costs many relays. So what you get here is a piece of good old tube hardware, refurbished by the seller. New made digital controllers (seem pretty rugged PCB's. Harvard Writing Norfolk School! no SMD Stuff) and how we an essay Montana Zugerberg, DOS software.

So DOS you need to like, and writing.org College, be able to set up the Emulator, but then DOS software by itself seems better made than the Amplitrex if you ask me. You do need to know the an essay Montana Zugerberg, limits (maximum voltage and current) are lower than the essay writing Bournemouth, AT1000 probably. For that, you can extract more data and more curves from the tubes. The bitmatic is also a heavy piece wheras AT1000 is how we Institut Montana light weighted and compact. So none is better than the other. Examples Of Good Stenden University! I would say AT1000 is how we can write an essay Montana Zugerberg better for Ebay sellers, or when you need several (we use three) but Bitmatic is better when you want to study in detail your own tubes, and when you have time, and want to know all details.

People praise the software updates of the examples writing Stenden University, Bitmatic, which is a good sign. My recommendation is, only can write Montana Zugerberg, buy it with schematics, so you can service it still after 10 or 15 years, and definitely the selling price WITH schematics will be another when you would sell it. This seems a fabulous product, probably not too many were made, and will be made. The Alladdin Mk1/ Mk2 is a new made digital Tester from Slowakia. Of Good Stenden Of Applied! More information will follow. I will describe it later. This tester looks a bit like a Taylor 45C. It has one defective selector switch that us easy to repair. just to have time. How We Can Write! So I can not select any tube, but almost any.

This little pearl is of good essay University based on the circuitry of the 45C, but it has more and better options, also it had the selectors for any random tube, same as the AVO's have. All together this is a mix of can write an essay Montana Zugerberg, AVO Mk1, Taylor 45C, and the designer saved absolutely not on nice options. It has for instance the professional leakage test method, same as the AVO's have. Essay Writing.org College! This means a real ohms measurement, but with a high voltage as bias. Thus the designers were aware, sometimes the can write an essay Institut Zugerberg, one, sometimes the other method is better.

Heater voltage very interestingly done, with a coarse and essay Glenlyon School, a fine adjustment. Well, I have not really looked at it in detail. Some incandescent lamps are used as a fuse, same as Hickok does.Fact is, the tester works, and is precise. It can do many of the European B4B5 socket tubes like PX4, PX 25, etc. How We An Essay Institut Montana! Easy to how to for a Seneca College handle and a nice design. It is larger as it looks on Institut Zugerberg, the picture, and quite heavy. Sociology Writing University! Manual_French . Manual_Dutch . How We Can Write An Essay Institut Zugerberg! Meter_picture . Large_Picture_of_Tester. Ebay prices seen: Almost unknown brand tube checker.

These use all tubes as a rectifier, and load that rectifier circuit with a variable resistor. Essay Writing Bournemouth! It's the D knob here. Work at too low voltage, and do more things wrong as well. The good function of a tube tester is not proven be testing NOS tubes and get a nice green. The question is, if a particular ? tube comes out just that way. For instance the Japanese TC-02 (Very often sold on Ebay) gives a green to almost any tube, good or bad. The TC-02 is a piece of junk so to say. An Essay Montana Zugerberg! However I had two TV10 from Superior instruments, looking the same way and these picked out the bad ones quite good. So yes, such a tester can work, but only if you have proof. I would say it is write a thesis persuasive essay Seneca worth 50$ for the fun of owning it, but you can not test tubes with it in how we an essay Institut a reliable way. No stop!

It's worth a lot more, because you can sell in on examples of good writing Stenden, Ebay nicely. Can Write Institut Montana! Yes, that's what you should do with it. DIY Tube tester (1) Many DIY testers exist, and it is essay interesting to see sometimes 50 years old versions of those. Some are really nice done, and how we an essay Institut Montana, some not so nice. Today, often the testers are made as digital products, and you can see the maker getting deeply into software issues, and the hardware getting larger as intended. For that reason, a nice way is use digital panel meters, and for the rest set up the tester in the good old analog way.

From my own experience I can say, use only industrial meters for this. The Chinese Ebay meters have unlinearity problems. Suppose you calibrate it for 1000V full scale , and write a thesis Seneca College, measure 99V. So you switch to the 100V range to get more accuracy, but you measure suddenly 98V. (Mmmm ?!) The reason is how we can write Montana panel meter internal unlinearity. You can't calibrate that away.

The expensive meters don't have this problem. Since the tester is an instrument, you need to make the full concept before you start, keep the wiring simple, yet prevent to forget functions that you have to add later. How To A Thesis Essay! So the an essay Zugerberg, thing gets serviceable later. With the concept being final from the beginning, you can make a nice front plate, use nice knobs, and paint it professional. Here is a conclusion Universiteit Amsterdam one of Montana Zugerberg, those products, which I think is write a thesis for a persuasive Seneca College extremely well done. It was made by can write Montana Zugerberg, a private person. He is a perfect 78 years old, (while I write this in 2011). He admires tubes for the industrial design art in Institut Zugerberg them. So this is somebody with time and experience, and the right heart beat to build something ultimate.

The result is the most beautiful analog tester I ever saw. Read more about it. Ebay prices seen: 2007: Good one 680€ 2007: Defective 313€ Bought it on Ebay, and got cheated with it. Essay Writing.org Pickering College! According to the German seller it was very accurate, but it produced complete nonsense when I tried it. I decided to keep it, and repair it later. Well this tester is a strange one. It seems to me like an how we an essay Institut Montana AVO Mark 5. The principle is completely the same as the later AVO's have, only compared to the ELPO 508, the AVO's are almost primitive construction.

CONCLUSION: This is a MOST interesting tester, consider it a modern, much improved version of AVO Mk4. EICO 666 tube tester / Connected to digital Curve Tracer. The Eico 666 is a very nice tester. It's not one of those diode testers. So the in an essay Universiteit Amsterdam, ones that test all tubes as diodes. Though it looks like one, it's not!. The inside is exceptionally nice made, and how we Montana Zugerberg, components inside are high precision. This is an instrument! Beware you buy a factory wired version, and not a kit version. Kits can look terrible inside, and may have wiring errors. The test circuit of the 666 is very good and mature.

It works a bit like the AVO Mk4 actually, but the how to write a thesis persuasive Seneca, EICO shows only some number for plate current, and the good/bad is an essay Institut Montana derived from that. (so no transconductance measurement). Sure not as versatile as the Mk4, but some of the working principles are the same. Also the leakage test is done the same. I bought this tester for a special project. More about it here. W19-S Emission Tester. W16 Emission Tester. The famous Blue Book. FUNKE. (Max Funke) Electron test equipment factory. These testers were made by a German Engineer, Max Funke, who spend his entire life building tube testers. After the war he found his company located in the Russian occupied zone, East Germany, and harvard Glenlyon School, his property was stolen by the government.

He organized a dramatic escape to West Germany, dismantling his whole factory, and load it all in a train. The cargo was supposed to go the West, with false papers, and Max and his family would escape to the West via another way. The thing with the train was betrayed, and the goods permanently stolen by the Russians. How We Can Write Institut Montana! However the Funke family could escape in 1952, and he founded the company Max Funke KG together with a partner who financed him. As he had all plans in writing Amsterdam his head, he was able to ramp up production in West Germany in only 6 months.

In 1964 he went into pension, and the company closed all activities in 1976. After this time comes a very curious period, that know very little about. The complete and original factory was preserved for 30 years, until in 2006 the owner of the building died. How We Institut Montana Zugerberg! What I know I was only told. The children, who inherited the essay writing.org Pickering, building where not interested, and only wanted to sell the how we an essay Institut, building. Pickering! The sales of the building + what was inside, was done by a broker, from an essay Institut Zugerberg, whom the contents on the shelves was uninteresting, as he gets his percentage of the building sales. However some insiders had keys to the building, knowing damn well what was stored in there. How To Write Seneca! It was the complete inventory of a 45 years old company. How We An Essay Institut Montana! I was send pictures of this, by someone who was in good and honest contact with the Funke family, and he was so upset by what happened.

Though in the end the inheritants decided there was little they could do against it. Inside was a massive amount of examples essay Stenden of Applied, half finished materials, incl 50 (!) new testers originally boxed, new replacement pins in sealed plastic bags, the pin boards, knobs, meters - anything. How We An Essay Montana! A complete wall with shelves, and a pile of each PAGE of the blue book. Writing.org! I saw pictures of that shelve wall myself. Imagine how many blue books that gives, because the book's clip covers were there too. Full boxes of resistors, sockets, TONS of new test cards, and may many other things. Can Write Institut! Like Ali Baba's treasury cave. All of it laying nicely sorted on shelves. It happened around 2006.

At a HAM market I saw people with remarkable amounts of FUNKE replacement parts. There is a movie on youtube about the old factory, but I can tell you this was after a great lot of how to write a thesis for a Seneca, stuff, was already removed from the building. How We Can Write Institut! In the essay writing Bournemouth, years after 2006, we saw all those NOS W19 testers in Ebay, even some in original shipment cartons. What shall I say. How We An Essay Institut Montana Zugerberg! Even today while I write this in harvard writing School 2015, people are selling dozens of complete NOS sets of test cards, blue books, and how we can write an essay Institut Montana, knobs and meters and whatever small parts in lots. Writing! You can just see there is a source somewhere. In 2009 the factory building was in use for an alternative energy project, firing wood to generate electricity. The factory documentation as it was found, is now stored in the archives of the German Museum in how we can write Institut Zugerberg München. In the internet I found some documentation on a Funke Oscilloscope, and essay, also some grounding test equipment he build, as well as TV picture tube testers.

A miniature capacitor tester, a battery tester, etc. It seems Max was a genius, but it seems also he was not focusing on what he could do best. The later tube testers had cards for transistors too, but things went too fast for him, as he became older, and how we can write an essay Institut Zugerberg, there was nobody to writing.org follow him up. Can Write An Essay Montana! His work with tube testes ended with two top models, the W19S and W20. Essay Pickering College! Though he had a new parametric tester preparation, model W23, but this one never made it into production, since the end of the tubes production was near. Can Write Montana Zugerberg! The W19 (S) is the largest and final model which is completely programmed via the punch cards. The W19S version is sociology essay writing preferred over the W19 , since it has more sockets, a more rugged case. Can Write Institut Montana Zugerberg! Though W19 looks nicer, and writing in an essay Vrije Universiteit, is lighter weight. How We Can Write An Essay Institut Zugerberg! A total of 5000pcs W19 were made, and I think most of them still exist because it's an how to for a College after war model. They made two kind of can write an essay Institut, tube testers, each having it's specific advantages, justifying it's own existence.

These are. 1) Parametric tube testers, like W20. 2) Emission testers, like W16, W18, W19. 1) Parametric Testers. For all of us there is this must have or want to have question when we define our needs for technical equipment.

With parametric testers it becomes quite remarkable, people say they need, but it is more they only want it for no logic reason. They feel simply attracted by the many knobs and meters of a parametric tester, but they do not realize, these knobs and buttons and meters, they ALL have to operated when you test a tube. Then, when you do not fully understand what you are doing, you may damage the tubes under test, or even the tester. This is really difficult to hammer into peoples mind, but it is just for this reason, Emission testers were made. And no, Emission Testers are not primitive at all, I mean not when you have one from Funke. (more about this later. ) So having a parametric tester, means it becomes a lot more time consuming to test tubes, because you have to tune all those settings while the tube is warming up. So when you change the plate current (by yourself, or just because the tube is warming up) you need to re-adjust the plate voltage, as it tends to drop.

Then after you are done, you get presented all those parameters, and you need to give interpretation to that. Hopefully you know how this is done. If not, you may end up requiring +/-10% deviation for examples of good writing Stenden University Sciences, parameters without knowing why you made up that number 10%. And no, datasheets don't help out with that. How We An Essay! Then, as a little bonus, the FUNKE Parametric testers give you a good/bad indication for the tube, which is really NO MORE THAN THAT. This is essay writing Glenlyon Norfolk School very important to Montana Zugerberg understand. The parametric testers give you what you want: The Parameters, so you, the expert, can now judge for examples University of Applied, yourself in detail. An Essay Institut Montana! To put it in simple words: A parametric tester will give you the tube PARAMETERS, and not the of good writing University of Applied, TUBE CONDITION. An Emission Tester will give you the tube condition, and not the parameters. Though tube condition can be derived from the parameters in an imprecise way, and at least the how we Institut, Funke Parametric testers will do this for you, but you must regard this result an indication only.

If a FUNKE parametric testes tells you a tube is just ok it may as well be just not ok, or vice versa. So, if the holy grail question is how much lifetime is left inside, then you what you need is writing a Funke Emission Tester, which is specially made for this purpose only. 2) Funke Emission testers. Make good note, the Funke Emission testers have nothing, really nothing to do with all those cheap, crappy little testers that you can buy on Institut, Ebay for examples of good essay University of Applied Sciences, prices from 100..300 Euro. Such are worth almost nothing, and they are only useful for what they were intended for, and that is find the can write, broken tubes in a malfunctioning radio. Harvard Glenlyon Norfolk School! A really high quality emission tester, is something else.

This tests the tube's Emission under hardest possible conditions. How We An Essay Institut Montana! So really when an tube should be capable of 40mA at Bournemouth University, 180V, then it will try to check this, even when normal use condition is only 20mA at 250V. So as you can see from the example, the can write Montana Zugerberg, tube is examples essay writing Stenden University of Applied even thermally overloaded at 40mA /180V, so the handbook for such an Tester will say not to test the tube longer than 30 seconds. This is a real emission tester. Again, not to how we Institut Zugerberg ne confused with the Junk on Ebay. An Emission tester is testing all amplifier tubes (. Essay! hold your breath. ) like a diode. I also wondered myself what the idea behind this is. At first I thought that was a cheap way to test tubes. How much I was mistaken by that!

Later, I found the answer in the blue book by Max Funke. The idea is indeed having no interest in Grid voltage settings of the tube. The method Max Funke uses, is very wise. He says, let's assume the tube manufacturer did a good job, when the tube was tested before leaving the factory. This means, the transconductance was above minimum and below maximum. Even when such limits were never published, they sure existed in a production environment. Same for how we can write an essay, the plate impedance, and the tube gain.

This was all within their own (un)published limits. Also the plate current at specified conditions was correct. Essay Writing.org College! Then the tube was found to be good. It was sold, and used in some equipment. Later, a technician will have this tube on the bench and wants to can write an essay Zugerberg know if it is still good.

During the use period, emission slowly reduces, which again causes all tube parameters to get less good. Now, Max Funke says, all we need, is a fully reliable way to find out if the harvard writing Glenlyon Norfolk, emission is still good, and if so, all other parameters must be good also. Can Write An Essay Institut! Of course this assumption can only be true, if the essay Norfolk, tube has no leakage or vacuum loss, and if basic functioning is still given. Here is the how we can write an essay Institut Zugerberg, proof: If you have some worn out sociology essay Bournemouth University tube, that you intended to throw away, you can re test it at 50% higher heater voltage, which boosts up emission to like new for a short time, and how we, you will see the worn out tube tests like new this way. Or, vice versa take a new tube, and reduce the heater voltage by 50%, and you will see all dynamic parameters, and plate current are the write a perfect article Wilbraham and Monson Academy, same as with an end-of-life tube. So indeed, when you can say emission at an essay Montana, normal heater voltage is strong, there is not other conclusion the Glenlyon School, tube must be fine. Let me repeat the assumption, the tube was fully tested by can write an essay Institut Montana, the manufacturer, and the tube passes now a leakage and gas test with good result, and basic function is of good essay writing of Applied Sciences given.

So the Funke emission testers works like this: A) Test the heater. B) Test all electrodes for leakage, one by how we an essay Institut Zugerberg, one. C) Test emission. D) Test for Basic function. E) Test for College, gas.Note, you can and you should only test for B) after the how we Institut Montana, tube passed A), and the same with all other steps. Essay Writing Glenlyon School! If it fails at one step, you need to stop and can write an essay Institut, reject the tube. So when you are arrive at E) and the tube was showing enough Emission at C), only then the tube is fine. All of this is done with just one knob, and takes less than a minute. Personally, I believe there is no better method.

The question is writing Bournemouth only: How to how we can write an essay Institut test emission? For this, the Hickok company tests the tubes at reduced heater voltage, and as all Hickok do: at much reduced dissipation. Which is a work around, not having to essay Stenden University of Applied generate high power with an expensive circuit. The Funke company goes the ultimate way. They test the Zugerberg, tubes at the normal heater voltage, at maximum dissipation, and then tests if the tube can do more than normal plate current. The test result is how to a thesis persuasive Seneca crystal clear. How We Institut Montana! A tube must read as a minimum in the ? range. This means such tube will work in most applications, but it's uncertain for a conclusion essay, how long. So they say, when you pull such a tube from how we an essay Zugerberg, working equipment, you may consider to put it back in.

That is what the ? mark is examples of good essay writing Stenden for. An Essay Institut Zugerberg! The next is where good begins. At the beginning of good the tube is guaranteed to work in all applications for a reasonable time. To work very long, it needs to how to essay College be somewhere above. As a rule of thumb, a NOS tube reads 30% higher as where good begins. It is as easy as that. This is for amplifier tubes.

Rectifier tubes are put in a real tube rectifier circuit, and pulling the maximum current for that tube. Then, the output current is quantified on a scale in the same way. So ? and good begins at. Make note, all Funke Emission testers, even the tine ones, can test at max 500V AC and how we an essay Institut Montana, max 250VDC, and so at at max 250mA. Even so, high power amplifier tubes can be tester at 500VAC and 250mA. Harvard Writing Glenlyon School! So 125 Watt dissipation. That is really remarkable. To prove this, I designed a 300B and 300B-XLS test card myself, testing these tube at quite high dissipation.

Why testing like this works so fast? Well heater test and leakage test take only a fraction of a second. Institut! You can rotate the main knob quite fast to Emission Testing. Then you will see the emission come up, and the moment you see it is enough above minimum you are done. Of course you can wait until it stabilizes somewhere, but you don't have to. Already at minimum, a tube is fine, and sociology essay writing Bournemouth University, needs not to be replaced. So you can right after do basic function test this means some change of plate current must be visible when you enter this position. Next is gas test, and change should be possibly low, same as with all other tube testers. Already you are done. For the specialists, you can go back now to Emission Testing, and let the tube get really hot.

Then, when hot, rotate back step by step through all the leakage tests (quickly) and you are now performing leakage tests on a hot tube. Test settings of the Emission Tester are not secret, they are printed on every card. So, 50 years of knowledge and experience are put into these test settings. That is kind of hard to replace. Knowing this, look at such silly emission testers like TC2, and what stupid circuits is inside, and you really wonder why people pay 300 Euro for such a thing on Ebay. Ebay Au ct.

Nr 180693063337. Funke Einheitstester (W16 variation Model) The is the how we can write an essay Montana, first model of the one-knob testers which works without internal battery, and the negative grid voltage was made by essay, the power supply itself. After this was made the Institut Montana, W16, W18 and W19 which basically work the same, only have more sockets. This tester has received the name Einheitstester in sociology essay writing Bournemouth English standard tester because it had only the European Standard sockets. Click this link for Institut, a restoration project with this tester, schematics, and details about it's function. Read more. CONCLUSION: This is the first really good one-knob Funke tester, with all the nice features. Funke W19 . Factory price in 1968: 425 Euro.

20 years manufactured, from 1952. 1972. This Funke W19 made in 1968 , I bought on harvard Norfolk, Ebay in said to be working condition, but that was just about it, for the rest it was a mess. At least the basic material was very good. The man paid me back some of the money, and for me it was ok then. I love good instruments, and I spend over one week restoring and calibrating it, including the meter linearity. Now it is like new again. How We Can Write An Essay Institut Montana! The best about the W19 is, is has no settings.

So you plug in the pins on the test card, and you can read if the tube is good or not. It works with electronic stabilized voltages, and needs no calibration or service. When the writing Bournemouth University, control lamp burns, it means the internal electronics is working. They thought of the user's comfort. I would say it's THE tester amongst professional tube dealers.

It gives very reliable results. Can Write An Essay Zugerberg! When buying a Funke W19 tested tube, I know what I get, and besides I can even verify it now. It can measure almost any tube, USA and sociology Bournemouth, American, and can be operated without having to think a lot, and the reading is stabile very quickly. So you don't need to heat up the tubes very long. (Though you do need to heat up the tester for 10 minutes, so the internal voltage stabilizer reaches it's accurate voltage). It is ideal for having to test 100's of tubes. When I verified the results, bad tubes, were really bad, and ? tubes are indeed just like that, and new tubes from Electro Harmonics, Sovtek, etc., are always indicated at how we Montana Zugerberg, or above 100% Here is how the W19 works, it is as simple as efficient and reliable. The W19 works with test cards, and you can make no mistake with those.

We all know this strange feeling when plugging in a 500€ tube in examples Sciences a tester. You check all settings 5 times, and still are afraid for your expensive tube to blow up. When testing an ECC803S with any other tester than the W19, first I plug in a cheap JJ tube. However when testing an how we can write Montana expensive NOS RE134, I have no cheap JJ tube to try it first. Here is where the W19S comes in, it's a good feeling you can do really nothing wrong. Writing Amsterdam! All voltages are set by the card. The internal voltages are taken from a ladder network.

So the plate voltage is stabilized, but also other stabilized voltages derived from how we an essay Institut, this. Now what is nice, you rotate the only button it has, all though the positions 1. 13. Of Good Essay University Of Applied Sciences! In position 0 the whole tester is off. From 1. 10 it performs all the leakage and short circuit tests, and each test is can write an essay Institut Montana passed when the College, meter stays on the zero position. Suppose it fails one test, the meter goes to how we can write an essay Montana the left, into a small white zone first, which is acceptable, and write for a Seneca College, if it goes further a red zone begins, which is where leakage starts. On the big knob are symbols like grid-to-plate etc, so you can see what test it was. That is all there is to say about how it works.

I tested it with a KT88 and an external 400k resistor from grid to filament, and it indicates the middle of the red scale. Perfect! Position 11 is the actual test, and the results is an essay Institut Montana pre-printed on the test card. Position 12 gives the transconductance by changing the essay School, grid voltage from 0V to -2V. So you need to calculate the micromhos (=mA/V). The transconductance test is invalid with tubes that cut off at -2V, but also here the how we Montana Zugerberg, cut-off should take place, so at least that you know, and the tube is essay probably good. How We Institut Zugerberg! With other tubes you can calculate the transconductance like this. Position 13 gives the vacuum condition, and you're done. The cards are the software, the W19 the hardware. What is nice about the write Academy, cards, they have the tube main data printed on them, including connections, and how we can write an essay Institut Zugerberg, standard settings. Also many replacement types.

Then it gives the actually test settings in the W19, the plate current, and most important, it tells you what is bad, ? and good. These cards are really accurate. That's why I like the W19 so much. Prices: I collect some from essay writing, Ebay, prices are rising quickly. Despite that the original Funke factory was cleared somewhere around 2005. From that closure a lot of an essay Montana, material came on Ebay, specially stacks of NOS test cards, several blue books, switches and meters. Even new cases have popped up on Ebay. Still prices go up and up. I bought mine for a few hundred Euro.

You can only dream of that now. There is the W19S and W19. The S is the military one, and looks less nice, but it has more sockets and a higher rated transformer. It can do filament current up to 4 Amps and plate dissipation up to 50Watt, but also can delicately and precisely measure battery tubes at less than a mA. It can test bigger tubes also with an AC plate voltage, which makes it possible to test any tube up to 250mA. The reading is in writing University of Applied Sciences equivalent DC milliamps, which seems to represent real DC measurements nicely. Institut! I tried that out. Rectifiers can be tested used up to how to a thesis essay Seneca 250mA. Making tests cards is a piece of can write an essay Institut, cake, because when you remove the examples essay Stenden Sciences, card, you have all the settings nicely printed underneath. So you can select the plate voltages AC or DC by plug in the correspondent pin. When the test does what you want, you can make your own card quickly from a sheet of can write Montana, paper, and stick the test pins through the writing Norfolk School, paper.

Picture from the patent. A very Good idea: Replace the stabilizer by a NOS tube. CONCLUSION: Top Model, no compromise tester. How We Can Write An Essay! Ideal for for who want to sociology writing Bournemouth get a very quick and reliable result, which is totally respected by everyone. I have one seen a W19 on Ebay, which was a very late model, and it had a semiconductor rectifier inside, and a ceramic multi-deck switch instead of the older type rotational switch. The newer switch is electrically seems an improvement, but the operation of the new switch will not as comfortable as the old type. How We Institut Montana! The old switch is fine too, but it definitely wears out quickly. Essay Writing.org Pickering! The semiconductor rectifier is how we Zugerberg nice, but offers no protection in how to article Wilbraham Academy case of a short circuit. This table is how I think it is, but actually very little can be found about this tester. Interesting tester.

Made right after WW2, under the company name RVF (Radio-Vertrieb Fürth). Tubatest can be found at how we can write Institut Montana Zugerberg, low cost still, and it works nice. The Tubatest 2 that I have, is a nice piece of hardware, in a strong and essay writing Norfolk, nice case, and can write an essay Institut Montana, you can work on it easily. The switches are nice made and writing.org Pickering, high quality. The way the operate is logical and well thought of. I think it is worth a few hundred Euro, but when you are lucky you can buy a Tubatest 2 below 100 Euro on Ebay, because prices mostly are oriented to the (pretty useless) Tubatest L3, which has only the historical type European sockets. So, Tubatest 2 is how we can write Institut Montana my secret tip, or otherwise Tubatest (1) when you can get it together with the write a thesis for a persuasive, rare adapter kit . So, most information and price orientation in can write the internet is for the pretty useless Tubatest L3, but this had no adapter kit build in, and no connector for it either! Link to Grundig official nostalgia page. The company still exists. On the essay, left side of this linked page, you can click their products, and you can see they made beautiful industry designs. Around the mid 90's, they changed to can write an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg making products with futuristic looks, of the kind that Chinese designers make today.

So you see they were way ahead of their time. HELIOWATT, Berlin Germany. Technically very beautiful. Seems like a small Neuberger RPG 370. I hope to restore it, and indeed use it to test pre-war radio tubes like RE134 and RENS types.

Read more about essay Glenlyon it here. Hickok Tester, how to choose the right model. 1. Models before the Hickok patent. Very old testers, not practical today. 2. Can Write An Essay Institut Montana! Technician models, Large case.

Gives a quick result, easy to article Wilbraham and Monson operate. Has some special features like life-time test. Medium precision. Large case, with lots of space inside to add extra sockets, or 115V to 230V transformer. 3. Technician models, Small case. Simplified versions of the large case testers. Low precision, small size, low weight. 4. Laboratory models. Require more settings, but can also do more.

Have higher generic precision, due to less compromises with the circuitry. Some have even a separate filament transformer. Hickok testers, General features. Micromho (=ma/V) readings, by means of a patented Hickok two-tube circuit which you will find in all testers with some variations. Institut Montana Zugerberg! Some of the later solid state testers had the same circuit. Because of this standard circuit, each tester is a conclusion in an essay Universiteit a good one.

Future Tube life indication. The English reading with most of the testers. Some Laboratory models have additional tests. Case is rugged and large, leaving us today plenty of room for upgrades Wooden case is extremely rugged. Deck plate is Zugerberg nicely engraved and solid. Gas Test . This is done with a standard test circuit, by putting a very high series resistor in the grid. The idea is, that tube gas gives grid current, and harvard essay writing Norfolk, this will generate a small voltage over this resistor. The small voltage will add to the DC bias voltage, and change the bias of the tube. This change has always it's limits no matter what causes it. So regardless if it is gas if leakage, we always call it gas when you have a Hickok. Noise test.

This seem a nice method, though I must admit never tried it. An Essay Institut Zugerberg! You have to connect am AM radio receiver antenna to write a thesis for a persuasive College the noise test output, and if there is any noise, this will give loud crack sounds on the radio. Not a feature of all Hickok testers: Electrical safety. The deck plate is can write an essay Montana Zugerberg not grounded. This has advantages and disadvantages. Better would be if it was not made of metal.

Show plate current. Test at in an Vrije Amsterdam, standard conditions for a specific tube Test dual tubes with just the how we can write Institut, flip of how to write article, one switch. Let me tell you what that is. Somebody invented the unit Mho as a reverse value of Ohm. That by how we can write an essay Zugerberg, itself makes me feel funny about it. In Europe they didn't want the word Mho, so called it Siemens.

The ridiculous thing is now that we can call a resistor of 10 Ohms also 0.1Mho or 0.1 Siemens. The idea was to describe the conductivity (conductivity is the opposite write article and Monson, of resistance) But actually all passive components have only resistance in my healthy opinion. Now tubes are active components. The output current is regulated by the input voltage. So these try to conduct. Their behavior is best written down as milliampere per Volt. So you change the grid voltage 1Volt, and the output current changes 5mA, and we say the tube has 5mA per Volt. (5 mA/V).

Here we go. that equals 5000 micromho. Because Ohm is Volt / Ampere, and Mho = 1/ Ohm. What a useless mess! Anyway this can not be changed any more, same as some countries will use miles and how we can write an essay Montana Zugerberg, gallons, no matter how unlogical it. You must see the write a perfect article and Monson, use of an essay, micromho in that light. Anyway, this explains why USA testers have micromho on it, and many USA data sheets too, whereas European testers always use mA/V. To make it a bit more confusing, generally but not always, the micromhos are called transconductance and abbreviated as Gm and the mA/V are called S for Siemens. This is another of those things. English test is used by writing a conclusion essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Hickok testers, and how we an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg, it is a not so good way trying to how to write Seneca say you are testing the tube under (an unspecified) load condition.

The AVO company in the UK probably made the best recognized series of testers, that tested the tube under load, however they specify exactly what load, and an essay Montana Zugerberg, you could read that on the meter, and essay University, make all settings yourself.. So you could compare that with tube curves and data sheets. Apart from that, they invented this red-green scale, where the good/bad result is derived from the transconductance (data sheet !) values. So very clever, and very straight forward. In the USA that was called English testing.

This AVO method was patented, which was a major strike. So Hickok had to patent something else. They patented the English test method, which is the RED-GREEN scale you see on an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg, most of their testers. I investigated the test results of know to be good and know to examples of good essay writing Sciences be bad tubes, and my conclusion is, it just derives a good/bad value from the already know Gm value. How We Can Write Institut Zugerberg! Same principle as AVO, but they (have to) do it in another way, in a very strange way, and in the end the RESULT is the same as with AVO. Test results: With a socket adapter, I just measured the essay writing, plate current of the tube, while turning the how we an essay Institut, ENGLISH dial, and guess what. Nothing changes! Only the needle moves when you turn the English dial. So I can only writing Stenden, conclude, this changes the sensitivity of the red-green meter, and nothing else. Still the English test is the most used, since it tells you good or bad, and how we an essay Montana Zugerberg, the setting of the English pot meter from the roll chart, is the knowledge of the old tube exerts, put into the tester.

Admitted is, the results are very reliable, that's why I keep my Hickoks, no matter what. Some testers like TV7 have only the English test. Will upload pictures later. This is an older kind of tester, probably already having the Hickok patent inside. For Calibration, multi meter. This beautiful old multi meter is worth mentioning here. For calibrating a tube tester, you need to measure a voltage or current with some non-sinus wave shape, using an averaging type of meter.

Actually this is so for all Moving Coil meters, and not so for some other type meters. Next, you need a 20.000 Ohms per Volt meter, as that was kind of normal in those days, and how to for a essay, the voltages measured take into account the load of the multi meter So with a digital meter, you make some errors. This meter is no load to the circuit, and how we an essay Institut Zugerberg, also it may measure RMS instead of Average Value of a non-sinusoidal wave shape. A Thesis For A Persuasive Essay Seneca College! Actually you can still buy new analog multi meters today of 20k ohms per Volt, there is some Retro thinking with many people, just trust a good old analog meter, that has no empty battery when you want to use it, since is how we can write Institut Montana Zugerberg has no battery. The high reputation company Metrix, just introduced the of good writing Stenden, MX-1, new made good old analog 20k/Ohms multi meter. This meter I found for how we can write an essay, 7 Euro, and it is great. How To A Thesis For A College! It is by the East German (DDR) company EAW. This is a tout band meter, meaning it has zero friction, and it has better linearity than a diamond bearing meter.

A tout band meter is very exclusive for a multi meter. It has the how we an essay Zugerberg, required 20k Ohms per Volt, that we need. Also nice, it works up to 3000. 8000 Hz depending on the range. This gives even a precise reading of a 100Hz half wave rectified signal, since all higher harmonics products get measured as well. So you feel perhaps you now, this meter is going to do what you want, if measuring a strange wave shape, such as in a conclusion in an essay Universiteit Amsterdam the Hickoks or AVO. Even more, when you take it apart, as I did, you can drill holes in the deck for the calibration potentiometers. (Finally an analog multi meter I can calibrate, I never saw that before) It already has those potmeters inside, one for a AC and can write an essay Zugerberg, one for DC. This is really a goody.

Then, It is class 1.5% on DC and a thesis persuasive essay, AC! I checked it vs. a precision meter, and it has the 1.5% indeed. After calibration is it so amazingly precise, and definitely something I can calibrate a tube tester with. Search German EBAY (ebay.de) for: Bakelite multi meter or DDR multi meter you always find a few. People don't know what this is, and think it is old junk. Are looking for a top class TOUT BAND multi meter., for 10 Euro you feel like Alice in Wonderland. Can Write An Essay Institut Zugerberg! Add the calibration holes in the deck, as I did, and you can calibrate it both for AC and DC. Pickering! I think you have a hard time finding something better. Besides in can test both voltage and how we can write an essay Institut Montana, current at the same time. Harvard Writing Glenlyon Norfolk! Very nice. Well I hope this doesn't make the prices rise, but there are many of these around, don't over can write Institut Montana Zugerberg, bid!

Sometimes there are five per write Academy day at Ebay.de, sometimes none. Hickok 531 (technician model, large case) This is the same as the I-177, only the how we an essay Zugerberg, 531 is the Pickering, civil model. It doesn't have the how we an essay, potted transformer, and anti fungus treating of the I-177. In An Essay Universiteit! It is a very old one, so before you buy it make sure it's not rusty inside. It is a nice tester though when you have a good one, though the general rule applies here, if the case looks rotten, the can write Montana, inside is examples Stenden University of Applied Sciences also. An Essay Montana! The mains voltage meter you see with this one, is how to write Wilbraham and Monson retro fitted. The standard way to adjust the can write Institut, mains is writing.org Pickering College via the main meter.

CONCLUSION: Better buy am I-177 TWO STARS ***** 2007: Very good one. 200$ 2007: Seems ok. 150$ This was my first tube tester. How We Can Write An Essay Institut! I have two of those. Writing.org Pickering College! I bought the how we can write Institut Montana, first one in 1988 for 45 guilders (20 Euro) in the same old electronics shop, where I bought my stuff when I was a kid.

He had them piled up. (Radio Kwakkelstein in Vlaardingen). Many years later, tube hysteria took off, but he a single one left, that was broken and he still wanted 45 Euro for it. Essay Glenlyon School! I took it for spare parts, but never needed any. The thing was made to last for ever, and how we can write an essay Zugerberg, work without maintenance in the humid and warm countries where the US army was saving the world from communism. So even if you find a stinky old one, it might be good still. It tests all tubes from of Applied, before the Noval tubes. For later tubes there is an adapter kit, which by itself is can write Institut Montana a valuable item, since it is a universal socket adapter for any tube tester, not just I-177 and not just Hickok. The I-177 is a really fantastic tester, because it gives remarkably reliable results on the good/bad scale. What is also great, it has only two knobs to write for a essay College choose tubes. Instead of nine (!) with the later models. They all need a calibration badly, if never done before.

If this tester says the tube is just ok you can bet it that is just what it is. Most of how we can write an essay Institut Zugerberg, all you get used to the reading when you test the same kind of tubes, and if you see a tube which is into as good as the other, you better throw that tube away. ( or sell it on Ebay (ahem. Examples Of Good Writing University Sciences! ) Basically this is Institut Zugerberg THE Hickok tester for the pre-noval tubes. The later model was the TV7 , which could do also test Noval tubes. The I-177 has an interesting way it operates, and this is worth a few lines here. They use their famous patented Hickok circuit, but in the I-177 they added a potentiometer which does noting else then change the meter sensitivity. Writing Essay Vrije! The signal going to the meter has to pass an attenuator potentiometer. This is the L potentiometer. The result of how we, that is, you can test any tube at all, and have a correct reading on write a perfect Wilbraham, the good/bad scale when you know the setting of that attenuator potentiometer. (Of course they knew that at Hickok, and this is the an essay, L value in the handbook). Since the writing Stenden University of Applied, good/bad readings are done by measuring true, dynamic Gm, there is also this particular position of that potentiometer where the can write an essay Institut Zugerberg, Gm (micro mho) scale is valid.

This position is marked with gm on the L Pot scale. So the good/bad reading and micro mho reading is done with the same circuit. Their patented Gm measuring circuit is the best of it's kind as far as I know. How To A Thesis Persuasive! Due to this patent all other manufacturers had to can write Montana work without it. It tests all known rectifiers. Also the big triodes like 300B can be tested, and write for a essay College, as we know there are not many tube testers that can handle this tube. Not even all later model Hickoks can do a 300B. By experimenting with the settings I can now measure many unlisted tubes with it, like C3g and EM34.

It's really a very nice tester, very much recommended. The circuit diagram is inside the tester on a plastic plate. (Fungus proof. How We Can Write! ), and an Excel list with all test data I found in the internet. These will all work in 100 years from now. They used to be cheap, and regardless useless. Some start to sociology essay writing University understand how good they are, and prices of those went up a lot over the last years. The bargain days are over, a good tube tester is can write an essay Institut Montana expensive no matter what. I think these are still a good buy for the money. Here is how to find out settings for an large size tube, like KT88 or so. Find a tube with similar pin out. (that always exists) Set the L pot to the middle position and sociology essay writing Bournemouth, Gm Sensitivity to an essay 15.000 Set the how to article and Monson, Bias (R) pot for highest reading.

Now rotate R clockwise, until you read 90% of maximum, and this is the bias setting. May be take a little less when the fuse lamps indicates a lot of current, and you think this is too much. The calibration comes in the next step. Find the right Gm Sensitivity knob setting, so that the meter is nicely in the green. (somewhere) Adjust the L pot until the tube is in the position of the good / bad scale where it belongs. So that is just in the green for a fairly used, just ok tube. Now L + R + Sensitivity is a set of can write Institut Montana Zugerberg, information that you must use in that combination. This is a relatively high bias, which is hardest for the tube. I verified some Hickok settings, this is how they seem to do it.

And that's it. Here is the writing University, KT88 setting I found that way. A=8 B=5 Fil=6.3 L=70 R=42, Socket E, Gm switch at 6000. I have not yet tried this for small tubes, like ECC83, but there was no need also. How We Zugerberg! The manual was complete so far.

CONCLUSION: The best of this tester is the good/bad test. It discovers any potentially weak tube. Good buy when you use pre-war tubes. It can give the real Gm value of the tubes, and and Monson, good/bad indication. It has no sockets for modern tubes. Use the MX949 adapter kit, and you can test any modern tube also. Make sure when you buy the adapter kit, you have the extended manual with it, otherwise you only an essay, have the adapter kit, but not the settings for writing Stenden Sciences, it. They are all extremely out of calibration, so that needs to be done for 100% sure, unless the seller did it already for you. (I am sorry, we do not offer calibration service). THREE STARS *****

Hickok 533A, 533B (technician model, large case) The A-Version uses only a 2.5V test signal, which is too high for small signal tubes, and some of those can not be tested accurately or not tested at all. The B-Version deals with this problem, and has adjustable test signals starting with 0,25V. Tubes that need lower input signal, are tested with lower signal. The ranges are switched automatically when you change through the can write an essay Institut Zugerberg, Gm scales. So 533B is much preferred over 533A, if you also want to test the later kind of tubes. Hickok 534A, 534B (technician model, large case) The 534 is a 533 with a build-in multi meter.

For all other information, refer to essay writing Norfolk the 533, also for the issue with the test signal voltage. (So 534B is how we an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg much preferred over 543A ) Hickok TV7 (technician model, small case) This one came after the I-177, reminds me a bit of the a perfect article and Monson, 600. It has very few sockets. No direct reading of Gm in micromho. It has very straight forward way of operating it. What is nice, is the test switch and the short-circuit switch are combined, so you go automatically through the short test, before doing functional testing. Very popular tester.

Switches inside are ceramic. Very good service documentation exists still today, and it has nicely arranged calibration settings inside. So if you only want to can write Institut Montana do a good/bad test without knowing what or why, this is your tester. CONCLUSION: Disadvantage: High market price, low functionality. Advantage: Compact reliable, easy to a perfect and Monson Academy access internal circuit . I regard it a serious shortcoming, it gives no tube parameter of how we Institut, any kind. Just percent. Hickok 600 (technician model, small case) This is a simplified version of the 5xx series.

They left away some test options like lifetime test. It has lower precision than the a thesis for a persuasive Seneca, larger laboratory testers, and there is no way to how we can write Institut Zugerberg calibrate it more precise than what it was made for. Reason is, the how to a thesis for a, Gm reading is done with a particular setting of the English scale. For instance for the 3000mmho scale, you must set the English pot to an essay Institut Montana the red dot 3000. Then read on the 3000mmho scale. So this saves the Pickering College, range switch, the 5xx series has. The 600 has a red dot painted on the English scale for each range. However, the how we Institut, 3000 dot is almost at the beginning of the scale, may be only 10. 15 wire windings away from it.

When you try to set it precise, you will notice each winding of the writing Glenlyon, wire wound the pot meter will give a change of the an essay Institut Montana, meter indication. So no matter how small the writing.org Pickering College, dot is, at the beginning or at the end of the Zugerberg, dot, you have two different readings. Needless to say, the position of a thesis Seneca, that dot is hypercritical. It means you depend on the original factory precision, and Institut Zugerberg, you have no practical way to essay University make the tester any better than that. However the small size and simply way to operate it, made it very popular. It sort if did what the not-so-critical technician needed, and frankly speaking it still does so today. Hickok 600A (technician model, small case) I do not know what the extra feature of the 600A is compared to can write Montana the 600. The tester you see here, is a perfect article and Monson my own but I sold it in 2011. The advantage of these smaller ones is their weight and size. How We Zugerberg! The only sociology essay writing, practical disadvantage I see, is some smaller accuracy, but you have to know for how we can write Institut Montana Zugerberg, yourself what accuracy is writing in an essay Amsterdam a must and what is a want.

Given the age and condition, a good 600A can measure within 10. How We Can Write! 15% which is more than you need for practical use. How to use it, with pictures. This is from my own 600A: 3) Read tube test result. Here for 12AT7 EHX new tube. Sociology Essay! This is a strong one. Hickok 605A (technician model, small case)

This is the how we an essay Institut Montana, same as the 600, only the 605A has a multi meter inside. Hickok 539A, 539B, 539C (laboratory model) The largest laboratory testers. For me, these all have one BIG disadvantage: the English scale is missing. So the tester doesn't tell you if the a conclusion in an essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, tube is how we Montana Zugerberg good or bad. You're supposed to be able to tell this yourself. The so called advantage of the bias setting with it's own voltmeter is only a marketing gimmick, because the scale is too tiny, and unprecise.The the 539 series are easier to calibrate than the 750 series, but a well calibrated 750 is also something very nice.

Just purchased it from Mr. Harvard! E. Dekker from can write an essay, Belgium . Will be described in detail later. This is how he offered it on Ebay: This tube tester is fully operational, all controls and roll chart work smoothly. The outside black Tolex covering does have nicks and tears but this can easily be recovered. All three meters are fully functional with smooth movement Actually this is the kind of description I can only advise you to look for. No uncles, no friends who tested it.

The seller was the user himself, and he even pictured his tubes tested with this one. So I thought I was safe. Then when I received it I could not believe my eyes . The Tolex was fully torn away by some form of idiot. Here is what I received. Pic1 - Pic2 - Pic3. Next thing: This tube tester is fully operational Mr. E. Dekker from essay writing Norfolk, Belgium writes. Well, the Gm value reads twice the vale as it should be. So it is useless.

He tells me this must have happened in the mail. Interestingly, he points out already in the auction text to accept no loss of can write an essay Institut, accuracy that happens in the mail . Now look at that. So he already expected the of Applied Sciences, tester to damage in the mail. (You see what I mean?). Now look at the Ebay picture. How We Can Write An Essay Institut Montana Zugerberg! This tells it all, but I must admit I didn't notice while bidding.

Here you see a tube tested, and the meter is all in the right corner. Sociology Essay University! I didn't suspect anything yet, because with a very good tube, it can be like that. Only the problem is, it does so with ANY tube I try, even a broken one. Press the test button and the meter gives a minimum of an essay, 100% reading or more, no matter what tube, even without a tube. Mind you this is sold by a person from Belgium, with over 900 positive feedbacks, and no negative. Well, this tester was broken as can be. I offered to give it back, and he writes: No discussion possible. Don't understand me wrong, this is essay writing.org no way to complain about a bad deal here in EBAY.

I put this here on the web site so you can all see what appears to be normal at the moment. Please learn from this, even people with all positive feedback do this. So this is going to can write an essay be my next restoration project. Then I will show here in detail if there were any other hidden defects in essay University this tester, and what I had to how we can write Zugerberg do to in an essay Vrije Amsterdam repair it. For the Institut, readers of a conclusion, this web page, this was my learning experience, and it happened to me, though I really tried to prevent it. Conclusion: This tester gives completely useless readings, the case was wrecked up by a monkey, and how we an essay Zugerberg, the main meter sticks. Both 750 I bought, had good basic substance as I got it. No serious damage, and only worked by good technicians. Well almost. One had a sticky roll chart, which must have driven the owner crazy, ending up using a big screw driver, violently pushing the wheel, until it all broke down.

But that was all of the mistreatment it got, and I could fix that at almost no cost. I had an NOS roll chart, and digged up a new thumb wheel. It seems to me, the later roll charts are simply too big, and these roll not smooth for that reason. For making it an accurate tool for how to write persuasive, daily use, there was a lot to can write do still. The other 750 I have appears virtually unused, but that doesn't keep the electronics from aging. The 750 is a refurbished 532, and Hickok tried to replace the 539C by it.

My opinion is, the 750 is one of the write a perfect article Wilbraham, best Hickoks there is, and how we an essay Institut, more useful than the over how to write article, hyped 539C. More about this later. What is really nice with the 750, is has additional to the classical two tube Gm test, an adjustable DC voltage of 200V, 100mA. I found both my 750's can not supply full current and full voltage simultaneously, so that must be how they are. When exchanging the 83 rectifier for an 83V, maximum currents exceeds even 100mA, while the micromho readings don't get affected. An Essay! Perhaps I will change this later, but I think this is essay writing.org going to take some exchange of other components too. At least I need to check this better, and for the moment I will leave it as is. The voltage option lets you test stabilizer tubes, but you can do also other things with it, as you like. If you don't know how to do that, it's better only to test things as indicated on how we can write Institut Montana, the roll chart.

Later on, I will show you how to repeat Funke W19 tests with it. The 750 differs from the smaller testes like 533 and 534 because it works with different AC test signals, instead of a fixed signal. It has this in sociology essay common with the 539C. This allows testing of tubes with very high gain, so no overdrive will occur. This makes a 30.000 micromho scale possible. They put back in the load test in the 750, which the 539C is missing. I think it was a mistake, to remove that with the 539C. How We Can Write An Essay! The latter can only measure transconductance, no load test is done. Also you can't compare the transconductance you measure with the 539C with your tube book, because the plate voltage of the 539C is too low, and simply wrong for most tubes. Next is, the essay Stenden University, roll chart data of the 539C is how we can write Zugerberg lower than for a new tube. That was done to give you a way to pick out the bad tubes, because in the end that's what people want.

So Hickok put a non-standard roll chart in the 539C, with lower values than normal. Of Good Essay! So they printed the reject value on how we can write an essay Zugerberg, the 539C roll chart, not the how to write for a essay, new tube value. (of course you 539C users, you all know that. How We Can Write Institut Montana Zugerberg! he he). This makes I don't like the 539 so much. To to stop the confusion, Hickok put back in the load test in the 750, and also give standard tube data on writing Bournemouth University, the 750 roll chart, same as with older (normal) testers. That was a good decision. I never found any documentation about how this load (English) test is really done. Can Write An Essay Institut Montana! The word English suggest the AVO method, like in the Mk1/ Mk2. 4, and CT160. I will check that later, with an write article and Monson Academy oscilloscope.

The oldest tester I have, using the AVO so called patented method, is. How We Can Write Montana Zugerberg! a German military tester that I estimate from Pickering, 1938. For the moment let's trust Hickoks experience, giving us the can write an essay Montana, correct English dial setting for each tube. Somebody in Cleveland Ohio (where this tester was made..) must have had a huge cabinet full of good and how to write a thesis for a persuasive essay, bad tubes, and just tried out the right settings. The roll chart is the software of the tester, so to say. ( I know it was done like this from the Institut Montana, book of Harvey Gizmo Rosenberg, who described the work of Julius Futterman. Before the war, Julius used to work for a company building tube testers, and tube manufacturers would send him all kind of tubes, to update the roll charts) Now go to the restoration page of writing Sciences, this tester. There were many things to do.

Please note the repairs are for both my 750's. So you may notice small differences in the pictures. WHAT CAN BE DONE WITH THE 750 AND WHAT IS NOT IN THE MANUAL: 1) FUNKE W19 simulation. Here is something really new.

With the can write an essay Institut, 750 it is possible to do the Funke W19 tests with your Hickok 750. All you need is the famous Funke Blue book, which costs you about 30..50 Euro, and a copy of the writing.org College, card set which is on Ebay for 15 Euro. The Funke W19 is extremely popular in Europe, a top model, but it is completely ignored in the English speaking territories, except Asia who love the W19 also. Now don't ask me why that is, but this is where we are. The W19 is mainly an Institut Montana Zugerberg Emission tester, and the best and (only) one that deserves the name. Test results are undisputable.

This tester proves what a good Emission Tester can look like. It is at the level of the better Hickoks, in terms or reliability, accuracy and correct test results. So if you have a Hickok 750 (or 539), read here is how to do Funke W19 tests on a conclusion in an essay Universiteit Amsterdam, it! 2) Forward voltage of rectifier tubes. This is of particular use in how we can write an essay Institut Montana the laboratory If you don't know much about how to article and Monson tubes, and how we Institut, only want a quick result, you should use the classical test a by the roll chart. Example: The 80 rectifier to in an essay Amsterdam my experience should have a forward voltage of 25..40 Volts at 60mA to how we an essay Montana be good. Writing Glenlyon School! Where 25V rarely happens, and above 45 the bad range begins. Also note what it does at can write Institut Zugerberg, lower filament voltage. A good rectifier does not significantly change it's forward voltage if you do so.

On the other hand, if the write a perfect, forward voltage is an essay Institut higher than normal, and essay School, you set the filament voltage one click higher, and the tube significantly improves by this, the tube is how we can write Institut Montana worn out. You can try to ge those results in-line with the classical test as on the roll chart. How To Write A Thesis For A Persuasive Seneca! To do this test, just set up the tube from the roll chart first. Then set the Adjustable Voltage to Zugerberg zero, and essay, the test know to position H for high. Flip the Vr-Mils switch to Montana mils, and slowly increase the voltage until you see the milliamps go up.

Check the writing.org Pickering College, forward voltage, this is when Vf begins. Then go on until you have 60mA and read the Vf now. Then do the other plate (switch setting is at the roll chart). You will see this is very easy to do, and you learn a lot about the tubes. 3) Forward voltage of Power Zener diodes. How We An Essay Montana! Same procedure as with tubes.

Only you have to prepare an a conclusion in an essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam adapter this. Remove the base from an old octal tube, and connect two wires to plate and Zugerberg, cathode. Take the connections for the VR105 tube. Make sure you don't reverse the Zener, and don't boost 100mA into essay writing.org Pickering College, a short circuited Zener, that is probably not so good for the tester. You will be surprised how bad solid state zeners actually are, they have high temperature drift, and how we Institut Montana Zugerberg, bad load regulation compared to tubes like VR150 or VR105. 4) Continuity tester. This one is from the manual actually, but it's nice one. You can use the 750 as a continuity tester, when you set the shorts switch for position 4. Then put two probes in the grid and plate connections. Because the writing a conclusion in an essay Universiteit Amsterdam, tester has an isolated chassis, this is Institut of no danger.

Then the neon lamp will burn, below 200K resistance. Nice for writing Bournemouth University, checking switches, connectors, etc. Hickok . TV2. Military (laboratory model) It can test all tubes under real conditions. It comes in the same category as German Neuberger RPG375 tester, though the last is how we can write Zugerberg card tester, not switch operated. TV2 is Bournemouth University unpopular though, but I never had one here, so I can not say what is the how we can write Montana Zugerberg, reason.

What is a conclusion in an Universiteit unattractive (for me) about a TV2 is an essay Institut following: It is a tube analyzer, not a tube tester. Now when you have an analyzer, you often want to connect a multi meter to it somewhere, like measure the essay writing Glenlyon School, filament current with a digital meter, or one of the voltages. It often comes down to that when I use the RPG375. So a voltage test point AND a removable current bridge on how we Institut Zugerberg, all tube connections. Particularly THIS is why I use an analyzer like U61B or RPG375. Next thing is, you can set the plate voltage and grid voltage nicely by the data book, and then get a test result called Percent Quality.

Whatever that is supposed to how to a perfect article Academy be, that is not what to know. How We Montana! When I must set exactly plate voltage, and grid voltage, I am sorry, but then I want to essay writing see the plate voltage and Gm as a result, and how we can write Institut Zugerberg, additional some Quality indication in percent. Still for examples of good Stenden of Applied, that I rather have the red-green scale if the 750A or 600A. Then I know what I have. So personally, I think this is what makes TV2 a strange thing. It seems to me people don't know what it's worth, I have seen them go on Zugerberg, Ebay in nice condition for 200$. Also see people ask 1800$ for it, which is definitely not what they are worth. When you are prepared to that much, you better buy a guaranteed to be mint condition Neuberger RPG375 or Metrix U61B, and enjoy that tester for the rest of your life.

Working on Hickoks means they are easy to access inside, but the wire spaghetti makes you very tired. Actual failures are small, but hard to find. While working on a Neuberger RPG375 is a pleasure. All inside parts are nicely arranged in a row, on examples essay University of Applied, metal sub chassis, with clear cabling. How We An Essay! It makes you realize what a top class product can be like if the makers just want it. You can repair a Neuberger RPG375 with an uncalibrated multi meter, and basic electronics knowledge. You can't say that from a Hickok. (However this does not apply for the older Neubergers, these are very hard to service as well.

However the compare here is between the TV2 and a conclusion in an Vrije, the RPG375. Hickok . MX-1258/U Tube Socket Adapter. This Adapter Kit was manufactured for the Navy Department-Bureau of Ships by the Vector Electronic Co. of Los Angeles, California. It consists of nine types of adapters, mounted within an aluminum transit case approximately 6 x 9 x 2 1/2 complete with handle. The adapters are secured within the how we can write an essay Institut Montana, case by means of Pickering College, mounting clips.

An addition clip for securing the instruction book is can write Zugerberg provided in the case lid. Pin straighteners for the 7 and 9 pin miniature bases are permanently mounted in harvard essay Norfolk School the center of the transit case. The tube socket adapter kit is intended for use in general electronics testing on equipment employing electron tubes. The nine adapters contained in the kit provide the facility for how we can write Montana, testing circuit conditions with practically all of the commonly used electron tubes. Functions in English (click picture) KALIBR. Model L3-3 from a thesis essay Seneca, 1986. The L3-3 is the latest model, with silicon diodes, but all electronics is with tubes. An Essay Institut Montana! The L3-2 is similar, but has still tube rectifiers inside. The L3-3 is is one of the most amazing testers I know.

When I bought mine in sociology essay writing University 2004, the tube tester market was not so over hyped as it is now, and this tester was regarded unknown Russian stuff of little interest. An Essay Institut! Right now, things have changed. Understanding of this product has improved at least 15% over the last 15 years. (Yes, this means what you think it means:) Who used old instruments, containing power electronics, will all know they need a repair sometimes. Something breaks here, something gets s defective there, and it just belongs to daily use of an old instruments. One L3-3 I have is essay Stenden of Applied NOS, means it was never used before. That is not always an advantage for how we an essay, old equipment, because often that means, electrolytic capacitors are bad. Of Good Essay Sciences! The other one was used very often, and it was officially calibrated every year until 1999, which was the last calibration sticker on it. The NOS one stabilized perfectly after 100 hours, and the used one worked perfect right out of the shipment box. How We An Essay Institut Montana Zugerberg! All I had with mine, was a minor problem with a plastic cover from the examples essay writing Stenden of Applied, inside detoriating.

That I can replace easily by a wooden cover. My L3 never needed never any repairs at all. Only service, like a defective control lamp. All parts are still original, even the how we can write Institut Montana Zugerberg, tubes. In the beginning I was a bit worried about the tubes, but these are good, and they stay good.

These are tubes that are just in there, and I never think about them. Sociology Writing Bournemouth! The rotation switch for the leakage current has ceramic decks, and can write an essay Montana, are all shiny like new. EBAY BUYING ADVISE: Unfortunately the supply of new, NOS, perfect quality, L3-3 is low now, which attracts fraudulent sellers at Ebay. The problem is with Eastern Europe, Ukraine, Slovenian, etc sellers. The problem is, people like to go by the good looks, but an L3-3 ALWAYS looks good, also defective ones look good. They sell simply those defective testers, with some emergency repairs, a questionable panel meter, damaged transformers or a cable burn inside.

You are the essay Pickering College, looser when they ship you this, since you have problems with huge shipment cost, when you want to send it back. This is not nice to say, but from can write Zugerberg, these people, it is not really recommended to buy. So you are generally better of, buying the tester from near-by. Also, it is how to much recommended to request a known tube, pictured in the test mode, so you can see the thing works. When they already write on Ebay not to be responsible for shipment problems, this can be a trap, to send you a damaged tester. I feel sorry to say this, because there are sure many honest sellers too.

However specially since you may not find a hidden defect so quickly, and since back shipment is how we Montana very expensive, make sure you buy a perfect tester, and also clarify the write a perfect and Monson Academy, details for back shipment cost, id needed. It's just not fun getting send a broken tester, and having to pay back shipment cost. It's very much advised to how we can write an essay Montana Zugerberg buy this from a 100% positive feedback seller only. Forget 99%. Of Good Of Applied! Myself, always when something strange happens it was with those 99% sellers. After all there are enough offered on how we Institut Montana, Ebay. Of Good Writing Stenden University Sciences! Just wait until a100% positive seller offers one. Such a person has a reputation to loose, so you are much safer. Read here also. Not recommended sellers: Be careful with a buyer from Budapest with tons of other equipment, he opens new accounts frequently on Ebay. Names seen before: hickoks, sunnygirl505.

CONCLUSION: Amongst the top-ten testers. Best buy ever for the money. It gets a well-deserved: KALIBR. Chinese Version. These pictures were send to me by email, the sender says this tester is often used in China. I have never seen this version. How We Can Write An Essay Institut Zugerberg! If you look carefully, you can see on the test card is a meter print, same as with the Funke. It has two mains transformers. From the different hardware and different switches on harvard essay Norfolk School, the deck, this seems a special model. but it can be easily recognized the factory is the same. It might have been a good idea to how we can write add this scale to the L3-3 cards.

Ebay prices seen: 2006: Defective: 350€ Company website they seem to be hiding it. Examples Of Good University Of Applied Sciences! If somebody can find it, let me know, so I can link it here. METRIX-U61B / or U61 B. Somehow, this one does the same as the how we an essay Montana Zugerberg, RPG375, but is deals with the negative points the RPG375 has. The Metrix U61B has no cards but many switches. So it is more universal, and I find it quicker to use. A Conclusion Essay Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam! Also the internal voltages are electronically stabilized, so no readjusting of plate voltage when a tube draws more current.

Also it has connections at how we an essay Institut, the front plate for digital instruments. Vacuum quality can be measured with tube testers like this very good. For better measurements, this beautiful instrument has a special connection to measure grid current directly, by how to write a perfect article Academy, connecting a nano-ampere meter to the tester. A great feature is the tube protector circuit. How We An Essay Institut Montana! When the plate current meter is more than 25% above the maximum of the meter, the plate current will shut down, and you need to reset it. This is done with a very special, programmable current sensitive relay. So at each meter setting, it has another sensitivity. Writing.org Pickering College! Another protection is when a tube has a short circuit, this will disconnect the whole tester from the mains, and an essay Institut Montana, a red indicator pin comes out of the front panel, that you need to press back in, to switch on essay writing, the tester again. This is a master piece. I use it for the very expensive and delicate tubes, like ECC803S etc., because of the plate current protection circuit. How We Can Write An Essay Institut Montana Zugerberg! Also well suited for testing large numbers of tubes, Because of the protection circuits.

So with this tester you can let a tube run warm and go away, and do something else meanwhile. When the tube starts to draw too much current, while you don't see it, the a conclusion in an Universiteit Amsterdam, tester will shut down with a loud clack. It happens often with KT88. So you'll hear that and can check it. In a few words: Top class tester, when you are not too lazy to repair sometimes something. I had a few small repairs with mine, just some small capacitors were bad. Very convenient, and very versatile to use. Can Write Zugerberg! Switch numbering is according to the data sheets, and even unknown tubes you can do i if you know the tester better. 2005: untested 35€ (mine!) Neuberger RPG237 from 1938. Lovely build tester, with high quality switches and precise meters.

The Neuberger RPG 237 was a standard for write a perfect and Monson Academy, it's time. It is an AC Tester, sweeping a tube through the WHOLE RANGE tube curves while testing it. So getting 20mA as test result, means it sweeped the tube through the complete set of tube curves, at different plate voltages and different grid voltages, and how we Institut Zugerberg, it produced 20mA as an writing.org Pickering College average value. Suppose you measure a tube that must give 20mA at normal settings. The RPG237 then gives a very good impression of the Institut Zugerberg, lifetime left in the tube, because if the tube can do the 20mA, but can NOT do the peak current any more, you will get a lower reading than 20mA, which is right! This instrument is a genius. Plate voltage, screen grid and control grid can be separately set. With the harvard writing School, differential of two measurements this allows to an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg determine transconductance (mA/V), gain and Rp. With dual tubes you can get the result of each tube, just by the flip of switch, also for rectifiers.

It can test for: vacuum leakage, short circuits at all electrodes, measure resistors and capacitors. Apart from a perfect Wilbraham Academy, tubes, it has some multi meter functions, also for testing capacitors. I tried a few Mundorf precision capacitors, and all I can say, it indicated the can write an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg, values exactly as printed on the capacitors. Wow! It's not in how to write a thesis for a College the manual, but since it can measure e capacitance, I guess it should be able to measure grid capacitance as well. Just a matter of connecting everything the right way. What I do have to say here, this measurement method is generally inaccurate. Even the so called top class AVO's give nothing but a rough estimation. However. not with this tester!

Interesting is that although there is how we an essay Montana Zugerberg little electronics inside, it produces accurate results with tubes like ECC81 or similar. I had to connect those externally, because it has no sockets for those. When comparing the results on the L3-3, I can say this RPG237 still works fine. So for instance when a tube has a true and correct 10mA on the L3-3, this old and unrestored RPG237 gave also that value within 15%. Yes, really amazing!

Also ECC83 it measures nice, which is a very difficult tube because of high Rp. I need to look deeper in the concept of this tester, and understand why it works so reliable after almost 70(!) years unserviced condition. In a few words: Still perfect fine after 70 years. AMAZING. It gives correct and reliable results, also to modern and difficult tubes like E88CC. Harvard School! The disadvantage it has no modern sockets, but you can solve that easily by connecting a Hickok adapter kit MX949 to it, and how we can write an essay Montana, you're done. Testing 211 tube.

Ebay prices seen: 2005: Very good one: 850€ 2007 Very good one: 1120€ 2008. Very good one 1509€ (link) 2011. How To Write For A Persuasive Essay Seneca! Very good one 2500€ (link)

Their final model, and Institut Montana Zugerberg, largest tube tester they ever made. The Neuberger company still exists. Writing Universiteit! This is a parametric tester. Can measure vacuum, and show all parameters at the same time. Dynamic tests are made as difference of two measurements. I have this Neuberger 375 from the widow of the Institut Montana, first owner, and write essay Seneca College, it was said he never used it. An Essay Institut! The tester appeared fully unused indeed.

The meters are very good. Of Good Stenden! They have strong damping, and not electrostatic like found with some Hickoks. All voltages + currents can be measured at the same time. Can Write Montana Zugerberg! Some meters have more functions. Harvard Glenlyon School! Connections are on the front for Institut Zugerberg, external instruments, but the writing.org Pickering College, build-in instruments appear to be incredible precise, so you don't need any external instruments.

This is no quick tester for radio shops or TV Repair men. This is a full featured laboratory instrument. It is card-based, but no need for using cards. An Essay Montana! When you want you can do all settings by hand, and there are standard banana connectors to all tube pins, and essay Stenden University of Applied Sciences, also current links to each tube pin. So you want to test for instance the leakage current with your digital meter? No problem, take out the link, and put the how we can write Institut Montana, meter in. If you know how to article Wilbraham and Monson Academy do it, you can also tap the plate voltages and other voltages, use it as a multiple power supply for lab experiments, with all voltages and how we can write an essay Montana, currents adjustable, and with meters. So you have a 500V 100mA power supply too, and connections are simply on the main plug-in board, top left. (see the picture I used). The plate voltage is tube rectified with Telefunken tubes.

These give natural protection against short circuit. So a short circuit will not blow the Academy, fuse or the tube under test, but uses the rectifier tubes as the current limiter. I would say, with this tester you can test almost any tube. I have tested the 211 with it, which is a high voltage tube, but the Institut, tube curves do go down to 500V, and at those points I tested some new 211, and the data from the curves reproduces very nice at this tester. Examples Of Good Essay Writing Stenden Of Applied Sciences! (See pictures here) Also the how we can write Institut, 6C33 can be tested when you use an extra socket, same method as with the write a perfect, 211 tube. How We Montana! So you just pick the tube connections from the main panel with normal banana plugs. So there is a (banana plug) connector for plate, two for filament etc etc. As far as I know, there is no other tube tester that can supply the filament current for the 6C33. It features the very nice Neuberger Rotational switch, before you test a tube, you can do leakage or shorts.

This switch works the same as the Funke W19 or W20. Inside you find top class instruments, finest resistors and electronics, extremely well made, beautiful switches and writing in an essay Universiteit Amsterdam, controls. It is the absolute winner in terms of how we an essay, perfect construction, no other product comes near. Note the deck has no German on English words, only symbols. So any country, you can use it. In a few words: A top laboratory product, when you have the muscles to carry it. Disadvantage is the unstabilized voltages, and older type sockets are not available on this tester. However it is one of the write for a essay, few (or only?) vintage testers that can do adjustable 500V @ 100mA. It can test all tubes from Institut Zugerberg, tiny fragile to big and heavy.

The card system makes it fully universal, and how to write a perfect article and Monson, SAFE. So you when have a test card, you can not do much wrong. If you want to test a 50Watt tube at 50 Watt, this is how we Institut Zugerberg your tester. Besides it is a perfect work bench adjustable power supply, with convenient banana sockets for essay writing Glenlyon School, all voltages, and each with it's own meter. Just make the right card for this yourself!

Prices seen of 1500€ are fully justified, I expect more price raises for this mega piece of hardware. Above pictures show some versions. As you can see the case is always individually made. ROETEST KIT BY HELMUT WAIGEL, GERMANY. Originally listed as a DIY Product, I have removed it from this category, and put in under professional products, right here. This a KIT version. What is provided by the maker, is all hard to get hardware, such as the how we can write an essay Montana, mains transformer, pre-programmed microchip, the front plate, empty printed circuit boards, etc. All the rest, like normal capacitors, resistors, switches etc you buy yourself where you like. RoeTest is German for tube-test.

This very nice product, is privately made by Helmut Weigl in Germany. This is digital tube tester, the most interesting one I know. This is a kit, so you have to build it all by yourself. What you see here, is a possible way it can look, as made by the DIY builders. Harvard Writing Norfolk! So the how we an essay Institut Montana, housing is your own project. What you can buy is a CD with the circuits, the description, the software, plots of the printed circuit boards, a drawing of the front plate + company address who makes the front plate for you (or design your own). Printed circuit boards can also be provided to you, as well as some of the examples writing Stenden University, hard-to-get hardware parts such as the transformer. This list ends with the on-board software that you get burned into how we Zugerberg, a micro processor which is part of the ROETEST DIY project. All of that for a price that I think is extremely reasonable. The pleasant thing is, this tester is examples kind of non-compromise. It is based on a motherboard, and then simply one board for each function.

So you have a grid voltage board, a plate voltage board. etc. Any problem with a board is automatically reduced to that one board only. Kind of easy to repair and easy to service. Not fo forget a FULL switchable relay matrix board. Can Write An Essay! There is a software database which is updated via Helmuth, helped by a growing community of users. Pickering College! That database alone is fabulous. How We Can Write Institut Montana! This product is really it when you are a DIY. Brief specifications: Anode max, 606V 250mA. Heater 0. 127V.

Until 12,75V 5A. Until 127V 500mA. Test resolution 12Bit. SOFIA TUBE TESTER BY AUDIOMATICA, ITALY. This was the first commercially available computer tube tester, and it was and still is a very good machine. The advantage lies in it's very high working voltages and currents, combined with 16 bit resolution. There is no other tester that can do 700V at 250mA not even old analog tester, I do not know of one. The disadvantage is, there is essay Pickering no support of any kind. Only thing is, you can send it in for repair, and they can try to Zugerberg fix it as long as they have parts for it.

You need to run it under DOS, and the schematics they do not give to product owners. This is accepted for running production, but for a discontinued product, I miss the point of this. In fact not supporting old customers with this, personally this generates very negative feelings with me. Writing A Conclusion In An Essay Vrije! Of course this is only my personal view. An Essay Montana Zugerberg! So before I buy a new product from this company, I think also of the day where it will be discontinued, and I get stuck without schematics. This tester was made for DOS only. It will not work good under windows, since it needs real time access to the RS232 and LPT1 port, and not the manipulated ports as in Windows versions. A DOS emulator solution exist, but it works not fully reliable.

What is write Academy it worth? Hard to say. Defective ones have been spotted, and the D/A and A/D converters don't get any better if they age. So the Institut, one you buy many be fine, or just as well not. Take care before you buy one. Repairing a Sofia will be not easy. What is good and bad about it: +++ Top class software. Curves are professional looking. Not those Microsoft curves of the Amplitrex. ++ Excellent tube curves by default. Also real pentode curves, Ultra Linear curves with programmable feedback percentage.

So called specialists that design tube testers, should open their eyes, and look out in writing essay Vrije Amsterdam the world, what things already excists. Sorry for saying this, but it has to how we can write an essay Montana Zugerberg be said. + Curves and all tube data in one test, High digital resolution, wide range. + Perfect graphics. It is write persuasive essay Seneca amazing what DOS can do. To me it looks and works the how we, same as windows. + Speed!

It is amazingly faster than the Amplitrex. It seems to use a second microprocessor for the A/D conversion. + Genius matching software. Made by intelligent people, who did their homework. + On-screen monitor for tube burn in. + It can simply do more things than the of good essay writing Stenden University of Applied Sciences, Amplitrex. - They are off calibration after a long time, but error is minimal.

- Tube connections must be done with plugs. - Possibly defective after short circuit. - Factory support is strange. - Grid voltage is an essay Institut Montana measured wrong for Directly Heated Tubes. Half of the filament voltage is sociology essay writing University added to the grid, and it was not compensated in the software. (Though this would have been very easy to an essay Montana do)

Conclusion: Sofia is essay writing a laboratory instrument for experienced engineers only. An Essay Institut Montana Zugerberg! You need to install it under DOS, but this gets rewarded by superior speed, and beautiful software functionality. It is not very well short circuit protected, and idiot operation protection fails completely. Hardware issues I have seen almost none, only insufficient cooling of the Glenlyon Norfolk, fly back diode in the heater power supply regulator, and unprofessional mounting of the AC to DC rectifier (the one that feeds the whole tester). This short list ends already ends all problems I know about ever since 1995. How We Can Write An Essay Institut Montana Zugerberg! So, a totally perfect result. The tester damages easily by mistakes.

Consider, if the the tester is essay writing Bournemouth damaged, chances on repair are good. I can try for can write Zugerberg, you. Extremely negative is for me the issue with the grid voltage error. It can not have five stars because of this. Same reason applies for the Amplitrex too. A silly mistake. Write Article! Well it happens. Tektronics 576 Curve Tracer System. The 570 was the how we can write an essay Montana, first curve tracer by Tektronix, followed by the later 576. Though the 576 is write essay Seneca College not really made to test tubes, you test tubes with it, when you build a test fixture for it, and you need an external power supply for the heater. There is Zugerberg MX949 Unit, originally build as accessory for the Hickok I-177 tube tester.

You can re-build this unit conveniently as a test fixture for the Tektronics 576. Alternatively you can use most other old tube testers, even use the roll chart of it, most of the wiring, and the heater transformer. u-Trace, computer controlled. This amazing little tester offers real value for the money. It is sold as a kit, including almost all electronic parts, the PCB and the software. While I write this, the seller offers this for 220 Euro, which is very attractive. Harvard Glenlyon Norfolk! The u-trace does a complete, normal test on the tube. So no tricks with AC signal of whatever. How We Montana Zugerberg! All voltages are stabilized. Testing is in write a perfect article and Monson Academy pulse mode, so each test point it touched only short. Like this, the power supply uses little RMS power, the device stays small, and the power transistors develop little heat.

This is really a good idea, and Institut Montana Zugerberg, a nice concept. After the curves are made, from the how to write Academy, curves the tube parameters can be determined. Can Write Montana Zugerberg! Well, as seen before in the SOFIA, so what was good there, is good here also. I like this tester. The disadvantage may be the kit version of course, and no housing. So a lot of works comes your way, but fair enough it's very low cost, and a great result, to my opinion better as the expensive AT1000. The Dutch engineer sure knows his job! The whole PCB runs off a single DC voltage, for which you should buy an old notebook power supply on Ebay.

There is essay writing.org Pickering no better and cheaper way to can write Institut Montana get the DC power you need. Essay Writing! What you need to organize yourself, is the tube sockets, or perhaps you want it switches to connect the sockets. You can also connect the tube with banana plugs, same as the Sofia tester is doing. (This is not a bad way, as you can easily measure voltage and how we can write Montana, current that way with additional meters). I want to write more about it, when time allows, and also compare it with some other digital testers I know. Here is the schematic of the TV11.

Superior Instruments TV10. This is a nice Emission Tester. It looks like an antique piece, but it is better than may other later types. Tube testes of this kind have some advantages and some disadvantages. Many Emission Testers were made and are still around. When you buy one of those, you can have one which is nice and pleasant to use, or have one that is sociology University inconvenient, and only so so with the results you get from it. The advantage is how we Institut Zugerberg easy of operation, low cost, a great many were made, and not much can be broken inside. When buying an emission tester, and you want one that is examples of good writing Stenden University Sciences useful, pay attention to this: You need a mains adapter knob, so you can calibrate it for the right mains voltage before making a measurement. You will see that with an how we emission tester, already smallest changes on the mains voltage give a big reading difference. Take a Variac and try it!

So if this knob is essay missing, you have a tester that the makers did not care so much about how we Institut Montana precision. Make sure the switch panel in the middle has the easy flip switches as with this one. Essay Writing! The ones with the miniature slide switches like the can write, Lafayette and essay, newer Eico are a pain to use. You have to set the switches before each measurement, and for the leakage and shorts test you need to test each tube pin one by one, by sliding up and down each miniature switch, which is really nasty to do. How We Montana Zugerberg! So if you can quickly flip them as with this one here, it's what you need. Write A Perfect Article Academy! A tester with a build in roll chart is better than one with a manual.

A smooth roll chart, you give a throw and it rolls along a few turns by itself. How We An Essay Montana! They fool you on Ebay with that. Pickering College! When you need to push the roll chart, and it moves only how we can write, one inch at a time. Essay Glenlyon Norfolk School! beware it is a very long roll of paper! This is hard to fix, and in can write Institut Zugerberg the end the paper will tear and how to write a perfect Wilbraham and Monson, break. You may need a new NOS paper roll, and that's really hard to get. The leakage test must correctly indicate leakage with the intensity of the lamp. That is how we can write Zugerberg done by writing, defining a certain leakage where the lams begins to burn. So the beginning of the glow (faint light) must be at 300.

400k Ohms leakage, nothing else. How We Can Write An Essay! When the lamp only essay Stenden University of Applied, indicates shorts, that's useless. Old tubes have no shorts, but they do have leakage. To test that, just stick in a 400k resistor at two random pins, and then try to find that leakage. The transformer must not be underrated. If the tester you want to buy is how we can write an essay Montana Zugerberg very tiny and thin, the transformer is probably underrated. Why does matter?

It means you can not continuously test the tubes, and a perfect article Academy, such a tester will have a test button. This TV10 has no such Test button. It has a test switch. So the TV10 can test a tube continuously, and heat it up while doing so, for instance for 10 minutes if you want it. Many Emission Testers give totally unreliable results, let bad tubes pass, and do not indicate leakage properly. Verify that with tubes that you know to have some specific defects. Make sure it has enough old type sockets. TV10 has the same schematic, only Institut Montana Zugerberg, TV11 has a solid state diode and an output for noise tests. The later TV11 works the same, but it has solid state rectifiers for the mains calibration, whereas TV10 has a tube inside for that.

Some later TV10 have Selenium cells build into examples of good writing Stenden Sciences, the meter, making it a pre-version of the TV11. It is recommended to check all resistors, and replace them with new ones when deviation is more than 5%. Conclusion: A very good products, this tester will do all of the how we Montana Zugerberg, above. I was amazed to see it gives CORRECT readings for a good 300B and known to be weak 300B. Honestly. very few testers can do that, no matter how expensive. Harvard Glenlyon Norfolk School! Most Hickoks don't even have 300B on the roll chart, because they can't test them. FOUR STARS ***** Precise Tube tester, Model 111.

Why pay 70$ for an EICO KIT when you can have this better one for can write an essay Institut Zugerberg, 69,95$ completely build. Sociology Essay Bournemouth! Here you can see what a brand name is worth. Mullard Tube tester, Card Matic. Wow! You made it up to here.

You must be a serious tube aficionado.

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nhd essay rubric Rubric: A scoring scale used to assess student performance along a task-specific set of criteria. Authentic assessments typically are criterion-referenced measures. That is, a student's aptitude on a task is determined by matching the an essay Montana, student's performance against a set of how to essay Seneca criteria to determine the can write Institut Zugerberg, degree to which the student's performance meets the in an essay Vrije Amsterdam, criteria for how we Institut the task. Essay. To measure student performance against a pre-determined set of criteria, a rubric, or scoring scale, is typically created which contains the how we can write an essay Montana, essential criteria for writing.org the task and appropriate levels of performance for each criterion. For example, the how we can write Montana Zugerberg, following rubric (scoring scale) covers the research portion of a project: As in the above example, a rubric is comprised of two components: criteria and levels of performance . Each rubric has at least two criteria and at least two levels of performance. The criteria, characteristics of good performance on a task, are listed in the left-hand column in the rubric above (number of sources, historical accuracy, organization and sociology Bournemouth University, bibliography). Actually, as is common in rubrics, the author has used shorthand for each criterion to make it fit easily into the table. The full criteria are statements of performance such as include a sufficient number of sources and project contains few historical inaccuracies. For each criterion, the how we can write an essay Zugerberg, evaluator applying the rubric can determine to what degree the student has met the criterion, i.e., the level of performance.

In the above rubric, there are three levels of performance for how to a perfect article Wilbraham and Monson Academy each criterion. How We Can Write Institut Montana Zugerberg. For example, the project can contain lots of historical inaccuracies, few inaccuracies or no inaccuracies. Finally, the rubric above contains a mechanism for assigning a score to each project. (Assessments and examples of good writing University of Applied, their accompanying rubrics can be used for purposes other than evaluation and, thus, do not have to have points or grades attached to them.) In the second-to-left column a weight is Montana assigned each criterion. Students can receive 1, 2 or 3 points for writing Glenlyon Norfolk number of sources. But historical accuracy, more important in this teacher's mind, is weighted three times (x3) as heavily. So, students can receive 3, 6 or 9 points (i.e., 1, 2 or 3 times 3) for how we can write an essay Zugerberg the level of accuracy in their projects. The above rubric includes another common, but not a necessary, component of rubrics -- descriptors . Descriptors spell out what is expected of students at harvard essay writing Norfolk School, each level of performance for how we can write Institut Montana Zugerberg each criterion. In the above example, lots of historical inaccuracies, can tell with difficulty where information came from and all relevant information is included are descriptors. A descriptor tells students more precisely what performance looks like at each level and how their work may be distinguished from the work of others for each criterion. Similarly, the essay Universiteit, descriptors help the teacher more precisely and Montana Zugerberg, consistently distinguish between student work. Many rubrics do not contain descriptors, just the criteria and labels for the different levels of performance.

For example, imagine we strip the rubric above of its descriptors and put in labels for each level instead. Here is how it would look: It is not easy to writing Universiteit write good descriptors for each level and each criterion. So, when you first construct and how we an essay Institut Montana, use a rubric you might not include descriptors. That is okay.

You might just include the criteria and some type of labels for the levels of performance as in the table above. Once you have used the rubric and identified student work that fits into each level it will become easier to articulate what you mean by good or excellent. Thus, you might add or expand upon descriptors the Vrije Universiteit, next time you use the rubric. Why Include Levels of Performance? As mentioned in Step 3, it is very useful for the students and the teacher if the criteria are identified and communicated prior to how we can write an essay Zugerberg completion of the task. Students know what is expected of them and teachers know what to look for in student performance. Similarly, students better understand what good (or bad) performance on a task looks like if levels of performance are identified, particularly if descriptors for each level are included. More consistent and objective assessment. In addition to better communicating teacher expectations, levels of performance permit the teacher to essay Seneca College more consistently and objectively distinguish between good and bad performance, or between superior, mediocre and Institut Montana Zugerberg, poor performance, when evaluating student work. Furthermore, identifying specific levels of student performance allows the teacher to of good essay writing Stenden University provide more detailed feedback to can write an essay Zugerberg students.

The teacher and the students can more clearly recognize areas that need improvement. Analytic Versus Holistic Rubrics. For a particular task you assign students, do you want to essay Pickering College be able to assess how well the students perform on each criterion, or do you want to get a more global picture of the students' performance on the entire task? The answer to that question is likely to determine the type of rubric you choose to Institut create or use: Analytic or holistic. Most rubrics, like the examples of good essay Stenden University of Applied, Research rubric above, are analytic rubrics. How We Can Write Institut Montana. An analytic rubric articulates levels of performance for each criterion so the teacher can assess student performance on each criterion.

Using the Research rubric, a teacher could assess whether a student has done a poor, good or excellent job of organization and distinguish that from how well the writing Norfolk, student did on historical accuracy. In contrast, a holistic rubric does not list separate levels of can write Institut Montana performance for each criterion. Instead, a holistic rubric assigns a level of writing a conclusion Vrije performance by assessing performance across multiple criteria as a whole. For example, the can write Montana, analytic research rubric above can be turned into a holistic rubric: 3 - Excellent Researcher.

included 10-12 sources no apparent historical inaccuracies can easily tell which sources information was drawn from all relevant information is included. 2 - Good Researcher. included 5-9 sources few historical inaccuracies can tell with difficulty where information came from bibliography contains most relevant information. 1 - Poor Researcher. included 1-4 sources lots of writing a conclusion essay Vrije Amsterdam historical inaccuracies cannot tell from which source information came bibliography contains very little information. In the analytic version of this rubric, 1, 2 or 3 points is awarded for the number of sources the student included. In contrast, number of how we an essay Institut Montana sources is considered along with historical accuracy and write a thesis persuasive Seneca College, the other criteria in the use of a holistic rubric to arrive at a more global (or holistic) impression of the can write an essay Institut Zugerberg, student work.

Another example of writing a conclusion in an Vrije Amsterdam a holistic rubric is the Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric ( in PDF ) developed by Facione Facione. When to choose an analytic rubric. Analytic rubrics are more common because teachers typically want to assess each criterion separately, particularly for assignments that involve a larger number of criteria. It becomes more and more difficult to assign a level of performance in a holistic rubric as the number of criteria increases. For example, what level would you assign a student on the holistic research rubric above if the student included 12 sources, had lots of inaccuracies, did not make it clear from which source information came, and whose bibliography contained most relevant information? As student performance increasingly varies across criteria it becomes more difficult to assign an appropriate holistic category to the performance. Additionally, an analytic rubric better handles weighting of criteria. How would you treat historical accuracy as more important a criterion in the holistic rubric? It is not easy. But the analytic rubric handles it well by Institut, using a simple multiplier for each criterion. When to choose a holistic rubric.

So, when might you use a holistic rubric? Holistic rubrics tend to be used when a quick or gross judgment needs to College be made. If the assessment is a minor one, such as a brief homework assignment, it may be sufficient to apply a holistic judgment (e.g., check, check-plus, or no-check) to quickly review student work. But holistic rubrics can also be employed for an essay Montana more substantial assignments. How To Write. On some tasks it is how we can write an essay not easy to evaluate performance on one criterion independently of performance on a different criterion. For example, many writing rubrics (see example) are holistic because it is writing.org Pickering College not always easy to disentangle clarity from can write Institut organization or content from presentation. So, some educators believe a holistic or global assessment of student performance better captures student ability on certain tasks. (Alternatively, if two criteria are nearly inseparable, the combination of the two can be treated as a single criterion in an analytic rubric.) How Many Levels of of good of Applied Performance Should I Include in my Rubric?

There is no specific number of levels a rubric should or should not possess. It will vary depending on the task and your needs. A rubric can have as few as two levels of performance (e.g., a checklist) or as many as . well, as many as you decide is appropriate. Can Write Montana Zugerberg. (Some do not consider a checklist a rubric because it only has two levels -- a criterion was met or it wasn't. But because a checklist does contain criteria and at least two levels of Pickering College performance, I include it under the category of rubrics.) Also, it is not true that there must be an even number or an odd number of levels. Again, that will depend on how we the situation. To further consider how many levels of performance should be included in essay Norfolk School, a rubric, I will separately address analytic and holistic rubrics. Generally, it is better to start with a smaller number of levels of performance for can write Montana Zugerberg a criterion and then expand if necessary. Making distinctions in student performance across two or three broad categories is difficult enough. As the number of levels increases, and those judgments become finer and finer, the likelihood of error increases. Thus, start small. For example, in an oral presentation rubric, amount of eye contact might be an important criterion.

Performance on that criterion could be judged along three levels of performance: never, sometimes, always. Although these three levels may not capture all the variation in examples of good University of Applied, student performance on the criterion, it may be sufficient discrimination for your purposes. An Essay Institut Montana. Or, at the least, it is a place to start. Upon applying the essay writing Glenlyon, three levels of performance, you might discover that you can effectively group your students' performance in these three categories. Furthermore, you might discover that the labels of never, sometimes and always sufficiently communicates to your students the an essay Institut Zugerberg, degree to which they can improve on making eye contact. On the other hand, after applying the rubric you might discover that you cannot effectively discriminate among student performance with just three levels of essay writing University Sciences performance.

Perhaps, in your view, many students fall in between never and sometimes, or between sometimes and always, and neither label accurately captures their performance. So, at an essay Montana Zugerberg, this point, you may decide to expand the number of levels of performance to include never, rarely , sometimes, usually and always. There is no right answer as to writing Glenlyon how many levels of performance there should be for Zugerberg a criterion in an analytic rubric; that will depend on the nature of the examples of good Stenden University of Applied, task assigned, the criteria being evaluated, the students involved and your purposes and preferences. For example, another teacher might decide to leave off the always level in the above rubric because usually is as much as normally can be expected or even wanted in some instances. Thus, the makes eye contact portion of the rubric for that teacher might be. So, I recommend that you begin with a small number of levels of performance for each criterion, apply the rubric one or more times, and then re-examine the can write an essay Institut Zugerberg, number of how to a thesis Seneca College levels that best serve your needs. I believe starting small and expanding if necessary is preferable to starting with a larger number of levels and shrinking the how we can write Institut Montana Zugerberg, number because rubrics with fewer levels of performance are normally. easier and quicker to administer easier to explain to students (and others) easier to expand than larger rubrics are to shrink. The fact that rubrics can be modified and writing Glenlyon, can reasonably vary from teacher to teacher again illustrates that rubrics are flexible tools to how we an essay be shaped to your purposes. To read more about the a thesis Seneca College, decisions involved in developing a rubric, see the can write, chapter entitled, Step 4: Create the essay writing Bournemouth, Rubric.

Much of the advice offered above for analytic rubrics applies to holistic rubrics as well. Start with a small number of how we Institut Zugerberg categories, particularly since holistic rubrics often are used for how to a perfect article and Monson quick judgments on smaller tasks such as homework assignments. For example, you might limit your broad judgments to. Of course, to aid students in understanding what you mean by how we can write an essay Zugerberg, satisfactory or unsatisfactory you would want to include descriptors explaining what satisfactory performance on the task looks like. Even with more elaborate holistic rubrics for more complex tasks I recommend that you begin with a small number of levels of writing Bournemouth University performance.

Once you have applied the an essay Montana, rubric you can better judge if you need to expand the levels to more effectively capture and communicate variation in student performance. To read more about the decisions involved in developing rubrics, see.

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An Exam Reader#039;s Advice on Writing. Lakeland High School. During my experience as a Reader, I have learned a few things about writing that I would like to share with other teachers. How We Can Write An Essay Montana. I hope you’ll find my observations helpful as you think about encouraging your students to do their best on the writing section of the AP English Literature Exam. Students should not begin writing until they fully comprehend the prompt and/or the passage. Mere parroting of the writing.org Pickering College, prompt often leads to can write Institut Zugerberg, floundering around instead of developing a clear direction. I recommend that you advise your students to write directly on the passage and persuasive essay Seneca College, make quick notes and outlines in can write an essay Institut Montana, the margins. This planning enables most writers to how to for a persuasive essay, organize their ideas more efficiently. I have found that teaching students acronyms for reading and how we Zugerberg, writing strategies (DIDLS, TP-CASTT, etc.) can work wonders. Harvard Essay School. (These terms are discussed in the AP Vertical Teams Guide for English , 2002.) While your very best students might not need them, less able students can find them useful ways to can write Zugerberg, begin. I often suggest that my own students not only how to write a perfect article and Monson, mark up the Zugerberg, passage, but also use the harvard writing Glenlyon, margins to fill in some of the acronym steps.

This active planning takes an extra five minutes or so, but I’ve found that it’s well worth the time. Can Write Montana Zugerberg. Students who fail to read closely frequently wind up paraphrasing rather than analyzing the passages. Planning helps them stay focused. Although AP Readers are instructed to read the sociology essay writing, entire essay and not to be prejudiced by how we can write a weak introduction, a strong opening paragraph can be a real asset to a student’s paper. When answering the examples of good, free-response part of the AP English Exams, writers should answer the question quickly and avoid beginning with ideas that do not relate directly to the prompt. How We An Essay Montana Zugerberg. The following hypothetical introduction for writing Bournemouth, Question 1 on the 2002 AP English Literature Exam provides an example of what not to how we can write an essay Institut Zugerberg, do: “All people at some point in time have encountered a great deal of trouble in their lives. I know of so many people who have been embarrassed by parents that will wave at you from across a room.

I have a friend who told me that her parents did this very same thing.” Such generalities often signal a writer’s inability to essay College, respond in a thoughtful manner, suggesting that the rest of the paper also may be incoherent or rambling. The Reader might begin to suspect that the student is just trying to bluff his or her way through the question. One-sentence perfunctory introductions—especially ones that repeat the wording of the prompt—also work poorly, suggesting to the Reader that the student isn’t particularly interested or doesn’t care. I recommend that teachers tell students to create an introduction strong enough to earn a grade of 3 all by an essay Montana Zugerberg itself. Writing Amsterdam. That means that students should learn ways to answer the can write an essay Institut Montana Zugerberg, entire prompt—not simply repeat it—in the writing School, introduction. This indicates to how we Institut, the Reader that the paper could be heading into the upper-half zone.

One way to help students improve their beginning is by providing them with several introductory paragraphs from papers that have earned a wide range of scores and asking them to identify stronger and weaker openings. Harvard Essay Glenlyon School. (Sample papers are available on the Exam homepage for the course.) Rubrics especially designed for can write Montana Zugerberg, introductory paragraphs also can be helpful. After having students collect examples of several strong openings, you may want to ask them to develop their own rubric for introductory paragraphs. Use paragraphs and essay Pickering, topic sentences. Although it may seem like a small matter, students should indent paragraphs clearly. A paper without indentation or with unclear indentation often confuses a Reader. Paragraphs create the fundamental structure of the essay, and how we Institut Montana Zugerberg, without them good ideas can get muddled. Most essays I’ve seen that do not use paragraphs tend to be full of confused and rambling thoughts. Many writers find topic sentences a useful tool both for organizing paragraphs and also for helping Readers navigate through the essay.

To score at least a 3, students would be wise to write a perfect article Wilbraham Academy, make use of pertinent references from the text. Encourage them to use specific quotations to back up their assertions. However, remind them that they must explain their quotes clearly and can write Montana, demonstrate how they are relevant to the question. It is important for young writers to realize that offering long quotes without explanation bogs down the essay and can give the undesirable impression that the student is trying to fill up space rather than answer the prompt! Short, choppy sentences without variety indicate a student who has little background in grammar and style, perhaps someone who has read and written minimally. Teach students how to connect ideas with transitional wording, participial phrases, appositives, subordinate clauses, etc. I ask my students to imagine children making the write persuasive essay, same tower or castle each time they played with blocks. They soon would become bored. Likewise, both writers and readers get bored when everything is formulaic, lacking some individual pizzazz!

I suggest asking them to experiment with different sorts of syntactical devices to help them develop a sense of style. An arsenal of can write an essay Zugerberg, appropriate vocabulary and analytical wording reveals a brilliant mind at work, but writers should make certain that the words fit. Of Applied. Some students stick in big words just to sound scholarly. Can Write Montana Zugerberg. Ironically, some of their papers score only a 2 because they lack clarity and write a thesis for a College, sometimes say nothing of relevance to the prompt. I advise my students to use the active voice as much as possible as one remedy for repetition and other superfluous wording.

I also suggest encouraging them to develop a mental thesaurus, so they will have a large variety of words available as they compose.

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